WorldWideScience

Sample records for state public utility

  1. 40 CFR 262.90 - Project XL for Public Utilities in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Utility complies with 40 CFR 262.34 (a) through (c), regardless of the total quantity of hazardous waste... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL for Public Utilities in New... Utilities § 262.90 Project XL for Public Utilities in New York State. (a) The following definitions apply to...

  2. 18 CFR 292.602 - Exemption to qualifying facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State law and regulation. 292.602 Section... from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State law and regulation. Link to an amendment... qualifying facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 and certain State laws and...

  3. Mergers and acquisitions: Guidelines for consideration by state public utility commissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graniere, R.J.; Burns, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    This is the first of a series of reports on utility mergers and acquisitions published by NRRI; because it was completed Nov. 1996, it does not cover FERC Order 592 (policy statement on merger policy under Federal Power Act). Since cost-benefit analyses are expensive, state regulators need guidelines that efficiently streamline the review process for mergers and acquisitions. Purpose of this paper is to suggest such guidelines; they are applicable only to mergers and acquisitions of vertically integrated electric utilities or combination electric/gas utilities.

  4. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  5. Utilization of Emotional Intelligence Traits by Public School Superintendents in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lisa Ann Hoffman

    2013-01-01

    A leadership shortage has been documented across professions. Emotional intelligence skills, traits, and abilities have received much attention as a tool for business leaders in the past decade as a way to increase leadership skill, meet organizational goals, and enhance profits. The study sought to determine whether public school superintendents…

  6. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  7. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  8. Utilization of the state led public private partnership program "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Dholakia, Nishith B; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-15

    "Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY)", a state-led large-scale demand-side financing scheme (DSF) under public-private partnership to increase institutional delivery, has been implemented across Gujarat state, India since 2005. The scheme aims to provide free institutional childbirth services in accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). These services are paid for by the state to the private facility with the intention of service being free to the user. This community-based study estimates CY uptake among eligible women and explores factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. This was a community-based cross sectional survey of eligible women who gave birth between January and July 2013 in 142 selected villages of three districts in Gujarat. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to collect information on socio-demographic details, pregnancy details, details of childbirth and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses incurred. A multivariable inferential analysis was done to explore the factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. Out of 2,143 eligible women, 559 (26 %) gave birth under the CY program. A further 436(20 %) delivered at free public facilities, 713(33 %) at private facilities (OOP payment) and 435(20 %) at home. Eligible women who belonged to either scheduled tribe or poor [aOR = 3.1, 95 % CI:2.4 - 3.8] or having no formal education [aOR = 1.6, 95 % CI:1.1, 2.2] and who delivered by C-section [aOR = 2.1,95 % CI: 1.2, 3.8] had higher odds of not utilizing CY program. Of births at CY accredited facilities (n = 924), non-utilization was 40 % (n = 365) mostly because of lack of required official documentation that proved eligibility (72 % of eligible non-users). Women who utilized the CY program overall paid more than women who delivered in the free public facilities. Uptake of the CY among eligible women was low after almost a decade

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. Utilization of a state run public private emergency transportation service exclusively for childbirth: the Janani (maternal Express program in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Sidney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY, to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b factors associated with usage, (c the timeliness of the service. METHODS: A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. RESULTS: 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%, scheduled tribes (55%, and poorly educated women (40%. Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n = 104 experienced a transport related delay. DISCUSSION: The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time

  17. Utilization of a state run public private emergency transportation service exclusively for childbirth: the Janani (maternal) Express program in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n = 104) experienced a transport related delay. The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY.

  18. Effect of previous utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure on subsequent utilization of a state led public-private partnership scheme "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Dholakia, Nishith B; Mavalankar, Dileep V

    2017-04-25

    In Gujarat, India, a state led public private partnership scheme to promote facility birth named Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) was implemented in 2005. Institutional birth is provided free of cost at accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). CY has contributed in increasing facility birth and providing substantially subsidized (but not totally free) birth care; however, the retention of mothers in this scheme in subsequent child birth is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a study aimed to determine the effect of previous utilization of the scheme and previous out of pocket expenditure on subsequent child birth among multiparous eligible women in Gujarat. This was a retrospective cohort study of multiparous eligible women (after excluding abortions and births at public facility). A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to those with recent delivery between Jan and Jul 2013. Outcome of interest was CY utilization in subsequent child birth (Jan-Jul 2013). Explanatory variables included socio-demographic characteristics (including category of eligibility), pregnancy related characteristics in previous child birth, before Jan 2013, (including CY utilization, out of pocket expenditure) and type of child birth in subsequent birth. A poisson regression model was used to assess the association of factors with CY utilization in subsequent child birth. Of 997 multiparous eligible women, 289 (29%) utilized and 708 (71%) did not utilize CY in their previous child birth. Of those who utilized CY (n = 289), 182 (63%) subsequently utilized CY and 33 (11%) gave birth at home; whereas those who did not utilize CY (n = 708) had four times higher risk (40% vs. 11%) of subsequent child birth at home. In multivariable models, previous utilization of the scheme was significantly associated with subsequent utilization (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 2.7; 95% CI: 2.2-3.3), however previous out of pocket

  19. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  20. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  1. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  2. Market oriented approach by public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  4. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. 76 FR 62055 - Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission, Public Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission, Public Service Commission of Yazoo City, Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, South Mississippi... Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission of the City of Clarksdale, Mississippi, Public Service...

  6. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  8. Use of Cultivation Data from the Algae Testbed Public Private Partnership as Utilized in NREL's Algae State of Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoshaug, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Algae Testbed Public Private Partnership (ATP3) conducted algal growth experiments over the course of 16 months termed the Unified Field Studies (UFS). These experiments were conducted at 5 different geographic locations in Arizona (ASU), California (CP), Florida (FA), Georgia (GT), and Hawaii (CELL). The UFS sought to evaluate different algal biomass harvesting strategies using identical ponds, media, and operational conditions through all four seasons across different geographic regions to isolate the effects on productivity attributed to locational climate and seasonal variability, overlaid by the differing harvest strategies. Set up as the baseline against which other experiments would build upon, it must be emphasized that as per the stated, approved experimental goals of the ATP3 UFS, no attempts at growth or lipid accumulation optimization were made; rather, the primary focus of the UFS work was to cultivate algal biomass under deliberate, consistent conditions, time periods, and harvesting protocols, to provide public data on year-round outdoor biomass production that could be directly compared between one site and another (with accompanying climate data for each site). Thus the resulting productivity numbers in effect represent a conservative baseline of non-optimized algal growth one may expect at these sites. Also clearly weather can vary dramatically from season to season and from year to year, and even within a given 'season' where an individual season's data was typically based on 4-6 week operating windows. Thus these numbers also only reflect a short snapshot in time, and must be interpreted carefully in projecting what may be expected over many years or decades (for example, a 30-year facility lifetime as evaluated in techno-economic models).

  9. Analysis of the utilization of the materials management concept by selected public utilities in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Materials management is an integrative approach to control the flow of production materials. This dissertation focused on the public utilities industry and its practices in the materials management area. Major emphasis of this research was to 1) define the state-of-the-art of materials management within the gas and electric utilities in Texas, 2) determine its impact on the corporate structure, and 3) identify opportunities for materials management in the future of the Texas utilities industry. The major thrust of this research was to analyze the current status of materials management utilization within the industry. This was accomplished by examining the relationships of selected demographic variables with companies' materials management posture. The materials management concept exists in varying stages of development in the gas and electric utility industry in Texas. Some firms classified as nonpracticing may in fact be utilizing materials management at a very early stage in development within the organization. Findings showed a trend toward the gaining acceptance of the materials management concept.

  10. Public Goods and State Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova T.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that state services are classified into two groups depending on the level of market mechanism use: public services and private services. These services have different characteristics: individual choice of consumption, type and quality of goods, financing, institutional regulation, decision-making subject, external effects, opportunity of effects control. The mechanism of public state services regulation is based on the influence on formal institutes, while the mechanism of private state services regulation is based on informal institutes. Joint mechanism of both types of state services provision includes the procedures of standartization and regulatory activity implying the provision of services by “one stop” principle and minimization of consumer - agent contacts. The optimization of services rendering process and their quality improvement are ensured by administrative regulations which establish strict standards of public service provided by the bodies of executive power and subordinate organizations The means of institutional regulation allow inclusion of market elements but on the condition of state control that ensures stimulation of public institutes. During the process of market institutes initialization in the sphere of state services rendering to government bodies, it is necessary to consider their dependence on marginal profits of one or another institute. In the long-term prospect those institutes got a foothold in the market that strengthen and encompass marginal effect for all individuals under the growth of individuals who observe the rules and restrictions. The activities organized by these institutes deserve positive response on behalf of the majority of individuals and, therefore there is no need in enforcement and violence in order to keep rules and restrictions. In the sphere of state and municipal services we can find the example of services provided in the scope of free contraction, in particular the

  11. 29 CFR 4.120 - Contracts for public utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the... utility services, including electric light and power, water, steam, and gas.” This exemption is applicable..., or Federal law governing operations of public utility enterprises. Contracts entered into with public...

  12. Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermishina Anna, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

  13. Consideration Regarding Community Services of the Romanian Public Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Viorel TRIF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The community service of public utilities has known all through time various regulations and revisions that have been done according to the political, economic and administrative views of that period. In the 1866 Constitution, they were considered as public utilities, whereas Law 129/1938 labelled them as communal exploitation and the communist regime revised them as public households. The current legislation, written according to the European principles established them as community service of public utilities. The present politics and administration encourage a certain openness of market of public services, but the community services of public utilities still implies a certain degree of monopole. That is due to the fact that this type of services are offered through a local administration infrastructure and also to the fact that they serve the public interest, enclosing accessibility and capacity to be supported by all users. The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of the way the community services of public utilities have been organized and have been supplied to the people. The analysis is done taking into consideration the different legal laws that regulate this field but also the relation between suppliers and users that functions in a monopole market. The decisions and the evolution in this particular market are only dependent on the local public authorities and the protective political measures taken by the authorities. This paper aims to point out the directions to be followed in the future regarding the community services of public utilities, monopole or liberalization.

  14. A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K

    1995-11-01

    In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

  15. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  16. Creating competition & mastering markets; New entrants, monopolists, and regulators in transforming public utilities across the Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hulsink (Wim); E.F.M. Wubben (Emiel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is on the transformation of network industries or public utilities in Western Europe and the United States (US). A network industry provides a public or basic service by operating a large infrastructure system whose main characteristics are strongly increasing returns to

  17. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  18. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, J.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Coll. of Law

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  20. Knowledge Development and Utilization: Getting Employability Research into Public Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Richard J.; And Others

    The Knowledge Development and Utilization project was created to facilitate the public use of research by educators and trainers in the employability development field. The research to be disseminated emanated from the Youth Employability Research Program findings concerning employer demand and schooling effectiveness for employability. A…

  1. Conventional wisdoms of woody biomass utilization on federal public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Sarah M. McCaffrey; Dalia Abbas; Kathleen E. Halvorsen; Pamela Jakes; Cassandra. Moseley

    2011-01-01

    The appeal of biomass utilization grows as the need for wildfire risk reduction, economic development, and renewable energy generation becomes more pressing. However, uncertainty exists regarding the factors necessary to stimulate use. We draw on in-depth interviews with local industry, agency, community, and tribal representatives from 10 study sites on federal public...

  2. interventional studies of anti-malarial drugs utilization in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The best way to analyze drug utilization and evaluate impact of an intervention in health care institutions is to study the universal indicators, which are not dependent either on investigator or time of measurement. The aim of this study was to characterize the prescription pattern of public health institutions in ...

  3. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  7. PUBLIC FINANCIAL AIDS - STATE FINANCIAL SUPPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available State aid represents selective measures of public financial support granted for activities or areas to achieve general objectives, such as environmental protection, development of SMEs, development of disadvantaged areas, rescue and restructuring strategic businesses, etc. But, even if the public authorities support economic development, the state aids can distort normal competitive environment. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement precisely rules on how the public authorities can intervene on market by providing state aids. State aid may be compatible if it pursues clearly defined objectives of common interest with the general beneficial effects on economic development, and does not affect the trade between European Union Member States.

  8. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  9. Organizational attributes that assure optimal utilization of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Underwood, Jane; MacDonald, Mary; Schoenfeld, Bonnie; Blythe, Jennifer; Knibbs, Kristin; Munroe, Val; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ehrlich, Anne; Ganann, Rebecca; Crea, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Optimal utilization of public health nurses (PHNs) is important for strengthening public health capacity and sustaining interest in public health nursing in the face of a global nursing shortage. To gain an insight into the organizational attributes that support PHNs to work effectively, 23 focus groups were held with PHNs, managers, and policymakers in diverse regions and urban and rural/remote settings across Canada. Participants identified attributes at all levels of the public health system: government and system-level action, local organizational culture of their employers, and supportive management practices. Effective leadership emerged as a strong message throughout all levels. Other organizational attributes included valuing and promoting public health nursing; having a shared vision, goals, and planning; building partnerships and collaboration; demonstrating flexibility and creativity; and supporting ongoing learning and knowledge sharing. The results of this study highlight opportunities for fostering organizational development and leadership in public health, influencing policies and programs to optimize public health nursing services and resources, and supporting PHNs to realize the full scope of their competencies.

  10. Publication List - New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Museum, Albany.

    Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…

  11. Evaluation of the Geothermal Public Power Utility Workshops in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    2004-10-01

    The federal government devotes significant resources to educating consumers and businesses about geothermal energy. Yet little evidence exists for defining the kinds of information needed by the various audiences with specialized needs. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Geothermal Municipal Utility Workshops that presented information on geothermal energy to utility resource planners at customer-owned utilities in California. The workshops were sponsored by the Western Area Power Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West Program and were intended to qualitatively assess the information needs of municipal utilities relative to geothermal energy and get feedback for future workshops. The utility workshop participants found the geothermal workshops to be useful and effective for their purposes. An important insight from the workshops is that utilities need considerable lead-time to plan a geothermal project. They need to know whether it is better to own a project or to purchase geothermal electricity from another nonutility owner. California customer-owned utilities say they do not need to generate more electricity to meet demand, but they do need to provide more electricity from renewable resources to meet the requirements of the state's Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  12. Successful process management for public utilities; Erfolgreiches Prozessmanagement fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipprath, Daniel [projekt:unternehmensberatungsgesellschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Anke [Dr. Schaefer PR- und Strategieberatung, Rostock (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    As a result of regulatory cuts in their revenue structure, public utilities are increasingly compelled to improve their cost efficiency. Furthermore, they have to deal with altered framework conditions of energy procurement as well as the necessity of sustainable customer loyalty management. The example of a regional supplier is used here to show how goal-oriented process management can contribute to securing a sustainable, promising position in the market.

  13. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  14. Public Relations Opportunities for Schools Utilizing Innovations in Virtual Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.

    2013-01-01

    With the dawn of the Information Age, schools, along with other organizations, must take note of the varied ways individuals and groups in society are communicating. Today, with the many forms of communication, most information is made public in real time. In a qualitative national study in the United States, respondents identified positive and…

  15. Public and Public Utility Enterprises Restructuring: Statistical and Quantitative Aid for Ensuring Human Resource Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Čudanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative approach to restructuring public and public utility enterprises, particularly during downsizing requests. The large number of employees in the public sector can be one of the causes for economic instability at country level. That is particularly visible in the context of the euro zone crisis and economic/political instability in countries like Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy. Our approach is based on the statistical analysis of productivity oscillation and setting of performance standards in public and public utility enterprises based on the aforementioned productivity. Data background is given through job descriptions, organizational charts, salary reports and monthly performance reports, in most cases part of organizational information systems. It is recommended for quantitative data to be analyzed on a monthly basis, during a period of 30 or more months. Our method increases procedural fairness and accuracy, because quantitative, statistical, impartial and objective approach is applied for estimating parameters which could be related to downsizing. However, the application of this method is not limited to downsizing, as during its application in more than 20 public and public utility enterprises it was sometimes applied to increase output or reduce costs not necessarily connected to labour. Although it finally refers to downsizing, this method can provide fairer and more impartial approach than the subjective estimate of employee surplus, and its arbitral distribution within the enterprise.

  16. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population Care [$28.57 95% CI($14.00, $43.15)]. Most children enrolled in WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Electric utilities, fiscal illusion and the provision of local public services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Paula Elizabeth Kay

    2000-10-01

    Restructuring activity in the electric utility industry is threatening a once stable and significant source of revenue for local governments. Potentially declining revenues from electric utilities leaves local policymakers with the unpopular decision of raising taxes or reducing the level of public services provided. This has led to pressure on state governments to introduce legislation aimed at mitigating potential revenue loss for local government due to restructuring activity. However, before imposing such legislation, a better understanding of the potential distortionary effects of internal subsidization by electric utilities is needed. Two models of the demand for local public services--a structural model using the Stone-Geary utility framework and a reduced form model--are developed in an attempt to model the behavioral responses of local public expenditures to revenue contributions from electric utilities. Empirical analysis of both models is conducted using a panel data set for 242 municipalities in Tennessee from 1988 to 1998. Aggregate spending and expenditures on four specific service functions are examined. The results provide evidence of a positive flypaper effect. Furthermore, the source of the flypaper effect is attributed to fiscal illusion caused by price distortions. The stimulative effect of electric utility revenue contributions on the level of local public services indicate that a 1.00 change in electric utility subsidies results in a change in local expenditures ranging from 0.22 to 1.32 for the structural model and 1.97 to 2.51 for the reduced form model. The amount of the marginal effect directly attributed to price illusion is estimated to range from 0.04 to $0.85. In addition, the elasticities of electric utility revenue contributions are estimated to range from 0.05 to 0.90. The results raise a number of interesting issues regarding municipal ownership of utilities and legislation regarding tax treatment of utilities after restructuring

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fourteen. Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Idaho governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-three. New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Mexico governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twelve. Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Georgia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-seven. Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Vermont governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifteen. Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Illinois governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-four. Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Tennessee governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty. Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nevada governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Characteristics utilization of public space in Padang City based on good public space index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriawan, T.

    2017-06-01

    Padang is a metropolitan city which has 40 units of open space like plansum park, playground, and sports park with 10,88 hectar of total area. These open spaces are publics’, but not all of them are able to use as active public open spaces it caused by some of the parks are dormant parks beacuse they only for planted ground not for public activites.This study conducted to assess the quality of public space that exsist in Padang; Imam Bonjol park (representing of city open space (go-green)), H. Agus Salim sport center ( representing of sports park) and Pantai Muaro Padang area (representing of recreation/tourism).The method of this research conducted in several stages, first was the identification toward space’s function (Carmona,2008) and assess the space utilization index based approach to public space index (Metha,2007). The spaced quality is measured based on variable in Good Public Space Index which is the intensity of use, social activities, duration of activities, variation and pattern of use. The urgency of this research related to the effort to evaluate the policy of space arrangement and space control through the assessment of the use of existed spaces, until it can be references to Padang goverment in improving and increasing the quality of space thorugh development of spaces that have high quality.The assesment of quality of public open spaces in Padang conducted by assessed five space quality variables, result of analysis, utilization of public space was 0.69. based on the result it can be concluded the quality of public space in some parks in Padang has moderate index quality. This is caused by the time differentiation of the society, there is no interaction among society, and short time duration of the society in visiting the public space.

  18. 26 CFR 9.1 - Investment credit-public utility property elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment credit-public utility property... Investment credit—public utility property elections. (a) Applicability of prior election under section 46(f... respect to public utility property described in section 46(f)(5) by reason of sections 301 and 302 of the...

  19. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  20. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  1. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  5. Issue Space Utilization in State Natural Resource Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromp, Bruce A.

    State natural resource magazines' tremendous potential as information sources and their unique economic situation led to this study of space utilization in individual issues. Three issues from each of 40 state magazines published in the summer of 1977 were divided into five subscription-rate and four staff-size categories. Category averages for…

  6. Organizing emergency preparedness within United States public health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, W J; Ginter, P M; Rucks, A C; Wingate, M S; McCormick, L C

    2007-04-01

    We examined the manner in which state public health agencies have organized their operations to accomplish the goals associated with emergency preparedness (EP) funds. We also examined the leadership challenges associated with the effective utilization of preparedness funds. The websites of all 50 state public health organizations in the USA were examined in order to determine the different approaches that states have used to organize for preparedness. Thirty-eight states provided sufficient information to allow for classification of their organizational approach to EP. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives in three model states to obtain deeper insights into the organizational approach. Three predominant organizational models were identified as a means to address the challenge of organizing for preparedness. The results confirmed the equifinality principle of organization (there may be more than one equally effective way to organize) and demonstrated that, contrary to the prescription of early management thought, there is no 'one best way' to organize. Leadership rather than formal management emerged as the primary contributor to perceived EP. Specifically, interviews with preparedness professionals indicated that they believed expert power was more important than position power and the ability to negotiate and influence through persuasion was more important than formal authority. All three models contained, to a greater or lesser degree, elements of matrix management with the associated leadership challenges for emergency preparedness (EP) directors. Recommendations were provided for successful leadership in the context of EP directors in state departments of public health.

  7. OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING. State of Knowledge and Guidelines for Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshun Yamaoka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Italiana (DPC, appointed an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting for Civil Protection (ICEF to report on the current state of knowledge of short-term prediction and forecasting of tectonic earthquakes and indicate guidelines for utilization of possible forerunners of large earthquakes to drive civil protection actions, including the use of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in the wake of a large earthquake. The ICEF reviewed research on earthquake prediction and forecasting, drawing from developments in seismically active regions worldwide. A prediction is defined as a deterministic statement that a future earthquake will or will not occur in a particular geographic region, time window, and magnitude range, whereas a forecast gives a probability (greater than zero but less than one that such an event will occur. Earthquake predictability, the degree to which the future occurrence of earthquakes can be determined from the observable behavior of earthquake systems, is poorly understood. This lack of understanding is reflected in the inability to reliably predict large earthquakes in seismically active regions on short time scales. Most proposed prediction methods rely on the concept of a diagnostic precursor; i.e., some kind of signal observable before earthquakes that indicates with high probability the location, time, and magnitude of an impending event. Precursor methods reviewed here include changes in strain rates, seismic wave speeds, and electrical conductivity; variations of radon concentrations in groundwater, soil, and air; fluctuations in groundwater levels; electromagnetic variations near and above Earth's surface; thermal anomalies; anomalous animal behavior; and seismicity patterns. The search for diagnostic precursors has not yet produced a successful short-term prediction scheme. Therefore, this report focuses on operational

  8. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  9. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State Funding : for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2007 data. This annual report provides a : snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  10. Recognizing cesarean delivery on maternal request as a social problem: utilizing the public arenas model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sherry L

    2011-08-01

    Nearly one in three babies in the United States are now born surgically. While many causes for this surge in cesareans have been suggested, the phenomenon of cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) has been the subject of the most controversy. Utilizing Hilgartner and Bosk's public arenas model, this article examines the ways in which CDMR has been framed and a collective definition of the problem established. Recognizing CDMR as a social problem is the first step to creating policies to ensure that the health and safety of mothers and babies are protected.

  11. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  12. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  13. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  14. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  15. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  16. Ohio state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Ohio. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  17. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Quality of life utilities for pelvic inflammatory disease health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Tsevat, Joel; Ness, Roberta B; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Roberts, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Quality of life utilities for health states associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) have been estimated but not directly measured. Utilities for PID could have important implications on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent and manage this disease. We obtained, in women with versus without a history of PID, visual analogue scale (VAS) and time-tradeoff (TTO) valuations for 5 PID-associated health states: ambulatory PID treatment, hospital PID treatment, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Subjects read brief scenarios describing the medical, functional, and social activity effects typically associated with each state, then gave valuations in the order above. Health state valuations were obtained from 56 women with and 150 women without a PID history. Subjects with a PID history had significantly lower mean valuations (P <0.05) on the VAS for ectopic pregnancy (0.55 vs. 0.63), pelvic pain (0.45 vs. 0.53), and infertility (0.53 vs. 0.66) but not on the TTO; VAS differences remained significant when controlling for demographic and childbearing characteristics. VAS and TTO valuations were similar in women with versus without a history of PID for the ambulatory and hospital PID treatment health states. PID has substantial impact on utility. In addition, some PID-related health states are valued less by women who have experienced PID, which could affect cost-effectiveness analyses of PID treatments when examined from the societal versus patient perspective.

  20. Predictors of Male Condom Utilization in Plateau State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the condom utilization and predictors of condom use among male respondents in Plateau State. Methodology: An analysis of secondary data of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey dataset was done. Data were collected through a cross‑sectional study using multistage cluster sampling ...

  1. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  2. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. How- ever, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors ...

  3. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ever, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with women choice of public health facility during child- birth. ... cility, media exposure, cost of accessing drugs, transport.

  4. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. However, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with ...

  5. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  6. Identifyingy the Utility Function of Transport Services From Stated Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejszki Tamas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the modal shift of passengers by analyzing their preferences. If the preferences of passengers are known it is possible to build up mathematically their utility function. This is the statistically correct way to simulate the modal shift of the investigated area. To capture the preferences of passengers stated preference method was used in online questionnaire. Five key factors were identified (from the point of passengers: travel cost, travel time, comfort, safety and environmental efficiency. In order to decrease the number of questions three levels were predefined these three questions made the base of the choice model. Every replier got three alternatives and they were told to choose the best for themselves. From the results of the questionnaire the formulas and the parameters of the mode choice utility function was derived. With the help of statistical sample an exponential utility function showed the best matching. For the validation process a probability model was set up to be compared to the proportions of the utilities. With this utility function it is possible to handle the changes in possible future transport services. Based on the introduced statistical approach the described method can be used to identify the effect of transport modes on regional development and tourism. The revealed utility function can help to develop proper regional development plans.

  7. [Public control and equity of access to hospitals under non-State public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration in the administration of these organizations. The central question lies in the capacity of the public authorities to have a presence in implementing this model at the local level, thereby ensuring equity of access and taking public control into consideration.

