WorldWideScience

Sample records for state power plants

  1. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States: December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    This 1979 inventory of power plants provides a comprehensive list of existing, standby, out-of-service, retired and projected electric generating plants in the U.S. Arranged under the broad sections of existing, jointly owned and projected units, tabulated data on individual plants in each state are presented. These data include unit name, location, type, MW rating, primary fuel, alternative fuel, status, year built, and whether or not it is jointly owned. Jointly owned plants are separately identified as to the percent of ownership belonging to named owners. Projected plants have data on plant characteristics, current status and scheduled completion date. Summaries of the total number of each type of power plant in each state are also provided

  3. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  4. Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents an object-oriented implementation of full state feedback control for virtual power plants (VPP). The components of the VPP full state feedback control are (1) objectoriented high-fidelity modeling for all devices in the VPP; (2) Distribution System Distributed Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (DS-DQSE) that enables full observability of the VPP by augmenting actual measurements with virtual, derived and pseudo measurements and performing the Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (QSE) in a distributed manner, and (3) automated formulation of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in real time using the output of the DS-DQSE, and solving the distributed OPF to provide the optimal control commands to the DERs of the VPP.

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  7. Conducting need-for-power review for nuclear power plants: guidelines to states. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The report is intended to describe the state regulatory commissions and other state agencies the standards and criteria used by NRC in conducting need-for-power evaluations for the licensing of nuclear power plants. These are intended as guidelines to states which may wish to perform a need-for-power review that will suffice for adoption by the NRC in its licensing process. Three methodologies which have been used for need-for-power evaluations and which meet NRC standards are included

  8. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  9. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  10. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.

    1991-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs

  11. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  12. State and development of the technology of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, F.; Schueller, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Like in the past thermal power plants shall have to be designed also in the future in a way that a sufficient, low-priced and environment-preserving electricity and heat supply can be granted. The technology applied today in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants and its further development is outlined under the aspects of a better utilization of primary energy, the substitution of petroleum and, in the long term, also of natural gas and coal, and of the extended protection of the environment against harmful influences. (orig.) [de

  13. State and local planning procedures dealing with social and economic impacts from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, M.; Goodrieght, J.; Green, M.; Merwin, D.; Smith, R.

    1977-01-01

    The roles of state and local agencies in planning for and managing social and economic impacts of nuclear power plants are studied. In order to be effective in these roles state and local agencies must work with each other as well as the NRC. A comparative case study approach is used which analyzes six sites in three West Coast states. The case studies included plants in operation, plants under construction, and plants still in the planning stages. In contrast to some states, all three of these states have moderately centralized procedures for siting power plants, and all have strong environmental laws

  14. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  15. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  16. Power plant engineering: State of the art and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Power station engineering has a great number of perspectives some of which project far into the future. While nuclear energy will be aimed long-term at further developments in the technology of both large and small-sized high-temperature nuclear reactors and breeder reactors, in the next decades coal-fired power station engineering is expected to undergo a lasting structural change, the beginning of which we are just witnessing. The first phase after World War II was characterized by the transition from bus bar to unit station engineering with its trend towards greater unit outputs and associated structural changes in plant, machinery and control technologies. The second phase is characterized by retrofitting the ending of which is expected by 1993 at the latest when old plants unsuitable for retrofitting will have been shut down. In parallel, measures for extending service lives in both nuclear and fossil fuel installations will increase. A third phase indicates a new generation of power stations which will be characterized by the technologies of fluidized-bed combustion and combined cycles with integrated coal gasification. Again, this phase has already begun and harbours considerable reserves for development. Long-term trends suggest that the vertical structure of energy generation engineering will be abandoned for integrated processes which will be dominated by high-temperature nuclear energy. This considerable potential opens up major perspectives for a lasting reduction of emissions, espec. CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  17. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Operable capacity at US electric power plants totaled 693,016 megawatts, as of year-end 1991. Coal-fired capacity accounted for 43 percent (299,849 megawatts) of the total US generating capacity, the share it has essentially maintained for the past decade. Gas-fired capacity accounted for 18 percent (125,683 megawatts); nuclear, 14 percent (99,589 megawatts); water, 13 percent (92,031 megawatts); petroleum, 10 percent (72,357 megawatts); other, one percent (3,507 megawatts). The 693,016 megawatts of operable capacity includes 3,627 megawatts of new capacity that came on line during 1991 (Table 2). This new capacity is 42 percent less than capacity in new units reported for 1990. Gas-fired capacity accounted for the greatest share of this new capacity. It represents 38 percent of the new capacity that started operation in 1991. The surge in new gas-fired capacity is the beginning of a trend that is expected to exist over the next 10 years. That is, gas-fired capacity will dominate new capacity additions. Gas-fired capacity additions during the next 10 years will primarily be in simple cycle gas turbines and gas turbines operating as combined cycle units. These planned gas turbine and combined cycle units, whose capacity totals over 21,000 megawatts, are expected to serve peak and intermediate loads of electric utilities

  18. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giachetti, R.T.

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs

  19. Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: Experience of Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Routine reviews of nuclear power plant operation (including modifications to hardware and procedures, operating experience, plant management and personnel competence) and special reviews following major events of safety significance are the primary means of safety verification. In addition, many Member States of the IAEA have initiated systematic safety reassessments, termed periodic safety reviews, of nuclear power plants, to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments and siting aspects. The reviews include an assessment of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices, and they have the objective of ensuring a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. They are complementary to the routine and special safety reviews and do not replace them. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants are considered an effective way to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety, and to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety. They can be used as a means of identifying time limiting features of the plant in order to determine nuclear power plant operation beyond the designed lifetime. The periodic safety review process can be used to support the decision making process for long term operation or licence renewal. Since 1994, the use of periodic safety reviews by Member States has substantially broadened and confirmed its benefits. Periodic safety review results have, for example, been used by some Member States to help provide a basis for continued operation beyond the current licence term, to communicate more effectively with stakeholders regarding nuclear power plant safety, and to help identify changes to plant operation that enhance safety. This IAEA-TECDOC is intended to assist Member States in the implementation of a periodic safety review. This publication complements the

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  1. The comparison of license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zusheng

    2006-01-01

    'Tow steps' license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed bas- ted on the requirement of 10CFR Part50-DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES in United States since last century fifties. In order to ulterior reduce the risk of investment and technical for new construction nuclear power plants, new regulations 'One step' license management procedure-10CFR Part52-EARLY SITE PERMITS; STANDARD DESIGN CERTIFICATIONS; AND COMBINED LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS issued in 1989. The new regulations has been adopted by new design of nuclear power plant, for example AP1000. ‘The similar tow steps’ license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed basted on the requirement of HAFO01/01 Rules for the Implementation of Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Installations of the People's Re- public of China Part One: Application and Issuance of Safety License for Nuclear Power Plant (December 1993) in China since last century nineties. This article introduces and compares the requirements and characteristics of above license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States. (author)

  2. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  3. Regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants in the United States of America have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in governmental restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, methods of heat dissipation, acquisition of transmission rights of way, and on environmental impact of industrialization in general. New legislation at both Federal and state levels has been enacted that influences power plant siting. In addition to environmental requirements that must be satisfied, implementing procedures require documented justification for sites chosen and public disclosure of the basis for selection. Some states have consolidated their regulatory activities in the power plant siting area to provide for a more unified approach to these problems. Although nuclear plants have by far the most rigorous requirements for documentation of site selection and plant design, the application of the same general philosophies to fossil plants has been made in several states and can be anticipated elsewhere. Individual site-related investigations have not so much changed in basics as they have been enlarged in scope. Whereas in the past the search for siting alternatives was frequently confined to a utility's service area, the additional siting constraints represented in environmental laws, the economies of size of nuclear power plants, and the sharing of plant capacities among utilities have contributed to a widening of the search area. Several states have assumed the responsibility for site search and investigation and their efforts extend state-wide. This paper discusses applications of regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America using case studies made by NUS Corporation, an engineering/environmental consulting firm. The universality of these approaches is indicated, leaving to national policies and goals the importance of values assigned to the basic siting factors

  4. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  5. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: thermal hydraulic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Minoru; Morishima, Atsuyoshi

    1975-02-01

    The thermal-hydraulic data of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States are presented for 85 PWRs and 52 BWRs. Covered are the temperature, pressure, heat flux, flow rate, etc. of coolant and/or fuel cladding; the diffinitions are also given for some of these items. (auth.)

  6. Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-04-01

    The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.

  7. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  8. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  9. Operating trends and performance of nuclear power plants in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galori, F.

    1984-01-01

    The present status and short-term development of nuclear power programmes in IAEA member states is reviewed. A description of the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) is given and the objectives for data collection and treatment are discussed. As indicated by the reports at the IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Power experience in 1982, there are considerable differences in the performances of nuclear power plants even within classes of plants which technically should be very similar and thus perform equally well. PRIS permist at least some preliminary conclusions about the reasons for differences to be drawn. It is becoming clear that reasons for good or bad performance must be sought in a number of factors including: type of plant (on-load/off-load refuelling, GCR, PHWR, LWR); age and vintage of plant; manufacturer of the main plant system; degree of standardization in plant and construction; competence of operating organization; regulatory climate. Analysis of the reported outages shows that major problems are: stress corrosion cracking in primary piping, also denting and wall thinning in tubes of steam generators; thermal fatigue cracking in the feedwater system and excessive errosion/corrosion problems in turbines. It is emphasized that international cooperation is important for creating an effective system for learning from operating experience

  10. Standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States: recent regulatory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B.Z.; Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    On April 18, 1989, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended the regulations governing the process for licensing nuclear power plants in the United States to provide for issuance of early site permits, standard design certifications and combined construction permits and operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. The new regulations are designed to achieve early resolution of licensing issues and facilitate standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States. The program for design standardization is central to efforts mounted by the U.S. government and industry to ensure that there will be a next generation of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. The most significant changes are provisions for certification of standard designs and for issuance prior to start of construction of combined licenses which incorporate a construction permit and an operating license with conditions. Such certifications and combined licenses must contain tests, inspections and analyses, and acceptance criteria, which are necessary and sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the facility has been constructed and will operate in accordance with the combined license. A number of significant implementation issues have arisen. In addition a major court case brought by several anti-nuclear groups is pending, challenging NRC authority to issue combined licenses. It is the goal of the U.S. nuclear industry to have the first of the next generation of standardized nuclear power plants ordered, licensed, constructed and on-line by the year 2000. (author)

  11. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  12. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  13. A state of the art on primary side stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. P.; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Suh, J. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Hur, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    A state of art on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of alloy 600 used as steam generator tubing of nuclear power plant and remedial action on the PWSCC were reviewed and analyzed. One of the major metallurgical factors which have effect on PWSCC is Cr carbide distribution. A semicontinuous intergranular Cr carbide distribution enhance PWSCC of alloy 600. PWSCC rate is reported to be reported to be proportional to exp(-50 cal/RT) σ 4 . PWSCC rate also increase with increase in hydrogen partial pressure from 0 to 150 ppm and then decreased with further increase in hydrogen partial pressure to 757 ppm. Development of PWSCC prediction technology which takes into account tubing material, fabrication process and operating history of steam generator is needed to manage PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. PWSCC has mainly occurred at expansion irregularities within tubesheet, expansion transitions, dented tube support plate intersections and transition and apex of U bend. Remedial actions to PWSCC are sleeving, plugging, temperature reduction, Ni plating, Ni sleeving, shot peening and steam generator replacement in worst case. Option to remedial actions depend on plant specific such as plant age, leak rate from primary to secondary, density and progression of PWSCC. Ni sleeving developed in Framatome seems to be a powerful method because it never subject to PWSCC. Remedial action should be developed and evaluated for possible PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  15. Technology and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18 th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of technology and power plants are summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: ITER EDA Design, ITER Technology R and D, Progress Towards Advanced Performance and Steady State, Compact Cu Burning Plasma Experiments and Neutron Sources, Advanced Materials Research, Power Plant Design and Economic Forecasts, and Conclusions

  16. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  17. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Silva, W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a checklist of the herpetofaunal assemblage from Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant region(UHE Espora, southwestern of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Representatives of 32 amphibian and 71 reptile species wereobtained during faunal monitoring and faunal rescue programs carried out in the study area. The obtained species listand distribution records are here discussed in an attempt to improve the still limited knowledge on Cerradoherpetofaunal assemblages.

  18. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  19. The environment state monitoring around big fossil-fuel power plants exemplified by Belchatow Power Plant. Symposium. Belchatow 29-30 April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The influence of big fossil fuel power plants on environment has been presented. The great variety of that topic aspects has been discussed in respect of Polish conditions taking the Belchatow Power Plants as a representative example. The state of air and soil pollution around Belchatow have been assessed on the ground of hitherto measurements, investigations and monitoring results. The ecological aspects in respect to forest area has been also investigated. The actually existing monitoring wet and other control systems including radiometric measurements has been presented as well as new concepts of their development in the future. Legal aspects and Polish regulations in the interested questions have been also described in detail

  20. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  1. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  3. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  4. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  8. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended

  9. Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants, state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalopoulos, A.P.; Shukla, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art of nuclear power plant design involves the use of design response spectra together with a modal analysis of a mathematical idealization of the actual structure. The design response spectra give the maximum response to ground shaking for a family of single degree-of-freedom viscously damped oscillators. These spectra are usually described as an accelerogram giving ground acceleration as a function of time. The definition of a 'standard' design response spectra is reviewed and illustrated by data relevant to 'hard' or rock sites. Finally, the paper recommends a set of design response spectra applicable to rock sites

  10. Nuclear power plants in electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.; Vokurka, F.

    1985-01-01

    The paper analyzes the demands placed by the power system on operating qualities of nuclear power plants with regard to the prospective tasks of nuclear power in the Czechoslovak power system. The characteristics of the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear plants are given taking into account the frequency and voltage deviations of the network, operating and control properties of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors considering the technical conditions of operation, the required operating schedule of a nuclear power plant unit. For comparison, the demands are summed up of foreign power systems as are the control properties of foreign nuclear power units in regulating output, regulating delivered electric power and in emergency states of the system. Recommendations for further research and development are drawn from the data. (author)

  11. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Solar power plants - State of the art and prospects from the international point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faninger, G.

    Solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems are discussed. The possibilities for solar production of electricity is compared with those for alternative energy sources: running water, wind, waves, and heat gradients in oceans. Solar ponds are briefly discussed. The components of solar-thermal power plants are treated, including concentrators, refractors, collectors, and heliostats. The state of international cooperation and goal-setting is examined along with ways of optimizing solar-thermal systems. The tower and farm concepts of such systems are evaluated. For photovoltaic systems, the state of the art in solar cells, the structure of solar generators, cost factors, and system tests are discussed. The possible contributions of energy satellites are noted.

  13. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  14. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to externally initiated events. The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether or not each external initiator is among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. Four external hazards were investigated in this report. These external hazards are internal fires, high winds/tornadoes, external floods, and transportation accidents. Analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. Using these two figures-of-merit as evaluation criteria, it has been feasible to ascertain whether the risk from externally initiated accidents is, or is not, an important contributor to overall risk for the US nuclear power plants studied. This has been accomplished for each initiator separately. 208 refs., 17 figs., 45 tabs

  15. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  16. Knowledge management for modelling nuclear power plants control in incidental and accidental states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIllerat, P.

    1996-11-01

    A knowledge model uses different techniques of complex systems management. Progress realised in the computer representation of links between different documents allows us to design a software facilitating the comprehension of the model built. This model is a qualitative model of the operators' behaviour in nuclear power plant accidental control. This model concerned three topics closely linked together. The first gives a description of every physical phenomena implied the application of the State-oriented Approach (APE in French) procedures. It's referred as model of process. The second gives a description of every activities used by the operators' team to manage all thermohydraulic incidents and accidents. It's a functional model also referred as tasks model. The quality of the method, based on the Systems' Science, capitalized a know-how simply transferable to design a new software on industrial process to support the operators. (author)

  17. Herpetofauna, Santa Edwiges I and II hydroelectric power plants, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintra, C. E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the area under the influence of Santa Edwiges I and IIsmall hydroelectric power plants on Rio Buritis, state of Goiás, Brazil. The list was the result of faunal rescueoperations carried out between 31 August and 29 September 2005 (Santa Edwiges II and between 30 July and 12September 2006 (Santa Edwiges I. The list comprises 30 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera and 8 families(Caeciliidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Brachycephalidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, andMicrohylidae, and 45 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera and 16 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae,Gekkonidae, Gymnophtalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae,Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.

  18. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  19. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs

  20. The use of Bayesian Networks in Detecting the States of Ventilation Mills in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Vujnović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a new method of predictive maintenance which can detect the states of coal grinding mills in thermal power plants using Bayesian networks. Several possible structures of Bayesian networks are proposed for solving this problem and one of them is implemented and tested on an actual system. This method uses acoustic signals and statistical signal pre-processing tools to compute the inputs of the Bayesian network. After that the network is trained and tested using signals measured in the vicinity of the mill in the period of 2 months. The goal of this algorithm is to increase the efficiency of the coal grinding process and reduce the maintenance cost by eliminating the unnecessary maintenance checks of the system.

