WorldWideScience

Sample records for state pollution prevention

  1. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  2. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  3. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  4. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution... air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) requires that each...

  5. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  6. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  7. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Pressures on industry to move to pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiasek, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent EPA report entitled Reducing Risk: Sorting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, a recommendation was made that EPA should emphasize pollution prevention as the preferred option for reducing risk. A significant number of states have adopted legislation requiring industry to conduct pollution prevention planning activities and submit reports to the state agencies. Federal legislation may be on the way. Industrial trade organizations are looking at the Chemical Manufacturing Association's Responsible Care: Program. Institutional investment groups are looking at initiatives like the Valdez Principles when selecting its portfolio, each of these initiatives have pollution prevention components. Environmentalists are demanding further attention be paid to pollution prevention. Industry is responding with a variety of programs designed to move them away from the classic end-of-the pipe controls which EPA mandated in previous regulations

  9. DOE's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems

  10. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan

  11. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  12. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  13. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries for 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  14. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...

  15. Pollution prevention: The role of a university

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pollution prevention is at the top of the waste management hierarchy in the United States. If you don`t create pollution in the first place, concerns about transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of waste are moot. While industry is on the front line in accomplishing significant pollution prevention, universities can play a meaningful role in its accomplishment as well. Universities can do this through three basic missions: education, research, and public service. Examples of how this is carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville are provided. To be fully effective, universities need to organize in an interdisciplinary manner and adopt a public outreach agenda.

  16. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  18. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  19. Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

  20. Pollution prevention: The new environmental ethic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.J.; Dellarco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    EPA is embarking on a new major environmental policy initiative: pollution prevention. It obviates the short-comings of end-of-pipe regulations and fosters efforts for industry to modify production practices to prevent pollution. For its part, the Agency has adopted this initiative in research and development, regulatory program development, and technology transfer activities. Research and Development programs are being established to address chemical substitution, reductions in chemical usage, product life cycles, and recycling. Regulatory programs are incorporating pollution prevention in major strategies of product stewardship and hazardous waste management. Technology transfer activities are designed to inform and educate industry and the public through Agency sponsored programs with the Pollution Prevention Information Center and the American Pollution Prevention Institute

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper

  2. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User's Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system

  3. Hanford site pollution prevention plan progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-08-26

    This report tracks progress made during 1995 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307,`Plans,` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, `Waste Reduction,` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in- process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material.

  4. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Directory of Pollution Prevention in Higher Education: Faculty and Programs 1992. Doc #93-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshani, Nandkumar; Allen, David

    This survey reports the current state of development of pollution prevention education in Universities in the United States based on a national survey conducted between December 1991 and February 1992. Over 140 individuals (from 80 institutions) believed to be active in pollution prevention education were contacted and of these 89 (from 59…

  6. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  7. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  8. Pollution prevention constraints within DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The signing of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, has marked a new environmental era. The 1990s environmental movement is shifting from ''end of the pipe'' treatment towards a philosophy of source reduction (predicated by the Pollution Prevention Act), where engineering solutions and materials substitution are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste. This change comes after 20 years of treatment legislation, where in many cases the location or media in which our pollution is deposited was merely changed. This problem is exemplified by the enormous environmental problems created by waste sites. Our inability to deal with the substantial waste generated has produced the environmental legacy on the Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a legacy that will cost billions of dollars to remediate. How then do we solve our waste problems and avoid future legacies? This paper outlines some of the obstacles to pollution prevention within the DOE system and explores opportunities to remove these barriers. Industry, whose foundation is economics, has found it attractive to reduce their wastes, particularly in the wake of escalating waste disposal costs. However, within federal facilities where basic economic principles do not prevail, incentives towards pollution prevention need to be evaluated. Our current system of segregated DOE programs creates obstacles for waste generators to work productively with other programs. Certain policies and practices also limit the generators' responsibility and costs for their waste, which is counter productive to waste minimization and pollution prevention. To meet new environmental challenges and to be proactive in pollution prevention we must evaluate our systems and remove barriers that impede progress toward pollution prevention

  9. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  10. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  11. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B. [CGD 71-161R...

  13. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B. [CGD 71-161R, 37 FR 28262, Dec. 21, 1972] ...

  14. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan.

  15. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan

  16. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  17. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  18. The U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention program: Applications for small business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D.

    1997-05-14

    This report shows the benefits small businesses can realize by instituting cost-effective pollution prevention improvements. It is a series of pollution prevention assessments that were conducted at small businesses in Richland, Washington. It describes a technology transfer test of US Department of Energy (USDOE) pollution prevention methods to small businesses through eleven pollution prevention assessments conducted at small businesses in the city of Richland. The assessment method tested was first developed at the USDOE Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington. Two pilot studies were initially conducted to determine the usefulness of the assessment method for small businesses. Then, four additional pollution prevention assessments were conducted using a refined process. In order to determine the assessment method`s usefulness by different practitioners, a number of the assessments contained in this report were conducted by the undergraduate and graduate students at Washington State University at Tri-Cities as part of their class projects. These students were trained in the pollution prevention assessment process by the author of this report and conducted five small business assessments using the same methods and materials as in the remainder of the study.