  8. Analysis of successful demaind-side management at publicly owned utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanigan, T. [Results Center, Aspen, CO (United States); Hadley, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present an analysis of case studies of publicly owned utilities that have made cost effective investments in demand-side management (DSM) and which have had marked success to date. Through this analysis we hope to determine some of the factors that have contributed to their success in order to help identify other utilities which may be strong candidates for future DSM program development. While many investor-owned utilities have not yet implemented DSM programs and thus also have the occasion to exploit this resource option, public power utilities appear to have an exceptional opportunity based on their charters. Publicly owned utilities can focus first and foremost on their customers, who are in fact their owners. This clear link between utility benefit and customer benefit presents itself as an opportunity for publicly owned utilities. To carry out the scope of this project, IRT Environment staff first sought to identify publicly owned utilities that have had success with DSM. To that end, IRT Environment conferred with staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the American Public Power Association, and conducted a limited number of telephone calls to leading public power officials seeking {open_quotes}clear winner{close_quotes} programs. Rather than a scientific exercise with specific selection criteria, final selection was instead based on utilities` reputations with demand-side management. From a list of two dozen utilities, five utilities were chosen. IRT Environment then visited each utility for two days during the fall and winter of 1993-1994. At each utility carefully planned visits resulted in comprehensive meetings with DSM program staff, including planners, implementers, evaluators, and senior management. Field visits were conducted in each city as well, providing an important complement to extensive meetings at the utilities` headquarters.

  9. 26 CFR 12.3 - Investment credit, public utility property elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment credit, public utility property... Investment credit, public utility property elections. (a) Elections—(1) In general. Under section 46(e), three elections may be made on or before March 9, 1972, with respect to section 46(e) property (as...

  10. 17 CFR 210.3A-05 - Special requirements as to public utility holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements § 210.3A-05 Special requirements as to public utility holding companies. There shall be shown in the consolidated balance sheet of a public utility holding company the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  11. Public Versus Private Water Utilities: Empirical Evidence for Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Belchior Moreira; Geraldo da Silva Souza; Ricardo Coelho Faria

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency of Brazilian public and private companies in water supply. To measure efficiency a stochastic production frontier model is estimated using two competitive distributions for the inefficiency error component: truncated normal and exponential. The exponential distribution showed a superior fit and was used to assess differences in technical efficiency between public and private companies. The statistical results show that private companies are only ma...

  12. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  13. The phenomenon of the Spanish local public utilities: an analysis of their evolution and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Martín Vallespín

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the number of local public utilities has experienced a significant increase in Europe. The provision of public services by means of this type of companies requires municipalities to establish different forms of control and regulation in order to align economic and social interests. This paper analyses the Spanish system of local public utilities from the point of view of the characteristics of the governance style applied by municipalities to steer and monitor the activities. The results evidence that, among other things, the percentage of equity participation influences on the mechanisms adopted by local authorities to apply external control on public utilities.

  14. From Natural Monopoly to Public Utility: Technological Determinism and the Political Economy of Infrastructure in Progressive-Era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaiss, Adam

    In present-day debates regarding telecommunication policy, one frequently hears the terms natural monopoly and public utility. This article investigates the origins of these ideas, finding that Richard T. Ely-a celebrated American economist of the late nineteenth century-embedded in the term "natural monopoly" a narrative of technological determinism. By arguing that certain services had monopolizing tendencies hardwired into them, Ely argued for their regulation. Ely's theory of natural monopoly formed the basis of Wisconsin's 1907 public utilities law, which served as a model for many other states' regulatory policies. The modern notion of public utility thus carries with it the technological determinism of Ely's natural monopoly idea. By tracing the lineage of these two terms, this article recaptures the influence that activists and progressive politicians exercised over the formation of large technological systems during the Second Industrial Revolution.

  15. Utility rate structuring. Official transcript of public briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Sam Hughes, Assistant Secretary for Intergovernmental and Institutional Relations, DOE, made the introductions at the public briefing on electric rate structuring, February 28, 1978 in Washington, D.C. Ms. Tina Hobson served as moderator. A panel of experts on energy issues responded to questions that consumer and public interest groups raised about energy issues, particularly electric rate structures. DOE panel members were: David Bordin, Charles Curtis, Robert R. Nordhaus, Hazel R. Rollins, and Douglas C. Bauer. Thirty-six questions previously submitted by consumer and public interest groups are listed and the answers prepared by DOE program offices are published in Appendix A. After the briefing, the questions posed at the meeting are re-examined and detailed answers are published by DOE program offices.

  16. 78 FR 45096 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    .... Gas/Electric Coordination Standards 18 3. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Standards........ 19 4... Contracts Related Standards. 011 Gas/Electric Coordination. 012 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). 013 OASIS... for Public Utilities adopted by the Wholesale Electric Quadrant (WEQ) of the North American Energy...

  17. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  18. Collaborative Data Publication Utilizing the Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Bristow, T.; Keller, R. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Fonda, M.; Dateo, C.; Pires, A.

    2017-01-01

    For small communities in multidisciplinary fields such as astrobiology, publishing and sharing data can be challenging. While large, homogenous fields often have repositories and existing data standards, small groups of independent researchers have few options for publishing data that can be utilized within their community. In conjunction with teams at NASA Ames and the University of Arizona, a number of pilot studies are being conducted to assess the needs of these research groups and to guide the software development so that it allows them to publish and share their data collaboratively.

  19. Utilization of a university reactor for public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Reactor Research and Education Center

    2015-06-15

    AGN-201K is a university reactor in Kyung Hee University (KHU) mainly used for student education as training short course as well as academic course for senior-level. After the Fukushima accident, public concern on radiation hazard has been increased beyond rational level at a neighboring country. It was found that AGN-201K be the perfect tool for interaction with general public. It is very safe to operate with general participants because it is adapted to the very low power. However, radiation level is reasonably high to detect and shield for practice. KHU has a Regional Radiation Monitoring Post where environmental radiation level at Suwon city is continuously measured. In this facility, radiation level at soil, rain, and local agricultural products were measured and reported to the national monitoring headquarter. A new mission of reactor research and education center of KHU has been tried from last summer. Facilities were opened for high school students and teachers for their science camps during summer and winter. A special public acceptance program named as experience camp for understanding the nuclear power and radiation was held 6 times for the last one-year period. Even though number of attendee was limited and small, feedback from participants was hot and positive enough to make professors be ready to sacrifice their personal time.

  20. Building Capacity in the Public Utility Sectors of Basra, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    not exist in Basra in any meaningful way [8]. Rational labor costs, fees for public services, and functional tax systems are all beyond the current...earning C om petencies •Strategic V ision •L ong R ange C alendar •B asic C om m unications Plan •T op L evel O rganizational Structure •Strategic B...and approves budget allocations for each sector and advises Governors Office Governors Office issues budget guideline to technical directorates

  1. Efficiency of Brazilian public and private water utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares cost efficiencies of Brazilian public and private companies of water supply. To measure efficiency a Cobb-Douglas stochastic cost frontier model including technical effects is estimated by maximum likelihood to a panel of Brazilian firms for the period 2002 -2004. The statistical results indicate that there is evidence that public firms are more efficient although the difference in efficiency is declining over time. Overall the system of water and sewerage supply is becoming more efficient over time.Este artigo compara eficiências custo de empresas publicas e privadas brasileiras de oferta de água. Para mensurar a eficiência faz-se uso de um modelo de fronteira estocástica definido por meio de uma função custo na família Cobb-Douglas. A especificação da fronteira inclui efeitos técnicos. Estima-se o modelo pelo método de máxima verossimilhança para um painel de firmas brasileiras observadas no período 20022004. Os resultados estatísticos indicam evidência de que as firmas públicas são mais eficientes, embora a diferença em eficiência esteja declinando no período analisado. De um modo geral, o sistema de oferta de água e saneamento está se tornando mais eficiente ao longo do tempo.

  2. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. Public transportation service in Nigeria is provided by both the public and private operators. While the public Corporations are established by governments, private service operations are ...

  3. Cluster approach to the development of housing services and public utilities in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Bazhenov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing crisis in the housing services and public utilities sphere determines the need to accelerate its integration into the market space. The author proposes to apply the cluster initiatives, which, in his opinion, provide the solution of housing services and public utilities problems in terms of their broader vision. This paper attempts to highlight the benefits of the cluster approach to the development of housing services and public utilities, and identifies the main provisions in the process of its implementation. The essence of the concept of «housing services and social cluster of the region» in terms of housing services and public utilities development is revealed, members of cluster unification are designated, its components are identified, the purpose of introducing the cluster model of housing services and public utilities reform management is determined, which essence is to change the mentality of the producers and consumers of housing services and public utilities in the direction of increasing responsibilities and respect for mutual interests in the market of housing services and public utilities. The main provisions and principles of formation of housing services and social cluster of the region are reviewed, as well as the characteristics and trends of its development. An authorial approach to the development of a strategy of forming a housing services and social cluster in the region in accordance with modern trends is presented. The leading role of several factors in establishing the basic prerequisites for sustainable operation of housing services and social cluster of the region is justified. These factors include governmental regulation of pricing and forms of support to small entrepreneurship development, creation of financial security system, development of public-private partnerships and implementation of innovative technologies. The role of non-governmental organizations and public associations in the formation of

  4. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  5. Politics, Interest Groups and State Funding of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    State support of public higher education has rapidly declined relative to total state spending. Much of this decline in support is due to the rapid growth in spending on such things as Medicaid. However, relative support of public higher education varies significantly between states. This study applies Tandberg's (2009) fiscal policy framework…

  6. The Relationship Between State and District Content Standards:Issues of Alignment, Influence and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dutro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available At the core of standards-based reform are content standards--statements about what students should know and be able to do. Although it is state standards that are the focus of much public attention and consume substantial resources, many local school districts have developed their own content standards in the major subject areas. However, we know very little about the role state standards have played in local standards efforts. In this article we report on a study of the relationship between state and local content standards in reading in four states and districts. Through interviews with key personnel in each state, and district and analyses of state and local content standards in reading, we explored the alignment between state and district content standards, the path of influence between the two, and the role of high-stakes tests in state and districts reform efforts. Our findings suggest that alignment had multiple meanings and that state standards had differential utility to districts, ranging from helpful to benign to nuisance. This wide variability was influenced by the nature of the standards themselves, the state vision of alignment and local control, districts’ own engagement and commitment to professional development, and student performance on high-stakes tests. We explore implications for the future of content standards as the cornerstone of standards-based reform and argue that states must promote district ownership and expand accountability if state content standards are to have any relevance for local efforts to reform teaching and learning.

  7. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  8. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Kien

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results: The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion: Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas.

  9. Awareness of Public Library and Utilization of its HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public libraries have become become common ground for providing proactive prevention-focused AIDS information services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of presence of public librariesand low utilization of their AIDS information services. Librarians still have daunting work to do in Nigeria. Secondary ...

  10. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  11. 17 CFR 259.101 - Form U-1, application or declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. 259.101 Section 259.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. This form shall be used pursuant to Rule 20...

  12. State Profiles: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditure, and collection sizes.These...

  13. The methods of management of the local waste utility; Les modes de gestion du service public local des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In France, the collection and processing of wastes are local public utility activities. These public utilities can be of two type: administrative when their are financed by a local tax, and industrial/commercial when they are financed by a fee. This document presents the different ways of waste management (public corporation, public market or public utility delegation), the management systems in practice, and the criteria for the choice of a management system. (J.S.)

  14. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  15. Prescription Drug Utilization and Reimbursement Increased Following State Medicaid Expansion in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Farley, Joel F

    2017-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded health care and medication insurance coverage through Medicaid expansion in select states. Expansion has the potential to increase the availability of health services to patients, including prescription medications. However, limited studies have examined how expansion affected prescription drug utilization and reimbursement. To compare prescription drug utilization (number of prescriptions filled) and reimbursement trends between states that did and did not expand Medicaid coverage in 2014, while accounting for known effects of expansion on Medicaid enrollment. We conducted a comparative interrupted time series using retrospective Medicaid state drug utilization data from 2011 to 2014. After inclusion/exclusion criteria, 8 states that expanded Medicaid in 2014 and 10 states that did not expand Medicaid were studied. Primary outcomes were changes in quarterly prescription drug utilization and quarterly total prescription drug reimbursement before and after expansion. To account for increases in enrollment in expansion states, secondary outcomes were per-member-per-quarter (PMPQ) utilization and reimbursement before and after expansion. Expansion states experienced a 1.4 million prescriptions per quarter and $163 million per quarter increase in utilization and reimbursement above the change in rates observed in nonexpansion states after expansion (P factor driving reimbursement changes. Factors such as changes in product mix, risk pool composition, and drug pricing and their effects on total and per-member reimbursement should be evaluated in future studies. No outside funding supported this study. Mahendraratnam is currently a Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research Pre-doctoral Fellow at Bristol-Myers Squibb and previously provided advisory services to public and private sector clients while employed at Avalere Health, an Inovalon Company, as well as completed an internship at Genentech, a member of the Roche Group

  16. State-Sponsored Tourism: A Growth Field for Public Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda K.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores the growth of public sector tourism development. It reports the findings of a 1984 survey of state and territorial tourism offices regarding their budgets, personnel needs, intergovernmental relations, and political support functions. The impact of public sector tourism management on public administration careers and…

  17. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnick, Russ

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  18. Required conditionalities in applying public choice theory in the field of public utility services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandru BOCIU

    2017-01-01

    .... In this regard we use a theoretical analysis on the possibility and conditions of use of the theory of public choice in practice and an empirical analysis based on statistical data which illustrates...

  19. The state of Public Performance Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Moon, M. Jae

    This paper reviews the PA literature on Public Performance Management (PPM) with the purpose of first providing a broad description of some basic characteristics of this literature and second more specifically to focus on the distinction between conceptualizations and definitions of public...... performance and the empirical measures of performance. Our basic hypothesis is that there tend to be a gap between our theoretical conceptualizations and our empirical measures of performance and that the literature would benefit from being more explicit and reflective about that gap. We first clarify...

  20. Analyses of Public Utility Building - Students Designs, Aimed at their Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Marek Adam

    2017-10-01

    Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently, the process of their design involves the retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage, minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building in order to satisfy applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. In order to demonstrate energy-related defects of building designs developed by students, the conduct of analyses was proposed. The completed designs of public utility buildings were examined with regard to energy efficiency of the solutions they feature through the application of the following programs: Ecotect, Vasari, and in case of simpler analyses ArchiCad program extensions were sufficient.

  1. 75 FR 3952 - Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Coordinator, Bureau... the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law, including by Delegation... Management and Resources, and the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at any...

  2. State Wildlife Management Area Boundaries - Publicly Accessible

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This polygon theme contains boundaries for approximately 1392 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state covering nearly 1,288,000 acres. WMAs are part of the...

  3. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  4. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  5. Public health ethics related training for public health workforce: an emerging need in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  6. The Public Finances, the Utility of the Taxpayer and the Public Services – towards a New Connecting Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ioan Bolos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Public finances from everywhere have followed along the centuries, as it was natural, some periods when they had to accommodate to the needs resulted from the economic and social life. Their mission was not at all a simple one. To conceive the taxes and rates (dues system, to ensure a performing and an efficient budgetary process, to finance some categories of public expenses, to ensure a fiscal decentralization which would not lead to severe interferences within the public field are only a few of the problems of major importance that they had to deal with. And also the challenges that have come upon public finances are not to be neglected. We may bring to mind here the opposed interests of the taxpayer, interested in obtaining a higher level of goods and public services and of the public authorities who, trying to satisfy the needs of taxpayers, have obtained almost all the time a quite high level of taxes and rates (dues. The purpose of this paper is, though, the setting up of these apparently opposed interests in an equation. We have also tried to” measure” the dependence degree of the utility felt by the taxpayer, as a consequence of the growth with one unit of the quantity of public services performed by the authorities.

  7. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  8. Private Profits, State Sanctions and Public Participation: The Disservice of the Media and Development Orthodoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharom Nain

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes critically the state of regulated media in developing economies. In order to engender rapid growth and structural change the state is required to control the media to provide the essential conditions of stability and societal change. This media-for-development orthodoxy has held sway for more than six decades now, leading to governments, often authoritarian, utilizing the media to prolong their hegemony over society. Taking the welfare of citizens as the basis of public-pr...

  9. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  10. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies...

  11. The Influence of Telematics on the Utility Value of the Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, Ryszard; Krawiec, Stanisław

    In the past two decades large changes in the structure of traffic flows were noted, in particular in the urbanised areas. The shift has been towards passenger cars, causing a significant drop of passenger volumes in public transportation. As the increasing congestions effects are noted, the above mentioned tendency must be reversed in the coming years. The pace of the changes depends on the perception of the public transportation in the society. A positive assessment of the usefulness of public transportation is related to its utility value which may be increased by the intensive implementation of telematic technologies.

  12. 78 FR 69403 - South Tahoe Public Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ............ The facility is constructed, operated, or Y maintained for the generation of electric power and uses... qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by... along the existing C-Line export pipeline in South Tahoe Public Utility District's wastewater treatment...

  13. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  14. 75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... OATT required a public utility transmission provider to account for the needs of its network customers... development of more efficient and effective transmission expansion plans. \\11\\ The regional transmission... concludes that `` ignificant expansion of the transmission grid will be required under any future electric...

  15. 76 FR 38383 - Revised Public Utility Filing; Requirements for Electric Quarterly Reports; Notice of Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revised Public Utility Filing; Requirements for Electric Quarterly... 9-9:15 a.m. Welcome, Introductions, Logistics. 9:15-10:15 a.m. Discussion of Reasons for EQR...

  16. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  17. Public expenditure and healthcare utilization: the case of reproductive health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2017-12-01

    An important reason for public intervention in health in developing countries is to address the issue of accessibility. However, numerous studies have found inconclusive evidence of the effect of public expenditure on health outcomes. Here, I revisit the debate by examining the effect of public expenditure on the use of health services, which is an important link between expenditure and outcomes. I use data from two recent waves of the National Family Health Survey of India to study the role of public expenditure on the use of healthcare services during pregnancy and childbirth. India has high state-level variations in the use of prenatal care and delivery by skilled personnel as well as levels of public expenditure. I exploit the variation in public expenditure to identify its effect on the use of healthcare services, controlling for other confounding factors. The results show a significant effect of public expenditure at the state level on the use of both prenatal and delivery care at the individual level. Also, there is no evidence of public expenditure crowding out private expenditure. Further, there is strong evidence that public expenditure reaches the desired targets. The results highlight the positive implications of raising public expenditure for healthcare use of pregnancy and childbirth services in the Indian context.

  18. Energy, postal services and telecommunications: which future for the public utilities in france and in Europe?; Energie, poste et telecommunications: quel avenir pour le service public en France et en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, D. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L`Energie et des Matieres Premieres; Cresson, E. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Fournier, J.

    1998-12-31

    This colloquium was initiated by the French State secretary of industry and profited by the participation of the ministry of economy, finance and industry and of the prime minister. The colloquium comprises two plenary sessions: `competition, public utilities and Europe` and `regulation and public policies`, and three sectorial round-tables: `telecommunications`, `energy` and `postal services`. The round-table on energy permitted to precise the behaviour of the main French energy producing and consuming companies with respect to the competition and to the public utilities in the European market. (J.S.)

  19. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the nationa...

  20. Capitalism and Public Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The United States democratic system includes characteristics of capitalism as well as socialism. Perhaps the most socialistic endeavor of the US is its K-12 public school system; in fact, US public schools are necessary for democracy to thrive and to create an educated and well-informed populace. However, capitalism and socialism are strange…

  1. assessement of information resource of public libraries in rivers state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    The paper assessed information resources of public libraries in Rivers State. A survey research design was used for the ... services to support education, research, recreation, cultural, political and information needs of the public. It is a facility set up ..... Marketing library services, current practices,. Assessment of information ...

  2. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  3. Hospice utilization of Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i compared to other states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Taira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to examine hospice utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i compared to other states. Data were from the 2014 Medicare Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File, which included information on 4,025 hospice providers, more than 1.3 million hospice beneficiaries, and over $15 billion in Medicare payments. Multivariable linear regression models were estimated to compare hospice utilization in Hawai‘i to that of other states. Control variables included age, gender, and type of Medicare coverage. Medicare beneficiaries using hospice in Hawai‘i differed significantly from beneficiaries in other states in several ways. Hawai‘i beneficiaries were more likely to be Asian (57% vs. 1%, p < .001 and “other race” (10% vs. 0.1%, p < .001, and less likely to be White (28% vs. 84%, p < .001. Hawai‘i beneficiaries were also more likely to have Medicare Advantage (55% vs. 30%, p = .05. Regarding primary diagnoses, hospice users in Hawai‘i were significantly more likely to have a primary diagnosis of stroke (11% vs. 8%, p = .03 and less likely to have respiratory disease (5% vs. 11%, p = .003. In addition, hospice users in Hawai‘i were more likely to use services in their homes (74% vs. 52%, p = .03. Hawai‘i hospice users were also less likely to die while in hospice (42% vs. 47%, p = .002. Characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i differ from those in other states, regarding demographic characteristics, type of coverage, primary diagnoses, likelihood of using services in their homes, and death rates. Further research is needed to better understand factors affecting these differences and whether these differences warrant changes in policy or practice.

  4. Staff Utilization and Commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fika, Ibrahim Baba; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Abdulrahman, Aishatu

    2016-01-01

    The study determines the relationship between staff utilization and staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine: the level of staff utilization in Borno State Colleges of Education, the level of staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education and the relationship between staff…

  5. Quantum Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan

    2017-11-01

    Classical public key cryptosystems ( P K C), such as R S A, E I G a m a l, E C C, are no longer secure in quantum algorithms, and quantum cryptography has become a novel research topic. In this paper we present a quantum asymmetrical cryptosystem i.e. quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. In particular, in the proposed QPKC the public key are given by the first n particles of Bell states and generalized Pauli operations. The corresponding secret key are the last n particles of Bell states and the inverse of generalized Pauli operations. The proposed QPKC encrypts the message using a public key and decrypts the ciphertext using a private key. By H o l e v o ' s theorem, we proved the security of the secret key and messages during the QPKC.

  6. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  7. Creating an Institutional Repository for State Government Digital Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meikiu Lo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Library of Virginia (LVA selected the digital asset management system DigiTool to host a centralized collection of digital state government publications. The Virginia state digital repository targets three primary user groups: state agencies, depository libraries and the general public. DigiTool's ability to create depositor profiles for individual agencies to submit their publications, its integration with the Aleph ILS, and product support by ExLibris were primary factors in its selection. As a smaller institution, however, LVA lacked the internal resources to take full advantage of DigiTool's full set of features. The process of cataloging a heterogenous collection of state documents also proved to be a challenge within DigiTool. This article takes a retrospective look at what worked, what did not, and what could have been done to improve the experience.

  8. Challenges of Utilizing E-Learning Systems in Public Universities in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad Anwar Al-Shboul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper lists and discusses major challenges and barriers that may face faculty members at the public universities in Jordan in employing e-Learning systems authoring tools in their instructions. It also proposes several suggestions for the administrators in public universities in Jordan for what they could do to improve the utilization of e-Learning authoring tools at their campuses. E-Learning systems authoring tools allow instructors to easily create and deliver their e-contents and e-lectures. Furthermore, online course materials which uploaded by using such authoring tools could be viewed by any popular web browser system.

  9. Renovation And Adaptation Of The Historic Olsztyn Purification House Bet Tahara Into A Public Utility Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Barbara Maria

    2015-09-01

    The historic Jewish Purification House Bet Tahara was erected in Olsztyn in 1913 on the basis of the debut design of Erich Mendelsohn, a world-famous architect born in Olsztyn. The most valuable element of the building is a self-supporting pyramid vault above a mourning hall. The paper presents the interesting structure of the building, its technical condition before renovation, as well as the scope of work involved in adapting it into a public utility building - MENDELSOHN HOUSE Intercultural Dialogue Centre. The undertaking was executed thanks to the commitment of the building's leaseholder - "Borussia" Cultural Community Association, which raised money for this goal from public funds.

  10. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  11. EURO-MED-STAT: monitoring expenditure and utilization of medicinal products in the European Union countries: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the level of utilization and expenditure for medicines in the European Union (EU), making assessment of their impact on public health difficult. Our aim is to develop indicators to monitor price, expenditure and utilization of medicinal products in the EU, so as to facilitate comparisons. There are four major tasks. Task 1: To catalogue data sources and available data in each EU Member State. Task 2: To assess the reliability and comparability of data among the EU Member States by ATC/DDD on country coverage, reimbursement, prescriptions, price category (e.g. wholesale, hospital, retail) and private versus public spending. Task 3: To develop Standard Operating Procedures for data management and to define clearly the proposed indicators in terms of objective, definition, description, rationale, and data collection. Task 4: To pool, compare and report the validated data according to the established indicators, using cardiovascular medicines as an example. Preliminary results from Tasks 1 and 2 are available and demonstrate the methodological difficulties in comparing data from different countries. Multiple data sources must be used. These cover different populations, and refer to different prices or costs. Nevertheless, useful data can be derived, illustrated by the example of lipid lowering medicines. The data shows that only five products are commonly available in all countries. Even when a medicine is available in all countries, there may be substantial differences in packages, which can hinder comparison. Data on utilization of statins shows high usage in Scandinavian countries and least in Italy. The preliminary results of EURO-MED-STAT show wide differences in availability, and use of medicines across Europe that may have substantial implications for public health.

  12. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  13. Smart Metering in public utilities at Celle; In Celle spielt die (Zukunfts-) Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Ingo; Gottschling, Florian; Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Public utilities at Celle have start-up a pilot project to introduce Smart Metering. Presented is the system Meterus of EVB Energie AG by which meter data of power meters can be registered automatically during short time intervals and transmitted via the power grid. It is possible to integrate four meters in the system by the RF system ''M-bus RF receiver E''. (GL)

  14. Maximizing State Lottery Dollars for Public Education: An Analysis of Current State Lottery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kevin P.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Today, it is increasingly difficult for states to adequately satisfy the demand for well-funded and quality public services, such as K-12 education by relying exclusively on traditional, broad-based taxes for fiscal support. State sponsored lotteries are an increasingly popular, non-traditional revenue stream for public education. There is in many…

  15. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  16. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-1 - Limitations on reasonable allowance in case of property of certain public utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property of certain public utilities. 1.167(l)-1 Section 1.167(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-1 Limitations on reasonable allowance in case of property of certain public utilities. (a) In general—(1) Scope. Section 167(l) in general provides...