  1. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  2. State of the art of earthquake engineering in nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildknecht, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    A brief outline of definitions based on the USNRC, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, and on the plate tectonics and earthquake terminology is given. An introduction into plate tectonics and the associated earthquake phenomena is then presented. Ground motion characteristics are described in connection with the selection of design earthquakes. Mathematical methods of dynamic structural analyses are discussed for linear and nonlinear systems. Response analysis techniques for nuclear power plants are explained considering soil-structure interaction effects. (Auth.)

  3. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  4. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  5. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  6. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ)

  7. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  8. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  9. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F. III.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  10. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Freeman, III, Richard F.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  11. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  12. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  13. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant operation - state of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanescu, George; Lima, Joao E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: stanescu@demec.ufpr.br; joeduli@demec.ufpr.br; Andrade, Carlos de [FIGUEIRA Thermal Power Plant, Figueira, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccarlosaandrade@zipmail.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate, design and improve the thermal systems. The method of exergy analysis or availability analysis is well suited for furthering the goal of increasing the efficiency of existing power generation systems, and the capability of more effective energy resource use. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant is presented. Exergy losses occurring in various components are considered and the exergy balance is shown in tabular form. Results clearly reveal that the steam generator is the principal site of thermodynamic losses, while the condenser is relatively unimportant. (author)

  14. Royal Decree-Law 12/1982 of 27 August regulating State intervention in the Lemoniz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Royal Decree-Law sets out the conditions of intervention by the State in the achievement of the Lemoniz nuclear power plant with a view to accelerating the work. It sets up an Intervention Council responsible for directing the work which is empowered to take the necessary measures for discharging its duties. (NEA) [fr

  15. Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant (Minas Gerais State - Brazil): technical strategic for its elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A. de; Marques Neto, F.P.

    1989-01-01

    The steps for developing the technical strategies used on the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant, Minas Gerais State, are described, including the influence area, technical requirements, impact identification, technical selection of mitigative measures, impact meaning and strategy for evaluating the identified impacts. (C.G.C.)

  16. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... and DPR-60] Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... assessment, and behavioral observation) of the unescorted access authorization program when making the... under consideration to determine whether it met the criteria established in NRC Management Directive (MD...

  17. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  18. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  19. Factors of site selection for nuclear power plants in selected industrial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Obermair, G.; Ringler, W.; Romahn, B.; Sanders, H.

    1978-01-01

    The range of the tasks within the project consists of working out an optimal catalogue of criteria for the site selection for nuclear power plants; establishing a structured documentation system for the criteria and licensing procedures used by selected industrial countries when selecting sites for nuclear power plants; analyzing and evaluating the documented material with the aim of supplying the basis for decisions concerning land use. The tasks are being realized within a technological ring of data (for the period until 1990, reactor types, cooling, power-heat coupling, special sites, block sizes, local concentration) and a set politico-economical ring of data for the following countries: F.R. Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Yougoslavia. (HP) [de

  20. Present state and long term planning on nuclear power plants in principal countries in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Junichi

    1978-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power stations and the long term planning in each major country in the world were summarized, but the situation is changing from time to time, therefore it is difficult to make the long term prediction. The advanced countries in terms of nuclear power established the long term plans to adopt nuclear power generation largely owing to the oil crisis, but thereafter the revision was carried out again and again in respective countries. The developing countries already started the operation of nuclear power generation occupy only 2 to 3% of the total installed capacity in the world, but the countries constructing or planning nuclear power generation are many, and if the operation will be started as scheduled, their capacity will reach 30 million kW by 1985, and occupy about 10% of the total installed capacity of nuclear power generation in the world. As for the range of investigation of this report, the countries where the long term plans are unknown or the number of construction is small, Japan, Great Britain, USA and communist countries are excluded. As a rule, the light water reactors with power output of more than 200,000 kW are listed. The number of nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning stage, national situation, long term plan, and others in each country are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  2. Submarine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The submarine nuclear power plant has revolutionised the strategy and tactics of under-sea warfare. Present day submarine nuclear power plants are discussed, as well as future developments. The endurance, speed, noise and diving depth of nuclear submarines are also outlined. (U.K.)

  3. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  4. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  5. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  6. Dynamic analysis of sulfur dioxide monthly emissions in United States power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 marked a moving away from command-and-control air quality regulations towards a market-based approach, whereby polluters are assigned annual emission allowances, and are free to select the minimum-cost approach that will keep their actual annual emissions within this allowance limit. Within this context, the objectives of this research are to better understand (1) the temporal patterns of SO 2 emissions from power plants, and (2) the factors affecting fuel choice and SO2 emissions. Large power plant-related datasets from various sources are collected, processed, and combined for empirical analyses, to explain monthly fuel shipments, fuel consumptions, sulfur shipments, gross and net SO 2 emissions, and fuel choices. Because of the interdependency of these various sulfur dioxide, simultaneous equations estimation techniques are used. The empirical findings are as follows. First, forecasts of electricity demand and fuel prices are the main determinants of the amounts and types of fuel shipments. The relationship between fuel shipments and forecasted fuel needs is very strong for the current month, and gradually weakens over future months, due to forecasting difficulties and the costs of fuel inventories. Second, net SO2 emissions increase with allowances, although not proportionately, because of the likely effects of allowance banking and trading. Third, each plant reduces SO2 emissions gradually over time, to account for the future more stringent Phase II emissions constraints. Fourth, plants emit less in winter, possibly because higher electricity leads to reduced unit SO2 emission abatement costs. Finally, plants with an FGD usually consume more high-sulfur fuels due to their potential abatement capability. An integrated analysis of the effects of changing emission allowances and installing FGD is conducted through a simulation. Reducing allowances by 1% leads to an emissions reduction of 0.15% at the plant level

  7. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  8. Activities at the electric power research institute to support the modernization of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1998-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States are operating with a vast majority of their original analog instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment. Many of the I and C systems in the plants need to be modernized in a reliable and cost-effective manner to replace obsolete equipment, to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, to improve plant performance, and to maintain safety. The major drivers for the replacement of the safety, control, and information systems in nuclear power plants are the obsolescence of the existing hardware and the need for more cost-effective power production. Competition between power producers is dictating the need for more cost-effective power production. The increasing O and M costs to maintain systems experiencing obsolescence problems is counter to the needs for more cost-effective power production and improved competitiveness. Modern technology, especially digital systems, offers improved functionality, performance, and reliability; solutions to obsolescence of equipment; reduction in O and M costs, and the potential to enhance safety. Digital I and C systems with their inherent advantages will be implemented only if reliable and cost-effective implementation and licensing acceptance is achieved and if the modernized system supports reduced power production costs. Increasing competition will continue to be a major factor in the operation of nuclear power plants. I will continue to dictate the need for improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. EPRI and its members utilities are working together on an industry-wide Instrumentation and Control Program to address I and C issues and to develop cost-effective solutions. (author)

  9. Promoting excellence in nuclear power plant training in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) was formed in late 1979 by U.S. nuclear utilities to enhance the operational safety and reliability of their nuclear plants. One of INPO's major functions is to promote excellence in industry training and qualification programs. To accomplish this objective, INPO develops and uses guidelines and evaluation criteria to assist utilities in developing and implementing high quality training and education programs. The training guidelines permit utilities to develop performance-based programs which meet their specific need with minimal duplication of effort. INPO regularly evaluates each utility's training programs and practices in the plant evaluation and accreditation processes using criteria based on the training guidelines. In the accreditation process, INPO examines training programs and training organizations to determine whether they have the potential to produce individuals qualified to perform assigned tasks. During plant evaluations, INPO examines the implementation of the programs and their effectiveness in producing qualified individuals. After each accreditation review and plant evaluation, INPO recommends improvements and follows up to ensure they are made. (author)

  10. Diversified types and functions and present state of the industry of nuclear power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanobetti, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators must add to their class-room theoretical education a long in-plant practical training, and since the latter should include all sorts of manipulations, including those leading to accidents, it became obvious since the start of the application of nuclear energy to power production that most of the practical training should be carried out on simulators. The previous experience in flight simulation has greatly influenced the industry of nuclear simulators so that the manufacturers of large nuclear simulators have all had previous experience in the manufacture of flight trainers and simulators. Nuclear simulations come from two distinct periods: one preceding the Three Mile Island incident and one following that event which, as it has turned out to be a landmark in the development of so many aspects of the nuclear industry, has greatly influenced that of simulators. The way in which simulators are classified is first examined, and their use worldwide is discussed. (author)

  11. Economic feasibility of heat supply from nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.K.; Oliker, I.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear energy is regarded as competitive for urban district heating applications. Hot water heat transoport systems of up to 50 miles are feasible for heat loads over 1500 MWt, and heat load density of over 130 MWt/mi 2 is most suitable for nuclear applications. An incremental approach and a nuclear plant design provision for future heat extraction are recommended. Nuclear district heating technology status is discussed, particularly turbine design. Results of a study for retrofitting a major existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration operation are presented. The study indicates that for transmission distances up to 20 miles it is economical to generate and transport between 600 and 1200 MWt of district heat (author)

  12. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  13. Radiological impact of commercial nuclear power plant releases in the United States: a 12-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Jason T.; Miller, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants release gaseous and liquid radiological effluents as a byproduct of electrical generation. These releases are monitored by agencies to ensure compliance of regulatory limits. Although these federal entities track effluent releases, they do not currently compile or analyze the entire industry data. Because of this, international organizations, like the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), have not had a reliable source of U.S. effluent data for the last several years. These organizations require the data for evaluating trends and determining population dose. A comprehensive evaluation and analysis of U.S. commercial nuclear power radiological effluents and radiological environmental monitoring programs was conducted for the 12 year period of 1995-2006. Effluent activities were compiled and analyzed and trends were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to show long-term U.S. nuclear industry effluent release patterns. Using UNSCEAR and U.S. NRC dose methodologies, the average collective effective doses and doses to maximally exposed individuals were calculated. Summary data from every plant's radiological environmental monitoring programs were studied to identify the impact of radiological releases. Results of this portion of the research led to an on-site evaluation at one nuclear power plant. The research showed that the entire industry effluent releases have mostly remained level over the study period. Both collective effective doses and doses to maximally exposed individuals were well below regulatory limits. Analysis of the radiological environmental monitoring programs demonstrated that overall, the routine operation of all facilities had no significant or measurable radiological impact to the environment or human health for the study time period. (author)

  14. Design of a steam generator for PWR power plants and steady state simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure and a computer code for the thermal design of a steam generator for PWR power plants is developed. A vertical integral steam generator with inverted U-tubes and natural circulation of the secondary side is selected for modelling. Primary fluid velocity and recirculation ratio are varied to obtain the preliminary dimensions. Further, adjustments are made through iteractive solution of the equations of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. An agreement is found between design calculations for steam generators of different capacities and existing designs. (Author) [pt

  15. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance.

  17. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  18. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  19. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  20. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  1. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  3. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  4. State-of-art report on digital I and C system reliability issues for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Gyoung; Cha, Kyung Ho; Kwon, Kee Choon; Wood, Richard T.

    2000-01-01

    As the instrumentation and control (Iand C) equipment suppliers tend to provide digital components rather than conventional analog type components for instrument and control systems of nuclear power plants(NPPs), it is unavoidable to adopt digital equipment for safety I and C systems as well as non-safety systems. However, the full introduction of digital equipment to I and C systems of nuclear power plants raises several concerns which have not been considered for conventional analog I and C systems. The two major examples of the issues of digital systems are electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and software reliability. KAERI invited a technical expert, Dr. Richard T. Wood, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Unites States and held seminars to recognize the state-of-art of the above issues and to share the information on techniques dealing with the problems. Dr. Wood has been working on the development of EMC guidelines and technical basis in using digital equipment for safety systems in nuclear power plants on the sponsorship of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Being based on his statements and discussions during his visit, this report describes technical considerations and issues on digital safety I and C system application in NPPs, EMC methods, environmental effects vulnerable to digital components, reliability assurance methods, etc. (author)

  5. The state of disposal of wastes from nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Takeshi; Aoki, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We process gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in operation by exclusive facilities safely and appropriately, and make effects to reduce them reasonably. Some Low-level radioactive wastes generated from the NPPs have been disposed into the shallow land disposal site. We adapt safety and reasonable process to reduce the volume of them in the NPPs. For example, concentrated wastewater is reduced by pelletizing and making to the fine particle, and is packaged by solidifying to the drums. The produced waste packages are confirmed to the compatibility with the technological standard by voluntary inspection according to the law, and then are confirmed by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). Then waste packages are transported to the low-level Radioactive Waste Burial Center. We believe that it is important for decommissioning age in future to process and disposed steady of the radioactive wastes in NPPs in operation now. (author)

  6. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Ying [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a `seismic qualification` procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry`s use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  7. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pei-Ying

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a 'seismic qualification' procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry's use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  8. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Analysis of factors influencing the impingement of threadfin shad (Dorosoma pretenense) at power plants in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Griffith, J.S.; Kumar, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    Data on intake design and location, plant operating procedures, water quality, numbers of fish impinged, and sampling procedures were analyzed for 27 fossil-fueled and 5 nuclear power plants located on inland waters in the southeastern United States. Small (less than 9 cm) clupeids, especially threadfin shad (Dorosoma pretenense), comprised the majority of the fish impinged at these facilities. The parameter that was most strongly associated with shad impingement was water temperature. Maximum impingement rates occurred during the winter when intake temperatures dropped below 10 0 C. Analyses of differences in impingement rates between plants failed to adequately demonstrate that the magnitude of impingement at a particular plant was the result of any site-specific characteristics associated with intake design or location. High approach velocities at the traveling screens did not necessarily result in high levels of impingement. Results obtained from inter-unit comparisons at several plants indicate that unit and screen differences do exist, but it is unclear from existing data whether or not such inter-unit differences determine the magnitude of impingement losses or merely affect the distribution of impinged fish at a given intake structure. Recommendations for monitoring fish impingement include the identification of impinged fish by species, collection of data on water temperatures and various plant operational parameters, periodic analyses of localized velocity regimes near the intake, and frequent estimates of the relative density of the fish population in the vicinity of the intake

  10. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  11. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1980-08-01

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  12. Development of Iridium Solid-state Reference Electrode for the Water Chemistry Status Measurement in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Heekwon; Lim, Dongseok; Cho, Jaeseon

    2013-01-01

    The result of ECP measurement of piping material in nuclear power plant at low temperature using the developed iridium (SSRE) reference electrode is approximately -0.370V. Based on the various results of this study, the developed iridium (SSRE) reference electrode can be applied to the water chemistry environments of nuclear power plant. Various metallic materials used in a nuclear power plant have been exposed to a variety of water chemistry environments and the corrosion of metallic materials occurs due to the reactions between metal structures and water chemistry environments. Therefore, the management of the water chemistry factors is needed to prevent corrosion. The chemical factors affecting the corrosion are pH and Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP). The world-wide studies suggest that ECP and pH are effective indicators for preventing the material damage from water chemistry condition. ECP and pH should be measured as the reference electrodes, and should show stable potential characteristics with fast responses. In this study, the iridium reference electrodes using a solid-state metal oxide electrode has been developed to measure effective indicators such as ECP and pH. The iridium (SSRE) reference electrode for the ECP measurement in water chemistry environment of nuclear power plants has been developed. A calibration for water chemistry measurement was performed by potential measurement of iridium (SSRE) reference electrode with Ag/AgCl (SSRE) reference electrode. The result exhibited a stable potential for 117 hours and a super-Nernst ian response with 63.12mV/p H. In this study, the iridium (SSRE) reference electrode shows super-Nernst ian characteristic and it may be caused by the property of electrolytically coated iridium oxide. Considering the long-term stability of the developed electrode, it is possible to apply as a reference electrode through calibration procedure

  13. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP) candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Shazmeen Daniar; Basri, Nor Afifah; Omar, Nurlyana; Koh, Meng-Hock; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saridan Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA) is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point of view of

  14. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Shazmeen Daniar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point

  15. Insights from Siting New Nuclear Power Plants in the Central and Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Clifford G.; Kugler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review for four early site permits and for four standard reactor designs. It is currently reviewing applications for fourteen combined license applications and three additional reactor designs. The staff is applying lessons it has learned from the reviews to date to the review work going forward. The licensing process being used by current applicants differs significantly from that used by the current operating fleet. The previous process required two steps. First an applicant had to obtain a construction permit to build the plant. Then, near the end of construction, the applicant had to obtain an operating license. Under the process in Part 52, an applicant can apply for a combined license (COL) that allows construction and (once certain conditions are met) operation of a new plant - a one-step process. An applicant for a COL may reference an early site permit (ESP13), a standard design certification, both, or neither. In addition to developing Part 52, the NRC also revised CFR Part 100 by adding Subpart B, which includes sections 100.21, 'Non-seismic siting criteria', and 100.23, 'Geologic and seismic siting criteria'. The NRC staff also revised the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) and developed Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, 'Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition).' The NRC staff incorporated into the revision of NUREG-0800 and development of RG 1.206 some early lessons learned from its review of the first three ESPs. Staff work begins before the application is received, as the staff interacts with the applicant to identify issues that will require special treatment or specific staff resources. After the application is submitted, if the NRC finds the application acceptable, the safety and environmental reviews begin, proceeding in parallel. The safety review culminates in the issuance of a safety evaluation report (SER) after it

  16. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  17. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  18. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  19. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  20. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  1. Current State and Future Perspectives for the Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants in the United States. A Regulation Program for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, N. J.