  17. 17 CFR 250.47 - Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural Electrification Administration. 250.47 Section 250.47... Transactions 2 § 250.47 Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural...

  18. National estimates of healthcare utilization by individuals with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, James W; Donnelly, John P; Franco, Ricardo A; Overton, Edgar T; Rodgers, Joel B; Wang, Henry E

    2014-09-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the United States. Although prior studies have evaluated the HCV-related healthcare burden, these studies examined a single treatment setting and did not account for the growing "baby boomer" population (individuals born during 1945-1965). Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. We sought to characterize healthcare utilization by individuals infected with HCV in the United States, examining adult (≥18 years) outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient visits among individuals with HCV diagnosis for the period 2001-2010. Key subgroups included persons born before 1945 (older), between 1945 and 1965 (baby boomer), and after 1965 (younger). Individuals with HCV infection were responsible for >2.3 million outpatient, 73 000 ED, and 475 000 inpatient visits annually. Persons in the baby boomer cohort accounted for 72.5%, 67.6%, and 70.7% of care episodes in these settings, respectively. Whereas the number of outpatient visits remained stable during the study period, inpatient admissions among HCV-infected baby boomers increased by >60%. Inpatient stays totaled 2.8 million days and cost >$15 billion annually. Nonwhites, uninsured individuals, and individuals receiving publicly funded health insurance were disproportionately affected in all healthcare settings. Individuals with HCV infection are large users of outpatient, ED, and inpatient health services. Resource use is highest and increasing in the baby boomer generation. These observations illuminate the public health burden of HCV infection in the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Beyond the 'nanny state': stewardship and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calman, K

    2009-01-01

    Some public health measures restrict personal freedom more than others, and deciding what type of measure will be appropriate and effective has long been a problem for policy makers. Existing bioethical frameworks are often not well suited to address the problems of public health. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics set up an expert working party to examine the ethical issues surrounding public health in January 2006. Following evidence gathering and a public consultation exercise, the Council published its conclusions and recommendations in the report 'Public health: ethical issues' in November 2007. A spectrum of views exists on the relationship between the state's authority and the individual. The Council set out a proposal to capture the best of the libertarian and paternalistic approaches, in what it calls the 'stewardship model'. This model suggests guiding principles for making decisions about public health policies, and highlights some key principles including Mill's harm principle, caring for the vulnerable, autonomy and consent. An 'intervention ladder' is also proposed, which provides a way of thinking about the acceptability of different public health measures. The report then applies these principles to a number of case studies: infectious diseases, obesity, alcohol and tobacco, and fluoridation of water supplies. The idea of a 'nanny state' is often rejected, but the state has a duty to look after the health of everyone, and sometimes that means guiding or restricting people's choices. On the other hand, the state must consider a number of principles when designing public health programmes, and justification is required if any of these principles are to be infringed.

  20. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  1. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  2. Costs and utilization of public sector family planning services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khadija; Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha

    2013-04-01

    The public sector provides a third of family planning (FP) services in Pakistan. However, these services are viewed as being underutilized and expensive. We explored the utilization patterns and costs of FP services in the public sector. We used overall budgets and time allocation by health and population departments to estimate the total costs of FP by these departments, costs per woman served, and costs per couple-year of protection (CYP). The public sector is the predominant provider of FP to the poorest and is the main provider of female sterilization services. The overall costs of FP in the public sector are USD 55 per woman served, annually (USD 17 per CYP). Within the public sector, the population welfare departments provide services at USD 72 per woman served, annually (USD 17 per CYP) and the health departments at USD 39 per woman per year (USD 29 per CYP). While the public sector has a critical niche in serving the poor and providing female sterilization, its services are considerably more expensive compared to international and even some Pakistani non-government organization (NGO) costs. This reflects inefficiencies in services provided, client mistrust in the quality of services provided, and inadequate referrals, and will require specific actions for improving referrals and the quality of services.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF A DONOR SUPPORT ON DISTRICT HEALTH SERVICE UTILIZATION IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Health outcomes are poor in the developing world, hence donor organizations usually support health care delivery system of developing countries. In 2005, Enugu State commenced implementation of District Health System with a unitarised healthcare delivery structure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the PATHS programme (DFID support on the District Health service utilization in Enugu State. Seventy seven supported public primary health care facilities constituted the study population, while same number of non-supported ones were selected randomly as the control health facilities. Retrospective Intervention study technique was used. The study period was the last six months of the PATHS programme in the state (January to June, 2008. The study revealed among other findings that the support by DFID to Enugu State health sector through the PATHS programme resulted in significant increase in district health service utilization, as demonstrated in increased outpatient attendance from 15052 to 73336 (percentage increase of 387.22%, Chi square = 279.11, P and lt;0.0001 and delivery of babies from 647 to 1052 (percentage increase of 62.60%, Chi square = 32.08, P and lt;0.0001 in the supported health facilities. For control facilities, outpatient attendance increased from 8216 to 35126 (percentage increase of 327.50%, Chi square of 233.76, P and lt; 0.0001 and delivery from 370 to 441 (percentage increase of 19.19%, Chi square = 4.60, P and lt;0.47. The difference between the study and control facilities\\' outpatient attendance became wider after the intervention. The out-patient attendance increased significantly in both the study and control facilities after the intervention. Deliveries increased significantly in the supported facilities, while the increase in the control facilities was not significant.

  4. Public Relations in the State Institutions from Galati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Tanase Popa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying and analyzing specific public relations activities in various state institutions from Galati in order to shape a PR typological profile in this geographic area. From the methodological point of view, the paper is based on in-depth interview technique for data collection and content analysis as a method of interpretation. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the professional activity of the specialist in public relations in state institutions in Galati and achieving it was made possible through a structured interview guide on three indicators: professional environment, typological profile, professional responsibility.

  5. Public Health Education in the United States: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rosenstock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was against a background of no formal career path for public health officers that, in 1915, the seminal Welch-Rose Report1 outlined a system of public health edu­cation for the United States. The first schools of public health soon followed, but growth was slow, with only 12 schools by 1960. With organization and growing numbers, accreditation became an expectation. As the mission of public health has grown and achieved new urgency, schools have grown in number, depth and breadth. By mid-2011, there were 46 accredited schools of public health, with more in the pipeline. While each has a unique character, they also must possess certain core characteristics to be accredited. Over time, as schools developed, and concepts of public health expanded, so too did curricula and missions as well as types of people who were trained. In this review, we provide a brief summary of US public health education, with primary emphasis on professional public health schools. We also examine public health workforce needs and evaluate how education is evolving in the context of a growing maturity of the public health profession. We have not focused on programs (not schools that offer public health degrees or on preventive medicine programs in schools of medicine, since schools of public health confer the majority of master’s and doctoral degrees. In the future, there likely will be even more inter-professional education, new disciplinary perspectives and changes in teaching and learning to meet the needs of millennial students.

  6. The Utility of Health States After Stroke: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Post (Piet); A.M. Stiggelbout (Anne); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground—: To perform decision analyses that include stroke as one of the possible health states, the utilities of stroke states must be determined. We reviewed the literature to obtain estimates of the utility of stroke and explored the impact of the study population and the

  7. Access to care and utilization among children: estimating the effects of public and private coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Thomas M; Hudson, Julie L

    2006-05-01

    We examine the relationship between health insurance coverage and children's access to and utilization of medical care. Access measures we study are having a usual source of care (USC) and lacking a USC for financial or insurance reasons. We also examine indicators for ambulatory visits, well-child visits, dental visits, emergency room use, and inpatient hospital stays. We pool data from the first 7 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 1996 to 2002. Pooling yields a large sample of children, enabling us to analyze access and utilization using simple descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis, and instrumental variables estimation (IV). IV estimation is of particular interest given the possibility of bias caused by confounding factors (such as child health or parent attitudes) and measurement error in insurance coverage. We also compare estimates from IV linear probability models to estimates from IV probit with residual inclusion. As previous studies have found, public and private coverage are both associated with large increases in access and utilization. Simple mean comparisons suggest that private coverage has a larger effect than does public coverage. Differences between public and private coverage are reduced (and often reversed) when we control for other characteristics of children and their families. IV coverage effect estimates from both linear probability and residual inclusion probit models are substantially greater than conventional estimates across a wide range of access and utilization measures. Despite concerns that conventional estimates overstate the impact of coverage on access and use, our results suggest that the reverse may be true. One explanation may be that conventional estimates are biased toward zero due to error in the reporting of insurance coverage. The magnitude of the coverage effects we find highlights the importance of reducing uninsurance among children.

  8. Dental service utilization and neighborhood characteristics in young adults in the United States: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Garcia, Raul I; Okunseri, Elaye; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between neighborhood level factors and dental visits in young adults in the United States after adjusting for individual level factors. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave 1 (1994-1995) to Wave III (2001-2002) was analyzed. The primary outcome of having had at least one dental visit in the previous 12 months was analyzed via a multilevel random-effects logistic model accounting for geographic clustering in Wave III and survey design clustering from Wave I. Neighborhood level covariates were defined at the census tract level. Overall rate of dental visits was 57 percent, highest among 18-20 year olds (65 percent) and lowest in 23-26 year olds (52 percent). Increased proportion of African-Americans (≤5 percent to ≥20 percent) and Hispanics (≤5 percent to ≥20 percent) in a neighborhood corresponded with a decrease in dental visits (60 percent versus 52 percent) and (58 percent versus 51 percent), respectively. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of college-educated residents had a higher percentage of dental visits. Similar differences were found when comparing the lowest and highest tertiles defined by poverty level and unemployment with dental visits. Neighborhood education was significantly associated with dental service utilization after adjustment for individual level factors and dental utilization in adolescence (Waves I and II) in the random effects model. This study demonstrates that the education level of residents within a neighborhood was associated with dental service utilization in young adults in the United States. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  10. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise; Lone, Laurberg

    2002-03-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative systems. The study comprised 1,245 adolescents from 3 municipalities; the historical cohort study design was applied; and data were collected from dental records (public dental service) and dental claims (private practice). At age 16, 12% preferred being enrolled in the private practice system, while 88% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (Pdental services were provided more frequently by the public than the private system (P< 0.001). Despite the fact that the economic barrier was eliminated a lower attendance rate was observed for patients transferred to the private practice system.

  11. Aldolases Utilize Different Oligomeric States To Preserve Their Functional Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Ataur R; Jernigan, Robert L

    2015-06-09

    Aldolases are essential enzymes in the glycolysis pathway and catalyze the reaction cleaving fructose/tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. To determine how the aldolase motions relate to its catalytic process, we studied the dynamics of three different class II aldolase structures through simulations. We employed coarse-grained elastic network normal-mode analyses to investigate the dynamics of Escherichia coli fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, E. coli tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and Thermus aquaticus fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and compared their motions in different oligomeric states. The first one is a dimer, and the second and third are tetramers. Our analyses suggest that oligomerization not only stabilizes the aldolase structures, showing fewer fluctuations at the subunit interfaces, but also allows the enzyme to achieve the required dynamics for its functional loops. The essential mobility of these loops in the functional oligomeric states can facilitate the enzymatic mechanism, substrate recruitment in the open state, bringing the catalytic residues into their required configuration in the closed bound state, and moving back to the open state to release the catalytic products and repositioning the enzyme for its next catalytic cycle. These findings suggest that the aldolase global motions are conserved among aldolases having different oligomeric states to preserve its catalytic mechanism. The coarse-grained approaches taken permit an unprecedented view of the changes in the structural dynamics and how these relate to the critical structural stabilities essential for catalysis. The results are supported by experimental findings from many previous studies.

  12. Theoretical and applied aspects of public-state partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Bodelan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the main approaches to the formation and the development of public-state partnership in foreign countries and in Ukraine. The category «Public-state Partnership» has no clear definition in science, and in public administration it is used in many senses. The lack of theoretical justification, no systematic approach to the separation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the public-state partnerships, the forms of its practical implementation does not allow our country to be competitive internationally. In particular, this applies to such an aspects such as social maturity of business and entrepreneurship. Such companies create NGOs that in many countries provide 3 to 9% of GDP, attract domestic and foreign investments, benefit society and are a form of targeting state impact on the condition and development of social processes and relationships. Ukraine has not yet established the culture of social entrepreneurship, both government authorities and NGOs are not aware how promising such activity authorized by the legislation of Ukraine is. The reserve and the capacity of NGOs when considering formation of a special investment climate, development of production, replenishment of the budgets at all levels, creating conditions for entrepreneurship etc. are not applied. Main role is assigned for the NGOs that make a significant contribution to socio-economic development of the country and become its reliable investment partner.

  13. Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public Compliance to Space Standards for Urban Development. ... continual growth and management of a city can be such that make for orderliness ... It also ensures that the environmental challenges as a result of city growth can be reduced to tolerable levels.

  14. Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ISSN 2070--0083 (Online). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v5i5.14. Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of. Public Compliance to Space Standards for Urban. Development. (Pp. 169-184). Aluko, Ola - Department. of Urban & Regional Planning, Faculty of. Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos, ...

  15. Direct medical cost and utility analysis of diabetics outpatient at Karanganyar public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eristina; Andayani, T. M.; Oetari, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a high cost disease, especially in long-term complication treatment. Long-term complication treatment cost was a problem for the patient, it can affect patients quality of life stated with utility value. The purpose of this study was to determine the medical cost, utility value and leverage factors of diabetics outpatient. This study was cross sectional design, data collected from retrospective medical record of the financial and pharmacy department to obtain direct medical cost, utility value taken from EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results of this study were IDR 433,728.00 for the direct medical cost and pharmacy as the biggest cost. EQ-5D-5L questionnaire showed the biggest proportion on each dimension were 61% no problem on mobility dimension, 89% no problems on self-care dimension, 54% slight problems on usual activities dimension, 41% moderate problems on pain/discomfort dimension and 48% moderate problems on anxiety/depresion dimension. Build upon Thailand value set, utility value was 0.833. Direct medical cost was IDR 433,728.00 with leverage factors were pattern therapy, blood glucose level and complication. Utility value was 0.833 with leverage factors were patients characteristic, therapy pattern, blood glucose level and complication.

  16. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  17. Funding Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Attal-Juncqua, Aurelia; Fischer, Julie E

    2017-09-01

    The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response-especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided-do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health. We review key US policies and funding mechanisms relevant to public health emergencies and clarify how policies, regulations, and resources affect coordinated responses.

  18. Study Meta Analysis of Strategies and Utilization of Electronic Journals ( e - journals For Graduate Student University of Malang in Efforts Produce Internationally Reputed Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhibul Anshor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications in journals of international repute acts as a medium for self-actualization academics in the development of science internationally . Higher education institutions that have the quality of education , science and technology are good tend to have a high number of international publications . To produce scientific publications of high quality , must be supported by research and a source of reference quality . In an effort to improve the scientific publication of national repute academic environment . Malang State University. providing electronic information resources in the form of an electronic journal that comes from a variety of electronic information resources , in the hope utilized by students in an effort to increase scientific publication of international repute . The effort is also supported by a set of rules that requires that academic graduate students have a scientific publication of international repute as a graduation requirement

  19. Study Meta Analysis of Strategies and Utilization of Electronic Journals ( e - journals For Graduate Student University of Malang in Efforts Produce Internationally Reputed Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokibul Ansor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications in journals of international repute acts as a medium for self-actualization academics in the development of science internationally . Higher education institutions that have the quality of education , science and technology are good tend to have a high number of international publications . To produce scientific publications of high quality , must be supported by research and a source of reference quality . In an effort to improve the scientific publication of national repute academic environment . Malang State University. providing electronic information resources in the form of an electronic journal that comes from a variety of electronic information resources , in the hope utilized by students in an effort to increase scientific publication of international repute . The effort is also supported by a set of rules that requires that academic graduate students have a scientific publication of international repute as a graduation requirement

  20. Improving Public Health Through Access to and Utilization of Medication Assisted Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Kresina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing access to and utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence provides an important opportunity to improve public health. Access to health services comprising MAT in the community is fundamental to achieve broad service coverage. The type and placement of the health services comprising MAT and integration with primary medical care including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention, care and treatment services are optimal for addressing both substance abuse and co-occurring infectious diseases. As an HIV prevention intervention, integrated (same medical record for HIV services and MAT services MAT with HIV prevention, care and treatment programs provides the best “one stop shopping” approach for health service utilization. Alternatively, MAT, medical and HIV services can be separately managed but co-located to allow convenient utilization of primary care, MAT and HIV services. A third approach is coordinated care and treatment, where primary care, MAT and HIV services are provided at distinct locations and case managers, peer facilitators, or others promote direct service utilization at the various locations. Developing a continuum of care for patients with opioid dependence throughout the stages MAT enhances the public health and Recovery from opioid dependence. As a stigmatized and medical disenfranchised population with multiple medical, psychological and social needs, people who inject drugs and are opioid dependent have difficulty accessing services and navigating medical systems of coordinated care. MAT programs that offer comprehensive services and medical care options can best contribute to improving the health of these individuals thereby enhancing the health of the community.

  1. Evaluating Proposed Investments in Power System Reliability and Resilience: Preliminary Results from Interviews with Public Utility Commission Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eto, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers and regulatory agencies are expressing renewed interest in the reliability and resilience of the U.S. electric power system in large part due to growing recognition of the challenges posed by climate change, extreme weather events, and other emerging threats. Unfortunately, there has been little or no consolidated information in the public domain describing how public utility/service commission (PUC) staff evaluate the economics of proposed investments in the resilience of the power system. Having more consolidated information would give policymakers a better understanding of how different state regulatory entities across the U.S. make economic decisions pertaining to reliability/resiliency. To help address this, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) to conduct an initial set of interviews with PUC staff to learn more about how proposed utility investments in reliability/resilience are being evaluated from an economics perspective. LBNL conducted structured interviews in late May-early June 2016 with staff from the following PUCs: Washington D.C. (DCPSC), Florida (FPSC), and California (CPUC).

  2. The utility of affine variables and affine coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauder, John R.

    2012-06-01

    Affine coherent states are generated by affine kinematical variables much like canonical coherent states are generated by canonical kinematical variables. Although all classical and quantum formalisms normally entail canonical variables, it is shown that affine variables can serve equally well for many classical and quantum studies. This general purpose analysis provides tools to discuss two major applications: (1) the completely successful quantization of a nonrenormalizable scalar quantum field theory by affine techniques, in complete contrast to canonical techniques which only offer triviality; and (2) a formulation of the kinematical portion of quantum gravity that favors affine kinematical variables over canonical kinematical variables, and which generates a framework in which a favorable analysis of the constrained dynamical issues can take place. All this is possible because of the close connection between the affine and the canonical stories, while the few distinctions can be used to advantage when appropriate. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  3. Rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: a regulatory history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.N.; Caples, P.W.; Huning, J.R.

    1980-09-15

    An analysis is made of the rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The act provides that utilities must purchase power from qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates, and it exempts private generators from virtually all state and Federal utility regulations. Most of the analysis presented is taken from the perspective of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal electric point-focusing distributed receivers (pfdr). It is felt, however, that the analysis is applicable both to cogeneration and other emerging technologies. Chapters presented are: The FERC Response to Oral Comments on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Additional Changes Made or Not Made That Were Addressed in Other Than Oral Testimony; View on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Response to Comments on the Proposed 201 and 210 Rules; and Summary Analysis of the Environmental Assessment of the Rules. Pertinent reference material is provided in the Appendices, including the text of the rules. (MCW)

  4. Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88 F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88 F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80 F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60 F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88 F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75 F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low ($1189 per year).

  5. Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.

  6. The Impact of State Tort Reforms on Imaging Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi; Deyo, Darwyyn; Hughes, Danny R

    2017-02-01

    Defensive medicine, broadly defined as medical practices that protect physicians from malpractice lawsuits without providing benefits to patients, can lead to wasteful use of health care resources and higher cost. Although physicians cite malpractice liability as an important factor driving their decisions to order imaging tests, little research has been done to examine the systematic impact of liability pressure on overall imaging. The authors examined the extent to which radiography use is influenced by malpractice liability pressure among office-based physicians. Using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 1999 to 2010, the authors used multivariate difference-in-difference logistic regression to examine the effects of different types of state tort reforms on the probability of radiography orders by primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists. The probability that a PCP ordered radiography decreased when states enacted permanent caps on noneconomic damages (-1.0%, P caps on punitive damages (-6.1%, P < .01) and the total number of medical tort laws (-1.2%, P < .01). The passage of new indirect reforms was found to reduce radiography orders for PCPs (-1.8%, P < .05), and the repeal of indirect reforms was found to increase radiography orders for specialists (+3.4%, P < .01). State tort reform seems to reduce physicians' ordering of radiography. This analysis also suggests that reforms that make it harder to sue physicians have a stronger impact than reforms that directly reduce physicians' malpractice claim payments. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included.

  8. Public Administration: Modernizing The Current Model Of State Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administration did not manage to meet competition, did not provide the required social effect and as a natural result suffered a defeat in the global confrontation between the two social systems. Current models and theoretical concepts of public administration, especially the "new public administration", which became scientific basis for administrative reforms implemented in many countries, are the particular subject of scientific analysis. The author draws attention to major comprehensive characteristics of modern state public administration: making it impossible to absolutize principles of traditional hierarchy system of forced administration; globalization - gradual destruction of boundaries between national and international levels of administration, the growing role of supranational subjects of administration relations; informatization - increasing importance of information and communication technologies and of political networks: development of civil society, especially political parties and non-governmental organizations, growing public involvement in discussion and adoption of the most important administrative decisions; making the state policy more pluralistic and which will result in the formation of nonlinear - humanistic social consciousness as the intellectual basis of modern social governance. The author's position is that Russia is yet to solve the issue of choosing a public administration model that would be effective for further administrative

  9. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: MODERNIZING THE CURRENT MODEL OF STATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administration did not manage to meet competition, did not provide the required social effect and as a natural result suffered a defeat in the global confrontation between the two social systems. Current models and theoretical concepts of public administration, especially the "new public administration", which became scientific basis for administrative reforms implemented in many countries, are the particular subject of scientific analysis. The author draws attention to major comprehensive characteristics of modern state public administration: making it impossible to absolutize principles of traditional hierarchy system of forced administration; globalization - gradual destruction of boundaries between national and international levels of administration, the growing role of supranational subjects of administration relations; informatization - increasing importance of information and communication technologies and of political networks: development of civil society, especially political parties and non-governmental organizations, growing public involvement in discussion and adoption of the most important administrative decisions; making the state policy more pluralistic and which will result in the formation of nonlinear - humanistic social consciousness as the intellectual basis of modern social governance. The author's position is that Russia is yet to solve the issue of choosing a public administration model that would be effective for further administrative

  10. Utilization of Dental Services in Public Health Center: Dental Attendance, Awareness and Felt Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewa, Preksha; Garla, Bharath K; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Solanki, Jitendra

    2015-10-01

    In rural India, dental diseases occur due to many factors, which includes inadequate or improper use of fluoride and a lack of knowledge regarding oral health and oral hygiene, which prevent proper screening and dental care of oral diseases. The objective of the study was to evaluate the dental attendance, awareness and utilization of dental services in public health center. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 study subjects who were visiting dental outpatient department (OPD) of public health centre (PHC), Guda Bishnoi, and Jodhpur using a pretested proforma from month of July 2014 to October 2014. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding socioeconomic status and demographic factors affecting the utilization of dental services. Pearson's Chi-square test and step-wise logistic regression were applied for the analysis. Statistically significant results were found in relation to age, educational status, socioeconomic status and gender with dental attendance, dental awareness and felt needs. p-value dental services, thereby increasing the oral health status of the population.

  11. Compliance in public utilities. A practice handbook; Compliance in Energieversorgungsunternehmen. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenke, Ines; Schaefer, Ralf [BBH Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Brocke, Holger [Staatsanwaltschaft Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The concept of compliance comprises all measures taken to prevent violations of the law and their consequences. This implies the allocation of competences and supervision as well as behaviour guidelines to prevent violations of the law by staff members. Together with measures to detect and remedy deficits, effective organization of compliance is achieved, the risk of liability is minimized, and corporate management is made more transparent. In view of the high risk of liability, compliance is rapidly becoming part of corporate culture in Germany. The recommendations of this book are aimed not only at big utilities but also at small and medium-sized private and public utilities that may profit from compliance measures. The contributions present practically relevant recommmendations for action and examples for compliance organization in the various fields of law, i.e. industrial law, data protection law, energy industry law, energy cartel law, electricity and energy taxation law, corporate law, capital market law, pnal law, taxation penal law, and the Public Corporate Governance Codex. The complex matter is presented in a manner that is clear and understandable even for non-expert readers.

  12. Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-11-01

    Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

  13. Public Affairs Decision Making in the U.S. Air Force: An Application of Multiattribute Utility Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Prabu; Pierson, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on public relations decision making and public relations theory. Examines decision making by United States Air Force public affairs personnel. Finds that only 48% of the decisions fit the public relations excellence criteria of accommodation and long-term relationship building. Finds also a negative correlation between…

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Rhode Island. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Rhode Island statutes vest in the Public Utility Commission and the Division of Public Utilities the exclusive power and authority to regulate public utility companies in that state. Both bodies have been established within the Department of Business Regulation but are independent of the Department's director and are not under his jurisdiction. The jurisdiction to regulate utilities is shared by the Commission and the Division. The Commission serves as a quasi-judicial tribunal with jurisdiction, powers, and duties to hold investigations and hearings involving rates, sufficiency and resonableness of facilities, gas, electric, water, and pipeline public utilities. The administrator, who is chief executive officer of the Division, is responsible for exercising the jurisdiction, supervision, powers, and duties not specifically assigned to the Commission. By virtue of his office, the chairman of the Commission serves also as the administrator and he supervises and directs the execution of all laws relating to public utilities and carriers and all regulations and orders of the Commission governing the conduct and charges of public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  16. Utility scores for different health states related to depression : Individual participant data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovos, S.; Bosmans, J.E.; Van Dongen, J.M.; Van Esveld, B.; Magai, D.; Van Straten, A.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Van Steenbergen-weijenburg, K.M.; Huijbregts, K.M.; Van Marwijk, H.; Riper, H.; Van Tulder, M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with considerable impairments in health-related quality-of-life. However, the relationship between different health states related to depression severity and utility scores is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether utility scores are different for

  17. Utility scores for different health states related to depression : individual participant data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovos, S.; Bosmans, Judith E; van Dongen, Johanna M; van Esveld, Birre; Magai, Dorcas; van Straten, Annemieke; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; van Steenbergen-Weijenburg, Kirsten M; Huijbregts, Klaas M; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Riper, Heleen; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Depression is associated with considerable impairments in health-related quality-of-life. However, the relationship between different health states related to depression severity and utility scores is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether utility scores are different for

  18. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  19. The public utility contract between the French government and EDF; Le contrat de service public entre l'Etat et EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The public utility contract as foreseen by article 1 of the law from August 9, 2004 was signed on October 24, 2005. It represents the reference of EDF's (Electricite de France) commitments for its different activities of power producer-supplier and network manager. It precises also the commitments of the manager of the public energy transportation system (RTE EDF-Transport). It describes the level of commitment of EDF group over the 2005-2006-2007 era and precises the financial compensation modalities of its public utility missions and of its commitments as described in the contract. The public utility plan indicates the level of investments planned by EDF in the domain of power generation and networks. This document gathers: the talk given by D. de Villepin, Prime Minister, during the signature of the contract, the talk and presentation (slides) given by P. Gadonneix, head of EDF, the public utility contract between the government and EDF, and the public utility plan. (J.S.)

  20. Impact of Mandatory Public Reporting of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections on Blood Culture and Antibiotic Utilization in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Kelly B; Ozonoff, Al; Graham, Dionne A; Sandora, Thomas J; Priebe, Gregory P

    2015-08-01

    As mandatory public reporting of healthcare-associated infections increases, there is concern that clinicians could attempt to decrease rates by avoiding the diagnosis of reportable infections. To determine whether blood culture and antibiotic utilization changed after mandatory public reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Interrupted time-series of blood culture and antibiotic rates before and after state-specific implementation of mandatory public reporting. We analyzed data from pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) at 17 children's hospitals that contributed to the Pediatric Health Information System administrative database. We used multivariable regression with generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) after implementation of mandatory public reporting. We conducted subgroup analysis on patients with central venous catheters. To assess temporal trends, we separately analyzed data from 4 pediatric hospitals in states without mandatory public reporting. There was no significant effect of mandatory public reporting on rates of blood culture (pediatric ICU ARR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.82-1.28]; neonatal ICU ARR, 1.06 [0.85-1.33]) or antibiotic utilization (pediatric ICU ARR, 0.86 [0.72-1.04]; neonatal ICU ARR, 1.09 [0.87-1.35]). Results were similar in the subgroup of patients with central venous catheter codes. Hospitals with and without mandatory public reporting experienced small decreases in blood culture and antibiotic use across the study period. Mandatory public reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infection did not impact blood culture and antibiotic utilization, suggesting that clinicians have not shifted their practice in an attempt to detect fewer infections.

  1. Loneliness as a Public Health Issue: The Impact of Loneliness on Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Jayani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to determine whether loneliness is associated with higher health care utilization among older adults in the United States. Methods. We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2008 and 2012) to examine the long-term impact of loneliness on health care use. The sample was limited to community-dwelling persons in the United States aged 60 years and older. We used negative binomial regression models to determine the impact of loneliness on physician visits and hospitalizations. Results. Under 2 definitions of loneliness, we found that a sizable proportion of those aged 60 years and older in the United States reported loneliness. Regression results showed that chronic loneliness (those lonely both in 2008 and 4 years later) was significantly and positively associated with physician visits (β = 0.075, SE = 0.034). Loneliness was not significantly associated with hospitalizations. Conclusions. Loneliness is a significant public health concern among elders. In addition to easing a potential source of suffering, the identification and targeting of interventions for lonely elders may significantly decrease physician visits and health care costs. PMID:25790413

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Carolina. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Under the Public Utilities Act of 1965, utilities in North Carolina are regulated by the State's Utility Commission. The Commission consists of seven members who are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly sitting in joint session. The Commissioners serve eight year terms and the governor designates one of the commissioners as chairman. The Commission has an office of the executive director, who is appointed to a six year term by the governor subject to confirmaion by the General Assembly. The executive director heads the Commission's public staff. The public staff's duties include reviewing, investigating, and making recommendations on utility rates and services and intervention on behalf of the public in proceedings affecting consumer rates and generating plant certification. The Commission has the same power to regulate the operation of privately-owned public utilities within municipalities as it has to control those ouside. The only power over privately-owned utilities reserved to the municipalities is the power to grant franchises. A municipality may maintain its own utility systems, and such systems are not subject to the control and jurisdiction of the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Determining rules for closing customer service centers: A public utility company's fuzzy decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre; Shipley, Margaret F.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work, we consider the general problem of knowledge acquisition under uncertainty. A commonly used method is to learn by examples. We observe how the expert solves specific cases and from this infer some rules by which the decision was made. Unique to this work is the fuzzy set representation of the conditions or attributes upon which the decision make may base his fuzzy set decision. From our examples, we infer certain and possible rules containing fuzzy terms. It should be stressed that the procedure determines how closely the expert follows the conditions under consideration in making his decision. We offer two examples pertaining to the possible decision to close a customer service center of a public utility company. In the first example, the decision maker does not follow too closely the conditions. In the second example, the conditions are much more relevant to the decision of the expert.

  4. Decision-enhancing controlling at public utilities; Entscheidungswirksames Controlling in einem Versorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P. [Stadtwerke Wiesbaden AG (Germany). Sachgebiet Planung und Budgetierung; Pulter, N. [Stadtwerke Wiesbaden AG (Germany). Sachgebiet Planung und Budgetierung; Uebelhack, C. [OZP GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-04-22

    In recent years, public and transport utilities increasingly have adopted a number of modern concepts destined to improve their business result. Apart from the identification of corporate paradigms and targets as well as short- and medium-term corporate planning, up-to-date control of corporate policy plays a major part. PC-assisted reporting within controlling has become an important steering tool ensuring constant adjustment of navigation to the corporate course. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Versorgungs- und Verkehrsunternehmen haben sich in den vergangenen Jahren verstaerkt mit einer Reihe zeitgemaesser Konzepte zur Ergebnisverbesserung auseinandergesetzt. Neben der Einbindung von Unternehmensleitlinien, Unternehmenszielen sowie der kurz- und mittelfristigen Unternehmensplanung spielt die aktuelle Unternehmenssteuerung eine wichtige Rolle. PC-gestuetzte Berichtssysteme innerhalb des Controlling haben sich zu einer wichtigen Steuerungsfunktion entwickelt, um die Navigation im staendigen Abgleich zum Unternehmenskurs sicherzustellen. (orig.)

  5. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF BASIC PROVISIONS OF THE ENERGY SAVING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN THE FIELD OF HOUSING AND PUBLIC UTILITIES THROUGH INTRODUCTION OF SMALL INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Ekaterina Alexandrovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author addresses solutions to problems of the housing and utilities sector (including a substantial depreciation of fixed assets of the municipal infrastructure, a gap between domestic utilities management technologies and those employed worldwide, and the fund raising problem through power saving actions to be facilitated by small innovative enterprises. The proposed solutions contribute to formation of new jobs in the regions, reduction of power consumption and higher efficiency of regional economies due to reduced costs and rates (prices set for utilities-related services, and improvement of the standard and quality of living. The principal objective is to develop a set of procedures and criteria to serve as the basis for the selection of tools of power saving innovations in the housing and utilities sector of regions and municipalities. The above actions are to be implemented through the involvement of small innovative enterprises. The basic tools (instruments of the state social and economic (including innovation-related policy, that are to stimulate subjects of innovative activities to implement innovative projects in this sector stimulate energy efficiency innovations in the housing and utilities sector. The proposed set of tools includes tax holidays, subsidies, grants, soft loans, concessional loans, state and municipal orders, etc. The procedure of selection of instruments of state-initiated innovations designated for the improvement of the power efficiency of the housing and public utilities sector to be implemented by regional and municipal authorities is proposed by the author. The author identifies several types of energy saving innovations in the housing and utilities sector, based on their systemic effects. Upon identification of the top-priority recipients of state support, financial resources are to be distributed. Advantages of innovative energy saving projects in the housing and utilities sector, developed and implemented

  6. Fungal aerosol in public utility buildings in the city of Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of indoor air is one of the most important factors affecting health and well-being of people, who inhale 10 m3 of air every day and spend 80–95% of life indoors. The aim of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of airborne fungi, along with assessment of air pollution and microbiological hazard for humans, in 45 public utility buildings in Cracow. Material and methods. The study was carried out in four groups of buildings, including teaching facilities of the University of Agriculture and Jagiellonian University, churches, shopping malls and hospitals with outpatient clinics. Four sites located in the open air were chosen as control. The air sampling was carried out with MAS-100 impactor. Fungi were enumerated on Malt Extract Agar and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFU per m3 of air. The isolated fungi were identified by comparing macroscopic and microscopic observations with taxonomic monographs. Results. Mean concentration of airborne fungi was highest in the teaching facilities (1970 CFU/m3. These were also the sites where the largest range of fungal concentration was observed, i.e. from 0 to 23,300 CFU/m3. The lowest mean concentration (99 CFU/m3 including range was observed in hospitals (from 0 to 327 CFU/m3. Species identification of the fungal isolates revealed the presence of allergenic fungi (Alternaria and Cladosporium in the examined spaces. Moreover, some strains were also identified as potentially toxigenic species, such as Penicillium expansum or Aspergillus niger. Conclusions. The concentration range of airborne fungi varied significantly between the tested spaces. Although the observed concentration of airborne fungi in the majority of buildings was quite low, detection of potentially toxigenic fungi indicates the need for monitoring of both concentration and composition of fungal aerosol in public utility buildings.

  7. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  8. Expanding Geothermal Resource Utilization through Directed Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Wendy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE or the Center) was established at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in May 2000 to promote research and utilization of geothermal resources. The Center received funding through this grant to promote increased geothermal development in the Great Basin, with most of the funding used for peerreviewed research. Funding to the Center and work under the contract were initiated in March 2002, with supplemental funding in subsequent years. The Center monitored the research projects that were competitively awarded in a series of proposal calls between 2002 and 2007. Peer-reviewed research promoted identification and utilization of geothermal resources in Nevada. Projects used geology, geochemistry, geophysics, remote sensing, and the synthesis of multi-disciplinary information to produce new models of geothermal systems in the Western U.S. and worldwide. Funds were also used to support graduate student research and training. Part of the grant was used to support public outreach activities, including webpages, online maps and data resources, and informational workshops for stakeholders.

  9. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  10. Astronomy in the United States: Workforce Development and Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy workforce development and public engagement in the United States are described. The number of professional astronomers has grown by about a third in the past 25 years, to about 4000. Only one in four are faculty in an academic setting; the rest work in a wide range of public and private research institutes. PhD production has remained steady at about 200 per year. Women account for roughly half of BSc degrees and a third of PhD degrees, but their participation declines to about 10% at the level of full professor. Minorities are underrepresented by a substantial factor at all levels of the profession. In terms of public engagement, astronomy has unique advantages associated with its visual appeal and the large and active amateur astronomy community. The are 1400 public planetaria in the US, with another 110 in schools and universities. Astronomers have made good use of new media such as blogs and podcasts and social networks, but the biggest impact has been in the area of citizen science, where people with no technical background contribute directly to a research project by, for example, classifying galaxies. The International Year of Astronomy and the remarkable success of the Galileoscope have inspired large numbers of people to appreciate astronomy, contributing indirectly to the professional vitality of the field.

  11. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  12. 78 FR 22593 - The United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal The Department of State has renewed the charter of the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. The Commission... public diplomacy activities (activities intended to understand, inform, and influence foreign publics...

  13. Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-11-01

    Anti-Muslim sentiments are increasingly common globally and in the United States. The recent rise in Islamophobia calls for a public health perspective that considers the stigmatized identity of Muslim Americans and health implications of Islamophobic discrimination. Drawing on a stigma, discrimination, and health framework, I expand the dialogue on the rise of Islamophobia to a discussion of how Islamophobia affects the health of Muslim Americans. Islamophobia can negatively influence health by disrupting several systems-individual (stress reactivity and identity concealment), interpersonal (social relationships and socialization processes), and structural (institutional policies and media coverage). Islamophobia deserves attention as a source of negative health outcomes and health disparities. Future public health research should explore the multilevel and multidimensional pathways between Islamophobia and population health.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Hawaii. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Hawaii is vested in the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor. Commissioners serve for six year terms, must be independent of the companies they regulate and must not possess or acquire an interest in any public utility. The regulatory authority of the Commission preempts that of any other state agency. Local governments have no authority over public utilities. Chapter 196 of the Hawaii statutes establishes the position of the Energy Resources Coordinator; the role of the coordinator, however, is merely to develop, review, and recommend programs for the optimum development of Hawaii's energy resources. The Commission has jurisdiction over all public utilities located in the state. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Health state utilities associated with attributes of weekly injection devices for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Matza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists are often recommended as part of combination therapy for type 2 diabetes when oral medication does not result in sufficient glycemic control. Several GLP-1 receptor agonists are available as weekly injections. These medications vary in their injection delivery systems, and these differences could impact quality of life and treatment preference. The purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with attributes of injection delivery systems for weekly GLP-1 therapies. Methods Participants with type 2 diabetes in the UK valued health states in time trade-off interviews. The health states (drafted based on literature, device instructions for use, and clinician interviews had identical descriptions of type 2 diabetes, but differed in description of the treatment process. One health state described oral treatment, while six others described oral treatment plus a weekly injection. The injection health states varied in three aspects of the treatment administration process: requirements for reconstituting the medication (i.e., mixing the medication prior to the injection, waiting during medication preparation, and needle handling. Every participant valued all seven health states. Results A total of 209 participants completed interviews (57.4% male; mean age = 60.4y. The mean utility of the oral treatment health state was 0.89. All injection health states had significantly (p < 0.01 lower utilities ranging from 0.86 to 0.88. Differences among health state utilities suggest that each administration requirement had a small but measureable disutility: -0.004 (reconstitution, -0.004 (needle handling, -0.010 (reconstitution, needle handling, and -0.020 (reconstitution, waiting, needle handling. Conclusions Findings suggest it is feasible to use the TTO method to quantify preferences among injection treatment processes. It may be useful to incorporate these utility differences

  16. Variation in exemptions to school immunization requirements among New York State private and public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana

    2014-12-12

    School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insurance Coverage and Utilization at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in a Medicaid Expansion State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy S; Bertrand, Thomas; Uvin, A Ziggy; Marak, Theodore; Comella, Jaime; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A

    2017-05-01

    In Rhode Island, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has led to over 95% of the state's population being insured. We evaluated insurance coverage and barriers to insurance use among patients presenting for services at the Rhode Island sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. We analyzed factors associated with insurance coverage and utilization among patients presenting for STD services between July and December 2015. A total of 692 patients had insurance information available; of those, 40% were uninsured. Patients without insurance were more likely than those with insurance to be nonwhite (50% among uninsured, compared with 40% among insured; P = 0.014) and Hispanic or Latino/a (25%, compared with 16%; P = 0.006), and less likely to be men who have sex with men (27%, compared with 39%; P = 0.001). Of those with health insurance, 26% obtained coverage as a result of the Affordable Care Act, and 56% of those were previously uninsured. Among uninsured individuals, barriers to obtaining health insurance included cost and unemployment. Among those with insurance, 43% reported willingness to use insurance for STD services. Barriers to insurance use included concerns about anonymity and out-of-pocket costs. Despite expanded insurance access, many individuals presenting to the Rhode Island STD Clinic were uninsured. Among those who were insured, significant barriers still existed to using insurance. STD clinics continue to play an important role in providing safety-net STD services in states with low uninsured rates. Both public and private insurers are needed to address financial barriers and optimize payment structures for services.

  18. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  19. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingya; Lin, Senlin; Liang, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-09-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Our results showed that internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The years of living in the city of residence were positively associated with the utilization of public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces significantly reduced the probability of using health records (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on non-communicable diseases (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through the Internet (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). This study concludes that public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsidies. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.

  20. Research on customer satisfaction with the quality of services provided by public utilities of the city of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monopoly market conditions, in which public companies used to operate ten to twenty years ago, substantially dictated the way of considering and creating business of public companies in Serbia. However, introduction of changes to the environment, such as more intensive competition and changes of needs and demands of the customers requires abandoning old orientations to business. Public companies are in position to create and offer a higher level of service quality, based on better and more intensified communication with their customers. Public enterprises are monitored by public authorities, especially in the areas of restrictions on the choice of business strategies, pricing and price restrictions, selection of suppliers and the like. On the other hand, there is a branch competition occurring, on which public companies must count. In such an environment, creating effective services should be the key strategic objective for the development of public utility companies of the city of Belgrade. Service companies should be modern service companies, able to actively participate in the market, looking upon customers - citizens as users of their services. The aim of the research is to determine the perception of value and customer satisfaction with the services provided by the public utilities of Belgrade. The results of the study indicate that respondents are not satisfied with provided services and do not have clearly defined attitudes towards key aspects of public enterprises, which are supposed to be important for positioning and improving the quality of services in the market.

  1. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  2. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-05-16

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  3. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

  4. Mental health service utilization in sub-Saharan Africa: is public mental health literacy the problem? Setting the perspectives right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2016-06-01

    The severely constrained resources for mental health service in less-developed regions like sub-Saharan Africa underscore the need for good public mental health literacy as a potential additional mental health resource. Several studies examining the level of public knowledge about the nature and dynamics of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade had concluded that such knowledge was poor and had called for further public enlightenment. What was thought to be mental health 'ignorance' has also been blamed for poor mainstream service utilization. These views however assume that non-alignment of the views of community dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa with the biomedical understanding of mental illness connotes 'ignorance', and that correcting such 'ignorance' will translate to improvements in service utilization. Within the framework of contemporary thinking in mental health literacy, this paper argues that such assumptions are not culturally nuanced and may have overrated the usefulness of de-contextualized public engagement in enhancing mental health service utilization in the region. The paper concludes with a discourse on how to contextualize public mental health enlightenment in the region and the wider policy initiatives that can improve mental health service utilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD) data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a) changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) over time; b) the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c) many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should not be considered underlying causes of death, often called garbage codes (GCs). The Global Burden of Disease Study and the World Health Organization have developed various methods to enhance comparability of CoD data. In this study, we attempt to build on these approaches to enhance the utility of national cause-of-death data for public health analysis. Methods Based on careful consideration of 4,434 country-years of CoD data from 145 countries from 1901 to 2008, encompassing 743 million deaths in ICD versions 1 to 10 as well as country-specific cause lists, we have developed a public health-oriented cause-of-death list. These 56 causes are organized hierarchically and encompass all deaths. Each cause has been mapped from ICD-6 to ICD-10 and, where possible, they have also been mapped to the International List of Causes of Death 1-5. We developed a typology of different classes of GCs. In each ICD revision, GCs have been identified. Target causes to which these GCs should be redistributed have been identified based on certification practice and/or pathophysiology. Proportionate redistribution, statistical models, and expert algorithms have been developed to redistribute GCs to target codes for each age-sex group. Results The fraction of all deaths assigned to GCs varies tremendously across countries and revisions of the ICD. In general, across all country-years of data available, GCs have declined from more than 43% in ICD-7 to 24% in ICD-10. In some regions, such as Australasia, GCs in

  6. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, JingYa; Lin, Senlin; LIANG, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and publ...

  7. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  8. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  9. New York state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying our the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New York. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  10. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Impact of Arizona's SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David R; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    We examined the impact of Arizona's "Supporting Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" (SB 1070, enacted July 29, 2010) on the utilization of preventive health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin families. Data came from 142 adolescent mothers and 137 mother figures who participated in a quasi-experimental, ongoing longitudinal study of the health and development of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their infants (4 waves; March 2007-December 2011). We used general estimating equations to determine whether utilization of preventive health care and public assistance differed before versus after SB 1070's enactment. Adolescents reported declines in use of public assistance and were less likely to take their baby to the doctor; compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to use preventive health care after SB 1070. Mother figures were less likely to use public assistance after SB 1070 if they were born in the United States and if their post-SB 1070 interview was closer to the law's enactment. Findings suggest that immigration policies such as SB 1070 may contribute to decreases in use of preventive health care and public assistance among high-risk populations.

  12. Impact of Arizona’s SB 1070 Immigration Law on Utilization of Health Care and Public Assistance Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers and Their Mother Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David R.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Arizona’s “Supporting Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act” (SB 1070, enacted July 29, 2010) on the utilization of preventive health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin families. Methods. Data came from 142 adolescent mothers and 137 mother figures who participated in a quasi-experimental, ongoing longitudinal study of the health and development of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their infants (4 waves; March 2007–December 2011). We used general estimating equations to determine whether utilization of preventive health care and public assistance differed before versus after SB 1070’s enactment. Results. Adolescents reported declines in use of public assistance and were less likely to take their baby to the doctor; compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to use preventive health care after SB 1070. Mother figures were less likely to use public assistance after SB 1070 if they were born in the United States and if their post–SB 1070 interview was closer to the law’s enactment. Conclusions. Findings suggest that immigration policies such as SB 1070 may contribute to decreases in use of preventive health care and public assistance among high-risk populations. PMID:24354823

  13. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  14. Space science public outreach at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T.; Babin, E.; Cooney, W.; Giammanco, J.; Hartman, D.; McNeil, R.; Slovak, M.; Stacy, J.

    Over the last seven years the Astronomy / Astrophysics group in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Louisiana State University has developed an exten- sive Space Science education and public outreach program. This program includes the local park district (the Recreation and Park Commission for the Parish of East Baton Rouge, BREC), the local amateur astronomer group (the Baton Rouge As- tronomical Society, BRAS), the Louisiana Arts and Science Museum (LASM), and Southern University (SU, part of the largest HBCU system in the nation). Our effort has directly led to the development of the Highland Road Park Observatory (HRPO, http://www.bro.lsu.edu/hrpo) that supports student astronomy training at LSU and SU, amateur observations and a public program for adults and children, establishment of a series of teacher professional development workshops in astronomy and physics, and the "Robots for Internet Experiences (ROBIE)" project (http://www.bro.lsu.edu/) where we have several instruments (e.g. HAM radio, radio telescope, optical tele- scopes) that can be controlled over the internet by students and teachers in the class- room along with associated lessons developed by a teacher group. In addition, this year the LASM, will be opening a new planetarium / space theater in downtown Baton Rouge, Louisiana. We are currently working to bring live views of the heavens from the HRPO telescope to audiences attending planetarium shows and will be working closely with planetarium staff to develop shows that highlight LSU astronomy / space science research. During the presentation we will provide some details about our in- dividual projects, the overall structure of our program, establishing community links and some of the lessons we learned along the way. Finally, we would like to acknowl- edge NASA, Louisiana State University, the Louisiana Systemic Initiatives Program and the Louisiana Technology Innovation Fund for their support.

  15. Estimating health state utility values from discrete choice experiments--a QALY space model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-09-01

    Using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to estimate health state utility values has become an important alternative to the conventional methods of Time Trade-Off and Standard Gamble. Studies using DCEs have typically used the conditional logit to estimate the underlying utility function. The conditional logit is known for several limitations. In this paper, we propose two types of models based on the mixed logit: one using preference space and the other using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) space, a concept adapted from the willingness-to-pay literature. These methods are applied to a dataset collected using the EQ-5D. The results showcase the advantages of using QALY space and demonstrate that the preferred QALY space model provides lower estimates of the utility values than the conditional logit, with the divergence increasing with worsening health states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Academic Staff Utilization of Information and Communication Technology and Knowledge Creation in Cross River State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Etor, Comfort Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined academic staff utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in knowledge creation in universities in Cross River State. The study was guided by two research questions and one hypothesis. A questionnaire was developed, validated and used for data collection from a sample of 300 academic staff. Descriptive…

  17. Utilization of food security crops in Imo state, Nigeria. Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviewed the production, availability and utilization of products and by products of food security crops in Imo State of Nigeria with specific emphasis on cocoyam, yam, maize, cassava, vegetables as very essential in the food of Imo people. This was confirmed by the increasing hectarage year after year of these ...

  18. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  19. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  20. Housing in China: State Governance, Market and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese house prices have been receiving huge coverage in both the domestic and the international media. Although the Chinese government has implemented many policies to control house prices, especially in the big cities, it is obvious that there is disequilibrium between demand for and supply of houses. Even though numerous housing policies have been put in place to overcome that, house prices in China are still rising. Many Chinese citizens from the low- and middle-incomes group find it difficult to purchase a house in the cities due to high house prices. This paper covers the current situation of the house prices in China, introduces the existing state of affairs about the Chinese housing market, explores a series of important reasons for high house prices, examines various public policies the Chinese government is using to control real estate, as well as reveals the citizens’ perceptions related to rising house prices. To gauge citizens’ perception of the current state of affairs in this regard, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information with a final sample of 256 respondents from more than ten cities of different tiers in the different regions of China.