    2004-01-01

    The president of the US NRC, Nils J. Diaz, has at different conferences presented speeches and articles on this view of nuclear and radioactive regulation in this new 21st century. For your interest, a synthesis of this works on this question is presented below in which he explain and analyses the current state and future perspectives for the regulation of nuclear power plants in reference to the USA. (Author)

  2. Atmospheric dispersion analysis in preparing permit applications for the new nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Ping K.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has become an increasingly attractive alternative in the United States (U.S.) power market due to several factors: growing demand for electric power, increasing global competition for fossil fuels, concern over greenhouse gas emissions and their potential impact on global warming, and the desire for energy independence. Currently there are more than 19 utilities and nuclear energy groups in the U.S. have announced plans for new plants to submit permit applications of Early Site Permits (ESP) and/or Combined Licenses (COL). In support of the permit applications, the following assessments are required: potential dispersion of radioactive material from, and the radioactive consequences of, design-basis accidents to aid in evaluating the acceptability of a site and the adequacy of engineered safety features for a nuclear power plants; maximum potential annual radiation dose to the public resulting from the routine release of radioactive materials in gaseous effluent; habitability of the control room during postulated design-basis radiological accidents and hazardous chemical releases; near-real-time atmospheric transport and diffusion estimates immediately following an accidental releases of airborne radioactive material to provide input to the evaluation of the consequences of radiological releases to the atmosphere and to aid in the implementation of emergency response decisions; the potential dispersion of radioactive materials from, and the radiological consequences of, a spectrum of accidents to aid in evaluating the environmental risk posed by a nuclear power plant; and the non-radiological related environmental effects, such as fogging, icing, and salt drift from cooling towers or ponds, to aid in evaluating the environmental impact of a nuclear power plant. The paper presents an overview of dispersion modeling approaches/techniques. Common regulatory conformance issues, particularly regarding (1) available computer modeling tools

  3. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  4. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  5. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  6. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - State-of-the-art and advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical and near-term cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for large-scale, central photovoltaic power stations. Various commercially available PCS hardware suitable for use in today's central photovoltaic power stations are also surveyed. Federal and industrial activities in the research and development of advanced PCSs that will contribute to the attainment of fully competitive, large-scale photovoltaic power stations are reviewed. The status of the DOE central station PCS program is discussed.

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  8. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  9. Power plant design model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartsock, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task

  10. Power conditioning devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Toichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically prevent the liquid level from lowering in a reactor even if a feedwater adjusting valve is locked in a bwr type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Where a feedwater adjusting valve should be locked, and if the mismatching degree between the main steam flow rate and the feedwater flow rate exceeds a predetermined value and the mismatched state continues for a certain period, the value set to a main control for setting the recycling flow rate is changed corresponding to the mismatching degree to compensate the same thereby preventing the liquid level from lowering in the reactor. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  12. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  13. The current state of inservice testing programs at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants - a regulatory overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Colaccino, J.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves at U.S. nuclear power plants to provide consistency in the implementation of regulatory requirements and to enhance communications among utility licensees who may have, like NSSS vendors, similar kinds and numbers of components or comparable IST programs. Documents discussed include the ASME Operation and Maintenance Standards Parts 6 and 10 (covering inservice testing of pumps and valves in light water reactor power plants), the draft NUREG-1482, Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants (including review comments by Nuclear Management and Resource Council), and applicable Licensee Event Reports including summaries of several reports relating to IST

  14. Regional virtual power plant. State of the art; Regionales virtuelles Kraftwerk. Eine Ist-Stand-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Joachim; Meinzenbach, Andrea [TU Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Hartan, Joerg [VNG Gasspeicher GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Automatisierung und Prozessleittechnik; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Rehkopf, Andreas [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2013-04-15

    The politically and socially desired rearrangement of the energy sector in Germany becomes very challenging for the regional and national utility company. In particular, the integration of renewable energy sources into the power structures is mentioned. The activities mainly focus on the electric power sector. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on two current research projects. These research projects look for solutions in order to operate micro-CHP systems in the network in addition to the isolated operation.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  16. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  17. Floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)

  18. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  19. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  20. Flexible NO(x) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Webster, Mort; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Thompson, Tammy; Prinn, Ronald; Ellerman, A Denny; Allen, David T

    2012-05-15

    Emission controls that provide incentives for maximizing reductions in emissions of ozone precursors on days when ozone concentrations are highest have the potential to be cost-effective ozone management strategies. Conventional prescriptive emissions controls or cap-and-trade programs consider all emissions similarly regardless of when they occur, despite the fact that contributions to ozone formation may vary. In contrast, a time-differentiated approach targets emissions reductions on forecasted high ozone days without imposition of additional costs on lower ozone days. This work examines simulations of such dynamic air quality management strategies for NO(x) emissions from electric generating units. Results from a model of day-specific NO(x) pricing applied to the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) portion of the northeastern U.S. electrical grid demonstrate (i) that sufficient flexibility in electricity generation is available to allow power production to be switched from high to low NO(x) emitting facilities, (ii) that the emission price required to induce EGUs to change their strategies for power generation are competitive with other control costs, (iii) that dispatching strategies, which can change the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions, lead to ozone concentration reductions comparable to other control technologies, and (iv) that air quality forecasting is sufficiently accurate to allow EGUs to adapt their power generation strategies.

  1. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  2. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. State of the art in evacuation time estimate studies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanik, T.E.; Jamison, J.D.

    1992-03-01

    In the event of a major accident at a commercial nuclear power station, exposure of the public to airborne radioactive materials can be prevented or greatly reduced by evacuating the area immediately surrounding the reactor site. Reactor licensees are required to conduct studies to estimate the time needed to evacuate the public from the area surrounding each nuclear power station. The results of such studies are used by regulatory personnel and emergency planners to assess the potential effectiveness of protective responses for the public. The time required to evacuate the public from a 10-mile emergency planning radius is estimated by analyzing the available transportation facilities and other relevant conditions within this radius. To support the analysis, data must be collected and assumptions must be made regarding the transportation facilities, the size and characteristics of the population and other conditions in the planning zone. This report describes standard approaches and provides recommendations regarding the relevant information, assumptions and methods to be used in performing evacuation time estimate studies

  4. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  5. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  6. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  8. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  9. Nuclear power plant exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degot, D.

    1987-01-01

    Framatome export expertise is discussed. Framatome can accept different types of contracts - for the supply of nuclear steam supply systems or for nuclear islands (both of which can be produced solely by Framatome) or for complete plants. Cooperation with the local industry is possible -this can involve technology transfer. Examples of exports in the following countries are given; Belgium (where there is close cooperation between Framatome and two major companies), South Africa (where Framatome has been involved in the building of a two-992 MWe unit at Koeberg), South Korea (where Framatome is building two-900 MWe nuclear islands in cooperation with Korean industry, Knu 9 and Knu 10) and China (where Framatome is to build two-1000 MWe class pressurized water reactors at Daya Bay). As well as supplying the French domestic nuclear market Framatome is a major force in the future of nuclear power in the world. (UK)

  10. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  11. Advanced power plant materials, design and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, D. (ed.) [Newcastle University (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute

    2010-07-01

    The book is a comprehensive reference on the state of the art of gas-fired and coal-fired power plants, their major components and performance improvement options. Selected chapters are: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant design and technology by Y. Zhu, and H. C. Frey; Improving thermal cycle efficiency in advanced power plants: water and steam chemistry and materials performance by B. Dooley; Advanced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas separation membrane development for power plants by A. Basile, F. Gallucci, and P. Morrone; Advanced flue gas cleaning systems for sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury emissions control in power plants by S. Miller and B.G. Miller; Advanced flue gas dedusting systems and filters for ash and particulate emissions control in power plants by B.G. Miller; Advanced sensors for combustion monitoring in power plants: towards smart high-density sensor networks by M. Yu and A.K. Gupta; Advanced monitoring and process control technology for coal-fired power plants by Y. Yan; Low-rank coal properties, upgrading and utilisation for improving the fuel flexibility of advanced power plants by T. Dlouhy; Development and integration of underground coal gasification (UCG) for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by M. Green; Development and application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by B. McPherson; and Advanced technologies for syngas and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from fossil-fuel feedstocks in power plants by P. Chiesa.

  12. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. The spherical tokamak fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Voss, G.; Ahn, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a 1GW(e) steady state fusion power plant, based on the spherical tokamak concept, has been further iterated towards a fully self-consistent solution taking account of plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. In particular a plausible solution to exhaust handling is proposed and the steam cycle refined to further improve efficiency. The physics design takes full account of confinement, MHD stability and steady state current drive. It is proposed that such a design may offer a fusion power plant which is easy to maintain: an attractive feature for the power plants following ITER. (author)

  14. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  15. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Dib, Gerges; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2015-01-01

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any 'state-of-the-art' report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  16. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-08

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  17. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  18. Reference commercial fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-09-01

    Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document.

  19. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  20. The state of radioactive waste management and personnel radiation exposure in commercial nuclear power plants in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the release of gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes below the objective release levels, and to store solid wastes in containers on the site. As for the former, the released (radioactive) quantity in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982,) together with the objective levels are given for respective nuclear power stations; and as for the latter, the stored quantity and also the cumulative quantity up to the year are given. Radiation exposure: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the personnel exposure below the permissible level. The personnel exposure dose in fiscal 1981 is given for respective nuclear power station. (Mori, K.)

  1. Power reactors in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the first issue of a periodical computer-based listing of civilian nuclear power reactors in the Member States of the IAEA, presenting the situation as of 1 April 1975. It is intended as a replacement for the Agency's previous annual publication of ''Power and Research Reactors in Member States''. In the new format, the listing contains more information about power reactors in operation, under construction, planned and shut down. As far as possible all the basic design data relating to reactors in operation have been included. In future these data will be included also for other power reactors, so that the publication will serve to give a clear picture of the technical progress achieved. Test and research reactors and critical facilities are no longer listed. Of interest to nuclear power planners, nuclear system designers, nuclear plant operators and interested professional engineers and scientists

  2. Spanish experiment. Three companies are planning huge new solar power plants, without state funding; Spanische Versuchsballons. Drei Unternehmen planen riesige neue Solarkraftwerke - ohne staatliche Unterstuetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco de Saravia, Cristina; Rosell, Alejandro Diego; Siemer, Jochen

    2012-06-15

    Solar projects in Spain are experiencing a comeback, even without financial support from the government. Two manufacturers recently stated their intention to construct PV power plants with a capacity of 250 and 287 MW, respectively, and another project in the 400 MW range was announced already in 2011. Work on the new plants ist to start in 2013 or 2014, but the financing is still unclear.

  3. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  4. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  5. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  6. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  7. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  8. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  9. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  10. Law on the Decommissioning of unit 1 at the state enterprise of the Republic of Lithuania Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This law regulates the legal principles for the decommissioning of unit 1 at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The main deadlines for the government in the preparation for the decommissioning are set in the law. All preparatory works should be finished before the year 2005

  11. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canales-Ruiz, R. [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 78 of the papers. (UK)

  12. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  13. Course in power plant systems interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Like most nuclear engineering programs, the Pennsylvania State Univ. (Penn State) program includes in-depth studies of reactor theory and thermal hydraulics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. The compartmentalization of these topics results in a distinct lack of understanding of the way that typical systems in a nuclear power plant interact to produce the transients that occur in a plant. To correct the deficiency, attempts have been made to develop a comprehensive systems course, which not only educates the students about power plant systems but also teaches them the way they interact. This paper describes the various approaches used and the problems encountered with each approach

  14. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  15. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: Volume 1, Main report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report (NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  16. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  17. A trend to small nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Fernando Soares

    2000-01-01

    The release of fossil fuel greenhouse gases and the depletion of cheap oil reserves outside the Persic Gulf suggest a promising scenario for the future of nuclear power. But the end of the Cold War, the crisis of the state, axiological questions and globalization may lead to a marked for small power plants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these factors, since they are not always considered all together in the future scenarios for nuclear power. It is concluded that the current evolutionary trend of nuclear power projects toward big plants may become one of the main barriers for the introduction of new plants in the future. It is suggested that a combination of fission reactors with technologies unavailable in the 1950's, when the design characteristics of the current nuclear power plants were established, could be considered to overcome this barrier. (author)

  18. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  19. Ecological state of the Rance marine basin after 30 years of functioning of the tidal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retiere, Ch.; Desroy, N.; Bonnot-Courtois, C.; Le Mao, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Rance basin on the Brittany coast (France) is the unique site in the world where the long term ecological impacts of the functioning of a tidal power plant can be evaluated. Two aspects are distinguished: the consequences due to the building the plant and those due to the functioning of the plant. During the building of the barrage which lasted 3 years, the estuary was isolated from the sea and led to an increase of sedimentation and organic matter and to important variations of the water salinity. Thus the whole marine flora and fauna disappeared. Today, the operation of the plant has changed the rhythm and amplitude of the tide inside the basin. Ten to fifteen years were necessary for the marine fauna and flora to recover a new equilibrium inside the basin after the plant was built. The functioning of the new ecosystem is governed by the relationship between species independently of the initial perturbation and its equilibrium is based on the regular functioning of the plant. (J.S.)

  20. Network modelling of palm biodiesel plants to supply the isolated electric power systems of Pará state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassyo Jorge Gonçalves Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great advance brought by the National Interconnected System (NIS, which is able to provide clean hydroelectric power to almost all Brazilian customers, there are still cities supplied by power generated from fossil fuel, which are subsidized by taxes, they are called Isolated Electric Power Systems (IEPS. Pará State, that has 34 cities with IEPS, also has potential to crop raw material (palm and sugar cane to produce biodiesel for power generation. Our study analyzes the supply and distribution network of biodiesel under some scenarios of waterways availability, considering that they are also source of power to the NIS by the construction of hydroelectric dams. We develop specific demand and facility location models and apply them to the scenarios. Our results point to the efficiency of the generated models, the importance of three cities for the network, and to the little impact of some waterways in the total transportation costs.

  1. Automation technology in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this article a summery of the current architecture of modern process control systems in power plants and future trends have been explained. The further development of process control systems for power plants is influenced both by the developments in component and software technologies as well as the increased requirements of the power plants. The convenient and low cost configuration facilities of new process control systems have now reached a significance which makes it easy for customers to decide to purchase. (A.B.)

  2. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  3. Nuclear power plant in whose backyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.

    1981-01-01

    The authority to regulate the nuclear power industry resides largely with the federal government. But states have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of their citizens and to regulate land use within their borders. The siting of nuclear power plants can engender conflicts between these jurisdictions that are usually resolved in the courts. Most state challenges to federal control of nuclear power have been struck down or severely weakened by the preemption doctrine contained in the supremacy clause of Article VI of the Constitution, which provides for the preemption of federal law over state law in the event of direct conflict. The existing avenues for state control over siting and operation of nuclear power plants can be greatly strengthened while avoiding direct conflict with federal jurisdiction

  4. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  5. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  6. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  7. An analyser for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.E.; Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of power plants is essential. Power plant operators need a forecast of what the plant will do when its current state is disturbed. The in-line plant analyser provides precisely this information at relatively low cost. The plant analyser scheme uses a mathematical model of the dynamic behaviour of the plant to establish a numerical simulation. Over a period of time, the simulation is calibrated with measurements from the particular plant in which it is used. The analyser then provides a reference against which to evaluate the plant's current behaviour. It can be used to alert the operator to any atypical excursions or combinations of readings that indicate malfunction or off-normal conditions that, as the Three Mile Island event suggests, are not easily recognised by operators. In a look-ahead mode, it can forecast the behaviour resulting from an intended change in settings or operating conditions. Then, when such changes are made, the plant's behaviour can be tracked against the forecast in order to assure that the plant is behaving as expected. It can be used to investigate malfunctions that have occurred and test possible adjustments in operating procedures. Finally, it can be used to consider how far from the limits of performance the elements of the plant are operating. Then by adjusting settings, the required power can be generated with as little stress as possible on the equipment. (6 figures) (Author)

  8. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  9. Modeling of Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spacil, D.; Santarius, P. [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Electrical Measurement, FEECS, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava- Poruba (Czech Republic); Dobrucky, B. [University of Zilina, Department of Mechatronics and Electronics, FEE, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01

    The electrical power produced by the wind power plant has increased in the last years in the world and probably will increase further in the future. Therefore, wind power plants have a significant influence on the power production. In this article the connection of the wind turbine to a grid is described in order to determine the impact of the existing wind turbines as well as planned wind turbines on the grid and ensure the proper functioning of the wind turbine. The purpose of the presented work is to find an analytical generator model for the simulation of the wind power plant and determine the influence on the grid by programming with Matlab/Simulink.

  10. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  11. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  12. Summary of historical experience with release of radioactive materials from commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, V.L.; Colbert, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents a summary of the historical experience concerning releases of radiactive materials from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The material was compiled specifically to provide background information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NCR) Staff Evaluation of the proposed NCR Safety Goals. The types of available data on radioactive emissions are identified, reviewed, and summarized. The annual 50-year population radiation dose commitments for the annular regions between 2 and 80 km of each plant resulting from the radioactive emissions are summarized for the period 1975-1981. These doses are compared with the annual population dose commitments from natural background radiation for the same areas, and with the proposed NCR societal safety goal. The question of independent verification of licensee data on emissions is examined

  13. Education and training of nuclear power plant staff in the GDR - state of the art and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Schulz, K.D.; Mertins, M.; Rabold, H.

    1989-01-01

    Starting from the regulations applicable in the GDR as to the requirements on both qualification and education and training of NPP staff to ensure nuclear safety and radiation protection, the practice observed in the GDR is described and elucidated. On the example of the reactor operator whose education is considered the basic education for many other activities related to nuclear power plant operation the individual stages of education and training are presented and evaluated from the points of view of time, contents, and method. Central importance in this respect has an NPP simulator developed in the GDR for reactors of the WWER-440/W-213 type. (author)

  14. Reactor power control device in BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for controlling reactor power based on a start-up/shut down program in a BWR type reactor, as well as for detecting deviation, if occurs, of the power from the start-up/shut down program, to control a recycling flow rate control system or control rod drive mechanisms. Namely, a power instruction section successively executes the start-up/shut down program and controls the coolant recycling system and the control rod driving mechanisms to control the power. A current state monitoring and calculation section receives a process amount, calculates parameters showing the plant state, compares/monitors them with predetermined values, detecting the deviation, if occurs, of the plant state from the start-up/shut down program, and prevents output of a power increase control signal which leads to power increase. A forecasting and monitoring/calculation section forecasts and calculates the plant state when not yet executed steps of the start-up/shut down program are performed, stops the execution of the start-up/shut down program in the next step in a case of forecasting that the results of the calculation will deviate from the start-up/shut down program. (I.S.)

  15. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  16. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  17. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csilla

    2009-01-01

    Operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) are generally subject to routine reviews of plant operation and special safety reviews following operational events. In addition, many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have initiated systematic safety reassessment, termed periodic safety review (PSR), to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments, site specific, organizational and human aspects. These reviews include assessments of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices. PSRs are considered an effective way of obtaining an overall view of actual plant safety, to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. PSRs can be used as a means to identify time limiting features of the plant. The trend is to use PSR as a condition for deciding whether to continue operation of the plant beyond the originally established design lifetime and for assessing the status of the plant for long term operation. To assist Member States in the implementation of PSR, the IAEA develops safety standards, technical documents and provides different services: training courses, workshops, technical meetings and safety review missions for the independent assessment of the PSR at NPPs, including the requirements for PSR, the review process and the PSR final reports. This paper describes the PSR's objectives, scopes, methods and the relationship of PSR with other plant safety related activities and recent experiences of Member States in implementation of PSRs at NPPs. (author)

  18. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  19. Reorganization of the Lithuanian State Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskevicius, V.

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with preasent situation in energy sector in Lithuania. All power plants with installed capacity of 2561 MW, except Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (3000 MW) belongs to Lithuanian State Power System (LSPS) as well transmission and distribution networks. In 1989-1991 Lithuania generated approximately 29TWh of electricity annually from which 12TWh LSPS exported to neighbouring countries. After 1990 in the transitional period from planned economy to the marked one, the economic situation in the country became complicated. The electricity demand has fallen nearly 40%. Due to the similar situation in neighboring countries the electricity export has decreased too. The article presents the distribution of electric power output in 1994 by power plants; electric power consumption and output of power plants in Lithuania from 1940 to 1994 is also included. Some aspects of regional cooperation of tree Baltic countries in energy area is touched too. 3 figs

  20. Simulation technology for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Kazuo; Yanai, Katsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In the simulation of nuclear power stations, there are the simulation for the training of plant operation, the plant simulation for analyzing the operation of an electric power system, the simulation for controlling a core, the simulation for the safety analysis of reactors, the simulation for the design analysis of plants and so on as the typical ones. The outline and the technical features of these simulations are described. With the increase of capacity and complexity of thermal power plants, recently the automation of operation has advanced rapidly. The chance of starting up and stopping plants by operators themselves is few, and the chance of actually experiencing troubles also is few as the reliability of plants improved. In order to maintain the ability of coping with plant abnormality, an operation supporting system is strongly demanded. Operation training simulators and used widely now, and there are the simulators for analysis, those of replica type, those of versatile compact type and so on. The system configuration, modeling techniques, training function and others of the replica type are explained. In hydroelectric plants, the behavior of water in penstocks, the characteristics of water turbines, the speed control system for water turbines and the characteristics of generators become the main subjects of simulation. These are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  2. A regional scale model for ozone in the United States with subgrid representation of urban and power plant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillman, S.; Logan, J.A.; Wofsy, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to modeling regional air chemistry is presented for application to industrialized regions such as the continental US. Rural chemistry and transport are simulated using a coarse grid, while chemistry and transport in urban and power plant plumes are represented by detailed subgrid models. Emissions from urban and power plant sources are processed in generalized plumes where chemistry and dilution proceed for 8-12 hours before mixing with air in a large resolution element. A realistic fraction of pollutants reacts under high-NO x conditions, and NO x is removed significantly before dispersal. Results from this model are compared with results from grid odels that do not distinguish plumes and with observational data defining regional ozone distributions. Grid models with coarse resolution are found to artificially disperse NO x over rural areas, therefore overestimating rural levels of both NO x and O 3 . Regional net ozone production is too high in coarse grid models, because production of O 3 is more efficient per molecule of NO x in the low-concentration regime of rural areas than in heavily polluted plumes from major emission sources. Ozone levels simulated by this model are shown to agree with observations in urban plumes and in rural regions. The model reproduces accurately average regional and peak ozone concentrations observed during a 4-day ozone episode. Computational costs for the model are reduced 25-to 100-fold as compared to fine-mesh models

  3. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  4. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  5. Plant operation state monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masanori; Babuchi, Katsumi; Arato, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The system of the present invention accurately monitors a plant operation state of a plant, such as a nuclear power plant and a thermal power plant by using high temperature water, based on water quality informations. That is, water quality informations for the objective portion by using an electrochemical water quality sensor disposed in the objective portion to be monitored in the plant are continuously extracted for a predetermined period of time. Water quality is evaluated based on the extracted information. Obtained results for water quality evaluation and predetermined reference values of the plant operation handling are compared. Necessary part among the results of the measurement is displayed or recorded. The predetermined period of time described above is a period that the water quality information reaches at least a predetermined value or a period that the predetermined value is estimated by the water quality information, and it is defined as a period capable of measuring the information for three months continuously. The measurement is preferably conducted continuously in a period up to each periodical inspection on about every one year. (I.S.)

  6. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamiya, Shu; Inagaki, Shuichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    The plant of the present invention can suppress the amount of clad in feedwater when drains of a moisture content separation heater or a high pressure feedwater heater are recovered. That is, the moisture content separation heater has ferrite or austenite type stainless steel heat transfer pipes. A chromium-enriched layer is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe by chromizing treatment or flame spraying. Then, a stainless steel heat transfer pipe having chromium-enriched layer is incorporated to at least one of the moisture content separation heater or the high pressure feedwater heater. During plant operation, the temperature of heated steams is as high as 235 to 282degC. Accordingly, this is a severe corrosion region for ferrite or austenite stainless steel. However, the chromium-enriched layer of excellent corrosion resistance is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe. Accordingly, metal ingredients are less leached. As a result, even if the drains are recovered to feedwater, increase of concentration of the clads in the feedwater can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  9. Application of limit state design to outdoor important civil engineering reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    As for the basic concept and the procedure of the aseismatic design of nuclear power structures, it is the present state to verify the safety by allowable stress design method, but the necessity of considering the limit state in the safety verification of these structures has been pointed out. For the purpose of clarifying the technique and procedure when limit state design method is applied to the aseismatic design of important civil engineering structures in outdoors of nuclear power stations and contributing to the rationalization of aseismatic design, aiming at completing the safety verification manual for designers, as the research on the standardization of the aseismatic design of A class civil engineering structures considering the limit state, the deliberation of the contents of research has been carried out. The outline of the manual expected to be published soon is described. The items of research, the constitution of the manual, the features of the manual, the basic concept of safety verification, the calculation of design seismic load, the method of verification for reinforced concrete structures and the verifying experiment are described. (K.I.)

  10. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  11. Capital investment costs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to summarize capital cost experience and estimates in industrialized and developing Member States of the IAEA, and to provide some guidance for cost extrapolation. The relative merits of different types and sizes of nuclear and conventional power plants for an expanding electricity generation system are compared over an adequate planning period

  12. Modernization of turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing goal in the power generation industry is to maximize the output of currently installed assets. This is most important at nuclear power plants due to the large capital investments that went into these plants and their base loaded service demands. Recent trends in the United States show a majority of nuclear plants are either obtaining, or are in the process of obtaining NRC approvals for operating license extensions and power uprates. This trend is evident in other countries as well. For example, all Swedish nuclear power plants are currently working on projects to extend their service life and maximize capacity through thermal uprate and turbine-generator upgrade with newest technology. The replacement of key components with improved ones is a means of optimizing the service life and availability of power plants. Economic advantages result from increased efficiency, higher output, shorter startup and shutdown times as well as reduced outage times and service costs. The rapid advances over recent years in the development of calculation programs enables adaptation of the latest blading technology to the special requirements imposed by steam turbine upgrading. This results in significant potential for generating additional output with the implementation of new technology, even without increased thermal power. In contrast to maintenance and investment in pure replacement or repair of a component with the primary goal of maintaining operability and reliability, the additional output gained by upgrading enables a return on investment to be reaped. (orig.)

  13. Macro-localization study of a commercial CAREM nuclear power plant in the province of Formosa : state of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torino Araoz, Ines

    2011-01-01

    The framework agreement signed between Formosa Province and the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in order to establish formal relations of cooperation with regard to projects of common interest, research and development, technology services, human resource training in the areas inherent to CNEA functions, resulted in a specific agreement in order to analyze the potential location of a CAREM commercial nuclear power plant in the Province. Thus, the site survey study which is under development aims at the determination of one or more sites, which meet the criteria set - security related and not related - and is/are eligible for the installation of the plant. The site selection methodology used to develop the study was based on documentation and bibliography of the International Atomic Energy Agency and CNEA. Taking into account these references, the study began divided into 3 levels; currently, Level I is approved and the analysis of Level II is completed. Each of these levels covers different aspects that must be evaluated during the selection process. That one is a complex analysis, which was carried out through the participation and joint efforts of a multidisciplinary team consisting of CNEA’s staff and the Province of Formosa, which in turn had the cooperation of various institutions. Partial results of the Level II document, determine the pre selection of three potential areas in the province. In turn, it is important to remember that the site survey (regional) study is the first stage in the selection process. Then, the site evaluation stage (micro siting study) and the preparation of the Preliminary Safety Report have to be implemented, in order to establish the definitive site for the plant installation. (author) [es

  14. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  15. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  16. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  17. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emilio; French, Amanda; Urso, Maria Elena; Deffrennes, Marc; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Carroll, Simon; Daniska, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  19. A BWR power plant simulator for Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    la Cour Christensen, P.; Hvidtfeldt Larsen, A.M.

    1985-07-01

    A computer simulator of a Barsebaeck power plant unit has been developed in cooperation between Sydkraft AB, Lund Institute of Technology, and Risoe National Laboratory. The simulator is of the kind often referred to as a compact simulator, because it involves only a computer with display screens and other input/output devices plus the software needed for calculation and presentation of the plant state as a function of time, and no sort of model of the control room as in large reactor simulators for operator training. The purpose of training courses with the compact simulator is to give students a better understanding of the behaviour of the power plant under transient conditions by displaying variables, e.g. pressures, temperatures, reactivity, nuclear power, as functions of time, thereby showing the interactions between different parts of the plant during the transient and the influence of a number of possible operator actions. The present paper describes the Barsebaeck compact simulator with the emphasis on the software developed at Risoe National Laboratory. The Risoe work comprises the programming of the dynamic plant model, in the form of a number of Fortran subroutines containing the physical description of the power plant. (author)

  20. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  1. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  2. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  3. Safety criteria for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Finland the general safety requirements for nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91). In this guide, safety principles which supplement the Council of State Decision and which are to be used in the design of nuclear power plants are defined

  4. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  5. Trend analysis of nuclear reactor automatic trip events subjected to operator's human error at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Trends in nuclear reactor automatic trip events due to human errors during plant operating mode have been analyzed by extracting 20 events which took place in the United States during the period of seven years from 2002 to 2008, cited in the LERs (Licensee Event Reports) submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It was shown that the yearly number of events was relatively large before 2005, and thereafter the number decreased. A period of stable operation, in which the yearly number was kept very small, continued for about three years, and then the yearly number turned to increase again. Before 2005, automatic trip events occurred more frequently during periodic inspections or start-up/shut-down operations. The recent trends, however, indicate that trip events became more frequent due to human errors during daily operations. Human errors were mostly caused by the self-conceit and carelessness of operators through the whole period. The before mentioned trends in the yearly number of events might be explained as follows. The decrease in the automatic trip events is attributed to sharing trouble information, leading as a consequence to improvement of the manual and training for the operations which have a higher potential risk of automatic trip. Then, while the period of stable operation continued, some operators came to pay less attention to preventing human errors and not interest in the training, leading to automatic trip events in reality due to miss-operation. From these analyses on trouble experiences in the US, we learnt the followings to prevent the occurrence similar troubles in Japan: Operators should be thoroughly skilled in basic actions to prevent human errors as persons concerned. And it should be further emphasized that they should elaborate by imaging actual plant operations even though the simulator training gives them successful experiences. (author)

  6. Management strategies for nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    More competitive energy markets have significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including, among others, the need for more efficient use of resources and effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Outage management is a key factor for safe, reliable and economic plant performance and involves many aspects: plant policy, coordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements, and all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. The IAEA has produced this report on nuclear power plant outage management strategies to provide both a summary and an update of a follow-up to a series of technical documents related to practices regarding outage management and cost effective maintenance. The aim of this publication is to identify good practices in outage management: outage planning and preparation, outage execution and post-outage review. As in in the related technical documents, this report aims to communicate these practices in such a way that they can be used by operating organizations and regulatory bodies in Member States. The report was prepared as part of an IAEA project on continuous process improvement. The objective of this project is to increase Member State capabilities in improving plant performance and competitiveness through the utilization of proven engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA

  7. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  8. Shaping a Geothermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouma, John

    1980-12-01

    The design comprises a ''grassroots'' geothermal steam electric generating plant located approximately 34 miles west of the city of Los Alamos. The plant is located on the Baca Ranch in the Redondo Creek area some 4-1/2 miles north of the southwest entrance of the ranch. This plant will utilize the geothermal brine well system that has been explored by the Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico. The gross plant capacity will be approximately 50,000 kW and will not be expanded since well gathering beyond a 50 MW generating capacity is considered uneconomical. The plant is generally comprised of four major building blocks, namely the power building, the cooling tower and intake structure, the switchyard and the H{sub 2}S abatement system. Some twelve (12) alternatives were studied for economic and technical feasibility. In addition some innovative design concepts were applied to arrive at a functional and cost effective design. The plant incorporates a hydrogen sulfide emission abatement system, the design of which has been guaranteed by the equipment manufacturer to meet the specified emission limits.

  9. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  10. Siting commercial fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-09-01

    This document discusses siting requirements for fusion power plants. The current concept of the reference first commercial reactors was developed from analysis of the characteristics of current design concepts. Because those reactors use the deuterium-tritium fuel reaction, large quantities of activation products and tritium are created and must be considered as potential sources of radiation doses (Young, 1976 and Young and Gore, 1976). However, advanced reactors using fuel reactions that neither consume nor create radionuclides are briefly considered

  11. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  12. Availability of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Availability data based on unique uniform, and clearly defined concepts and methods of acquisition have been compiled by the VGB since 1970. The data are published in anual reports. These reports contain availability data of fossil-fuelled units, combined gas/steam units, nuclear power plants, and gas turbine plants in Germany and abroad, listed by unit size fuel type, time of operation, and application. For the purpose of comparison, the data for the years since 1970 are presented as well as data averaged for the whole period under report. The main results for the year 1980 are presented now that the greater part of the plants has been evaluated. The complete evaluation will be published towards the end of 1981. (orig.) [de

  13. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  14. Risk monitors - The State of the Art in their Development and Use at Nuclear Power Plants - Produced on behalf of IAEA and OECD/NEA WGRisk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, C.H.; Yllera, F.J.; Kaufer, B.; Henneke, D.W.; Gaynor, D.; Sedlak, J.; Evans, M.G.K.; Boneham, P.; Horne, B.; Guymer, P.; Hatfield, M.; Hewitt, J.; Shanley, L.; Sorman, J.; Chao, C.C.; Pullen, R.; Reinhart, F.M.; Lantaron, A.; Huerta, A.; Vojnovic, D.; Hollo, E.; Fukuda, M.; De Gelder, P.; Schulz, R.; Lanore, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the state-of-the-art in the development and use of Risk Monitors at nuclear power plants in the Member States. The work has been carried out jointly by IAEA and OECD WGRisk. The information presented in this report has been obtained from three questionnaires on the development and use of Risk Monitors, software and Regulatory perspectives; from OECD and IAEA Workshops on Risk Monitors; and from IAEA consultants meetings and WGRisk Task Group meetings. Some of the work carried out to produce the report has been funded by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. The aim is to produce a report that describes the state of the art in the development of Risk Monitors and their use at nuclear power plants. This will: - define the terminology that relates to Risk Monitors as used in this report, - describe the state of the art in the development and use of Risk Monitors at nuclear power plants, and indicate future developments, - provide information on the software packages available for Risk Monitors, - identify the issues that need to be addressed in the development of a Living PSA for use in a Risk Monitor application and give guidance on how these issues can be resolved, - give information on the issues relating to the design of the Risk Monitor operator interface so that it gives a tool that can be used by all station staff, - discuss the issues that relate to the qualitative and quantitative risk measures addressed by Risk Monitors such as the definition of the Operational Safety Criteria which define the risk levels, the calculation of the Allowed Configuration Time and the definition of the qualitative risk levels that relate to the availability of safety systems, - give insights into the costs involved, the benefits that can be obtained from Risk Monitors and their limitations, and - discuss the regulatory perspective on the use of Risk Monitors to provide risk information that can be used during nuclear power

  15. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The general requirements applicable to the quality assurance of the Finnish nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91) and in the guide YVL 1.4. This guide specifies the quality assurance requirements to be applied during the operation of the nuclear power plants as well as of the other nuclear facilities. Quality assurance applies to all the activities and organizations with a bearing on the safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (5 refs.)