  1. Disparities in Assisted Reproductive Technology Utilization by Race and Ethnicity, United States, 2014: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieke, Ada C; Zhang, Yujia; Kissin, Dmitry M; Barfield, Wanda D; Boulet, Sheree L

    2017-06-01

    Disparities in infertility and access to infertility treatments, such as assisted reproductive technology (ART), by race/ethnicity, have been reported. However, identifying disparities in ART usage may have been hampered by missing race/ethnicity information in ART surveillance. We review infertility prevalence and treatment disparities, use recent data to examine ART use in the United States by race/ethnicity and residency in states with mandated insurance coverage for in vitro fertilization (IVF), and discuss approaches for reducing disparities. We used 2014 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data to calculate rates of ART procedures per million women 15-44 years of age, a proxy measure of ART utilization, for Census-defined racial/ethnic groups in the United States; rates were further stratified by the presence of insurance mandates for IVF treatment. Missing race/ethnicity data (35.6% of cycles) were imputed. Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) women had the highest rates of ART utilization at 5883 ART procedures per million women 15-44 years of age in 2014, whereas American Indian/Alaska Native non-Hispanic women had the lowest rates at 807 per million, compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In each racial/ethnic category, ART utilization rates were higher for women in states with an insurance mandate for IVF treatment versus those without. In 2014, A/PI women had the highest rates of ART utilization. ART utilization for all racial/ethnic groups was higher in states with insurance mandates for IVF than those without, although disparities were still evident. Although mandates may increase access to infertility treatments, they are not sufficient to eliminate these disparities.

  2. Agreement between Self-Report and Archival Public Service Utilization Data among Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Collins, Susan E.; Tanzer, Kenneth; Burlingham, Bonnie; Hoang, Sara E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies…

  3. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the...

  5. WAYS TO ENCOURAGE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS TO ACTIVELY FINANCING OF PUBLIC UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Gokzhaeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state of most objects of housing and communal sector, which is characterized by serious physical and moral depreciation. In the article the author suggests the ways of attracting private capital in the housing and communal services, on the basis of the analysis of the of European States` experience. The experience of the European countries with respect to the distribution of responsibility in the construction and operation of infrastructure has been systematized .The author  proposed to link the growth of infrastructure sectors with projected in the medium term the growth of indicators of socio-economic development of the region, which are defined by strategic goals, simultaneously  planning the interventions on the development of the housing sector in the short term. One of the promising tools of financing infra-structural projects are, in our view, infrastructural bonds, which can be used in the utility industry, but only in the framework of concession agreements at the level of Russian Federation subjects. The study showed the features of quasinfrastructural bonds  the process of their creation in the Russian Federation.

  6. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  7. Publicly available software tools for decision-makers during an emergent epidemic-Systematic evaluation of utility and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, David James; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Bui, Chau Minh; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2017-12-01

    Epidemics and emerging infectious diseases are becoming an increasing threat to global populations-challenging public health practitioners, decision makers and researchers to plan, prepare, identify and respond to outbreaks in near real-timeframes. The aim of this research is to evaluate the range of public domain and freely available software epidemic modelling tools. Twenty freely utilisable software tools underwent assessment of software usability, utility and key functionalities. Stochastic and agent based tools were found to be highly flexible, adaptable, had high utility and many features, but low usability. Deterministic tools were highly usable with average to good levels of utility. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the electric utility missions; Evaluation des missions de service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, J

    2000-07-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  9. Point of care testing: Knowledge and utilization amongst Doctors in Government hospitals in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onovughakpo-Sakpa, E O; Osemwenkha, S O; Adewolu, O F; Okhimamhe, A F

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the knowledge and utilization of point of care testing (POCT) amongst doctors in two health facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected from 174 doctors in both centers using a 25 item structured questionnaire which was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of respondents was 31.26±2.14 years with 120 (69.0%) males and 54 (31.0%) females (male: female=2.2:1). Knowledge of POCT and utilization of POCT devices was good in 50.6% and 32.2% of respondents respectively. Utilization of POCT correlated significantly with knowledge of POCT (r=0.67, P<0.001) and availability of POCT devices (r=0.43, P<0.001). There was statistically significant association between utilization of POCT devices and Hospital (χ2=9.95, P=0.002); job designation (χ2=10.03, P=0.018) and availability of POCT devices (χ2=6.80, P=0.001). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between utilization of POCT devices and sex (χ2=0.23, P=0.629). Promotion of POCT's utilization with regulation, training of doctors and establishment of regulatory framework/assessment teams will help improve healthcare services and achieve more beneficial outcomes. That way, POCT that is faster could be better.

  10. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  11. 78 FR 75366 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... allow for an additional 30 days of public comment. DATES: Comments Due Date: January 10, 2014. ADDRESSES... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and... solicited public comment on the information collection for a period of 60 days was published on September 25...

  12. Equity in the use of public services for mother and newborn child health care in Pakistan: a utilization incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadia Mariam; Ashraf, Nabila

    2016-07-26

    Poor maternal and infant health indicators are mostly concentrated among low income households in Pakistan and health care expenditures - especially on medical emergencies - are the most common income shocks experienced by the poor. Public investments in health are therefore considered as pro-poor interventions by the government of Pakistan. This study employs nationally representative household data for Pakistan for 2007-08 and 2010-11 to investigate whether benefits from publicly financed services on Mother and Newborn Child Health (MNCH) are effectively captured by the poor in terms of service utilization. The study conducts a Utilization Incidence Analysis of the use of public health services for MNCH in Pakistan. For this purpose, the utilization shares of households, ranked by economic status, are computed. The concentration curves are plotted and their dominance is tested against an equal distribution and Lorenz curves to determine whether the distribution is pro-poor and progressive. Although the shares of bottom income groups in the utilization of most services for MNCH have increased between 2007 and 2011, the utilization of some services such as post-natal consultation; institutional maternal delivery; and Tetanus Toxoid injections for pregnant women remains pro-rich in 2011. The utilization of pre-natal consultation, especially through lady health workers and visitors; the use of Family Panning Units; and immunization services is somewhat evenly distributed. The use of Basic Health Units (BHUs) is found to be pro-poor. The provincial analysis reveals that the province of Baluchistan depicts an unusually high level of inequity in the distribution of utilization benefits from almost all public health services. Finally, in terms of progressivity, public spending on all health services analyzed in the study is found to be progressive at the national level implying that investment in MNCH has the potential to redistribute income from rich to the poor. To

  13. Public support in the United States for elective oocyte cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Erin I; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether public support for oocyte cryopreservation (OC) exists and if support varies by demographic factors. Cross-sectional electronic survey. Not applicable. A nationally representative sample based on age, sex, and race of 1,064 people in the United States recruited by the company SurveyMonkey. Completion of an online questionnaire. Supporters of OC for various indications were compared with participants who were neutral or in opposition by means of log binomial regression to calculate risk ratios. Statistical models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sex, race, age, income, sexual orientation, education, marital status, state political party affiliation, and history of being a parent. OC for cancer patients was the indication most supported (89%), followed by delayed childbearing for career advancement (72%), current lack of a partner (63%), and insufficient funds for child rearing (58%). Despite considerable support for OC, only 37% agreed employers should fund egg freezing for employees. Older age was associated with lower support for all indications of OC. Younger age, single status, never being a parent, identifying as a sexual minority, and atheist/agnostic religion were associated with the survey taker personally considering OC. Compared with women, men demonstrated lower support for women undergoing OC for "lack of a male partner," and for future use of cryopreserved oocytes without being married. In a nationally representative sample, the majority of respondents support elective OC. The indication for OC was associated with significant differences in support. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  15. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis. State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report relies on six in-depth interviews with loan program administrators to provide descriptions of existing programs. Findings from the interviews are combined with a review of relevant literature to elicit best practices and lessons learned from existing loan programs. Data collected from each of the loan programs profiled are used to quantify the impacts of these specific loan programs on the commonly cited, overarching state clean energy goals of energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.

  16. Collaborative Data Publication Utilizing the Open Data Repository's (ODR) Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Bristow, T.; Keller, R. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Fonda, M.; Dateo, C.; Pires, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For small communities in diverse fields such as astrobiology, publishing and sharing data can be a difficult challenge. While large, homogenous fields often have repositories and existing data standards, small groups of independent researchers have few options for publishing standards and data that can be utilized within their community. In conjunction with teams at NASA Ames and the University of Arizona, the Open Data Repository's (ODR) Data Publisher has been conducting ongoing pilots to assess the needs of diverse research groups and to develop software to allow them to publish and share their data collaboratively. Objectives: The ODR's Data Publisher aims to provide an easy-to-use and implement software tool that will allow researchers to create and publish database templates and related data. The end product will facilitate both human-readable interfaces (web-based with embedded images, files, and charts) and machine-readable interfaces utilizing semantic standards. Characteristics: The Data Publisher software runs on the standard LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack to provide the widest server base available. The software is based on Symfony (www.symfony.com) which provides a robust framework for creating extensible, object-oriented software in PHP. The software interface consists of a template designer where individual or master database templates can be created. A master database template can be shared by many researchers to provide a common metadata standard that will set a compatibility standard for all derivative databases. Individual researchers can then extend their instance of the template with custom fields, file storage, or visualizations that may be unique to their studies. This allows groups to create compatible databases for data discovery and sharing purposes while still providing the flexibility needed to meet the needs of scientists in rapidly evolving areas of research. Research: As part of this effort, a number of ongoing

  17. Impact of state Medicaid coverage on utilization of inpatient rehabilitation facilities among patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Meurer, William J; Adelman, Eric E; Kerber, Kevin A; Callaghan, Brian C; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2014-08-01

    Poststroke rehabilitation is associated with improved outcomes. Medicaid coverage of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) admissions varies by state. We explored the role of state Medicaid IRF coverage on IRF utilization among patients with stroke. Working age ischemic stroke patients with Medicaid were identified from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Medicaid coverage of IRFs (yes versus no) was ascertained. Primary outcome was discharge to IRF (versus other discharge destinations). We fit a logistic regression model that included patient demographics, Medicaid coverage, comorbidities, length of stay, tissue-type plasminogen activator use, state Medicaid IRF coverage, and the interaction between patient Medicaid status and state Medicaid IRF coverage while accounting for hospital clustering. Medicaid did not cover IRFs in 4 (TN, TX, SC, WV) of 42 states. The impact of State Medicaid IRF coverage was limited to Medicaid stroke patients (P for interaction stroke patients in states with Medicaid IRF coverage, Medicaid stroke patients hospitalized in states without Medicaid IRF coverage were less likely to be discharged to an IRF of 11.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%-14.7%) versus 19.5% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-20.8%), Pstroke patients with Medicaid. Given the increasing stroke incidence among the working age and Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, careful attention to state Medicaid policy for poststroke rehabilitation and analysis of its effects on stroke outcome disparities are warranted. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. State-Level Unemployment and the Utilization of Preventive Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Nathan; Kageleiry, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the association between macroeconomic conditions and preventive medical service utilization. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data collection of a survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of adults (age 18 and older) in the United States between 1987 and 2010. Study DesignRegression analyses that adjust for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants, state and time-fixed effects, and state-specific time trends. Data Collection/Extraction MethodsState health departments, with technological and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a cross-sectional yearly telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire. Principal FindingsThe use of preventive medical services is procyclical: a 1 percentage point increase in the state-level unemployment rate is associated with a 1.58 percent decrease in the quantity of distinct preventive care services utilized. Women and economically disadvantaged populations are shown to be especially sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations. ConclusionsPolicy makers should be aware of cyclical changes in preventive care use, particularly among disadvantaged populations, when making challenging budgetary decisions during economic downturns. As physician recommendations can have a strong impact on patients’ use, health care providers could increase efforts to persuade patients to seek screening exams and necessary vaccinations during periods of high unemployment. PMID:23855636

  19. State-level unemployment and the utilization of preventive medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Nathan; Kageleiry, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    To study the association between macroeconomic conditions and preventive medical service utilization. Secondary data collection of a survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of adults (age 18 and older) in the United States between 1987 and 2010. Regression analyses that adjust for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants, state and time-fixed effects, and state-specific time trends. State health departments, with technological and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a cross-sectional yearly telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire. The use of preventive medical services is procyclical: a 1 percentage point increase in the state-level unemployment rate is associated with a 1.58 percent decrease in the quantity of distinct preventive care services utilized. Women and economically disadvantaged populations are shown to be especially sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations. Policy makers should be aware of cyclical changes in preventive care use, particularly among disadvantaged populations, when making challenging budgetary decisions during economic downturns. As physician recommendations can have a strong impact on patients' use, health care providers could increase efforts to persuade patients to seek screening exams and necessary vaccinations during periods of high unemployment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Awareness and acceptance of public cord blood banking among practicing obstetricians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tim; Steckler, Del; Spellman, Stephen; Haven, Darlene; Welte, Kathy; Boo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study measured: 1) levels of awareness and understanding among practicing obstetricians regarding umbilical cord blood (UCB) donation and the use of UCB in transplant therapy, 2) motivations for obstetricians to support donation and collection for donation to a public cord blood bank (CBB), and 3) current practices for discussing this option with their patients. Obstetricians practicing in major metropolitan areas in the United States were randomly surveyed in 2009. Of 2041 surveys mailed, 295 were returned, 139 from obstetricians with privileges at hospitals affiliated with a public CBB (affiliated) and 156 from obstetricians without such privileges (nonaffiliated). Cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to compare responses between these two groups. Both affiliated and nonaffiliated obstetricians report being somewhat or very familiar with the use of cord blood in transplant therapy (88% vs. 82%, respectively; p = NS), but some misperceptions concerning clinical application exist. Eighty percent of affiliated obstetricians feel confident discussing cord blood options with their patients; however, 49% indicated that they have insufficient knowledge of cord blood donation to effectively answer patients' questions about donation. Obstetricians are generally familiar with the utility of donated cord blood in transplantation, but could benefit from additional information regarding how cord blood is used in transplantation. Further, obstetricians play an important role in encouraging women to donate their baby's cord blood to a public CBB, are willing to do so, and indicate a desire for more information so they can effectively educate their patients. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Public directory data sources do not accurately characterize the food environment in two predominantly rural states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Primack, Brian A; Owens, Peter M; Gibson, Lucinda; Beauregard, Sandy; Mackenzie, Todd A; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-04-01

    Communities are being encouraged to develop locally based interventions to address environmental risk factors for obesity. Online public directories represent an affordable and easily accessible mechanism for mapping community food environments, but may have limited utility in rural areas. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of public directories vs rigorous onsite field verification to characterize the community food environment in 32 geographically dispersed towns from two rural states covering 1,237.6 square miles. Eight types of food outlets were assessed in 2007, including food markets and eating establishments, first using two publically available online directories followed by onsite field verification by trained coders. χ(2) and univariate binomial regression were used to determine whether the proportion of outlets accurately listed varied by food outlet type or town population. Among 1,340 identified outlets, only 36.9% were accurately listed through public directories; 29.6% were not listed but were located during field observation. Accuracy varied by outlet type, being most accurate for big box stores and least accurate for farm/produce stands. Overall, public directories accurately identified fewer than half of the food outlets. Accuracy was significantly lower for rural and small towns compared to mid-size and urban towns (Pdirectories seriously misrepresented the actual distribution of food outlets, particularly for rural and small towns. To inform local obesity-prevention efforts, communities should strongly consider using field verification to characterize the food environment in low-population areas. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with utilization of antenatal care services among tribal women: A study of selected States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulsi Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Despite various efforts by the Government of India, utilization of antenatal care (ANC services continues to be low among women from rural areas particularly those belonging to the Scheduled Tribes. The present study was undertaken to examine the factors associated with the utilization of ANC services among women in four States including Rajasthan, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh which constitute a good share of tribal population of the country. Methods: Data from third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey, 2007-08 (DLHS-3 have been used. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression model were used to study the association between the utilization of ANC services and the independent variables at individual, household and village levels along with the motivational factors (motivation by health workers and family members. Results: The utilization of ANC services among Scheduled Tribes women varied from about 4 per cent in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to 10-14 per cent in Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Utilization was highest among those women with level of education 9th class and above (15-28% and those women who visited health facility for pregnancy confirmation test (9-27%. Across the States, women who visited health facility for pregnancy testing (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.5-2.5; P<0.001 except in Madhya Pradesh; registration of pregnancy (AOR = 2.1-4.5; P<0.01 and sought treatment of pregnancy related problems (AOR = 1.5-1.8; P<0.06 except in Rajasthan, were more likely to avail complete ANC services than their counterparts. Interpretation & conclusions: The utilization of antenatal care among Scheduled Tribe women across four States was very poor. The reasons behind non-utilisation include both socio-economic and health system factors. For improving ANC utilization among tribes, these factors need to be addressed with special emphasis on woman′s educational attainment of high school

  3. EJSCREEN States Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The States table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the state...

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  5. How Public Universities Close Budget Gaps Matters for States. Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Alicia; Roza, Marguerite; Murphy, Patrick; Gross, Betheny

    2012-01-01

    When the Great Recession took its toll on state budgets, public universities felt the pain. Many public universities attempted to offset reductions in state funds by raising tuition, shifting admission spots to more out-of-state students, and, in some cases, increasing enrollment. For a given budget gap, these three strategies should be weighted…

  6. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  7. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these...

  8. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions...

  9. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  10. Improving the quality of urban public space through the identification of space utilization index at Imam Bonjol Park, Padang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriawan, Tomi; Setiawati, Lestari

    2017-06-01

    Padang City as a big city with a population approaching one million people has to address the issue of increased activities of the population and increased need for land and space for those activities. One of the effects of population growth and the development of activities in Padang is the decreasing number of open spaces for the outdoor public activities, both the natural and artificial public. However, Padang City has several open spaces that are built and managed by the government including 40 units of open spaces in the form of plansum parks, playgrounds, and sports parks, with a total area of 10.88 hectares. Despite their status as public open spaces, not all of them can be used and enjoyed by the public since most of them are passive parks, in which they are made only as a garden without any indulgences. This study was performed to assess the quality of public spaces in the central business of Padang City, namely Imam Bonjol Park (Taman Imam Bonjol). The methods of this study were done through several stages, which were to identify the typology of function space based on [1] Carmona (2008) and to assess the space utilization index based on the approach of Public Space Index according to Mehta [2] (2007). The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of space which is a public space in Padang City. The space quality was measured based on the variables in Good Public Space Index, the intensity of use, the intensity of social activity, the duration of activity, the variations in usage, and the diversity of use. The rate of the index of public space quality at Taman Imam Bonjol was determined by assessing 5 (five) variables of space quality. Based on the results of the analysis, public space utilization index was equal to 0.696. This result could be used to determine the quality of public space, in this case was Imam Bonjol Park was in Medium category. The parameters indicated several results including the lack of diversity in users' activity time, less

  11. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: surapong@ait.ac.th; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  12. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  13. Public Health Applications of Remotely-sensed Environmental Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Marice Jr; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina

    2013-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision-making using NASA remotely-sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Incoming Solar Radiation (Insolation) and heat-related products using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and the results of the public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision-making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer-reviewed publications respectively. The linkage of these data with the CDC WONDER system substantially expands public access to NASA data, making their use by a wide range of decision makers feasible. By successful

  14. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    systems. The study comprised 1,245 adolescents from 3 municipalities; the historical cohort study design was applied; and data were collected from dental records (public dental service) and dental claims (private practice). At age 16, 12% preferred being enrolled in the private practice system, while 88......% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (P... that the economic barrier was eliminated a lower attendance rate was observed for patients transferred to the private practice system....

  15. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  16. Gender sensitivity to public school enrolment in Ondo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the total number of public schools in Ondo, Nigeria which gives information on the name of the school, males and females in each school from JSS1 to SS3 in the eighteen local government areas. Systematic sampling was used to select forty eight schools from the two hundred and eighty eight public ...

  17. The impact of multiple sclerosis severity on health state utility values: Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasnat; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid; Colman, Sam; O'Leary, Beth A; Breslin, Monique; Palmer, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of health state utility values (HSUVs) for a representative sample of Australian people with multiple sclerosis (MS) has not previously been performed. Our main aim was to quantify the HSUVs for different levels of disease severities in Australian people with MS. HSUVs were calculated by employing a 'judgement-based' method that essentially creates EQ-5D-3L profiles based on WHOQOL-100 responses and then applying utility weights to each level in each dimension. A stepwise linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between HSUVs and disease severity, classified as mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) levels: 0-3.5), moderate (EDSS levels: 4-6) and severe (EDSS levels: 6.5-9.5). Mean HSUV for all people with MS was 0.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52-0.54). Utility decreased with increasing disease severity: 0.61 (95% CI: 0.60-0.62), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.50-0.52) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.38-0.43) for mild, moderate and severe disease, respectively. Adjusted differences in mean HSUV between the three severity groups were statistically significant. For the first time in Australia, we have quantified the impact of increasing severity of MS on health utility of people with MS. The HSUVs we have generated will be useful in further health economic analyses of interventions that slow progression of MS.

  18. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  19. The utility of personality measures in the admissions process at the United States Naval Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Pashneh-Tala, Kamyar.; Foster, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited This study examined the ability of three personality measures to predict midshipmen attrition at the United States Naval Academy. More specifically, the study examined the ability of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and the Personal History Questionnaire to replace the Career Interest Score of the Strong Interest Inventory in the Naval Academy admissions formula and to better predict overall, voluntary, academic, and performance/conduct...

  20. State Profiles: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditures, and collection sizes.These...

  1. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the United States National Security Strategy: An Informed Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malackowski, Patrick C

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper discusses the need to have the President build an information and communications strategy that keeps the American public informed and cognizant of the threat to our national security...

  3. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  4. Utilization of rehabilitation therapy services in Parkinson disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Michelle E; Thibault, Dylan P; Hill, Andrew; Fox, Joellyn; Bhatti, Danish E; Burack, Michelle A; Dahodwala, Nabila; Haberfeld, Elizabeth; Kern, Drew S; Klepitskava, Olga S; Urrea-Mendoza, Enrique; Myers, Phillip; Nutt, Jay; Rafferty, Miriam R; Schwalb, Jason M; Shulman, Lisa M; Willis, Allison W

    2017-09-12

    To examine rehabilitation therapy utilization for Parkinson disease (PD). We identified 174,643 Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of PD in 2007 and followed them through 2009. The main outcome measures were annual receipt of physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), or speech therapy (ST). Outpatient rehabilitation fee-for-service use was low. In 2007, only 14.2% of individuals with PD had claims for PT or OT, and 14.6% for ST. Asian Americans were the highest users of PT/OT (18.4%) and ST (18.4%), followed by Caucasians (PT/OT 14.4%, ST 14.8%). African Americans had the lowest utilization (PT/OT 7.8%, ST 8.2%). Using logistic regression models that accounted for repeated measures, we found that African American patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.63 for PT/OT, AOR 0.63 for ST) and Hispanic patients (AOR 0.97 for PT/OT, AOR 0.91 for ST) were less likely to have received therapies compared to Caucasian patients. Patients with PD with at least one neurologist visit per year were 43% more likely to have a claim for PT evaluation as compared to patients without neurologist care (AOR 1.43, 1.30-1.48), and this relationship was similar for OT evaluation, PT/OT treatment, and ST. Geographically, Western states had the greatest use of rehabilitation therapies, but provider supply did not correlate with utilization. This claims-based analysis suggests that rehabilitation therapy utilization among older patients with PD in the United States is lower than reported for countries with comparable health care infrastructure. Neurologist care is associated with rehabilitation therapy use; provider supply is not. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Posebnosti managementa javnih komunalnih podjetij v Sloveniji = Specialities of Management in Public Utility Companies in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Pivljakovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on managers’ activities in public municipal companies and issues which influence their priorities and the perception of the management. The research presented confirms the hypothesis that less competitive and politically colored environments in which managers in public municipal companies operate significantly influence the ways in which public companies are managed. The lack of competition is reflected in low interest in benchmarking, quality of services, and also in information technologies and contemporary management tools. The influence of politics reduces interest in decision making. Because of that managers in such companies do not value very high organizational issues, human resource management, and even ethical concerns. On the other hand lobbying political parties seems important to them.

  6. Promoting global health: utilizing WHO to integrate public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate role of innovation and intellectual property (IP) in global public health is a controversial issue. Discussion is one-sided, with potential benefits advocated by industry in stark contrast to condemnation by certain civil society players. WHO's Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Department (PHI) was established to address healthcare resource need for developing countries, assess impact of innovation and IP on access to medicines, explore innovative funding mechanisms for R&D and provide evidence-based policy-making recommendations in response to the changing global health landscape. Importantly, PHI could represent a potential forum to bridge shared, yet often diverse, interests and opportunities between various public and private stakeholders, a crucial issue for ensuring the future viability of WHO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  8. A fuel cycle assessment guide for utility and state energy planners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This guide, one in a series of documents designed to help assess fuel cycles, is a framework for setting parameters, collecting data, and analyzing fuel cycles for supply-side and demand-side management. It provides an automated tool for entering comparative fuel cycle data that are meaningful to state and utility integrated resource planning, collaborative, and regional energy planning activities. It outlines an extensive range of energy technology characteristics and environmental, social, and economic considerations within each stage of a fuel cycle. The guide permits users to focus on specific stages or effects that are relevant to the technology being evaluated and that meet the user`s planning requirements.