  16. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Fusion power plant simulations: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M.; Pattern, J.S.; Amend, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the fusion systems analysis at ANL is to develop simulations to compare alternative conceptual designs of magnetically confined fusion power plants. The power plant computer simulation progress is described. Some system studies are also discussed. (MOW)

  18. Robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1985-01-01

    In many industrial applications of robots, the objective is to replace human workers with machines that are more productive, efficient, and accurate. But for nuclear applications, the objective is not so much to replace workers as it is to extend their presence - for example, to project their reach into areas of a nuclear plant where the thermal or radiation environment prohibits or limits a human presence. The economic motivation to use robots for nuclear plant inspection and maintenance is centered on their potential for improving plant availability; a by-product is the potential for reducing the occupational radiation exposure of plant personnel. Robotic equipment in nuclear applications may be divided into two broad categories: single-purpose devices with limited ability to perform different operations, and reprogrammable, multi-purpose robots with some degree of computer-based artificial intelligence. Preliminary assessments of the potential for applying robotics in nuclear power plants - mainly at surveillance and inspection tasks - have been carried out. Future developments are considered

  19. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  20. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  1. Power control of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mendes, J.E. de

    1986-01-01

    The systems for the power control of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 have a high degree of automation so that few operator actions are required during power operation. The power control strategy and the operation principles of the control systems, here presented, make possible a great flexibility of the Plant operation. (Author) [pt

  2. Availability Performance Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Navneet Singh; Singh, Rupinder; Pahuja, G. L.

    2018-03-01

    This case study presents the availability evaluation method of thermal power plants for conducting performance analysis in Indian environment. A generic availability model has been proposed for a maintained system (thermal plants) using reliability block diagrams and fault tree analysis. The availability indices have been evaluated under realistic working environment using inclusion exclusion principle. Four year failure database has been used to compute availability for different combinatory of plant capacity, that is, full working state, reduced capacity or failure state. Availability is found to be very less even at full rated capacity (440 MW) which is not acceptable especially in prevailing energy scenario. One of the probable reason for this may be the difference in the age/health of existing thermal power plants which requires special attention of each unit from case to case basis. The maintenance techniques being used are conventional (50 years old) and improper in context of the modern equipment, which further aggravate the problem of low availability. This study highlights procedure for finding critical plants/units/subsystems and helps in deciding preventive maintenance program.

  3. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Record of... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) related to providing financial assistance to the Oglethorpe Power...

  4. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  5. Power control device of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Shiro; Ito, Takero.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the power controllability of an atomic power plant by improving the controllability, response and stability of the recirculation flow rate. Constitution: The power control device comprises a power detector of the reactor, which detects and operates the reactor power from the thermal power, neutron flux or the process quantity controlling the same, and a deviation detector which seeks deviation between the power signal of the power detector and the power set value of the reactor or power station. By use of the power control device constituted in this manner, the core flow rate is regulated by the power signal of the deviation detector thereby to control the power. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Heat Rate Enhancement of IGCC Power Plant Coupled with Solar thermal power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kotdawala, Rasesh R; V., Jyothi; Kanaujia, Gaurav; Adapa, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Integrated gasification  combined cycle power plant (IGCC) has shown the potential of having higher operating thermal efficiency, than supercritical thermal power plants as it combines the advantages of coal gasification and combined cycle power plant. Solar thermal plant has shown great promise to augment the thermal efficiency of the fossil based power plants and reducing CO2 emissions. In this research paper, impact of integrating solar thermal power plant utilizing linear Fresnel collecto...

  7. Intelligent power plant simulator for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifi, A.; Seifi, H.; Ansari, M. R.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.

    2001-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring System can be effectively employed for a power plant simulator so that the need for instructor in minimized. In this paper using the above concept as well as object oriented programming and SIMULINK Toolbox of MATLAB, an intelligent tutoring power plant simulator is proposed. Its successful application on a typical 11 MW power plant is demonstrated

  8. A study on advanced man-machine interface system for autonomous nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Fukuto, Junji; Sugasawa, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Keiko; Someya, Minoru; Haraki, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    A man-machine interface(MMI) system of an autonomous nuclear power plant has an advanced function compared with that of the present nuclear power plants. The MMI has a function model of a plant state, and updates and revises this function model by itself. This paper describes the concept of autonomous nuclear power plants, a plant simulator of an autonomous power plant, a contracted function model of a plant state, three-dimensional color graphic display of a plant state, and an event-tree like expression for plant states. (author)

  9. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  10. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...... converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  11. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  12. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Licensing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1984-01-01

    De Witt, who as an advocate represents the interests of citizen's initiatives in lawsuits concerning nuclear power plants, contests an independent scope of discretion of the administration and criticizes the reduction of the control density of courts which can be noticed recently. The shift of emphasis from the courts to the administration would not only change the balance within the constitutional separation of powers but could also lead to a weakening of the protection of fundamental rights. When assessing the technical risks he wants above all to take into account the possible extent of the damage. De Witt also shows that - beyond the discretion of refusal according to section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act and the exertion of influence of the executive on public utilities - it could be possible to develop means - not used until now - to control the social impacts of nuclear energy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  15. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors'', and 10 CFR 50... species under the Endangered Species Act, or impacts to essential fish habitat covered by the Magnuson...

  16. ORC-mall scale power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1998-12-31

    In the conversion of low temperature heat into electricity, the greatest efficiency is obtained by using a Rankine cycle. The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle where an organic fluid is used instead of water as the working fluid. In the conventional ORC-solution, an axial turbine drives a standard generator through a high-speed gearbox. The system includes a separate feed pump, vacuum pump, lubrication system and requires several saft seals. The seals of the turbine have a limited working life in particular due to the high speed required. Thus, the entire present conventional ORC-plant is rather complicated and requires maintenance. To avoid these problems, a project was initiated at the Lappeenranta University of Technology to develop a high-speed, process fluid lubricated turbogenerator-feed pump as the prime mover of the ORC. The project has been continued in co-operation with the Helsinki University of Technology under the NEMO 2 program, the main goal being to build a demonstration power plant and to commercialise the project. The goals of the project were: (1) to model the ORC process, turbogenerator, and inverter, (2) to simulate the power plant in different normal and abnormal states, (3) to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various control systems, (4) to study network disturbances such as voltage and current harmonics and to research ways of reducing these disturbances, (5) to optimise heat exchanging surfaces and process parameters, and (6) to participate in the design of the demonstration power plant

  17. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  18. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  19. Method of operating BWR type power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation efficiency of BWR type reactors by reducing the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start-up of the turbine and electrical generator, as well as decrease the pressure difference in each of the sections of the pressure vessel to thereby extend its life span. Method: The operation comprises switching the nuclear reactor from the shutdown mode to the start-up mode, increasing the reactor power to a predetermined level lower than a rated power while maintaining the reactor pressure to a predetermined level lower than a rated pressure, starting up a turbine and an electrical generator in the state of the predetermined reactor pressure and the reactor power to connect the electrical generator to the power transmission system and, thereafter, increasing the reactor pressure and the reactor power to the predetermined rated pressure and rated power respectively. This can shorten the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start of the power transmission system, whereby the operation efficiency of the power plant can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  1. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  2. Simulators for training nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  5. Energy analysis and projecting of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirlow, K.

    1975-01-01

    Energy analysis aims at a better explanation of energy flow and energy exchange at different production processes. In this report the energy budget is analysed for separate nuclear power plants and for expanding systems of power plants. A mathematical model is developed for linear and exponential expanding of nuclear power. The profitableness for nuclear power plants in Sweden is considered to be good. (K.K.)

  6. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  7. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    . To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow...... measured current at medium voltage, thus reducing the tap moving operations. Finally, due to the wind power plant reactive power is sized for maximum active power level, it is expected that a big amount of reactive power remains unused most of the time due to the wind power generation characteristics...

  8. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  9. Grid Integration Issues for Large Scale Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    transmission system operators (TSOs) over the world have come up the grid codes to request the wind power plants (WPPs) to have more or less the same operating capability as the conventional power plants. The grid codes requirements from other TSOs are under development. This paper covers the steady state......The penetration level of wind power into the power system over the world have been increasing very fast in the last few years and is still keeping the fast growth rate. It is just a matter of time that the wind power will be comparable to the conventional power generation. Therefore, many...

  10. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  11. United States Department of Energy's reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage

  12. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  13. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  14. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  15. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  16. Vulnerability of the nuclear power plant in war conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the summer 1991 the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko in Slovenia found itself in the area of military operations. This way probably the first commercial nuclear power plant, to which it was threatened with the air jet attack. A number of never before asked questions had to be answered by the operating staff and supporting organizations. In this paper some aspects of the nuclear power plant safety in war condition are described: the selection of the best plant operating state before the attack and the determination of plant system vulnerability. It was concluded, that the best operating mode, into which the plant should be brought before the attack, is the cold shutdown mode. The problem of Nuclear Power Plant safety in war conditions should be addressed in more detail in the future. (author) [sl

  17. Romanian achievement in hydro-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, M.; Bara, T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with the achievements relating to Hydro-electric Power Plants within the process of development of the National Power System in Romania. Also presented is the Romanian industry contribution to hydro-electrical power plant equipment manufacturing. (author)

  18. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  20. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  1. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  2. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  3. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...... capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...

  4. Construction-man hour estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study centers on a statistical analysis of the preliminary construction time, main construction time, and total construction man hours of nuclear power plants. The use of these econometric techniques allows the major man hour driving variables to be identified through multivariate analysis of time-series data on over 80 United States nuclear power plants. The analysis made in this study provides a clearer picture of the dynamic changes that have occurred in the man hours of these plants when compared to engineering estimates of man hours, and produces a tool that can be used to project nuclear power plant man hours

  5. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  6. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Nuclear power plant safety under military threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Krsko nuclear power plant in Slovenia was probably the first in the world that found itself in the middle of a war region. A number of preventive measures performed during and immediately after the war in summer 1991 by the plant personnel as well as some of related activities of the Reactor Engineering Division of the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute are described. All efforts were aimed at the minimization of the possible public radiological consequences during a military attack. The critical safety functions in such conditions were checked. Concern was further devoted to maintenance of the core cooling in the core and to integrity of the spent fuel pit. The cold shutdown mode was found to be the most appropriate option. After selecting the cold shutdown mode as a most suitable operational state of the plant, further studies of the vulnerability were done. In addition to possible direct damage to structures, that would cause release of radioactivity, two important subjects were considered: AC and DC power supply and the ultimate heat sink. A quick analysis during the crisis has shown that the consequences of a military attack against the plant by jet fighters could be serious, but with the proper preventive measures and preparedness the environmental consequences could be minimized. (Z.S.) 1 fig., 1 ref

  8. Revised inspection program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates nuclear power plants to assure adequate protection of the public and the environment from the dangers associated with nuclear materials. NRC fulfills this responsibility through comprehensive safety reviews of nuclear facilities, licensing of organizations that use nuclear materials, and continuing inspection. The NRC inspection program is currently conducted from the five regional offices in or near Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and San Francisco. Inspectors travel from the regional offices to nuclear power plants in various phases of construction, test and operation in order to conduct inspections. However, in June 1977 the Commission approved a revision to the inspection program that will include stationing inspectors at selected plants under construction and at all plants in operation. In addition, the revised program provides for appraising the performance of licensees on a national basis and involves more direct measurement and observation by NRC inspectors of work and tests in progress. The program also includes enhanced career management consisting of improved training and career development for inspectors and other professionals. The report was requested in the Conference Report on the NRC Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1978. The report provides a discussion of the basis for both the current and revised inspection programs, describes these programs, and shows how the NRC inspection force will be trained and utilized. In addition, the report includes a discussion of the actions that will be taken to assure the objectivity of inspectors

  9. Conceptual design of advanced steady-state tokamak reactor (A-SSTR2) - Compact and safety oriented commercial power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Ushigusa, K.; Ueda, S.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the last decade JAERI reactor design studies, the advanced commercial reactor concept (A-SSTR2) which meets both economical and environmental requirements has been proposed. The A-SSTR2 is a compact power reactor (R p =6.2m, a p =1.5m, I p =12MA) with a high fusion power (P f =4GW) and a net thermal efficiency of 51%. The machine configuration is simplified by eliminating a center solenoid (CS) coil system. SiC/SiC composite for blanket structure material, helium gas cooling with pressure of 10MPa and outlet temperature of 900 deg. C, and TiH 2 for bulk shield material are introduced. For the toroidal field (TF) coil, a high temperature (T C ) superconducting wire made of bismuth with the maximum field of 23T and the critical current density of 1000A/mm 2 at a temperature of 20K is applied. In spite of the CS-less configuration, a computer simulation gives a satisfactory plasma equilibria, plasma initiation process and current ramp up scenario. (author)

  10. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  11. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  12. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  13. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  14. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  15. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  16. Nuclear power plants: structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include: steam electric plants; BWR type reactors; PWR type reactors; thermal efficiency of light water reactors; other types of nuclear power plants; the fission process and nuclear fuel; fission products and reactor afterheat; and reactor safety

  17. Numerical Research of Nitrogen Oxides Formation for Justification of Modernization of P-49 Nazarovsky State District Power Plant Boiler on the Low-temperature Swirl Technology of Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchenko, A. A.; Paramonov, A. P.; Skouditskiy, V. E.; Anoshin, R. G.

    2017-11-01

    Compliance with increasingly stringent normative requirements to the level of pollutants emissions when using organic fuel in the energy sector as a main source of heat, demands constant improvement of the boiler and furnace equipment and the power equipment in general. The requirements of the current legislation in the field of environmental protection prescribe compliance with established emission standards for both new construction and the improvement of energy equipment. The paper presents the results of numerical research of low-temperature swirl burning in P-49 Nazarovsky state district power plant boiler. On the basis of modern approaches of the diffusion and kinetic theory of burning and the analysis physical and chemical processes of a fuel chemically connected energy transition in thermal, generation and transformation of gas pollutants, the technological method of nitrogen oxides decomposition on the surface of carbon particles with the formation of environmentally friendly carbonic acid and molecular nitrogen is considered during the work of low-temperature swirl furnace. With the use of the developed model, methodology and computer program, variant calculations of the combustion process were carried out and a quantitative estimate of the emission level of the nitrogen oxides of the boiler being modernized. The simulation results the and the experimental data obtained during the commissioning and balance tests of the P-49 boiler with a new furnace are confirmed that the organization of swirl combustion has allowed to increase the efficiency of work, to reduce slagging, to significantly reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, to improve ignition and burnout of fuel.

  18. Seismic detectors for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takuji; Gunyasu, Kenzo; Tanabe, Akira.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a nuclear power plant by placing seismic detectors in the periphery of the nuclear power plant at the position capable of sensing the seismic waves at least 2 seconds before they arrive at the power plant, and reducing the reactor power by a scram setter upon reception of the seismic waves. Constitution: Seismic detectors are plated on a same circle around the nuclear power plant at a distance capable of detecting seismic waves before they arrive at the power plant, and they are connected to a scram setter. When the detectors detect the seismic waves, which exceeds a predetermined set value for the scram, the scram setter actuated control rod drives, by which control rods are inserted in the nuclear reactor to reduce its output power, as well as prevents external disturbances such as turbine trips. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  20. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  1. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  2. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  3. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  4. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2005 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  5. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  6. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, Lester M.

    2011-01-01

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, 'Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the 'teething' problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated 'mature' subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  7. Physical and financial virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Regulators in Belgium and the Netherlands use different mechanisms to mitigate generation market power. In Belgium, antitrust authorities oblige the incumbent to sell financial Virtual Power Plants, while in the Netherlands regulators have been discussing the use of physical Virtual Power Plants. This paper uses a numerical game theoretic model to simulate the behavior of the generation firms and to compare the effects of both systems on the market power of the generators. It shows that financial Virtual Power Plants are better for society. (Author)

  8. United States Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Component Test Facility for 760°C Steam Power Plants ComTest Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Horst [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Purgert, Robert Michael [Energy Industries of Ohio

    2017-12-13

    Following the successful completion of a 15-year effort to develop and test materials that would allow coal-fired power plants to be operated at advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam conditions, a United States-based consortium is presently engaged in a project to build an A-USC component test facility (ComTest). A-USC steam cycles have the potential to improve cycle efficiency, reduce fuel costs, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Current development and demonstration efforts are focused on enabling the construction of A-USC plants, operating with steam temperatures as high as 1400°F (760°C) and steam pressures up to 5000 psi (35 MPa), which can potentially increase cycle efficiencies to 47% HHV (higher heating value), or approximately 50% LHV (lower heating value), and reduce CO2 emissions by roughly 25%, compared to today’s U.S. fleet. A-USC technology provides a lower-cost method to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to CO2 capture technologies, while retaining a viable coal option for owners of coal generation assets. Among the goals of the ComTest facility are to validate that components made from advanced nickel-based alloys can operate and perform under A-USC conditions, to accelerate the development of a U.S.-based supply chain for the full complement of A-USC components, and to decrease the uncertainty of cost estimates for future A-USC power plants. The configuration of the ComTest facility would include the key A-USC technology components that were identified for expanded operational testing, including a gas-fired superheater, high-temperature steam piping, steam turbine valve, and cycling header component. Membrane walls in the superheater have been designed to operate at the full temperatures expected in a commercial A-USC boiler, but at a lower (intermediate) operating pressure. This superheater has been designed to increase the temperature of the steam supplied by the host utility boiler up to 1400°F (760

  9. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  10. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  11. Risk perception of workers at nuclear power plants from Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State: preliminary study of a reality on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scliar, Claudio; Vasconcelos, Ana S.F.; Rodrigues, Anacely S.; Santos, Gloria R.R.; Albuquerque, Patricia O.; Carvalho, Sirlene L.A.; Oliveira, Simone

    1999-01-01

    The present paper analyses some social and occupational parameters that may have an influence on the risk perception levels of the workers in Brazilian Nuclear Power pLants, emphasizing possible relationship between the specificity of job tasks/literacy and risk perception. This study was based on two findings from the scientific literature: risk perception increases proportionally with literacy; risk perception decreases proportionally with the specificity of job tasks. The results of this pilot study indicates that risk perception levels of the workers in Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants increases proportionally with the literacy and specificity of their job tasks, contrasting with the american and european profiles. These results appears as a singular reality of those workers and the possibility of a new regard over the management and decision making process in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  12. Efficiency assessment and benchmarking of thermal power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen; Sharma, Seema; Chauhan, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Per capita consumption of electricity in India is many folds lesser than Canada, USA, Australia, Japan, Chaina and world average. Even though, total energy shortage and peaking shortage were recorded as 11.2% and 11.85%, respectively, in 2008–09 reflecting non-availability of sufficient supply of electricity. Performance improvement of very small amount can lead to large contribution in financial terms, which can be utilized for capacity addition to reduce demand supply gap. Coal fired thermal power plants are main sources of electricity in India. In this paper, relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired power plants has been evaluated and compared using CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis. Target benchmark of input variables has also been evaluated. Performance comparison includes small versus medium versus large power plants and also state owned versus central owned versus private owned. Result indicates poor performance of few power plants due to over use of input resources. Finding reveals that efficiency of small power plants is lower in comparison to medium and large category and also performance of state owned power plants is comparatively lower than central and privately owned. Study also suggests different measures to improve technical efficiency of the plants. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired thermal power plants of India. ► Input oriented CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis have been used. ► Small, medium and large power plants have been compared. ► Study will help investor while setting up new power projects. ► Power plants of different ownerships have also been compared.

  13. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  14. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  15. Atmospheric dispersion in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway for the transport of radioactive releases from a nuclear power plant to the environment and thereby to man. It is necessary therefore to have adequate information about this pathway in order to estimate the dispersion of radioactive releases to the population in the region and thus be able to assess the radiological impact on man. The present Guide describes the meteorological phenomena and mechanisms involved in the dispersion of the released effluents in the atmosphere, discusses the methods which may be used to calculate the concentration and deposition in the region, specifies the data needed for input to these models, states the characteristics of the requisite instrumentation and data analysis systems and discusses certain related topics. Methods are presented for estimating concentration for short and long periods of emission over a wide range of types of radioactive releases. The evaluation of dose to individuals and population, given the concentration, is dealt with in national and international publications. It has been customary in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants to prepare dispersion estimates with different degrees of emphasis and various accuracy requirements at the stages of (a) site survey, (b) site evaluation, and (c) operation of the plant, and for accident contingency planning. Recommendations given in the present Guide generally apply to a distance of up to about 10 km depending upon the complexity of the terrain. The extension to longer distances may be made with caution and to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  17. Destruction rains from power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Acid rain more acidic than lemon juice periodically falls in the U.S. east of the Mississippi River. Acid rain is the final product in a chain of reactions that begins when SO/sub 2/ is emitted from power plants. SO/sub 2/ reacts with atmospheric constituents to form sulfur trioxide, sulfate, and sulfuric acid. It is sulfate which is most harmful to human health. Nitric oxides also react in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. Coal combustion produces more than half the man-made air-borne sulfur, and half the nitrate (NOx). Auto engines produce nearly half the NOx, while catalytic convertors are a direct source of sulfuric acid. Fertilizer may also produce nitrate. As many as 21,000 people die annually from sulfur-related causes east of the Mississippi, according to a draft report by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Acid rain has wreaked havoc in some northeastern waterways. Since 1940, it has eliminated fish from nearly half the Adirondack lakes. Acid rain also affects forest ecosystems by leaching nutrients from foliage and soil, and by killing important soil microorganisms. Antiquated buildings and sculpture are eroding. Two major obstacles for controlling acid rain and sulfates abound - bureaucratic and the National Energy Plan's commitment to coal. (MCW)

  18. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...... the wind farm scale production capacity. However the summation of these individual signals is simply an over-estimation for the wind power plant, due to reduced wake losses during curtailment. The determination of the possible power with the PossPOW algorithm works as follows: firstly the second...

  19. Working in a virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1999-01-01

    Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)

  20. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  1. Preventive fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordina, K.; Dobbernack, R.

    1988-01-01

    Fire risk considerations in nuclear power plants and questions of preventive fire protection have so far not been dealt with sufficient attention. For this reason a research program was proposed and financed by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany in order to clarify these questions and to optimise preventive fire protection measures especially in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  2. Competitive analysis of small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, L.S.; Placido, R.

    1990-01-01

    The agreement between CPFL/UNICAMP/EFEI for developing energetic planning of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction is described. Some notions for showing the more economic alternative between decide by Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction and continue supply the market by inter ligated system generation are shown in this stage of the agreement. (author)

  3. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Chapter 3. History of construction of nuclear power plant in the Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the history of constructing of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) is described. State of exploited and constructed nuclear power plants in the world up to December 31, 1972 is reviewed.

  5. Some power uprate issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Issues and themes concerned with nuclear power plant uprating are examined. Attention is brought to the fact that many candidate nuclear power plants for uprating have anyway been operated below their rated power for a significant part of their operating life. The key issues remain safety and reliability in operation at all times, irrespective of the nuclear power plant's chronological or design age or power rating. The effects of power uprates are discussed in terms of material aspects and expected demands on the systems, structures and components. The impact on operation and maintenance methods is indicated in terms of changes to the ageing surveillance programmes. Attention is brought to the necessity checking or revising operator actions after power up-rating has been implemented

  6. I and C upgrading at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiri, A.

    2003-01-01

    Continuing the operation of existing nuclear power plants will help reduce the number of new base-load nuclear and fossil power plants that need to be built. Old nuclear power plants in Canada are operating with analog instrumentation and control systems. For a number of reasons, such as changes and improvements in the applicable standards and design, maintenance problems due to the lack of spares, technical obsolescence, the need to increase power production, availability, reliability and safety, and in order to reduce operation and maintenance costs, instrumentation and control upgrading at nuclear power plants in a cost effective manner should be considered the greatest priority. Failures of instrumentation and control (I and C) due to aging and obsolescence issues may have an immediate negative impact on plant reliability and availability and also affect long-term plant performance and safety. In today's competitive marketplace, power plants are under pressure to cut spending on maintenance while reducing the risk of equipment failure that could cause unplanned outage. To improve plant safety and availability, old nuclear power plants will require investment in new technologies that can improve the performance and reduce the costs of generation by addressing the long term reliability of systems by up-grading to modem digital instrumentation and control and optimization opportunities. Boiler drum level control at nuclear power plants is critical for both plant protection and equipment safety and applies equality to high and low levels of water within the boiler drum. Plant outage studies at Pickering Nuclear have identified boiler drum level control and feed water control systems as major contributors to plant unavailability. Ways to improve transient and steady state response, upgrading existing poor analog control systems for boiler level and feed-water control systems at Pickering Nuclear, with enhanced and robust controller will be discussed in this paper

  7. The operating staff of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, G.; Christ, W.

    1988-01-01

    The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the design documentation. An important objective of a configuration management program is to ensure that accurate information consistent with the physical and operational characteristics of the power plant is available in a timely manner for making safe, knowledgeable, and cost effective decisions with confidence. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way of limiting configuration errors and related risks. In this report the necessary attributes of a good operational CM are identified. It is recognized and emphasized that a CM is one aspect of the overall management system. Nevertheless, this is an important part of managerial activity focused on the compliance of knowledge of the plant personnel, plant documentation and records with the state of the plant technology. The concepts developed in this report present a basic approach to CM, taking into

  9. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  12. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  13. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Ulrich; Koring, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management (AM) programmes have been launched in many countries. In the USA ageing management activities were initiated to demonstrate the long term integrity of nuclear power plants for plant life extension purposes. Also in other countries e.g. Switzerland AM programmes became an important issue. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published recommendations concerning the physical ageing of safety relevant systems. As a consequence of these international developments, the ageing management aspect was introduced to Germany, too, although plant life extension is definitely not the key subject in the German nuclear industry, today. The situation in Germany concerning long term integrity of safety relevant NPP-systems and components is determined by the requirements stated in regulations and codes. They contain basic requirements for continuous precaution measures according to the current state-of-the-art starting already with the plant commissioning. This included demands for redundant safety and for surveillance measures. A continuous adjustment related to the requirements of the respective state-of-the-art is provided by the German utilities and submitted to the responsible safety authority to demonstrate an appropriate integrity status of the safety relevant systems. In Germany, no specific programme named ageing management exists. The measures concerning long term integrity of safety relevant components are performed under different names. Nevertheless, the German utilities understand that the subject 'Ageing Management' is comprehensively covered by the entirety of the different precaution and maintenance measures and regulations already established. This paper presents the existing German utility integrity concept and its sound application to ageing management issues. (authors)

  14. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  15. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  16. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  17. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Use of artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence, in the form of expert systems and neural networks, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of non-operating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which artificial intelligence can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of artificial intelligence techniques, specifically, expert systems and neural networks, to nuclear power plants. This paper has reviewed the state-of-the-art of artificial intelligence, specifically expert systems and neural networks that are applied to problems in nuclear power plants

  19. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  20. Guideline concerning financial aid by the state to '250 MW wind' wind power plants within the framework of the third programme 'Energy research and energy technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An industrial-scale wind power experiment will receive financial aid for several years. An installed power of 250 MW is to be reached within a 5-year period if possible. The BMFT will grant financial aid on a per kWh basis up to a maximum sum, or - if desired by certain applicants - in the form of an investment aid, both for a maximum period of 10 years from the start-up of the wind power plant. The BMFT will also finance a scientific programme for measurement and evaluation. (orig.) [de

  1. Optimizing the Utility Power of a Geothermal Power Plant using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) (Case Study: Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Manik, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant (SGPP) is one of the plants being developed by Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) at the upstream phase. At the downstream phase, State - owned Electricity Company (PLN) through PT. Dizamatra Powerindo is the developer. The gross capacity of the power plant is 13.3 MW, consisting 1 unit of Monoblock (2 MW) developed by PGE and 2 units (2×5.65 MW) operated through Energy Sales Contract by PLN. During the development phase of a geothermal power plant, there is a chance to reduce the utility power in order to increase the overall plant efficiency. Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modeling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430. The possibility of energy saving is indicated by condenser pressure changes as a result of wet bulb temperature fluctuation. The result of this study indicates that the change of condenser pressure is about 50.8% on the constant liquid/gas (L/G) condition of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C. Further result indicates that in this power plant, Cooling Tower Fan (CTF) is the facility that has the greatest utility load, followed by Hot Well Pump (HWP). The saving of the greatest utility load is applied trough Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) instrumentation. The result of this modeling has been validated by actual operations data (log sheet). The developed model has also been reviewed trough Specific Steam Consumption (SSC), resulting that constant L/G condition allows the optimum condition on of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C.

  2. State of work on Main Task 3.1.3 of Complex Programme of Scientific and Technical Progress and precondition for ensuring Czechoslovak automatic control system instrumentation and electrical parts for new-generation power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrebik, V.

    1990-01-01

    A brief account is given of the state of negotiations with the Soviet partner concerning the preparation, creation and implementation of prospective automated technological equipment control systems at WWER type nuclear power plants. The organization is very clumsy in some fields and their conceptions are not clear. (Z.S.)

  3. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  4. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  5. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  6. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...

  7. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of seismic research being conducted in Japan and describes USNRC efforts to understand Japanese seismic practice. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants is descried in JEAG 4601-1987, ''Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The USNRC has sponsored BNL to translate this document into English. Efforts are underway to study and understand JEAG 4601-1987 and make the translation more readily available in the United States

  8. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L.; Forester, J.; Johnson, J.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  11. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  12. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  13. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  14. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  15. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  16. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  17. Recent Operating Experience involving Power Electronics Failure in Korea Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaedo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, modern power electronics devices for electrical component were steadily increased in electrical systems which used for main power control and protection. To upgrade the system reliability we recommended the redundancy for electrical equipment trip system. The past several years, Korean Nuclear power plants have changed the electrical control and protection systems (Auto Voltage Regulator, Power Protection Relay) for main generator and main power protection relay systems. In this paper we deal with operating experience involving modern solid state power electronics failure in Korean nuclear power plants. One of the failures we will discuss the degraded phenomenon of power electronics device for CEDMCS(Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System). As the result of the failure we concerned about the modification for trip source of main generator excitation systems and others. We present an interesting issue for modern solid state devices (IGBT, Thyristors). (authors)

  18. Training program for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Ikeda, K.; Shinomiya, Y.; Hada, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power generation in Japan reached 24.7% of its electric power supply with its capacity and time availability factors of 76.2% and 77.1%, respectively (in the calendar year 1986 - as of December 31, 1986). One of the reasons for such high performance is attributable to high quality of operating and maintenance personnel in the nuclear power plants. Ministry of International Trade and Industry of the Japanese Government has an overall responsibility with relation to the safety regulations and supervises all scope of training, while the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society is authorized to conduct licensing activities to qualify the chief shift supervisor of nuclear power plant operation and individual utility companies are required to train their plant operating and maintenance personnel. General status of training for plant personnel is briefly described in this paper, touching the practical education and training systems of utility companies and operation and maintenance training facilities

  19. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2009-01-01

    not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO 2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

  20. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  1. Vibrations of wind power plants 2011; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 2nd meeting of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 8th to 9th February, 2011 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Are test bench measurements of wind gears comparable to field studies (T. Jacob); (2) Investigation of the dynamic behaviour of the drive train of wind power plants (T. Gellermann); (3) Noise source identification at wind power plants by means of microphone arrays with a special geometry (H. Kreidl); (4) Condition monitoring of rotor blades at wind power plants for the detection of damages at rotor blades, icy conditions and dynamic loads (P. Volkmer); (5) Analysis of the scale of damages at rolling bearings in wind power plants - In-depth methods of diagnosis and application of the diagnosis of rolling bearings at wind power plants according to the regulation VDI 3832 (D. Franke); (6) Investigation of acoustic emissions at wind power plants according to the regulation IEC 61400-11 and FGW - Presentation of a new integrated solution for the measuring technique (R. Schlombs); (7) Condition monitoring systems for wind power plants: State of the art and outlook for future developments from the view of the certification (K. Steingroever); (8) Refined vibration diagnostic methods for the condition monitoring at gears of wind power plants (R. Wirth); (9) Damage and self-healing of OWEA foundations (G. Gudehus); (10) Measurement of dynamic movements and condition monitoring at the fundaments of wind power plants beginning with the allocation of damage images till to the strengthening of fundaments (J. Nix); (11) Prediction of damages on wind power plant (P. Bangert); (12) Influence of a indirect converter on the operating characteristic of a power conversion system of wind power plants with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (C. Sourkounis); (13) Determination of realistic load assumptions for the pitch system and specification of a control strategy of a wind power

  2. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  3. Nuclear power plants life extension and decommissioning its economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    In USA where the development of nuclear power was started early, the life of nuclear power plants expires successively around the turn of century, and the serious hindrance to electric power supply is feared. Therefore, the research for extending 40 year approved period of operation is in progress. By the extension of life of nuclear power plants, huge cost reduction is estimated as compared with the construction of new plants. However, due to the rise of the cost for the life extension, there were the cases of forced decommissioning. In this book, the present state of the life extension of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment and analysis of the life extension by DOE, the economical assessment by MIDAS method of Electric Power Research Institute, the economical assessment by cost-benefit method of Northern States Power Co., the assessment of the long term operation possibility of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment system for the life extension in Japan, the present state of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations and that in USA, Canada and Europe, the assessment of the decommissioning cost by OECD/NEA, and the decommissioning cost for thermal power stations are described. (K.I.)