  9. Association of public reporting for percutaneous coronary intervention with utilization and outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Karen E; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Orav, E John; Resnic, Frederic S; Jha, Ashish K

    2012-10-10

    Public reporting of patient outcomes is an important tool to improve quality of care, but some observers worry that such efforts will lead clinicians to avoid high-risk patients. To determine whether public reporting for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with lower rates of PCI for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) or with higher mortality rates in this population. Retrospective observational study conducted using data from fee-for-service Medicare patients (49,660 from reporting states and 48,142 from nonreporting states) admitted with acute MI to US acute care hospitals between 2002 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to compare PCI and mortality rates between reporting states (New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania) and regional nonreporting states (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maryland, and Delaware). Changes in PCI rates over time in Massachusetts compared with nonreporting states were also examined. Risk-adjusted PCI and mortality rates. In 2010, patients with acute MI were less likely to receive PCI in public reporting states than in nonreporting states (unadjusted rates, 37.7% vs 42.7%, respectively; risk-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]; P = .003). Differences were greatest among the 6708 patients with ST-segment elevation MI (61.8% vs 68.0%; OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.59-0.89]; P = .002) and the 2194 patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest (41.5% vs 46.7%; OR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64-0.98]; P = .03). There were no differences in overall mortality among patients with acute MI in reporting vs nonreporting states. In Massachusetts, odds of PCI for acute MI were comparable with odds in nonreporting states prior to public reporting (40.6% vs 41.8%; OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.71-1.41]). However, after implementation of public reporting, odds of undergoing PCI in Massachusetts decreased compared with nonreporting states (41.1% vs 45.6%; OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.47-1.38]; P = .03 for

  10. Private vs. Public Investment in the Mexican Utility Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck-Assad, Flory Anette

    2016-01-01

    How should the strategies and regulations of the Mexican laws be designed in order to trigger a country to go from a non-sustainable energy economy towards a sustainable energy economy? This paper proposes a classroom debate of the reformed Law of Public Electricity Service in Mexico (LSPEE, 1992: Ley del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica),…

  11. Breaking News: Utilizing Video Simulations to Improve Educational Leaders' Public Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jennifer; Adams, April; Curry, George

    2011-01-01

    This article examines specific uses of video simulations in one educational leadership preparation program to advance future school and district leaders' skills related to public speaking and participation in televised news interviews. One faculty member and two advanced educational leadership candidates share their perspectives of several…

  12. Awareness of Public Library and Utilization of its HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    novels of adventure, modern music, comics, games and sports, cinema and library internet services. Finally, we are suggesting that librarians should begin to carry out periodic school visits for impact assessment and active collaboration with school libraries for HIV/AIDS information propagation. Awareness of Public Library ...

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Teacher Perspectives on the Current State of Computer Technology Integration into the Public School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of computers into the public school arena over forty years ago, educators have been convinced that the integration of computer technology into the public school classroom will transform education. Joining educators are state and federal governments. Public schools and others involved in the process of computer technology…

  15. Vive la Difference: What It Means for State Boards to Embrace Two Models for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarick, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The charter school model differs fundamentally from the district-based model of public education delivery that is still dominant in every state. Instead of creating government bodies that directly operate all of an area's public schools, the state approves entities that authorize and oversee schools run by nonprofit organizations. In this article,…

  16. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... Environmental Quality, Water Supply Division, Public Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States...

  17. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... to this determination are available for inspection at the following offices: Illinois Pollution... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval... State of Illinois submitted a primacy application for its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  18. Utilization of maternal health services in urban and rural communities of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogu, P O U; Egenti, B N; Ubajaka, C; Onwasigwe, C; Nnebue, C C

    2014-01-01

    This study determined and compared the level and pattern of utilization of maternal services in urban and rural communities in Anambra State. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in two local government areas (LGA); Nnewi North (urban) and Dunukofia (rural). A total of 338 mothers of children aged 0-59 months in each of the two LGAs selected by multistage cluster sampling technique were studied. Data were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, analyzed and tests of significance performed with the p-value set at 0.05. Women in the rural area had higher fertility rate (t = 4.53, p post natal care utilization in both localities (chi2 = 0.695, p = 0.405), as most of the women in both localities went for post natal consultation within 6 weeks of delivery. Measures to improve maternal health service utilization especially in rural areas should not only address the issue of access to care, but also improvement in quality of care and women empowerment.

  19. A Comparative Study of Students' Access to and Utilization of Learning Resources in Selected Public and Private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, B. O.; Viatonu, Olumuyiwa

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated students' access to and utilization of some learning resources in selected public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 585 (295 public and 290 private) students from 12 (six public and six private) universities in southwest Nigeria. Two instruments--Cost and…

  20. Communication Apprehension and Implicit Memories of Public Speaking State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that recollections of state speaking anxiety decreased over time, and that the rate of attenuation was associated with the speaker's level of trait speaking anxiety. Finds also that recollections of state speaking anxiety (implicit memory) were attenuated over time, and that the magnitude of this decline was predicted by the speaker's level…

  1. Incentive factors affecting productivity of public servants in Ogun State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical justification for the actualization of public sector goals is premised on the notion that those under the sector's employment should be imbued with the spirit of selfless service. However, this has become a theoretical fad based on the findings of a cross sectional study which sought to know the extent to which ...

  2. Trends in State Accreditation Policies. Public Policy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates trends and issues associated with public policies promoting early childhood program accreditation. Describes differential rate policies in Florida, New Mexico, Kentucky, Mississippi, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Oklahoma; support provided for accreditation in Arizona, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Texas, and Wisconsin; and linking…

  3. Education under the Security State: Defending Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, David A., Ed.; Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This highly acclaimed volume in the "Defending Public Schools" series is now available in paperback from Teachers College Press. It is a practical, necessary addition to the work of administrators, teachers, policymakers, and parents as they negotiate the difficult path of how to best teach and educate today's children and youth. This…

  4. State Audit for Strengthening the Accountability in Public Funds Management: Case of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrsik Jadranka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the state audit in strengthening the accountability in managing the public funds. Appropriate and effective use of public funds ensures a healthy economic and financial management, as well as transparency, which leads towards a positive development of the society as a whole. We evaluated the operation of the state audit in Macedonia by analyzing the regularity audit performed on five state institutions from 2010 to 2014 and we compared the results with the state audits in two neighboring countries. Our findings suggest weaknesses in the use of public money by the institutions covered by this analysis and in the operation of the State Audit Office. The research will help in increasing the public awareness about the necessity of responsible management in the public sector.

  5. The Public-Good Variable: Can Public Engagement Boost State Support for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    As state support for higher education has continued its downward slide, several commissions, declarations, and association reports have called on colleges and universities to be more productively engaged with state and regional needs. An underlying subtext of these reports is that the future of state support for higher education hinges on the…

  6. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  7. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 2. Public health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    While health hazards from air pollution are observed there is little documenting research for specific toxicity levels. This volume is an attempt to compile all relevant information in one place as a data bank of information that will aid in the required cost-benefit analysis for an energy production or utilization project. Sources include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The compilation is organized into air pollution, water pollution and land use considerations and cover both radioactive and chemical pollutants. (PCS)

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy of the prostate: fractionation and utilization in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Josph P.; Schwartz, David; Shao, Meng; Osborn, Virginia; Schreiber, David [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Choi, Kwang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To analyze the utilization and fractionation of extreme hypofractionation via stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Data was analyzed on men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004–2012 and treated with definitive-intent radiation therapy, as captured in the National Cancer Database. This database is a hospital-based registry that collects an estimated 70% of all diagnosed malignancies in the United States. There were 299,186 patients identified, of which 4,962 (1.7%) were identified as receiving SBRT as primary treatment. Of those men, 2,082 had low risk disease (42.0%), 2,201 had intermediate risk disease (44.4%), and 679 had high risk disease (13.7%). The relative utilization of SBRT increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2012. Initially SBRT was more commonly used in academic programs, though as time progressed there was a shift to favor an increased absolute number of men treated in the community setting. Delivery of five separate treatments was the most commonly utilized fractionation pattern, with 4,635 patients (91.3%) receiving this number of treatments. The most common dosing pattern was 725 cGy × 5 fractions (49.6%) followed by 700 cGy × 5 fractions (21.3%). Extreme hypofractionation via SBRT is slowly increasing acceptance. Currently 700-725 cGy × 5 fractions appears to be the most commonly employed scheme. As further long-term data regarding the safety and efficacy emerges, the relative utilization of this modality is expected to continue to increase.

  9. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Connecticut. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Connecticut statutes expressly provide for the regulation of public utilities. As of January 1, 1979, responsibility for the regulation of utilities is vested in the Public Utilities Control Authority (PUCA). Formerly such authority was exercised by the Public Utilities Commission which has been abolished and replaced by the PUCA. The Public Utilities Act provides that the PUCA is to consist of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of both houses of the general assembly. It should be noted that statutory references to the Public Utilities Commission are deemed to mean the Public Utilities Control Authority. The statute gives only a minor role to local government in regulating public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  10. Utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varun Vaidya, Gautam Partha, Jennifer HowePharmacy Health Care Administration, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Toledo College of Pharmacy, Toledo, OH, USAObjective: To describe and analyze utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes in the United States.Methods: Data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS were used to analyze utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes. Recommendations by the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and the National Cholesterol Education Program were used to determine appropriate levels of preventive care utilization. Utilization of blood pressure screening and cholesterol checkup services were used as the dependent variable, while age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance status, and perceived health status were used as independent variables. Since guidelines differ for people with elevated blood pressure, respondents with elevated blood pressure were identified in the MEPS database by self-reported diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population, while a multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict odds of utilizing appropriate levels of preventive services.Results: Total number of adult respondents for which data were available for blood pressure checkup and cholesterol checkup was 20,523 and 15,784, respectively. Overall, MEPS respondents were found to adhere to guideline recommendations for preventive care utilization. Multivariate logistic regression showed that odds of utilization of preventive care services were higher for elderly patients (age >65 years for blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92–2.97 and cholesterol (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.18–4.27 preventive services compared with younger population (age 18–54 years. Males had much lower odds of

  11. Environmental management at municipal public utility companies; Umweltmanagement bei kommunalen Versorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischkalla-Schoen, M.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental laws that have been tightened up considerably recently affect, e.g. the non-technical elements of legislation such as liabilities that apply to insurances, to criminal and information laws. Some changes are involved for the municipal utilities. Industrial liability insurances have been replaced by environmental liability insurances that cover environmental damage. Criminal law provides additional changes, e.g. prosecution in the case of negligence. The new environmental information laws keep companies under observation. The municipal utilities can react to these tighter regulations by adding environmental management aspects to their schemes of organization. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltgesetzgebung ist in der letzten Zeit deutlich verschaerft worden. Dies trifft u.a. die nicht-technischen Teile der Gesetzgebung, wie z.B. Haftungsrecht in Verbindung mit Versicherungen, Straf- und Informationsrecht. Dies bedeutet auch fuer kommunale Versorgungsunternehmen einige Aenderungen. Die Betriebshaftpflichtversicherung deckt keine Umweltschaeden mehr ab. Es gibt statt dessen eine Umwelthaftpflichtversicherung. Aus dem Bereich des Strafrechts kommt u.a. die Aenderung, dass fuer einen Straftatbestand bereits Fahrlaessigkeit ausreicht. Das neue Umweltinformationsgesetz macht das Unternehmen glaeserner als zuvor. Kommunale Versorgungsunternehmen koennen diesen Verschaerfungen entgegentreten, indem die Betriebsorganisation um Aspekte des Umweltmanagements erweitert wird. (orig.)

  12. Controlling in the marketing and distribution activities of public utilities; Controlling in Marketing und Vertrieb von Energieversorgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaeuser, K.; Schwerin, F. [S-M-M Managementberatung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Nickel, M. [VDEW e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    With the deregulation of the German power market, concepts of customer orientation and customer relations management have been getting more important as the focus has shifted to the customer. Marketing and distribution cannot be successful without information on the success of measures and concepts. For this reason, the VDEW (Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft) and the Duesseldorf S-M-M Managementberatung GmbH carried out a study on 'Efficiency of customer relations - controlling in the marketing and distribution activities of public utilities'. (orig.)

  13. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  14. The Notice on the Notion of State Aid and Public Procurement Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even......The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk...

  15. State public health laboratory system quality improvement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bertina; Vagnone, Paula Snippes

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) and the APHL Laboratory Systems and Standards Committee manage the Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP). One component of L-SIP is an assessment that allows the members and stakeholders of a laboratory system to have an open and honest discussion about the laboratory system's strengths and weaknesses. From these facilitated discussions, gaps and opportunities for improvement are identified. In some cases, ideas for how to best address these gaps emerge, and workgroups are formed. Depending on resources, both monetary and personnel, laboratory staff will then prioritize the next component of L-SIP: which quality improvement activities to undertake. This article describes a sample of quality improvement activities initiated by several public health laboratories after they conducted L-SIP assessments. These projects can result in more robust linkages between system entities, which can translate into improvements in the way the system addresses the needs of stakeholders.

  16. Availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Sambisa, William; Akomolafe, Toyin; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Sadauki, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To report the availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Between June and July 2012, a cross-sectional survey of health facilities was conducted. Data on the performance of EmOC services between June 2011 and May 2012 were obtained from records of 20 general hospitals and 39 primary healthcare centers providing delivery services. Additionally, structured interviews with facility managers were conducted. Only 6 (10.2%) of the 59 facilities met the UN requirements for EmOC centers. None of the three senatorial zones in Bauchi State had the minimum acceptable number of five EmOC facilities per 500 000 population. Overall, 10 517 (4.4%) of the estimated 239 930 annual births took place in EmOC facilities. Cesarean delivery accounted for 3.6% (n=380) of the 10 517 births occurring in EmOC facilities and 0.2% of the 239 930 expected live births. Only 1416 (3.9%) of the expected 35 990 obstetric complications were managed in EmOC facilities. Overall, 45 (3.2%) of 1416 women with major direct obstetric complications treated at EmOC facilities died. Among 379 maternal deaths, 317 (83.6%) were attributable to major direct obstetric complications. Availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC services in Bauchi State, Nigeria, are suboptimal. The health system's capacity to manage emergency obstetric complications needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  17. The episodic random utility model unifies time trade-off and discrete choice approaches in health state valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Craig (Benjamin); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To present an episodic random utility model that unifies time trade-off and discrete choice approaches in health state valuation. METHODS: First, we introduce two alternative random utility models (RUMs) for health preferences: the episodic RUM and the more common

  18. Assessing the role of federal community assistance programs to develop biomass utilization capacity in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Mark Nechodom; Adam Barnett; Tad Mason; Eini C. Lowell; John Shelly; Dean Graham

    2008-01-01

    As forest biomass utilization becomes cost effective to harvest, more areas at risk of catastrophic wildfire can be thinned of dense brush and small-diameter trees. In an effort to increase biomass utilization, the USDA Forest Service granted more than $36 million in National Fire Plan-Economic Action Program funds in the Western United States during fiscal years 2001...

  19. Utilization of public oral health services by New South Wales teenagers, 2004-05 to 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine variations in levels of access to public oral health services in New South Wales by teenagers from 2004-05 to 2014-15 and to determine whether more teenagers have been treated with preventive dental items in keeping with the strategic shift statewide towards prevention and early intervention. This study involved an analysis of a subset of the New South Wales Oral Health Data Collection for teenagers treated in the New South Wales Public Oral Health Service in the financial years 2004-05 to 2014-15. Relevant Australian Dental Association dental service item groups are reported for teenagers by year as a percentage of total visits delivered in that year. The utilization of the New South Wales Public Oral Health Service by teenagers has remained relatively stable over the 11 years at approximately 6%, while the provision of some preventive items increased over the time period. There were important differences found in access by teenagers to preventive items by socio-economic status and rurality, and these differences will be targeted over the coming years by New South Wales Public Oral Health Services and better monitored by a new electronic oral health record being implemented statewide from 2016. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Impact of Sleepiness and Sleep Deficiency on Public Health—Utility of Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep deficiency are important causes of adverse health effects and increased mortality in the United States and worldwide. Sleep deficiency can also result in myriad adverse behavioral consequences, including profound sleepiness, cognitive slowing, automatic behavior, attentional failures and performance degradation, errors, and accidents. It is important to recognize that sleepiness and sleep deficiency are not synonymous.

  1. 78 FR 14654 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... response M&V mechanisms. 20. On the other hand, IECA states there has been minimal forward movement in... market. The improvements to the uniform set of definitions and applicability requirements in the Phase II..., therefore, incorporates the standards.\\28\\ \\28\\ See n.21 supra; see also OMB Circular A-119 Revised...

  2. 76 FR 49841 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... inefficient use and inadequate expansion of the nation's transmission network. Senators Dorgan and Reid state... account for the needs of its network customers in its transmission planning activities on the same basis...-effective transmission expansion plans. This Final Rule expands upon the reforms begun in Order No. 890 by...

  3. Funding Students, Not Units: Moving Alabama from a Regressive Public School Funding State to a Progressive Public School Funding State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Two independent studies conducted by Baker, Sciarra, and Farrie (2015) and Augenblick, Palaich and Associates (2015) reveal Alabama's public school funding mechanism to be regressive and inequitable. The recommendation from both of these studies is to develop a funding formula including per pupil-based allocation and supplemental categorical…

  4. Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhdeep Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%, non-communicable diseases (22%, vector borne diseases (6%, tuberculosis (6% and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%. Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12 th Plan over next five years.

  5. Development of a Real-Time Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicles (PUV via GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Development of a Real-Time-Based Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicle is designed in order to monitor smoke belchers or violators among public utility vehicles (PUV that uses diesel such as jeepneys or buses. The concept of the project is to measure the opacity of the smoke being emitted by the PUV with the use of a predesigned sensor unit incorporated by Light Dependent Resistor Sensor and Light Source facing each other, 4 inches apart. By allowing the smoke to pass through the LDR and Light Source, the desired resistance is acquired and processed by the microcontroller to obtain the Light Absorption Coefficient. This value is the basis for being a smoke belcher (If it exceeds 2.5 k. The system then sends the data (Plate Number and K -value for every one (1 hour to the Database System and to the operator with the aid of GSM Microcontroller that leads to a real time monitoring. The system is possible to implement and has a potential to be used for emission testing centers since it has the features of the commercial opacity meter which is common in emission centers to measure the smoke emitted by the diesel-fueled vehicles. This project serves as an innovation in emission testing because it monitors the smoke belchers in real-time and operators or owners of the vehicle are not required anymore to go to the emission testing center every year to renew their car registration.

  6. State of the art of the virtual utility: the smart distributed generation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll-Mayor, D.; Picos, R.; Garcia-Moreno, E. [University of Balearic Islands (Spain). Physics Department

    2004-07-01

    and heat storage tanks. Each of these clusters is controlled by a local management station (LMS). Every LMS has information about the requirements (heat, cold and electricity) of the users connected to its cluster and the state of the utilities and water level of the storage tanks in its cluster. The EMS receives the information from the LMSs and sets the electricity input or output of every cluster in the network. With the information ordered by the EMS, the LMS set the run or stand-by of the utilities of its cluster. The benefits of the VU are the optimization of the utilization yield of the whole network, the high reliability of the electricity production, the complete control of the network for achieving the main aim of the EMS, the high velocity for assuming quick changes in the demand of the system and high integration of renewable energy sources, plus the advantages of the DG. This paper indicates the state of the art of the VU concept, analyses the projects that are being developed in this field and considers the future of the VU concept. (author)

  7. State interference in the governance of public schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The establishment of school governing bodies represents a significant decentralisation of power in the South African school system. Whilst such decentralisation could well be expected to mean an increase in democratic participation in the governance of schools, this is not necessarily the case. The State, its functionaries, ...

  8. The entrepreneurial state debunking public vs. private sector myths

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This new bestseller from leading economist Mariana Mazzucato – named by the ‘New Republic’ as one of the ‘most important innovation thinkers’ today – is stirring up much-needed debates worldwide about the role of the State in innovation. Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, Mazzucato reveals in case study after case study that in fact the opposite situation is true, with the private sector only finding the courage to invest after the entrepreneurial State has made the high-risk investments. Case studies include examples of the State’s role in the ‘green revolution’, in biotech and pharmaceuticals, as well as several detailed examples from Silicon Valley. In an intensely researched chapter, she reveals that every technology that makes the iPhone so ‘smart’ was government funded: the Internet, GPS, its touch-screen display and the voice-activated Siri. Mazzucato also controversially argues that in the history of modern capitalism the State has not on...

  9. PUBLIC PROVISION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEST, HARRY

    WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…

  10. What wins public support? Communicating or obfuscating welfare state retrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, C.; Baggesen Klitgaard, M.; Schumacher, G.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that in order to evade electoral punishment governments obfuscate welfare state retrenchment. However, governments do not uniformly lose votes in elections after they cut back on welfare benefits or services. Recent evidence indicates that some of these unpopular reforms

  11. Impact of State Public Health Spending on Disease Incidence in the United States from 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Reetu; Clark, Samantha; Leider, Jonathon; Bishai, David

    2017-02-01

    To understand the relationship between state-level spending by public health departments and the incidence of three vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs): mumps, pertussis, and rubella in the United States from 1980 to 2009. This study uses state-level public health spending data from The Census Bureau and annual mumps, pertussis, and rubella incidence counts from the University of Pittsburgh's project Tycho. Ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed effects, and random effects regression models were tested, with results indicating that a fixed effects model would be most appropriate model for this analysis. Model output suggests a statistically significant, negative relationship between public health spending and mumps and rubella incidence. Lagging outcome variables indicate that public health spending actually has the greatest impact on VPD incidence in subsequent years, rather than the year in which the spending occurred. Results were robust to models with lagged spending variables, national time trends, and state time trends, as well as models with and without Medicaid and hospital spending. Our analysis indicates that there is evidence of a significant, negative relationship between a state's public health spending and the incidence of two VPDs, mumps and rubella, in the United States. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Utilization of Physical Therapy Intervention Among Patients With Plantar Fasciitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Glaviano, Neal R; Hertel, Jay

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Background Plantar fasciitis is responsible for 1 million ambulatory patient care visits annually in the United States. Few studies have investigated practice patterns in the treatment of patients with plantar fasciitis. Objective To assess physical therapist utilization and employment of manual therapy and supervised rehabilitation in the treatment of patients with plantar fasciitis. Methods A retrospective review of the PearlDiver patient record database was used to evaluate physical therapist utilization and use of manual therapy and supervised rehabilitation in patients with plantar fasciitis between 2007 and 2011. An International Classification of Diseases code (728.71) was used to identify plantar fasciitis, and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify evaluations (97001), manual therapy (97140), and rehabilitation services (97110, 97530, 97112). Results A total of 819 963 unique patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis accounted for 5 739 737 visits from 2007 to 2011, comprising 2.7% of all patients in the database. Only 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.0%, 7.1%) of patients received a physical therapist evaluation. Of the 57 800 patients evaluated by a physical therapist (59.8% female), 50 382 (87.2% ± 0.4%) received manual therapy, with significant increases in utilization per annum. A large proportion (89.5% ± 0.4%) received rehabilitation following physical therapist evaluation. Conclusion Despite plantar fasciitis being a frequently occurring musculoskeletal condition, a small proportion of patients with plantar fasciitis were seen by physical therapists. Most patients who were evaluated by a physical therapist received manual therapy and a course of supervised rehabilitation as part of their plan of care. Level of Evidence Treatment, level 2a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):49-55. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6999.

  13. The state of affairs of the public sector mammography service in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-10

    Dec 10, 2010 ... Background: The Cancer Association of South Africa stated that breast health services in South Africa were “fragmented and not comprehensive.” The aim of study was to investigate the current state of public sector mammography in the Free. State, and to recommend a way forward. Method: A retrospective ...

  14. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-AB16 Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn AGENCY: Grain Inspection... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for corn under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). Since the standards were last revised, the use of corn for ethanol and the number of...

  15. The state of affairs of the public sector mammography service in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Cancer Association of South Africa stated that breast health services in South Africa were “fragmented and not comprehensive.” The aim of study was to investigate the current state of public sector mammography in the Free State, and to recommend a way forward. Method: A retrospective review of data ...

  16. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421

  17. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The historical origins of the vegetative state: Received wisdom and the utility of the text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zoe M; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is one of the most iconic and misunderstood phrases in clinical neuroscience. Coined as a diagnostic category by Scottish neurosurgeon Bryan Jennett and American neurologist Fred Plum in 1972, the phrase "vegetative" first appeared in Aristotle's treatise On the Soul (circa mid-fourth century BCE). Aristotle influenced neuroscientists of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, Xavier Bichat and Walter Timme, and informed their conceptions of the vegetative nervous system. Plum credits Bichat and Timme in his use of the phrase, thus putting the ancient and modern in dialogue. In addition to exploring Aristotle's definition of the "vegetative" in the original Greek, we put Aristotle in conversation with his contemporaries-Plato and the Hippocratics-to better apprehend theories of mind and consciousness in antiquity. Utilizing the discipline of reception studies in classics scholarship, we demonstrate the importance of etymology and historical origin when considering modern medical nosology.

  19. Mental health service utilization among college students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Hunt, Justin; Speer, Nicole; Zivin, Kara

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to provide the most comprehensive picture, to date, of service utilization and help-seeking behavior for mental health problems among college students in the United States. We conducted online surveys in 2007 and 2009 of random samples of students in 26 campuses nationwide. Among students with an apparent mental health problem (32% of the weighted sample), 36% received any treatment in the previous year. The prevalence of psychotherapy and medication use was approximately equal. Treatment prevalence varied widely across campuses, with some campuses having prevalence 2 to 3 times higher than those of others. Apparent barriers to help-seeking included skepticism on treatment effectiveness and a general lack of perceived urgency. Overall, the findings indicate that help-seeking for mental health varies substantially across student characteristics and across campuses. Strategies to address the low prevalence of treatment will need to be responsive to this diversity.

  20. Using a discrete choice experiment to estimate health state utility values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Brazier, John; Tsuchiya, Aki; Anis, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    In this study we explored a novel application of the discrete choice experiment (DCE) that resembles the time trade off (TTO) task to estimate values on the health utility scale for the EQ-5D. The DCE was tested in a survey alongside the TTO in a sample of English-speaking Canadians recruited by a market research company. The study found that the DCE is able to derive logical and consistent values for health states valued on the full health - dead scale. The DCE overcame some issues identified in the version of TTO currently used to value EQ-5D, notably allowing for fewer data exclusions and incorporating values considered worse than dead without introducing a separate valuation procedure. This has important implications for providing robust values that represent the preferences of all respondents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in the Utilization of Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy, E-mail: Kathy.Han@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the trends in brachytherapy use in cervical cancer in the United States and to identify factors and survival benefits associated with brachytherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 7359 patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) between 1988 and 2009. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences between patients who received brachytherapy and those who did not from 2000 onward (after the National Cancer Institute alert recommending concurrent chemotherapy). Results: Sixty-three percent of the 7359 women received brachytherapy in combination with EBRT, and 37% received EBRT alone. The brachytherapy utilization rate has decreased from 83% in 1988 to 58% in 2009 (P<.001), with a sharp decline of 23% in 2003 to 43%. Factors associated with higher odds of brachytherapy use include younger age, married (vs single) patients, earlier years of diagnosis, earlier stage and certain SEER regions. In the propensity score-matched cohort, brachytherapy treatment was associated with higher 4-year cause-specific survival (CSS; 64.3% vs 51.5%, P<.001) and overall survival (OS; 58.2% vs 46.2%, P<.001). Brachytherapy treatment was independently associated with better CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.71), and OS (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.74). Conclusions: This population-based analysis reveals a concerning decline in brachytherapy utilization and significant geographic disparities in the delivery of brachytherapy in the United States. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS and should be implemented in all feasible cases.