  4. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  5. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  6. Safety review of conceptual fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.G.

    1976-11-01

    The potential public safety impacts from accidents in conceptual fusion power plants were investigated. Fusion was found to have some potential for accidents, as does any energy generating system. Functions of fusion power plants were identified that possess sufficient potential for an accidental release of toxic materials to the environment. An assessment was made of the impact of the potential accidents and recommendations are included for R and D that will allow incorporation of safety concerns in fusion power plant design. This work was based on a review of information available in conceptual design documents of fusion reactor systems.

  7. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  8. Capital cost models for geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, P.D.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code, titled GEOCOST, has been developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, to rapidly and systematically calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. A description of the cost models in GEOCOST for the geothermal power plants is given here. Plant cost models include the flashed steam and binary systems. The data sources are described, along with the cost data correlations, resulting equations, and uncertainties. Comparison among GEOCOST plant cost estimates and recent A-E estimates are presented. The models are intended to predict plant costs for second and third generation units, rather than the more expensive first-of-a-kind units.

  9. Appraisal of nuclear power plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegren, G.H.; Beckwith, R.; Jakubowski, C.L.; Whysong, J.L.; Rossin, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of large power plants at Commonwealth Edison is evaluated. There are seven nuclear units with a total capacity of about 5500 MW(e); six of the units are 800 MW(e) in size or larger. Fossil-fired capacity totals about 10,600 MW, primarily coal-fired. There are five coal-fired units 600 MW in size or larger. All large units have been installed since 1964. It is found that the nuclear plants in the system are more economical than coal-fired plants even at capacity factors well below 65 percent; that the nuclear plants have slightly better availability than the fossil plants; and that system characteristics have a strong influence on the performance of all of the plants. A cost comparison is shown of electric power generation from nuclear, a combination of Illinois and Western coal, and Western coal plants. (U.S.)

  10. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Technical report on dc power supplies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Emergency electrical power supplies, both a.c. and d.c. for nuclear power plants are important to safety. For this reason, the electric power systems for operating nuclear plants and those plants under licensing review have been required to provide a high degree of reliability. It is this high reliability that provides confidence that sufficient safety margin exists against loss of all d.c. power for extended periods of time to allow an orderly examination of safety issues, such as this. However, because of the importance of the a.c. and d.c. power systems, the staff has been expending effort to review the reliability of these systems and shall continue to do so in the future

  12. The experience of Electricity Municipal Department of Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in conception and construction of Antas 2 hydroelectric power plant: a hand-made power plant; A experiencia do Departamento Municipal de Eletricidade de Pocos de Caldas na concepcao e construcao da Usina Hidreletrica Antas 2: uma usina concebida e realizada na ponta do lapis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Cicero Machado de [Departamento Municipal de Eletricidade de Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Nasseh, Oscar [Mecanica Pesada S.A., Taubate, SP (Brazil); Hellmuth, Harald [Siemens S.A. (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The Antas 2 hydroelectric power plant, located in Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is under construction and have deadline to start operation in the beginning of 1994. Considered a high-head plant, with 165,05 m of fall, Antas 2 have three generation units of 5,7 MW and will supply a residential and industry demand of electric energy. This paper presents that the construction of an energy profit with this capacity can be performed under the mostly updated technologies with low costs, resulting in a high productivity, with reliance and asserted rentability profit 1 tab.

  13. The economics of nuclear power plants today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    The debate about the use of nuclear power is currently entering a phase of new objectivity, also because of its economic background. A new nuclear power plant is being built by private operators in Finland. That decision was based on important energy policy reasons and on a positive answer to the question of the economic viability of that plant. Studies along these lines were conducted mainly by Professor Risto Tarjanne of the Technical University of Lappeenranta, Finland. In that study, different electricity generating plants were compared with respect to their electricity generating costs. The lowest costs were found for nuclear, gas-fired, and coal-fired power plants, without taking into account the assumed probable costs of emissions trading. When these were included, the electricity costs of fossil-fired plants increased markedly. Changes in the underlying cost assumptions were examined further in a sensitivity analysis. Nuclear power was found to show cost advantages even under conditions of unfavorably high real interest rates. These cost benefits, in addition, were seen to be rather insensitive to increases in fuel costs and capital costs. In gas and coal-fired power plants, on the other hand, generating costs rise significantly as a function of rising fuel costs, among other things. The Finnish studies indicate sound economic reasons for building a new nuclear power plant in Finland. (orig.)

  14. The Paluel power plant workings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Pierre

    1982-01-01

    The Paluel work site is described, the first power station of the new power level, of which the four 1300 MW units will be operating in 1985. As from 1982 Paluel 1 will start is commissioning trials that are to spread out over 12 months [fr

  15. Radioactive iodine releases from nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuya

    1974-01-01

    Concerning the release of radioactive iodine from nuclear power plants, the guidelines and data both in Japan and abroad are briefed, including those in the United States, Tsuruga nuclear power station and working Group of the Environmental Radiation Study Committee. In case of the Tsuruga nuclear power station, the radiation dose and other data for a few years are presented. Parameters and factors proposed by the working group cover such as the dose through food intake and respiration, concentration factor, etc. (Mori, K.)

  16. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  17. Safety in nuclear power plant siting. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is brought out within the framework of establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides for nuclear power plants: NUSS programme. The scope of the document encompasses site and site-plant interaction factors related to operational states and accident conditions. The purpose of the Code is to give criteria and procedures to be applied as appropriate to operational states and accident conditions, including those which could lead to emergency situations. This Code is mainly concerned with severe events of low probability which relate to the siting of nuclear power plants and have to be considered in designing a particular nuclear power plant. Annex: Examples of natural and man-made events relevant for design basis evaluation

  18. Strategies for competitive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This technical publication on competitive strategies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other documents that have been written on this topic have focused on how the environment in which NPPs operate is changing. This report instead focuses on strategies and techniques that operating organization and NPP managers can use to succeed in this environment. Of particular note is ongoing OECD/NEA work to describe the environment for nuclear power in competitive electricity markets. The main objective of the OECD/NEA study is to review the impacts of increasing market competition on the nuclear power sectors in OECD Member countries. The OECD/NEA study is identifying various nuclear aspects which have to be considered in relation to the regulatory reform of the electricity sector in OECD Member States. The OECD/NEA work was co-ordinated with the development of this IAEA report; staff members from the two organizations participated in the development and review of the associated documents. Thus, the strategies and techniques identified in this report are consistent with the impacts of increasing market competition identified in the OECD/NEA study

  19. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  20. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  1. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  2. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  3. Production planning in a Virtual Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Distributed electricity generation is increasingly applied in the electricity grid. This generation can be more energy efficient than conventional generation; however, a large scale introduction of distributed generators implies possible instability in the grid. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) deals

  4. Nuclear power plant V-1, V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the principal scheme of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants is presented. Thermal scheme of WWER 440-type NPP (primary circuit, secondary circuit, and cooling water circuit) is described

  5. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  6. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility...

  7. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  8. TransAlta retires Wabamun power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The Wabamun power plant has been shut down after 54 years of service in Alberta. The phased shut-down of the 4-unit plant was announced in 2002, and the last operating unit ended commercial operation on March 11, 2010. As the owners of the facility, TransAlta will now complete the remediation and reclamation work required by the government of Alberta. The 537 MW generating facility has helped to fuel Alberta's economic growth over the last 54 years. TransAlta plans to modernize its coal fleet with the Keephill 3 plant and add more renewable energy sources in the future. The Keephill 3 is a joint venture between TransAlta and Capital Power Corporation. The 450 MW coal-fired power plant is equipped with super-critical technology. The new plant will also be the test site for Project Pioneer, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) initiative.

  9. Current fusion power plant design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    Nine current U.S. designs for fusion power plants are described in this document. Summary tabulations include a tenth concept, for which the design document was unavailable during preparation of the descriptions. The information contained in the descriptions was used to define an envelope of fusion power plant characteristics which formed the basis for definition of reference first commercial fusion power plant design. A brief prose summary of primary plant features introduces each of the descriptions contained in the body of this document. In addition, summary tables are presented. These tables summarize in side-by-side fashion, plant parameters, processes, combinations of materials used, requirements for construction materials, requirements for replacement materials during operation, and production of wastes.

  10. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's dispositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC's study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC's dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  12. Characteristic of lipid metabolism and state of free-radical processes in workers of 30-km alienation zone at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayalo, P.P.; Chobot'ko, G.M.; Palamar, L.A.; Kolesnik, L.L.; Kuznetsov, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study involved 54 men aged 35-50 working in 30 km alienation zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Blood serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation indices were estimated. Investigation of peroxidation processes in the erythrocytes allowed to reveal changes in glutation system, they being characterized by its amount elevation against the background of glutation transferase activity increase both in the persons, working in the 30 km zone, and in those from 'Ukryttia' Establishment

  13. Sea water pumping-up power plant system combined with nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Tanaka, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to find a site suitable to construction for a sea water pumping-up power plant at a place relatively near the electric power consumption area. Then, a nuclear power plant is set at the sea bottom or the land portion of a sea shore near the power consumption area. A cavity is excavated underground or at the bottom of the sea in the vicinity of the power plant to form a lower pond, and the bottom of the sea, as an upper pond and the lower pond are connected by a water pressure pipe and a water discharge pipe. A pump water turbine is disposed therebetween, to which electric power generator is connected. In addition, an ordinary or emergency cooling facility in the nuclear power plant is constituted such that sea water in the cavity is supplied by a sea water pump. Accordingly, the sea water pumping-up plant system in combination with the nuclear power plant is constituted with no injuring from salts to animals and plants on land in the suburbs of a large city. The cost for facilities for supplying power from a remote power plant to large city areas and power loss are decreased and stable electric power can be supplied. (N.H.)

  14. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  15. Structural dynamic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.; Koishi, N.; Prates, C.L.M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most important items to be considered in order to guarantee the safety conditions of a Nuclear Power Plant is the design of the civil structures, the electrical and mechanical components and piping system taking into account non-conventional loading cases, e.g. earthquakes and explosions pressure waves. The general procedures used in the structural dynamic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented, specially for seismic and explosion loads. (Author) [pt

  16. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  17. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  18. Assessment of nuclear power plant siting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Hobbs, B.F.; Pierce, B.L.; Meier, P.M.

    1979-11-01

    Several different methods have been developed for selecting sites for nuclear power plants. This report summarizes the basic assumptions and formal requirements of each method and evaluates conditions under which each is correctly applied to power plant siting problems. It also describes conditions under which different siting methods can produce different results. Included are criteria for evaluating the skill with which site-selection methods have been applied.

  19. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  20. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinowski, S.; Dakowski, M.; Downarowicz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  1. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  2. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  3. Small hydroelectric power plant in Bistra

    OpenAIRE

    Mravinec, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Energetics is extremely important for humanity and its development. In Slovenia, a third of all electric energy comes from hydroelectric power plants. This form of electricity generation is environmentally friendly as it does not contribute to global warming and climate change since it does not emit greenhouse gasses. During their course of schooling, Slovenian pupils are taught about power plants at several different subjects but never go in detail and therefore fail to see the big pictur...

  4. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  5. Approval tests in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, V.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    The supplier contract of a Nuclear Power plant establishes the values of Netto electrical Power, specific heat rate and the steam humidity at the outlet of the steam generator. Based on the Nuclear Plant Angra 2 and 3 (1300 MW) the methodology of evaluation and execution of the tests is shown as well as the location of the measuring instruments and the results of the measurements including tolerances. (Author) [pt

  6. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  7. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  8. Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L.; McDuffie, Erin E.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Green, Jaime R.; Fiddler, Marc N.; Holloway, John S.; Ebben, Carlena; Sparks, Tamara L.; Wooldridge, Paul; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan J.; Blake, Nicola J.; DiGangi, Josh P.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Bililign, Solomon; Cohen, Ronald C.; Thornton, Joel A.; Brown, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted in large quantities from coal-burning power plants. During the day, the plumes from these sources are efficiently mixed into the boundary layer, while at night, they may remain concentrated due to limited vertical mixing during which they undergo horizontal fanning. At night, the degree to which NO is converted to HNO3 and therefore unable to participate in next-day ozone (O3) formation depends on the mixing rate of the plume, the composition of power plant emissions, and the composition of the background atmosphere. In this study, we use observed plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity campaign to test sensitivity of overnight NOx removal to the N2O5 loss rate constant, plume mixing rate, background O3, and background levels of volatile organic compounds using a 2-D box model of power plant plume transport and chemistry. The factor that exerted the greatest control over NOx removal was the loss rate constant of N2O5. At the lowest observed N2O5 loss rate constant, no other combination of conditions converts more than 10% of the initial NOx to HNO3. The other factors did not influence NOx removal to the same degree.

  9. Carbon dioxide recovery from gas-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo Salgado; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: martinsr@epenergy.com; barbosa@mec.ita.br; Prado, Eduardo Lanari [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Jones Graduate School of Business]. E-mail: pradoe@epenergy.com; Vieira, Adriana de Moura [Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas]. E-mail: vieiraa@epenergy.com

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 the Brazilian electric sector has undergone a major restructuring. The aim of such change is to reduce the State's participation in the sector, and to induce the growth of private investments. In particular, this event created several opportunities for thermal power plant projects, leading to competition at the generation level. In this scenario of increased competition, the power plant efficiency becomes a key element for determining the feasibility and profitability of the project. Moreover, the utilization of the plant's own effluents as feedstock or as a source of additional revenue will impact positively in its economics. As an example, long term additional revenues could be created by the sale of CO{sub 2} extracted from the combustion products of thermal power plants. The production of CO{sub 2} also contributes to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power plant project by significantly reducing its airborne emissions. This paper shows how a gas-fired power plant can extract and utilize CO{sub 2} to generate additional revenue, contributing to a more competitive power plant. (author)

  10. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant

  11. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  12. Nuclear power plant personnel training process management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona Vazquez, Orison; Venegas Bernal, Maria del Carmen; Armeteros Lopez, Ana L.

    1996-01-01

    The system in charge the management of the training process personnel from a nuclear power plant was designed taking into account all the requirements stated in the training guide for nuclear power plant personnel and their evaluation, which were prepared by the IAEA in 1995 in order to implement the SAT in the training programs for nuclear plant personnel. In the preparations of formats and elements that shape the system, account has been taken of the views expressed in such a guide, in some other bibliography that was consulted, and in the authors own opinion mainly with regard to those issues which the guide does not go deeper into

  13. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  14. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  15. Maintenance welding technology in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Fukuhisa

    1999-01-01

    Welding technology used for a nuclear power plant greatly differs depending on either when the plant is being constructed or when the plant is in operation. Welding used in plant construction does not much differ, in method and technology, from that used in ordinary thermal power, chemical or other plants. On the other hand, repair welding technology for the reactor section of a nuclear power plant in operation greatly differs from that used for those plants. The recent requests for the prolongation of the life of nuclear power plants have remarkably improved welding technology for maintenance and repair in the nuclear field. Thus, the existing welding technology has been improved and new advanced welding technologies have been created one after another. Problems with the reactor section and welding technology for its maintenance and repair are presented. The temper bead method and the laser beam cladding and modification method for reactor pressure vessels, SCC and irradiation-assisted SCC measures for vessel structures, and SCC measures for heat-exchange tubes and the overall replacement of a steam generator are presented. (N.H.)

  16. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  17. POWER, STATE AND NETWORK SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the main changes that the classic conception of State suffered in the last century, with special focus in the three original constituent elements: sovereignty, population and territory. This paper addresses the conceptions of power and its contemporary journey, especially in the 20th century, using the works of Foucault, Agamben, Giddens and Galbraith. Then, the thoughts of Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells, who address new technologies and network society, are elucidated. Lastly, it is shown a great concern with a possible state control using new information technologies in the 21th century.

  18. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. Selection procedures for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchler, R.

    1976-01-01

    Selection procedures in reference to experience in staffing two Wisconsin Electric Power Company nuclear project offices and the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant are discussed. Wisconsin Electric has had a great deal of experience in the application of psychological tests and evaluation procedures, and it was natural that a major consideration in staffing these facilities was the selection of testing procedures

  1. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  2. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  3. INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKIO GOFUKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor “Monju”. The techniques are (1 estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2 a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine, (3 a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4 a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  4. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  5. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  6. Methods of assessing nuclear power plant risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Kovacz, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of safety evalution is based on safety criteria -standards or set qualitative values of parameters and indices used in designing nuclear power plants, incorporating demands on the quality of equipment and operation of the plant, its siting and technical means for achieving nuclear safety. The concepts are presented of basic and optimal risk values. Factors are summed up indispensable for the evaluation of the nuclear power plant risk and the present world trend of evaluation based on probability is discussed. (J.C.)

  7. Analysis of color environment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Kazuyuki; Akagi, Ichiro; Souma, Ichiro; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of color and psychological analysis of the outlook of nuclear power plants and the visual environments inside of the plants. Study one was the color measurements of the outlook of nuclear plants and the visual environment inside of the plants. Study two was a survey of the impressions on the visual environments of nuclear plants obtained from observers and interviews of the workers. Through these analysis, we have identified the present state of, and the problems of the color environments of the nuclear plants. In the next step, we have designed the color environments of inside and outside of the nuclear plants which we would recommend (inside designs were about fuel handling room, operation floor of turbine building, observers' pathways, central control room, rest room for the operators). Study three was the survey about impressions on our design inside and outside of the nuclear plants. Nuclear plant observers, residents in Osaka city, residents near the nuclear plants, the operators, employees of subsidiary company and the PR center guides rated their impressions on the designs. Study four was the survey about the design of the rest room for the operators controlling the plants. From the results of four studies, we have proposed some guidelines and problems about the future planning about the visual environments of nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  9. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  10. Training plant operators the Duke Power way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Duke Power Company is unique in its personnel training for its nuclear power plants because the company designs, builds, and operates its own plants, an approach it carries over into its training program. The training program was the first to be accredited by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. Duke's commitment to training dates from 1967, which predates the Three Mile Island accident by 12 years. A 50-week basic program for nonlicensed operators is for those with no or little nuclear experience. The author describes the history of the program, the accreditation process, and efforts to make the training program accountable through evaluation feedback

  11. Draft layout of the HPLWR power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehly, C. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Starflinger, J. [IKE, Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Schulenberg, T.; Brandauer, M.; Lemasson, D.; Velluet, R. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Herbell, H. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor designed by a consortium of European partners in the 6th European Framework Programme. This paper describes a potential layout of the reactor building including the containment with the reactor and with the required safety systems, the turbine building with turbines, condensers, feedwater pumps and preheaters, and the start-up system. Design details are given for selected key components to estimate their size. Compared with a conventional power plant of similar power output, the HPLWR power plant can be designed significantly smaller. (author)

  12. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-02-01

    The Topical Report presented establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of the report

  13. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This topical report establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of this report

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  15. Dukovany nuclear power plant in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data on the power generation, nuclear safety, and gaseous and liquid releases into the environment were extracted from the 1993 annual report of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Operation of the plant was safe and reliable in 1993. Three events were classed as INES category 1. The plant's Failure Commission dealt with 100 events which brought about a total electricity generation loss of 217,624 MWh, corresponding to about 22 reactor-days. Out of this, 26.8 % was due to human error. Three fires occurred at the power plant site. Releases of radioactive aerosols, tritium, noble gases and radioiodine into air and of tritium, corrosion products, and fission products into the aquatic environment were below annual limits. The collective dose equivalent was 1.78 manSv in 1993. (Z.S.). 2 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world's most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America

  17. Power plants Novaky wishes a new block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    In 2007 two undesulphurized blocks - the 3 rd and 4 th of Novaky Power plant (ENO) in Zemianske Kostolany can no longer burn a domestic brown coal. It means the stopping of around a half of production of the biggest Slovak miner - Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza, a.s. (HBP). HBP together with Swiss partner Advanced Power began the project of their own power plant several years ago. This project is halted because of high capital expenses, but the mining engineers see also the other way - project of construction of new source with capacity 125 MW instead of ENO 3 and 4 in patronage of Slovenske elektrarne (SE). However Slovenske elektrarne is in process of privatisation and there is a question how will the investor accede to several millions Slovak crowns project. This issue deals with project of new power plant and with related possibilities of the next mining of brown coal in the region of Horna Nitra

  18. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  19. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  20. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  1. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  2. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifang; Yao, Bin; He, Yuchao; Chen, Binqiang; Zeng, Nianyin; He, Wangpeng

    2017-08-09

    Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG) in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information) belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  3. G. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of a site for a nuclear power site is a complex process involving considerations of public health and safety, engineering design, economics, and environmental impact. Although policies adopted in various countries differ in some details, a common philosophy usually underlies the criteria employed. The author discusses the basic requirements, as they relate to New Zealand, under the headings: engineering and economics; health and safety; environmental factors

  4. Nuclear power plants; security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Safety standards and approaches to NPPs safety resulting from multilayer experience are presented. It is stressed that sufficiency and efficiency of reactor safety measures should be payed constant attention. Real evolution of accidents reqires unlimited development of new safety means. It is evident that in nuclear power there should exist high s afety culture . NPPs safety should be guaranteed by joint measures of both specialists ans public

  5. IRIS Nuclear Power Plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.; Cobian, J.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS(International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a novel light water reactor with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept, initially developed in response to the first NERI solicitation, is now being pursued by an international consortium of 20 participants from seven countries. IRIS is designed to satisfy the four key requirements for Generation IV systems: enhanced safety, improved economics, proliferation resistance and waste minimization. Its main features are: small-to-medium power (100-335 MWe/module); long life core 5 to 10 years) without shuffling or refueling; optimized maintenance with repair shutdown intervals of a least four years; simplified compact design with the primary vessel housing steam generators, pressurizer and pumps; safety by design where accidents are positively eliminated by design rather than engineering to cope with their consequences; loss of coolant accidents of any size and loss of low accidents are eliminated as major safety concerns; estimated power generation total cost is projected to be competitive with other power options. IRIS is one of four new reactor designs currently under NRC review. Projected schedule calls for design certification by 2008 and being ready for deployment by 2001 or later. This rather short schedule is made possible by the fact that IRIS is based on proven light water technology and new technology development is not required. (Author)

  6. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  7. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  8. Nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kiyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    In a nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant, a reversible pump for pumping-up power generation connected to a steam turbine is connected to an upper water reservoir and a lower water reservoir. A pumping-up steam turbine for driving the turbine power generator, a hydraulic pump for driving water power generator by water flowing from the upper water reservoir and a steam turbine for driving the pumping-up pump by steams from a nuclear reactor are disposed. When power demand is small during night, the steam turbine is rotated by steams of the reactor, to pump up the water in the lower water reservoir to the upper water reservoir by the reversible pump. Upon peak of power demand during day time, power is generated by the steams of the reactor, as well as the reversible pump is rotated by the flowing water from the upper water reservoir to conduct hydraulic power generation. Alternatively, hydraulic power generation is conducted by flowing water from the upper reservoir. Since the number of energy conversion steps in the combination of nuclear power generation and pumping-up power generation is reduced, energy loss is reduced and utilization efficiency can be improved. (N.H.)

  9. Nuclear power plants documentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the amount of documents (type and quantity) necessary for the entire design of a NPP is very large, this implies that an overall and detailed identification, filling and retrieval system shall be implemented. This is even more applicable to the FINAL QUALITY DOCUMENTATION of the plant, as stipulated by IAEA Safety Codes and related guides. For such a purpose it was developed a DOCUMENTATION MANUAL, which describes in detail the before mentioned documentation system. Here we present the expected goals and results which we have to reach for Angra 2 and 3 Project. (author)

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimization Strategy. 2016 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    This publication is an update of IAEA-TECDOC-1315, Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimisation Strategy, which was published in 2002, and aims to communicate good outage management practices in a manner that can be used by operators and utilities in Member States. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for safe and economic nuclear power plant performance. This publication discusses plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas that are important for outage optimization that were identified by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: 1) organization and management; 2) outage planning and preparation; 3) outage execution; 4) safety outage review; and 5) counter measures to avoid the extension of outages and to facilitate the work in forced outages. Good outage management practices cover many different areas of work and this publication aims to communicate these good practices in a way that they can be used effectively by operators and utilities

  11. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  12. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  13. Impact of Wind Power Plants on Voltage Control of Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Moumita; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    High penetration of renewable energy sources poses numerous challenges on stability and security of power systems. Wind power plants (WPPs) of considerable size when connected to a weak grid by long transmission line results in low short circuit ratio at the point of connection. This may result...... control, during transient voltage dips. Steady-state analysis is performed for stressed system conditions. Results are validated through simulation in a detailed power system model....

  14. Hydroelectric power and hydroelectric power plants. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Following the oil crises of 1973 and 1979, there was renewed and justifiable interest in small hydroelectric plants. The maximum power of these plants rarely exceeds 10 MW, and their development will surely increase in the coming decades. Hydraulic power is a national renewable resource, unaffected by geopolitical problems, and above all, non polluting. Many countries with their own hydraulic resources in both the industrialized and the developing world have expressed needs for the development of small hydroelectric plants. Hidroenergia 91 Conference is the opportunity to take stock of knowledge gained in the vast field of small hydroelectric plants. The meeting is divided into four subjects: 1 methods for decision aid; 2 environmental impact and accompanying answers; 3 national development policy; 4 world market and international cooperation. This meeting contains 75 papers, 8 papers are in the INIS scope and 72 papers are in the ENERGY DATA BASE scope

  15. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  16. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear power plants 1995 - a world survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The atw Statistics Report compiled by atw lists 428 nuclear power plants with 363 397 gross MWe in operation in 30 countries in late 1995. Another 62 units with 55 180 gross MWe were under construction in 18 countries. This adds up to a total of 490 units with an aggregate 418 577 MWe. In the course of 1995 four units in four countries started commercial operation. In the survey of electricity generation in 1995 for which no information was made available from China and Kasachstan, a total of 417 nuclear power plants were covered. In the year under review they generated an aggregate 2 282 614 GWH, which is 3.4% more than in the previous year. The highest nuclear generation again was recorded in the USA with 705 771 GWh, followed by France with 377 021 GWh. The Grohnde power station in Germany attained the maximum annual production figure of 11 359 GWh. The survey includes nine tables indicating the generating performance of each nuclear power plant, the development of electricity generation in nuclear plants, and status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1995 arranged by countries, types of reactors, and reactor manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  18. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  19. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.; Marcelo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO 2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  20. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  1. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  2. Trends in digital I and C for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, large-scale digital I and C systems have been installed on nuclear power plants as the original systems for plant operations. Examples of these include Sizewell B in the United Kingdom and Temelin NPP in the Czech Republic. Now, this digital technology is being used for replacement and upgrade systems such as those for Ringhals Unit 2 in Sweden and the Kewaunee plant in the United States. Such a digital upgrade is being planned for the Dukovany NPP in the Czech Republic. As the experience base grows with this digital technology on nuclear power plants, certain trends are developing in the application practices and licensing of these systems. This paper discusses these trends and suggests adaptations that may become necessary in the classical roles of vendors, regulators and plant operators. (author)

  3. Power plant conceptual studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Campbell, D.; Cook, I.; Pace, L. Di; Giancarli, L.; Hayward, J.; Puma, A. Li; Medrano, M.; Norajitra, P.; Roccella, M.; Sardain, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Ward, D.

    2007-01-01

    The European fusion programme is 'reactor oriented' and it is aimed at the successive demonstration of the scientific, the technological and the economic feasibility of fusion power. The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs of five commercial fusion power plants and the main emphasis was on system integration. It focused on five power plant models which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. The PPCS allows one to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first-of-a-kind fusion power plant. An assessment of the PPCS models with limited extrapolations highlighted a number of issues that must be addressed to establish the DEMO physics and technological basis

  4. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  5. Projected thermodynamic efficiencies of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.

    1976-09-01

    Estimated thermal efficiencies of proposed fusion power plant concepts are compared to the efficiencies of nonfusion power plants. Present trends in electrical power generation are also discussed. The fusion reactor system designs will have about the same thermal efficiencies as present day power plants using steam if these designs require the collection of thermal energy at the blanket and the transfer of that energy to a heat exchanger or boiler using the current technology. Two general methods should be pursued for increasing the thermal efficiencies of fusion power plants and thereby reducing the amount of waste heat. Methods should be developed for increasing the temperatures of the reactor coolants since the maximum attainable thermal efficiency of systems using coolants can be increased only by increasing the coolant temperatures. Second, advanced power recovery systems such as potassium topping turbines, MHD, and direct conversion should be developed since such systems avoid the limits on steam systems due to excessive operating pressures at high temperatures. Direct conversion is particularly attractive because it avoids the theoretical Carnot limit on thermal efficiency when heat is converted to electrical energy

  6. Modeling of a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohamad Idris

    2001-01-01

    The combined cycle power plant is a non-linear, closed loop system, which consists of high-pressure (HP) superheater, HP evaporator, HP economizer, low-pressure (LP) evaporator, HP drum, HP deaerator, condenser, HP and LP steam turbine and gas turbine. The two types of turbines in the plant for example the gas turbine and the HP and LP steam turbines operate concurrently to generate power to the plant. The exhaust gas which originate from the combustion chamber drives the gas turbine, after which it flows into the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to generate superheated steam to be used in driving the HP and LP steam turbines. In this thesis, the combined cycle power plant is modeled at component level using the physical method. Assuming that there is delay in transport, except for the gas turbine system, the mass and heat balances are applied on the components of the plant to derive the governing equations of the components. These time dependent equations, which are of first order differential types, are then solved for the mass and enthalpy of the components. The solutions were simulated using Matlab Simulink using measured plant data. Where necessary there is no plant data available, approximated data were used. The generalized regression neural networks are also used to generate extra sets of simulation data for the HRSG system. Comparisons of the simulation results with its corresponding plant data showed good agreements between the two and indicated that the models developed for the components could be used to represent the combined cycle power plant under study. (author)

  7. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  8. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m 3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  9. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  10. Interactions of Corbicula sp. with power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattice, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    There are three perspectives with which to view the interaction of Corbicula and power plants: as a fouling agent; as an important part of the natural ecosystem; and as a potential species for use in waste heat aquaculture. The first two of these interactions are essentially negative in character, since they involve avoidance of impacts either of Corbicula on power plant operation or of power plant operation on Corbicula. Condenser fouling by these claims has been controlled by mechanical means or by continuous chlorination. Our data support the potential for using heated water to control fouling and a model for determining required thermal dosing is presented. Preliminary data also indicate potential for control by combining simultaneous short-term exposure to hot water and chlorine. The third of the interactions is essentially positive in character. The use of thermal effluents in Corbicula aquaculture systems is proposed

  11. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  12. Environmental protection in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This workbook is a compilation of the most important facts and data that are relevant today for environmental protection in thermal power plants. Unlike the other issues the text is not in the form of a random collection of data but in the form of a complete presentation. Possible elaboration projects for pupils can be easily derived from the individual sections. These deal with: the discussion about environmental protection; forest decline; sources of emission; nuisances in the Federal Republic of Germany; environmental protection in fossil-fuel power plants - clean air - cooling water utilization and water protection - noise; environmental protection in nuclear power plants - radioactive material produced in nuclear reactors and the retention of such materials - radioactive waste materials - monitoring of radioactive emissions; accessory materials and hints. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  14. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  15. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  16. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  17. Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, William L.; Pines, Howard S.; Doyle, Padraic A.; Silvester, Lenard F.

    1982-01-01

    A method for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant (10) to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine (22) fluid inlet state which is substantially in the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line (46).

  18. Micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present work is to characterise the state of ten Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants (MHPPs) installed in the west region of Cameroon, in preparation for their modernization. The work was carried out between January 2006 and December 2008. Each site was visited at least once a month. During these ...

  19. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  20. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  1. Intelligent maintenance system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tokura, Takehiko.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced Intelligent Maintenance System has been developed to realize highly reliable and efficient maintenance operation in the future for nuclear power plants. This system is equipped with high level sensing and robotic technologies and is composed of the following 4 systems; (1) Common System of Intellectual Maintenance (2) Inspection System in Operating Plants (3) Underwater Inspection System (4) Full-Automated Welding System. This Project is promoted by MITI from FY 1991 to FY 1995. (author)

  2. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  3. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants'. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  4. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  5. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  6. Suitableness substantiation of the power units no. 5 and 6 construction in Opole. Power Plant for supercritical steam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, I.

    1995-01-01

    The needs of Polish power system up to 2020 are presented in 2 version: stagnation and prosperity. On the base of this prognosis the necessary power growth is calculated and the power balance for both scenarios is given. Against this background the need of construction of 2 450-460 MW units for supercritical steam parameters in Opole Power Plant is discussed in detail mainly from economical point of view. The present state of power plant construction and operation is shortly described. The power plants for supercritical steam parameters operated (or under construction) in the world are listed. (A.S.). 6 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  8. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  9. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  10. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This translation of an IAEA publication (Safety Series No. 50-SD-D2, Rev.1) is a safety guide for fire protection of above-ground nuclear power plants equipped with reactors working with thermal neutrons. It is aimed at designers and surveillance bodies as an aid for setting up the fire protection concept in the design of the nuclear power plant and in its operation. The publication defines generic requirements and aims of fire protection, prevention and extinguishing, gives hints for reducing the secondary impacts of fires, and lays down requirements for quality assurance and basic principles of fire protection. (M.D.). 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  12. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining

  13. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  14. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  15. The performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    A survey is presented of failures in the Dutch nuclear power plants Borssele (10) and Dodewaard (5) reported during the year 1988. This reporting takes place, since 1987, on the basis of the international failure-reporting system. This system is based on the 'Incident Reporting System' of the IAEA. During 1988 no failures did occur which made particular safety measurements necessary. Also these failures did not have any consequence for the environment. During all failures the reactor safety system of both power plants did operate well. (H.W.)

  16. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  17. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  19. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  20. Investment scenarios for Chinese power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis is provided of returns for investment in power plants in China and India. Three sample investment scenarios are compared to illustrate the relative merits of each financing arrangement. The best returns would seem to be offered by a mix of debt and equity financing. The potential problem of gradual currency depreciation can be overcome by early cash payments. Foreign investment in China's power generation industry would be more readily forthcoming if easier access to debt finance were available. (UK)