  2. Utilization of Primary Health Care Services in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otovwe, Agofure; Elizabeth, Sarki

    2017-07-01

    Primary health care was designed to provide accessible health care for all. However, most primary health care facilities are in various states of disrepair, catering for less than 20% of potential patients in the population. This study was designed to investigate the utilisation of primary health care services in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria. The study employed a cross-sectional study design conducted among 383 respondents utilising simple random sampling techniques. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from respondents, while descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that almost all of the respondents, 333(97.90%), were aware of the existence of primary health care services in their community. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents, 304(89.40%), utilized primary health care services while 293(86.20%) and 212(62.40%) were satisfied with the amount of charges for services and the supply of drugs respectively. According to the respondent, weak services in primary health care includes; personal hygiene and nutritional education, management of chronic diseases and cancer screening. Factors that influence the utilization of primary health care services according to the respondents were availability of trained personnel (AOR=1.828 95% CI=0.410-1.672), attitude of staffs (AOR=1.114 95% CI=0.527-2.355), waiting times (AOR=1.110 95% CI=0.584-2.224) and availability of diagnostic services (AOR=0.951 95% CI=0.472-1.918). The study highlighted the weaknesses in some of the services offered at the various primary health centres and the factors which can hinder the residents from patronizing primary health care services.

  3. Intimate partner violence and utilization of prenatal care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W

    2014-03-01

    Over 1.5 million women are victims of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by former or present intimate partners. Intimate partner violence (IPV) around pregnancy can lead to devastating health consequences to mothers and infants. While some research suggests that IPV negatively affects the utilization of health services like prenatal care (PNC), inconsistencies in the assessment of PNC utilization, timing of partner violence, and definitions of IPV yield conflicting results. The objective for the present study is to evaluate whether preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, or IPV in the preconception and/or prenatal period affects PNC utilization. This study analyzed the 2004-2008 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which included 202,367 women who delivered a live birth in the United States. IPV victimization was measured using four items that addressed physical abuse by a current or former husband/partner in the 12 months before (preconception) and during (prenatal) pregnancy. Responses were categorized as preconception, prenatal, and preconception and/or prenatal IPV. The outcome was PNC adequacy categorized as inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and adequate plus based on the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index. Separate logistic regression models provided crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Over 6% of women reported preconception and/or prenatal IPV and 26% had less than adequate PNC. Women who reported abuse before and/or during pregnancy were more likely to have inadequate PNC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.3, 1.6]). Similarly, women who experienced preconception or prenatal IPV were 30% more likely to have inadequate PNC (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = [1.2, 1.5]; OR = 1.3, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.7], respectively). Adequate PNC is essential in improving pregnancy outcomes; however, women in abusive relationships may face ongoing challenges and difficulties with obtaining appropriate care. Findings underscore a

  4. Complementary and alternative medical therapy utilization by people with chronic fatiguing illnesses in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ann-Britt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatiguing illnesses, including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Previous clinical reports addressed the utilization of health care provided to patients with CFS by a variety of practitioners with other than allopathic training, but did not examine the spectrum of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies used. This study was designed to measure CAM therapy use by persons with fatiguing illnesses in the United States population. Methods During a random-digit dialing survey to estimate the prevalence of CFS-like illness in urban and rural populations from different geographic regions of the United States, we queried the utilization of CAM including manipulation or body-based therapies, alternative medical systems, mind-body, biologically-based, and energy modalities. Results Four hundred forty fatigued and 444 non-fatigued persons from 2,728 households completed screening. Fatigued subjects included 53 persons with prolonged fatigue, 338 with chronic fatigue, and 49 with CFS-like illness. Mind-body therapy (primarily personal prayer and prayer by others was the most frequently used CAM across all groups. Among women, there was a significant trend of increasing overall CAM use across all subgroups (p-trend = 0.003. All categories of CAM use were associated with significantly poorer physical health scores, and all but one (alternative medicine systems were associated with significantly poorer mental health scores. People with CFS-like illness were significantly more likely to use body-based therapy (chiropractic and massage than non-fatigued participants (OR = 2.52, CI = 1.32, 4.82. Use of body-based therapies increased significantly in a linear trend across subgroups of non-fatigued, prolonged fatigued, chronic fatigued, and CFS-like subjects (p-trend = 0.002. People with chronic fatigue were also significantly more likely to use body-based therapy (OR = 1.52, CI = 1

  5. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  6. Public health services and their relationship with rapid HIV test utilization and access for key populations in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús Conde González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In 2009, 4 749 rapid HIV tests were run in Morelos, Mexico, despite lacking evidence on their results. This article seeks to analyze how public health organization relates to utility of rapid HIV test among healthcare users. Materials and methods. Joint study: comparison of differences in applied test and positive results for each group with the Bonferroni statistical tool, observational study in 34 health subsystems, and 11 interviews with public healthcare users. Results. Each subsystem processes influenced the use and usefulness of screening; for instance, primary care centers test only pregnant women and exclude men who have sex with men (MSM. That group shows significant differences (p<0.007 in the HIV-positive test with respect to other groups. Conclusions. Despite the availability of rapid detection tests and epidemiological evidence, the way public health services are organized impedes an efficient diagnosis in the group with higher risk, namely MSM. The distribution of rapid HIV tests was guided by stigmatization.

  7. Students’ Perception of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegede Samuel Akingbade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated students’ perception of the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the teaching and learning of science subjects in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of all secondary school students in public and private secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample was 400 students selected from both public and private secondary schools in the state using the multi-stage sampling. The only instrument used in collecting relevant data for the study was a questionnaire consisting of two sections A and B. Section A consisted of personal biodata of the respondents, while section B consisted of 22 items which elicited information on the application of ICT in schools for learning science. Four research questions were raised and two hypotheses tested. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts and percentages as well as inferential statistics of t-test. The results showed that apart from the computer, which is available in most schools, the other identified ICT equipment were not available. The findings also showed that there is no significant difference in the availability of ICT facilities in public and private secondary schools, and that students in private schools are more exposed to ICT than their counterparts in public schools.

  8. Factors Affecting Mental Health Service Utilization Among California Public College and University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Woodbridge, Michelle W; Mendelsohn, Joshua; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Osilla, Karen Chan; Jaycox, Lisa H; Eberhart, Nicole K; Burnam, Audrey M; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-08-01

    Unmet need for mental health treatment among college students is a significant public health issue. Despite having access to campus mental health providers and insurance to cover services, many college students do not receive necessary services. This study examined factors influencing college students' use of mental health services. Online survey data for 33,943 students and 14,018 staff and faculty at 39 college campuses in California were analyzed by using logistic regressions examining the association between students' use of mental health services and student characteristics, campus environment, and the presence of a formal network of campus mental health clinics. Nineteen percent of students reported current serious psychological distress in the past 30 days, and 11% reported significant mental health-related academic impairment in the past year. Twenty percent reported using mental health services while at their current college, 10% by using campus services and 10% off-campus services. Students on campuses with a formal network of mental health clinics were more likely than students at community colleges to receive mental health services (odds ratio [OR] range=1.68-1.69), particularly campus services (OR=3.47-5.72). Students on campuses that are supportive of mental health issues were more likely to receive mental health services (OR=1.22), particularly on campus (OR=1.65). Students with active (versus low) coping skills were consistently more likely to use mental health services. Establishing more campus mental health clinics, fostering supportive campus environments, and increasing students' coping skills may reduce unmet need for mental health services among college students.

  9. [Welfare State and public health: the role of occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-21

    In the context of the current crisis of the Welfare State, occupational health can contribute significantly to its sustainability by facilitating decent and healthy employment throughout the working life. To this end, occupational health must take on the challenge of promoting health, preventing and managing injuries, illnesses and disability, based on better coordination of prevention services, mutual insurance companies, and health services, as well as by empowering the leadership in prevention of companies and the active participation of those who work. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of CEPH accredited institutions offering Public Health programs in the United States: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eJoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Examine the distribution of the CEPH accredited institutions offering public health educational programs in the United States, and characterize their various attributes.Methods: A search was conducted during the period of June 2014, using the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health database (ASPPH, and individual university websites to obtain a complete list of CEPH accredited institutions offering programs in Public Health at the Certificate, Masters, and Doctoral levels in the United States. Detailed information were abstracted from the various programs offerings including: school/program information, school type, geographic location, admission cycle, education delivery format, public health concentration, number of credits, presence of a global component, joint programs and tuition. The data was analyzed in August 2014. Results: A total of 85 CEPH accredited institutions designated as either Schools of Public Health, or individual Programs of Public Health were present in the ASPPH database at the time of this data collection (2014. These institutions offer programs in public health at the Certificate (61%, n=52, Masters (100%, n=85 and Doctoral (44%, n=37 levels in the US. More than half of the programs offered were provided by schools of public health (58%, N=49, which were mostly public universities (75%, n=64, concentrated in the Northeast (22%, n=19 and mainly admitted students during the fall semester. Ninety three concentrations of Public Health currently exist, of which 25 concentrations are predominant. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which examines the distribution of existing CEPH accredited Public Health educational programs offered by US institutions. We suggest future areas of research to assess existing Public Health workforce demands, and map them to the curriculums and competencies provided by institutions offering Public Health educational programs in the United States

  11. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  12. The Sustanability of Public Finance in New Members States of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian INCEU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public finance sustainability is very important for all EU member states in the actual context after the economic crisis. This article makes an analysis of the sustainability of public finances for the new member states (which joined EU in 2004 and 2007. Firstly, we try to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on public finances sustainability. The sustainability of public finances can be reflected through the level of public debt and budget deficit for a country. For this reason the article presents the evolution of budget deficits for NMS 12 before and after the recent economic crisis. Based on the econometric regression the correlation between economic growth rate (indicator used for measuring the economic evolution and the budget deficit is revealed. Results for Romania and NMS 12 are quite similar; fact that tells us that the status of public finances is following the same trend in Romania as in the NMS 12.

  13. A Case Study of the Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery Activities in State Level Digital Depositories in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shiou Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the novel phenomenon of librarian-initiated publications discovery (LIPD in state-level digital depositories in the United States. LIPD is a series of actions taken by digital depository librarians to discover and inspect government Web sites and select Web content qualifying as government publications for inclusion in the state depositories. In a current popular model in which states employ OCLC Digital Archive™ for the depositories, the power of content selection has shifted from government agencies (content producers to digital depositories. This study systematically documented and compared the LIPD actions in four case states and developed a LIPD process model for descriptive and analytic purposes. It also discusses the impacts and challenges facing the changing practices in preserving government information as historical record. [Article content in Chinese

  14. State And Modernisation Of Public Administration In Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Pitschas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Setiap negara pada saat ini dihadapkan pada tantangan yang sama yaitu perlunya melakukan modernisasi sistim administmsi.Dalam perkembangan, kesamaan tantanganyang dihadapi tersebut menimbulkan trend dalam melakukan modernisasi sistem administrasi ,yaitu dengan meniru model perubahan yang dilakukan oleh negara yang dianggap berhasil. Namun demikian yang patut menjadi pemikiran adalah proses dalam melakukan perubahan tidaklah mungkin soma di setiap negara, karena hal tersebut sangat tergantung dengan karakteristik masing-maringnegara. Sebagai negara sosialis, di jerman modernisasi administrasi diletakkan sebagai proses budaya administrasi yang dibentuk dengan tradisi. Model tersebut menitikberatkan pada perubahan dalam pola hubungan antara masyarakat dengan negara, dimana tidak semua hal diurusi negara, namun pada hal tertentu terdapat kebebasan bagi rakyat uniuk mengurusnya sendirilCarakteristik dari model tersebut adalah dengan dilakukannya rasionaliasasi ke dalam elan privatisasi dan pengaturan keluar. Rasionalisasi ke dalam, yaitu menciptakan model organisasi publik yang lebih independen dan tidak terikat dengan hirarki, yang selama ini menjadi kendala. 1. Mengkaji Struktur yang lebih _fleksibel dalam menyesuaikan dengan perkembangan dan menempatkan personel7personel yang memiliki kapabilitas. 2. Thivatisasi dan pengaturan ke luar dilakukan dengan mengurangiperan negara dalam berbagai halyang bisa dikelola mayarakat.Dengan model tersebut pemerintab lebih terlihat sebagai mangjer. Namun berbeda dengan Anglo-American dengan "new public management" and "reinventing government"-nya,yang menekankan pada hubungan antarpelaku; model modernisasi di jerman lebih mengutamak,an pelaksanaan tugas yang sudah ditetapkan, dengan terpenuhnya kebutuhan masyarakat.

  15. Public Perception of Climate Change in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odafivwotu Ohwo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the public perception of climate change in Yenagoa. The sample survey method was adopted, which involved the administration of 360 questionnaires to randomly selected households. The results showed that 43.33% of respondents lack adequate knowledge of climate change. Further interview revealed that 55.3% of the respondents are unaware that carbon dioxide (CO2 is the major greenhouse gas, contributing about 55% to global warming. It was revealed that respondents’ major sources of information on climate change were personal experience and television (66.33%. Also, 48.7% of the respondents believed that one of the major natural causes of climate change is divine providence. The study also revealed that there were significant variations in respondents’ perception of the causes, potential impacts, and mitigation strategies of climate change. The variations were attributable to differences in educational status and sources of information on climate change by respondents. The study concluded that the level of knowledge of the people was inadequate. Therefore, all stakeholders should step-up mass education and information sharing on the causes, potential impacts, and mitigation strategies of climate change.

  16. A Survey of Farm Machinery Utilization and Maintenance in Ebonyi State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or

  17. Utilizing Earth Observations for Reaching Sustainable Development Goals in Water, Sanitation and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Nusrat, F.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Alam, M.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    identification of hotspots, and 3) reducing child mortality due to water-borne diseases in vulnerable regions through empowering public health personnel with prediction of diarrheal disease outbreaks.

  18. Hurricane Public Health Research Center at Louisiana State University a Case of Academia Being Prepared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, I. L.

    2006-12-01

    and chemicals in these standing flood waters would set the stage for massive disease outbreaks and prolonged chemical exposure. Before Katrina, population evacuation behavior had been determined, computer models could be used to predict storm surge flooding, government databases and GIS technology allowed documentation of at-risk areas, probable chemical and sewerage release sites had been mapped, tropical disease experts and social scientists had determined possible public health impacts; that injured and displaced animal pets and wild animals would be a major problem had been identified; and, an interactive GIS database was available for utilization in all aspects of the assessment and remediation post landfall. The value of this project has been many-fold. First, before Katrina it had a positive impact on emergency preparedness in the state of Louisiana. Second, during the hurricane Katrina catastrophe the project offered a major service to the state as the various data sets and research outputs were extensively used throughout the flooding thus reducing deaths, disease, pain, and suffering. Third, the model of academia aiding in disaster science and management is being exported nationally and internationally. Finally, our research results are applicable to other complex disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, chemical spills or terrorism.

  19. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition... ``Indian country'' as defined by 18 U.S.C. 1151, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State...

  20. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  1. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT C ONTRACTS IN THE EU MEMBER STATES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRISOR Mihai Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief analysis of public contracts and the value of contracts in EU Member States. Also, some e-procurement systems and the effects achieved since implementation are presented.

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  3. Utilization of assistive devices for students with disabilities in the public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bastos Plotegher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assistive technology is an area of expanding knowledge in Brazil. Its use in school can help students with disabilities in performing important tasks to participate in different activities. Objectives: to report the experience of using assistive devices in the academic achievement of students with disabilities included in the regular school system of the municipality of Sao Carlos, state of Sao Paulo. Method: it was developed from an extension project conducted in 2010. Thirteen students with various types of disabilities participated in the project. The interventions were based on the School Function Assessment with the teachers to know the students’ difficulties. The students were also observed performing school tasks. Results: Forty-seven adaptations were made: thickeners, rings for zippers, slants, communication boards, non-slip mats, among others. Besides the adjustments, orientation regarding use of the devices was provided for teachers and persons responsible for the students. Conclusion: we believe that the project benefited the students, because it produced higher academic achievement and provided better school conditions for their school inclusion. For the undergraduate students of Occupational Therapy, the project enabled the dealing with real issues of inclusion and school interventions, thus approaching theory to practice.

  4. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. A Public Health Analysis of the Proposed Resolution of [the 1997 United States] Tobacco Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Lightwood, James M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed tobacco settlement agreement, as negotiated by some state attorneys general and the tobacco industry that was made public on June 20, 1997 (Appendix F), raises a complex array of public health, public policy, legal and economic issues. It was intended to be a blueprint for national tobacco control legislation that would end the most important litigation current and potential against the tobacco industry. As with most complex legislation, the deal, after it was announced, underwen...

  6. DESCENTRALIZATION STRATEGIES FOR PUBLIC SERVICES WITHIN EU MEMBER STATES – EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian Constantin Miricescu; Attila Gyorgy; Emilia Câmpeanu; Adina Cristina Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Decentralization is an opportunity to provide public services depending on the citizens’needs and taking into consideration the financial constraints of the local budgets. The real convergence involves a similarity of the decentralization degree for public services between the countries wishing to join and those states which are already members of the eurozone. The purpose of this study is to analyze the decentralization results for public services provided by Romanian local authorities compa...

  7. A Look at Behavioristic Measurement of English Composition in United States Public Schools, 1901-1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younglove, William A.

    In the early twentieth century behaviorist Edward L. Thorndike began the development and use of measurement scales to replace personal judgment to evaluate student compositions in U.S. public schools. In 1912, utilizing the Fullerton and Catell equal difference theorem, Milo B. Hillegas released the first scientifically designed scale to measure…

  8. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  9. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  10. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  11. Sites of Refuge: Refugees, Religiosity, and Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author examines public schools in the United States as sites where immigrants and refugees express their religious identities as part of their integration processes. In particular, the author examines the schools as "sites of refuge" for refugee students. Although public schools provide refugees with opportunity for…

  12. All But Forgotten: Thomas Jefferson's Contribution to the Development of Public Administration in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Stephanie P

    2006-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson's contribution to the development of public administration in the United States has been largely neglected. When we think of Jefferson our minds naturally reflect back to his authorship of the Declaration of American Independence, his commitment to religious freedom, his unwavering support for universal education at all levels of instruction, his establishment of the University of Virginia, and his public service as Foreign Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice Presid...

  13. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67, belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74 and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52 are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG 1 – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 – universal basic education; MDG 3 – gender equality; and MDG 4 – maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  14. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq; Bawa, Samuel Bitrus

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women's biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson's Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.40; CI 1.24 - 4.67), belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 - 75.74) and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 - 10.52) are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG) 1 - eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 - universal basic education; MDG 3 - gender equality; and MDG 4 - maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  15. States' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, 1960 to 1995: what is the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shirley L

    2002-06-01

    Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, this discussion reports on findings from a pooled time-series analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, controlling for states' divorce rates, population change rates, population density, unemployment rates, sex ratio, and racial composition. The analysis spans a 35-year period, 1960 to 1995, at six different data points: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. The major hypothesis was that states' suicide rates would increase with decreases in per capita spending for public welfare, controlling for the variables listed above in three different models and using OLS to analyze the data. In the basic model, states' spending for public welfare showed no relationship to states' suicide rates; in the second model that controlled for data year and in the third model that controlled for both data year and state, its relationship was significant, but in a negative direction. Suicide rates increased in states that reduced their per capita expenditures for public welfare during the observational period. Of all the variables, the influence of divorce on suicide was the most persistent and pronounced, followed by the percentage of whites in states' populations. Whether the findings reflect an increase in the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, or the weakening of ties that bind individuals to each other and to the larger society (as measured by states' divorce rates and per capita expenditures for public welfare), or the vulnerabilities associated with race, states can help counter suicide trends and such negative influences as divorce as evidenced by states that spend more for public welfare and have lower suicide rates. Given that clinicians work with people experiencing the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, the findings from these analyses have relevance for their practice.

  16. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  18. [Welfare State and public health: a relationship that needs to be updated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-27

    Human health has improved throughout the 20th century, at the same time that the Welfare State was consolidated. This paper explores the current relationship between the welfare state and public health. The essential functions of public health are exercised as part of the State, and currently the main challenge is to ensure that health is protected and promoted through different public policies, including employment. Studies assessing the health effect of different types of welfare state are contradictory, but when the impact of specific policies, such as unemployment benefits, is considered, the results are positive and consistent. However, the current crisis of the Welfare State hampers its continuity, largely due to changes in the labour market, with more flexible and insecure jobs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishing the system of public communal utility on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Antonije

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal and treatment problem consideration in the Republic of Serbia is making a pioneer steps. Main goal of this paper is to emphasize problems of waste disposal on waterways in urban areas, which consists of three aspects: uncontrolled disposal, possibilities of waste elimination and institutional model of collecting and recycling. Considering the fact that Draft version of Waste disposal law is not yet adopted by the national government (beside the fact that it contains the question of disposing and recycling municipal solid waste and that it is not elaborating the problem of dumping the municipal waste into rivers, this paper will give methodological and legislative recommendations for the solution of this problem. However, city of Belgrade and the other cities in Serbia are often facing serious problems (arranged riverfronts covered with municipal waste. Because of that, it is necessary to define methods of collecting and treatment of waste disposed in the water streams (in the area of technology. It is also important to determine legislative framework, and also to establish hierarchy in decision-making on the local level. One of the main goals is to determine new aspects of public communal utilities (so called "river communal utility", which will have jurisdiction in this area. International experiences must be analyzed separately and based on them is proposed new concept of elimination of waste from the rivers. Implementation of this pilot project is recommended on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of the city of Belgrade.

  20. Governmental public health in the United States: the implications of federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, Bernard J; Atchison, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Governmental public health activities in the United States have evolved over time as a result of two forces: the nature and perceived importance of threats to the population's health and safety, and changing relationships among the various levels of government. Shifts toward a more state-centered form of federalism in the second half of the twentieth century weakened key aspects of the governmental public health enterprise, including its leadership and coordination, by the century's end. These developments challenge governmental public health responses to the new threats and increased societal expectations of the early twenty-first century.

  1. The study of knowledge management capability and organizational effectiveness in Taiwanese public utility: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Huei-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies on the significance of knowledge management (KM) in the business world have been performed in recent years. Public sector KM is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that few authors specialize in the field and there are several obstacles to developing a cohesive body of literature. In order to examine their effect of the knowledge management capability [which consists of knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC)] and organizational effectiveness (OE), this study conducted structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses with 302 questionnaires of Taipei Water Department staffs in Taiwan. In exploring the model developed in this study, the findings show that there exists a significant relationship between KPC and OE, while KIC and OE are insignificant. These results are different from earlier findings in the literature. Furthermore, this research proposed organizational commitment (OC) as the mediator role. The findings suggest that only OC has significant mediating effects between KPC and OE, whereas this is not the case for KIC and OE. It is noteworthy that the above findings inspired managers, in addition to construct the knowledge infrastructure more than focus on social media tools on the Internet, which engage knowledge workers in "peer-to-peer" knowledge sharing across organizational and company boundaries. The results are likely to help organizations (particularly public utilities) sharpen their knowledge management strategies. Academic and practical implications were drawn based on the findings.

  2. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  3. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder partic...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  4. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  5. Public Policy for Higher Education in the United States: A Brief History of State Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) is the national association of the chief executives of statewide governing, policy, and coordinating boards of postsecondary education. Founded in 1954, SHEEO serves its members as an advocate for state policy leadership, as a liaison between states and the federal government, as a vehicle for…

  6. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... No: 2011-2396] DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7239] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to...

  7. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  8. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  9. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards....S.) Standards for Barley under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). To ensure that... whether the current barley standards and grading practices need to be changed. DATES: Comments must be...

  10. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  11. Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigaratne Susitha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p Conclusion This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.

  12. ITN utilization among pregnant women attending ANC in Etsako West Lga, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagbatsoma, V A; Aigbe, E E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the factors affecting utilization of ITN by pregnant women in Etsako West LGA, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 385 respondents were selected from all ANC facilities in the LGA following a verbally obtained consent. Tool for data collection was a semi-structured, researcher administered questionnaire. The respondents' knowledge of cause of malaria was good, as 269 (69%) had good knowledge but only 9 (2.3%) knew its effects on the foetus. Meanwhile, ownership of ITN and its use were very low, 36 (9.3%) and 31 (8.0) respectively. The main factor affecting the use of the commodity in the LGA was unavailability of ITNs. Other factors included belief of the women on the effectiveness of the commodity, level of education, marital status and family sizes ofrespondents. Use of Insecticide treated bed net has been hampered by unavailability of the commodity. It is therefore recommended that efforts should be made to make the commodity available to reduce morbidity and mortality among this vulnerable group.

  13. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  14. Network Intelligence Based on Network State Information for Connected Vehicles Utilizing Fog Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to take advantage of fog computing and SDN in the connected vehicle environment, where communication channels are unstable and the topology changes frequently. A controller knows the current state of the network by maintaining the most recent network topology. Of all the information collected by the controller in the mobile environment, node mobility information is particularly important. Thus, we divide nodes into three classes according to their mobility types and use their related attributes to efficiently manage the mobile connections. Our approach utilizes mobility information to reduce control message overhead by adjusting the period of beacon messages and to support efficient failure recovery. One is to recover the connection failures using only mobility information, and the other is to suggest a real-time scheduling algorithm to recover the services for the vehicles that lost connection in the case of a fog server failure. A real-time scheduling method is first described and then evaluated. The results show that our scheme is effective in the connected vehicle environment. We then demonstrate the reduction of control overhead and the connection recovery by using a network simulator. The simulation results show that control message overhead and failure recovery time are decreased by approximately 55% and 5%, respectively.

  15. Increasing Utilization Of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery In The United States Between 1997 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana Knight, Elia M.; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Bakaki, Paul M.; Koroukian, Siran M.; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Kaiboriboon, Kitti

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009. METHODS We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery. RESULTS The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery significantly increased from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery. PMID:25630252

  16. Increasing utilization of pediatric epilepsy surgery in the United States between 1997 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana Knight, Elia M; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Bakaki, Paul M; Koroukian, Siran M; Lhatoo, Samden D; Kaiboriboon, Kitti

    2015-03-01

    To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009. We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids' Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery. The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery increased significantly from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy. In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Health state utilities associated with major clinical events in the context of secondary hyperparathyroidism and chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evan W; Matza, Louis S; Worth, Gavin; Feeny, David H; Kostelec, Jacqueline; Soroka, Steven; Mendelssohn, David; McFarlane, Philip; Belozeroff, Vasily

    2015-06-30

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) who require dialysis are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and bone fractures. To assist in economic evaluations, this study aimed to estimate the disutility of these events beyond the impact of CKD and SHPT. A basic one-year health state was developed describing CKD and SHPT requiring dialysis. Further health states added acute events (cardiovascular events, fractures, and surgical procedures) or chronic post-event effects. Acute health states described a year including an event, and chronic health states described a year subsequent to an event. General population participants in Canada completed time trade-off interviews from which utilities were derived. Pairwise comparisons were made between the basic state and event, and between comparable health states. A total of 199 participants (54.8% female; mean age = 46.3 years) completed interviews. Each health state had ≥130 valuations. The mean (SD) utility of the basic health state was 0.60 (0.34). For acute events, mean utility differences versus the basic state were: myocardial infarction, -0.06; unstable angina, -0.05; peripheral vascular disease (PVD) with amputation, -0.33; PVD without amputation, -0.11; heart failure, -0.14; stroke, -0.30; hip fracture, -0.14; arm fracture, -0.04; parathyroidectomy, +0.02; kidney transplant, +0.06. Disutilities for chronic health states were: stable angina, -0.09; stroke, -0.27; PVD with amputation, -0.30; PVD without amputation, -0.12; heart failure, -0.14. Cardiovascular events and fractures were associated with lower utility scores, suggesting a perceived decrease in quality of life beyond the impact of CKD and SHPT.

  18. The state of occupational radiation protection and monitoring in public and private X-ray facilities in Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, K C; Nzotta, C C; Marchie, T T; Okegbunam, B; Eze, T E

    2011-01-01

    To find out the state of radiation protection and monitoring practices of the public and private X-ray centres in Edo state. Survey visits were made to all the functional X-ray facilities in Edo state and the available facilities identified, staff interviewed and collected data analyzed. There are 18 functional X-ray facilities comprising 10 (55.56%) publicly owned and eight (44.44%) privately owned. Only two (20%) of the public and five (62.5%) of the private X-ray units have personnel and environmental monitoring. All the X-ray centers in both public and private hospitals have effective lead aprons. All the public (100%) and only four (50%) of the private centers have gonadal shield although none is using them on a routine basis. Qualified radiographers are available only in five (50%) of the public and six (75%) of the private centers. Only three (30%) of the public X-ray centers have the services of radiologists. Among the private X-ray units, five (62.5%) have radiologist while three (37.5%) have no radiologist. Only one (10%) of the public centers and one (12.5%) private X-ray centre have a purpose-built adequately designed X-ray unit with barium plasters and lead lining of walls and doors. There is also only limited lead lining of doors and walls in three (37.5%) private units while no lead lining or barium plasters are used in five (62.5%) of the private units. No X-ray unit in Edo state uses digital radiography or computerized information system. This means that lost hard copy must be repeated, leading to more radiation to patients and staff. There are inadequate radiation protection and monitoring practices in most of the functional X-ray facilities in Edo state with only five (62.5%) of the private and two (20%) of the public X-ray units monitored. There is poor adherence to the advice of the medical physicists due to the cost implications of the implementation.

  19. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  20. Trends and Characteristics of the State and Local Public Health Workforce, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed state and local public health workforce characteristics by occupational category from 2010 to 2013. We also examined health department characteristics to determine whether workforce size and composition varied across these domains. Methods. We analyzed Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (2010, 2012) and National Association of County and City Health Officials (2010, 2013) profile study data, including 47 state health departments and 2005 and 1953 local health departments (LHDs) in 2010 and 2013, respectively. We determined number of workers and percentage of change by occupation, population size, geographic region, and governance structure. Results. The LHD workforce remained stable between 2010 and 2013. In states, the workforce decreased by 4%, with notable decreases in public information (−33%) and public health informatics (−29%); state health departments in small (−9%), New England (−13%), and centralized (−7%) states reported the largest decrease in number of workers. Conclusions. Study findings provide evidence of a shifting public health workforce profile, primarily at the state level. Future research should seek to explain changing workforce patterns and determine whether they are planned or forced responses to changing budgets and service priorities. PMID:25689210

  1. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  2. Socio-demographic determinants of maternal health-care service utilization among rural women in anambra state, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelumadu, Of; Ukegbu, Au; Ezeama, Nn; Kanu, Oo; Ifeadike, Co; Onyeonoro, Uu

    2014-05-01

    Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using χ(2)-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (χ(2) = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits.

  3. Effects of the New York State Concussion Management and Awareness Act ("Lystedt Law") on Concussion-Related Emergency Health Care Utilization Among Adolescents, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kulick, Erin R; Boehme, Amelia K; Noble, James M

    2017-11-01

    All states have enacted legislation addressing the management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) in adolescent athletes. The effect of these laws on health care utilization is uncertain. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the effects of New York's 2011 Concussion Management and Awareness Act ("Lystedt Law") on emergency department (ED) concussion health care visits (EDCHVs) and brain imaging utilization. It was hypothesized that New York concussion legislation would have a significant temporal effect on EDCHVs. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using the New York State Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database, trends in EDCHVs from 2005 to 2015 were identified among 12- to 18-year-old patients, comprising 5,740,403 total ED visits. Overall, 208,024 EDCHVs, including 54,669 for an SRC, occurred during the study period. EDCHVs increased from 13,664 (2.74% of all ED visits) in 2005 to a peak of 21,374 (4.26%) in 2013, with greatest relative increases from 2008 to 2013. SRCs followed a similar trend: 3213 (0.64%) in 2005 to a peak of 6197 (1.24%) in 2013. Brain imaging utilization decreased by 5.3% for EDCHVs and 15.4% for SRCs (all comparisons year-by-year and for trends; P behavior for concussions. Instead, increased public awareness of SRCs and imaging guidelines may have driven EDCHV trends and imaging practices.

  4. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  5. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their

  6. Utilization of post-abortion care services in three regional states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Ethiopia, utilization of post-abortion care service is minimal and it seems that the expanding services are underutilized. The purpose of this study was to assess factors which influence decisions for utilization of abortion related services at community level. Methodology: The study was carried out in six ...

  7. Managing public budget in indirect administration: the case of a State Health Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida Chaves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Good performance of public activities has been increasingly endorsed by citizens. Therefore, it is clear that public budgets are no longer part of revenue and expenditure, but a strategic and manageable instrument linked to planning and control aiming at improving government spending. This way, there can be construction of an equal society with essential and quality public services. This article deals with the budget management of the State Foundation Gaspar Vianna Clinical Hospital, which is part of the indirect administration of the State of Pará. The study aimed at analyzing the reality experienced by the hospital, regarding planning, execution, and monitoring of its budget, as well as the problems found in their effort for greater efficiency in the public health services area.

  8. Budget Deficit And Public Debt - The Great Challenges For The Eu Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu, Iulia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises had a strong impact on the public finance sectors from European countries. Even if in 2007 they started from relative good fiscal positions, the public debt and the budgetary deficits considerably deteriorated and registered historic values in European Union. With all measures taken to stimulate the economy, is a very favourable scenario to return at the taxes level from 2007. The aggregate numbers regarding the deficit and public debt incline to disguise the different evolutions of the European Union member states. The strong deterioration of fiscal indicators is caused by the automat effect of the economic productivity and also by measures taken by the governments of the member states. The past experiences can help to evaluate the fiscal measures that must be adopted in order to reduce the public debt and the deficit, without having an universal solution for all countries. Very important is the existing context for the implementation of adopted measures.

  9. Many Miles to Go: A Systematic Review of the State of Cost-Utility Analyses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Alessandro G; Rozman, Luciana M; Decimoni, Tassia C; Leandro, Roseli; Novaes, Hillegonda M D; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the quality and quantity of cost-utility analyses (CUAs) in Brazil. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of published CUAs of healthcare technologies in Brazil. We performed a systematic review of economic evaluations studies published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), NHS EED (National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database), HTA (Health Technology Assessment) Database, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), BVS ECOS (Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health), and SISREBRATS (Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde [Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies]) from 1980 to 2013. Articles were included if they were CUAs according to the classification devised by Drummond et al. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and carried out data extraction. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or through consultation with a third reviewer. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Of the 535 health economic evaluations (HEEs) relating to Brazil, only 40 were CUAs and therefore included in the analysis. Most studies adhered to methodological guidelines for quality of reporting and 77.5% used quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the health outcome. Of these studies, 51.6% did not report the population used to elicit preferences for outcomes and 45.2% used a specific population such as expert opinion. The preference elicitation method was not reported in 58.1% of these studies. The majority (80.6%) of studies did not report the instrument used to derive health state valuations and no publication reported whether tariffs (or preference weights) were national or international. No study mentioned the methodology used to estimate QALYs. Many published Brazilian cost-utility studies

  10. Data Sharing of Traveler Information with the Public and Private Sectors: State of the Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A Miller; Balke, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of its examination of the current state of the practice of traveler information data sharing with the public and private sectors. A review of the literature was initially performed followed by an analysis of responses to a survey instrument that was designed and administered to practitioners in the field, primarily representatives from public sector agencies, who are in the business of collecting traveler information data. Survey results have addressed the sub...

  11. Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery: How Do Digital Depository Librarians Discover and Select Web-Based Government Publications for State Digital Depositories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Shiou; Eschenfelder, Kristin R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of librarian initiated publications discovery (LIPD) in U.S. state digital depository programs using the OCLC Digital Archive to preserve web-based government publications for permanent public access. This paper describes a model of LIPD processes based on empirical investigations of four OCLC DA-based digital…

  12. SEE Action Guide for States: Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Frameworks$-$Guidance for Energy Efficiency Portfolios Funded by Utility Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Dietsch, Niko [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This guide describes frameworks for evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) of utility customer–funded energy efficiency programs. The authors reviewed multiple frameworks across the United States and gathered input from experts to prepare this guide. This guide provides the reader with both the contents of an EM&V framework, along with the processes used to develop and update these frameworks.

  13. Fire rehabilitation decisions at landscape scales: utilizing state-and-transition models developed through disturbance response grouping of ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the utility of ecological sites and the associated state-and-transition model (STM) for decision support, the Bureau of Land Management in Nevada partnered with Nevada NRCS and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in 2009 with the goal of creating a team that could (1) expedite developme...

  14. Civil society organisations and public health research--evidence from eight European union new member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Agnese; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Civil society organisations (CSO) are not-for-profit, non-governmental organisations operating in the public interest. They are the "third sector" that is strongly developed in Western European countries, ensuring the link between citizens and government and working as a counterbalance to the business sector. Their role in support of public health research deserves attention. Within a broader European study (STEPS--Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research), public health organisations in eight European Union new member states (Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia) identified national CSOs with interests in health. A questionnaire was developed jointly, translated into national languages and sent by e-mail to 474 organisations, with 128 completed responses (27%). Most CSOs would like to be more involved in setting or advising on public-health research policy, and greater collaboration between CSOs, professional organisations and governmental institutions. Respondents did not see CSOs directly doing research, but recommended mobilizing researchers and organsations, supporting research themes, and lobbying to use public health evidence in policy and decision-making. They could receive more education for, and discussion of, public health research, and offer support in applying for research funding. Civil society organisations can contribute importantly,in setting public health research agendas. Research commissioning should give greater recognition of this role, improve links between CSOs, researchers and governmental institutions, and develop a stronger shared basis for public health policy and practice.

  15. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  16. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  17. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of long-term care services under the public long-term care insurance program in Korea: Implications of a subsidy policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsoo; Kwon, Soonman; Yoon, Nan-He; Hyun, Kyung-Rae

    2013-07-01

    South Korea introduced public long-term care insurance (LTCI) in 2008. This study examined the patterns of and factors associated with public long-term care (LTC) utilization among older LTCI beneficiaries in Korea, with special attention to the policy for subsidizing the co-payments of lower income populations. Using a 5% national representative sample of 280,290 older people aged 65 or older obtained from the 2010 national LTCI claims database, we examined socio-demographic and health factors associated with service utilization decisions, service type chosen, and the intensity of service use. About 5.48% of older adults in 2010 utilized the LTC provided under the Korean public LTCI, among which about 26.1% received a subsidy. Compared to their counterparts, the subsidized users were more likely to be low-income, female, and living alone. They were more likely to choose institutionalized care and spend to their monthly benefit limit while paying a lower co-payment. The factors associated with pattern and intensity of LTC utilization were not the same between subsidized and non-subsidized users. The findings imply the subsidy policy promotes equity of access to public LTC services. Further evaluation is necessary on the impact of the policy on the effectiveness of LTC utilization by socially marginalized populations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Coggeshall, C.

    2008-05-01

    State and local governments have grown increasingly aware of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits of taking a lead role in U.S. implementation of renewable energy, particularly distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations. Recently, solar energy's cost premium has declined as a result of technology improvements and an increase in the cost of traditional energy generation. At the same time, a nationwide public policy focus on carbon-free, renewable energy has created a wide range of financial incentives to lower the costs of deploying PV even further. These changes have led to exponential increases in the availability of capital for solar projects, and tremendous creativity in the development of third-party ownership structures. As significant users of electricity, state and local governments can be an excellent example for solar PV system deployment on a national scale. Many public entities are not only considering deployment on public building rooftops, but also large-scale applications on available public lands. The changing marketplace requires that state and local governments be financially sophisticated to capture as much of the economic potential of a PV system as possible. This report examines ways that state and local governments can optimize the financial structure of deploying solar PV for public uses.

  20. A Logistic Regression Model with a Hierarchical Random Error Term for Analyzing the Utilization of Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression models have been widely used in previous studies to analyze public transport utilization. These studies have shown travel time to be an indispensable variable for such analysis and usually consider it to be a deterministic variable. This formulation does not allow us to capture travelers’ perception error regarding travel time, and recent studies have indicated that this error can have a significant effect on modal choice behavior. In this study, we propose a logistic regression model with a hierarchical random error term. The proposed model adds a new random error term for the travel time variable. This term structure enables us to investigate travelers’ perception error regarding travel time from a given choice behavior dataset. We also propose an extended model that allows constraining the sign of this error in the model. We develop two Gibbs samplers to estimate the basic hierarchical model and the extended model. The performance of the proposed models is examined using a well-known dataset.

  1. Morality and the Public Good in Post-Socialist European States

    OpenAIRE

    Inge Sieben; Loek Halman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate morality in relation to the public good in post-socialist Europe. Public good morality is defined as the (non)acceptance of behaviour that contravenes the law and harms society and the greater good of the collective, such as cheating on taxes if one has the chance, paying cash to avoid taxes, not paying one’s fare in public transport, and claiming state benefits one is not entitled to. Using data from the European Values Study in 2008 on more than 30,000 responde...

  2. Wireless communication and spectrum sharing for public safety in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Naim; Haupt, Brittany; Yuksel, Murat

    2016-01-01

    With the vast number of fragmented, independent public safety wireless communication systems, the United States is encountering major challenges with enhancing interoperability and effectively managing costs while sharing limited availability of critical spectrum. The traditional hierarchical approach of emergency management does not always allow for needed flexibility and is not a mandate. A national system would reduce equipment needs, increase effectiveness, and enrich quality and coordination of response; however, it is dependent on integrating the commercial market. This article discusses components of an ideal national wireless public safety system consists along with key policies in regulating wireless communication and spectrum sharing for public safety and challenges for implementation.

  3. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United States Department of... Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period ending...

  4. DEFINITION OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION POTENTIAL IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with public service obligation, a form of state aid that applies to air services. The paper first provides general information on the European legislation applying to this form of state aid, and elaborates the legal framework and general principles. The second part is dedicated to a comparison of a similar subsidizing programme in the USA and Australia. An examination of current imposed public service obligation routes in Europe is provided in the following section. The coefficients defining the number of imposed PSO routes per various geo-economic variables have been defined.

  5. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND PUBLIC POLICY: AN ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE IN MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD NETWORK IN MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Maciel de Faria Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the effects of public spending on the delivery of public policy. For this, we selected health policy, in Minas Gerais. The programmatic action chosen was the Programa de Redução da Mortalidade Infantil e Materna em Minas Gerais, also called Programa Viva Vida, from the resources involved in implementing this policy. Methods: It was analyzed the initial and final years of 2002 and 2009. The methodology consists of two separate tools. The first tool is through the analysis of indicators. The second tool used was data envelopment analysis (DEA in the analysis of efficiency. Data on health care delivery were obtained from the Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS. The data used were collected in October 2011. Results: The results suggest a specific increase access to maternal and child health activities in the municipalities of the state, but with the maintenance of inequalities between regions of the state. Conclusions: The resources invested, the study suggests, encouraged the expansion of access to a process that has not undergone change. The result is proportional to the maintenance of newborns with low birth weight and / or prematurity and maternal deaths.

  6. Commercial gas utilization in the Netherlands. Six years of the Marketing Plan Public Gas Supply (MOG); Aantrekkelijke gastoepassingen voor de zakelijke markt. Zes jaar MOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelen, Q.E.J.J.M. [Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartholomeus, P.H.J.; Mallon, W.Ch. [Gasunie Research, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    In 1992, Gasunie (Dutch natural gas trading company) started its marketing plan for the public natural gas supply (MOG, abbreviated in Dutch). The aim is to promote the use of natural gas in cooperation with gas utilities. For the commercial sector many different gas appliances are available: high-efficiency deep-frying pans for the catering sector, gas-fired air humidifiers for office and public buildings, gas-fired tumble dryers for small and medium-sized businesses, etc.

  7. Rotavirus vaccines and health care utilization for diarrhea in the United States (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Eyal; Moritz, Rebecca E; Curns, Aaron T; Zhou, Fangjun; Tate, Jacqueline E; Lopman, Benjamin A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-07-01

    To examine reductions in diarrhea-associated health care utilization after rotavirus vaccine implementation and to assess direct and indirect effectiveness of vaccination. Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data of commercially insured US children aged diarrhea-associated health care utilization in prevaccine (2001-2006) versus postvaccine introduction (2007-2011) years, compared rates of diarrhea-associated health care utilization in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children and compared rates in unvaccinated children in postvaccine versus prevaccine years. Among children aged diarrhea health care utilization in US children. Both rotavirus vaccines conferred high protection against rotavirus hospitalizations; RV5 conferred durable protection through the fourth year of life. Vaccination also conferred indirect benefits to unvaccinated children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Hampshire. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Public utilities in New Hampshire are regulated by the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed for six-year terms by the Governor with the advice and consent of the council. Members of the Commission must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any public utility. The Commission is charged with the general regulation and supervision of public utilities. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supercedes that of local government. The Commission may suspend the operation of local zoning laws. Local governments do retain the right to license the use of public ways by utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  9. Civil society and public health research in the European Union new member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Knabe, Agnese

    2012-05-01

    Civil society organisations (CSOs) are not-for-profit organisations working for the public interest with concerns complementary to public health. We investigated the contribution of CSOs in public health research. Within a European project STEPS (Strengthening Engagement with Public Health Research), CSOs with interests in health were identified in the new member states of the European Union (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Malta, and Cyprus) and workshops organised, held in their own languages. The reports of the workshops were translated into English and drawn together through a framework analysis. CSOs can contribute in all stages of the research cycle, through championship, priority-setting, capacity building and generation of resources, sharing and application of the research results, and dissemination across their network of contacts. There have been successful CSO-researcher collaborations in public health fields. Funding is important, and ministries of health and public institutions should interact more with CSOs. Barriers include attitudes, technical understanding across public health fields. There is little European empirical literature linking health CSOs and research: our results indicate benefits and further opportunities. In contrast to biomedicine's link with industry, public health research can align with civil society in not-for-profit research. CSOs are important for European integration, and their contribution should be better recognised at international level.

  10. Progress in Public Health Emergency Preparedness-United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Bhavini Patel; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; LeBlanc, Tanya T; Vagi, Sara J; Avchen, Rachel N

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program's progress toward meeting public health preparedness capability standards in state, local, and territorial health departments. All 62 PHEP awardees completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's self-administered PHEP Impact Assessment as part of program review measuring public health preparedness capability before September 11, 2001 (9/11), and in 2014. We collected additional self-reported capability self-assessments from 2016. We analyzed trends in congressional funding for public health preparedness from 2001 to 2016. Before 9/11, most PHEP awardees reported limited preparedness capabilities, but considerable progress was reported by 2016. The number of jurisdictions reporting established capability functions within the countermeasures and mitigation domain had the largest increase, almost 200%, by 2014. However, more than 20% of jurisdictions still reported underdeveloped coordination between the health system and public health agencies in 2016. Challenges and barriers to building PHEP capabilities included lack of trained personnel, plans, and sustained resources. Considerable progress in public health preparedness capability was observed from before 9/11 to 2016. Support, sustainment, and advancement of public health preparedness capability is critical to ensure a strong public health infrastructure.

  11. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  12. A State-By-State Policy Analysis of STEM Education for K-12 Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Courtney C.

    2017-01-01

    For practitioners and policy makers across the nation, STEM education has a vague definition. This study looks at how all 50 states define STEM education in policy, using four models: (a) Disciplinary STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics); (b) Integrated STEM focusing on combining two or more disciplines to produce critical…

  13. Farm waste utilization among farmers in Irepodun Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria: Implication for extension education service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Oladipo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the utilization of farm waste among farmers in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit data from 120 farmers in the study area. Results revealed that more than half (58.4% of the respondents were crop farmers who grow majorly maize and cassava on a subsistence scale. The major farm wastes generated in the area were maize cobs, husk and stalk (62.5% and cassava stalk and peels (60%. Majority of the farmers got rid of their farm waste through burning while more than half of the respondents do not utilize the waste they generate from their farms. The major constraints militating against farm waste utilization includes inadequate access to extension services, inadequate awareness of benefits of farm waste, inadequate facilities for processing of farm wastes to other products and low knowledge on usage of farm waste. Logistic regression modeling results revealed that farmers who are more likely to utilize their farm waste efficiently are those with higher level of education and more years of experience in farming. It was therefore recommended that extension agencies should embark on enlightenment campaigns and trainings of farmers on various innovative ways of farm wastes utilization in order to facilitate more efficient and environmental friendly farm waste utilization initiatives in the area.

  14. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  15. Multi-state time-varying reliability evaluation of smart grid with flexible demand resources utilizing Lz transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Jin, Wende; Ding, Yi; Song, Yonghua; Yu, Dezhao

    2017-01-01

    With the expanding proportion of renewable energy generation and development of smart grid technologies, flexible demand resources (FDRs) have been utilized as an approach to accommodating renewable energies. However, multiple uncertainties of FDRs may influence reliable and secure operation of smart grid. Multi-state reliability models for a single FDR and aggregating FDRs have been proposed in this paper with regard to responsive abilities for FDRs and random failures for both FDR devices and information system. The proposed reliability evaluation technique is based on Lz transform method which can formulate time-varying reliability indices. A modified IEEE-RTS has been utilized as an illustration of the proposed technique.

  16. Awareness and attitude to the law banning smoking in public places in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Adepoju, Ebenezer Gbenga; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola

    2014-03-27

    This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law.

  17. Places of the Heart: Memorials, Public History and the State in Australia Since 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Memorials as a form of public history allow us to chart the complex interactions and negotiations between officially endorsed historical narratives, public memorials, privately sponsored memorials in public spaces and new histories. As Ludmilla Jordanova reminds us, ‘the state… lies at the heart of public history’. And this is evident in the public process of memorialisation. At one level, the state endorses certain narratives within which communities and organisations need to operate if they are to be officially part of the national story and its regional and local variants. Ultimate endorsement for memorials includes listings on heritage registers. Controls over the erection of memorials vary from official policies to process for the issue of permits for their construction in public places or their removal. The state, however, is not monolithic. Permissible pasts evolve over time given shifts in power and social and cultural change. This involves both ‘retrospective commemoration’ and ‘participatory memorialisation’. The presence and power of the past in peoples’ lives, too, means in practice that memorial landscapes will reflect, in truly democratic societies, the values, experiences and dominant concerns of its citizens.

  18. Do State Subsidies for Public Universities Favor the Affluent? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Dancy, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Public universities typically charge students less than the full cost of education, using funds from state and local government and other sources to cover the difference. This indirect subsidy is one of the largest forms of aid in America's higher education system but is less understood in the policy community than grants and loans, which are…

  19. An Evaluation of the Delaware State Public Elementary and Secondary Educational Equalization Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Charles R.; And Others

    In the wake of court decisions in the cases of "Serrano v. Priest,""San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez," and "Robinson v. Cahill," Congress set aside funds as part of Public Law 93-380 for state departments of education to study the equitability of current educational funding arrangements. This…

  20. Model Core Teaching Standards: A Resource for State Dialogue. (Draft for Public Comment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010

    2010-01-01

    With this document, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) offers for public dialogue and comment a set of model core teaching standards that outline what teachers should know and be able to do to help all students reach the goal of being college- and career-ready in today's world. These standards are an update of the 1992 Interstate…