  19. The U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention program: Applications for small business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsch, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the benefits small businesses can realize by instituting cost-effective pollution prevention improvements. It is a series of pollution prevention assessments that were conducted at small businesses in Richland, Washington. It describes a technology transfer test of US Department of Energy (USDOE) pollution prevention methods to small businesses through eleven pollution prevention assessments conducted at small businesses in the city of Richland. The assessment method tested was first developed at the USDOE Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington. Two pilot studies were initially conducted to determine the usefulness of the assessment method for small businesses. Then, four additional pollution prevention assessments were conducted using a refined process. In order to determine the assessment method's usefulness by different practitioners, a number of the assessments contained in this report were conducted by the undergraduate and graduate students at Washington State University at Tri-Cities as part of their class projects. These students were trained in the pollution prevention assessment process by the author of this report and conducted five small business assessments using the same methods and materials as in the remainder of the study

  20. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company's regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-01-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  3. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  4. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  5. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  6. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  7. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ''Plans,'' for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ''Waste Reduction,'' an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD

  8. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ``Plans,`` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ``Waste Reduction,`` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD.

  9. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  10. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  11. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  13. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    noise requirements, handling radioactive materials, etc. The values should 278 be expressed in terms of indicators that, either quantitatively or...Structure pollhtion prevention ana~lysis Polution Prevention Analysis (PPA)? NEPA w/pollution prevention information - pollution Change prevention...Accumulation Procedures PS 81,04 Waste Jet Fuel Handling and Disposal Safe Practice Instructions (SPI) SPI 104 Radioactive Waste SPI 206 Mercury

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  15. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Proposed... Federal Regulations is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. The... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans...

  16. Pollution prevention initiatives at US EPA: 'Green Lights'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Kwartin, R.

    1991-01-01

    US EPA is initiating a pollution prevention approach to supplement its historic command-control, regulatory approach to environmental protection. EPA believes polllution prevention, where applicable and possible, represents a quicker, less expensive and even profitable strategy for environmental protection. Most clearly, energy-efficiency provides an opportunity to prevent significant amounts of pollution related to the inefficeint generation and use of electricity. EPA's first energy productivity and pollution prevention program is Green Lights. Beyond its own merits, Green Lights will also provide important experience to EPA as it develops its Green Machines program to accelerate the market for efficient appliances and equipment

  17. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR parts...

  18. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

  19. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  20. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Section C, below. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as suggested by DOE Order 5400.1. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with the Department's policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Directorate-, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Directorates, Programs and Departments. Several Directorates have been reorganized, necessitating changes in the Directorate plans that were published in 1991

  1. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program and outline the activities and schedules that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated as a result of restoration and remediation activities. It is intended to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 is included with the Pollution Prevention Program. This plan is also intended to aid projects in meeting and documenting compliance with the various requirements for WMin/P2, and contains the policy, objectives, strategy, and support activities of the WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Various pollution prevention techniques will be implemented with the support of employee training and awareness programs to reduce waste and still meet applicable requirements. Information about the Hanford Site is in the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

  2. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  4. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  5. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs

  6. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  7. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates. (a) Each U.S. oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above... Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate. (b) Each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above and each... construction, equipment, fittings, or arrangements required by the pollution prevention requirements of parts...

  8. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  9. Multi-media pollution prevention: A case study of a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.E.; Podar, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1989, Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency began a voluntary, joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an industrial facility. Amoco proposed use of its refinery at Yorktown, Virginia, to conduct a multi-media assessment of releases to the environment, then to develop and evaluate options to reduce these releases. A Workgroup composed of state, federal, and Amoco representatives provided oversight to the Project. Monthly Workgroup meetings provided Project oversight, a forum for presentations on different Project components, and an opportunity for informal discussion of different viewpoints about environmental management. The Workgroup identified four objectives for this study: (1) Inventory refinery releases to the environment to define their chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release; (2) develop options to reduce selected releases identified, as well as rank and prioritize the options based on a variety of criteria and perspectives; (3) identify and evaluate factors as technical, legislative, regulatory, institutional, permitting, and economic, that impede or encourage pollution prevention; and (4) enhance participates' knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems

  10. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  11. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  12. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This plan contains the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the ERC to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. This plan satisfies US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements including the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988). This plan is consistent with Executive Order 12856 and Secretary O'Leary's pollution prevention Policy Statement of December 27, 1994, which set US and DOE pollution prevention policies, respectively. It is also consistent with the DOE Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994, which provides guidance in meeting the DOE goals in pollution prevention. The purpose of this plan is to aid ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for WMin/P2. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC Team WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Wherever appropriate, the ERC will integrate the pollution prevention activities in this plan into regular program activities rather than establishing separate WMin/P2 activities. Moreover, wherever possible, existing documents, procedures, and activities will be used to meet WMin/P2 requirements

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  14. Environmental policies and the pollution prevention principle. Das Vorsorgeprinzip in der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H M

    1992-01-01

    The pollution prevention principle has become the dominant environmental-policy guideline in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the European Communities. The compatibility of the pollution prevention principle with the dominating ecological-economics theory is analyzed, and the differences between the pollution prevention and the polluter principle as a significant, economically founded guideline are defined on the basis of the results obtained. The implementation of the pollution prevention principle, which is understood as an extensive ecologization of the socio-economic structures, is discussed evaluating the contribution of normative and empirical ethics and investigating three closely related aspects, i.e. the development of a pollution prevention target system, the suitability of environmental-policy instruments with regard to different levels of prevention, and the national and democratic institutional prerequisites. The prospects of the pollution prevention principle within the European Communities are discussed on the basis of these findings. (orig.).

  15. Regulatory barriers to pollution prevention: A position paper of the implementation council of the American institute for pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution prevention/waste minimization is a win-win-win situation for government, industry, and the public, which offers more than just protection of the environment for all. Industry gains from reduced capital and operating costs, reduced liabilities, cleaner and safer working conditions, conservation of energy and material resources, and the opportunity for government and industry to work together in a cooperative manner. However, a number of regulatory barriers exist which discourage pollution prevention/waste minimization. This paper provides examples for the aluminum, chemical, petroleum, and wood treating industries of how these regulatory barriers become disincentives. To promote pollusion prevention/waste minimization, Congress and the US EPA need to reexamine those RCRA provisions which support a command and control strategy that creates the barriers. The barriers include the distinction between value and valueless materials, offsite storage requirements prior to reuse/recycle, the Derived from Rule, the Burning for Fuel Rule, land ban technology standards, and RD and D restrictions. A new RCRA Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization subtitle is proposed to eliminate or minimize these barriers

  16. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  18. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  19. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  20. Pollution prevention projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its waste matter prevention policy, the Dutch government has tried over the past few years to stimulate pollution prevention in firms by means of so-called stimulation and learning projects. To be able to determine the effectiveness of future policies, an extensive evaluation study was

  1. Simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of the simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, J.; Vaillant, Herve; Moszkowicz, P.; Alimi Ichola, Ibrahim; Foret, Suzanne

    1997-02-01

    Industrial companies use and produce numerous substances which can induce a pollution of our environment and especially of soil and groundwater. Thus, it's necessary to estimate the risk of an environmental impact from an accidental or chronic, real or potential pollution. Modelling, which allow the simulation of pollutant migration, can be used as a decision support system, either for the pollution control and prevention of the resource, or for the monitoring of the remediation of polluted sites. In the first part of this study, we established a state of the art on modelling of pollutant migration in soils. In the second part, we focused on the main simulation tools currently available on the market, and on the main agencies or laboratories working on this subject, especially in France. At the end of this study, we drew some conclusions concerning modelling of pollutant migration in soils and the main points which will form the subject of further studies: - sensitivity analysis of model to input parameters and ranking of the main parameters, - achievement of a database on the state of the art of the results on modelling realized on case studies, - development of a mobility indicator of pollutant in soil, - application field and relevance of the models. (authors)

  2. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment...

  3. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment and...

  4. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department's use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled

  5. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  6. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  7. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-01-01

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding

  8. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lanik, P. [Burns and Roe Engineering Inc. (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  9. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Dorsey

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance

  10. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance... install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in wells located on the OCS. SPPE...

  11. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  12. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (AUG 2003) (a...

  13. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  14. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  15. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments

  16. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995

  18. Role of the American Institute for Pollution Prevention in reducing environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The EPA Science Advisory Board recommended that in the decade of the 1990's, EPA strategy should focus on the long-term goal of preventing and reducing environmental risk and should shift from end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution. To assist EPA in developing and implementing this philosophy, the American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) was founded jointly by EPA and the University of Cincinnati in June, 1989. The mission of the Institute is to generate broad support from private and public sectors and to assist EPA in achieving widespread and expeditious adoption of pollution prevention concepts. AIPP will provide a novel communication bridge between EPA and industry. AIPP will provide and promote liasion between professionals in the field of pollution and those who need to employ new and improved pollution prevention techniques

  19. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  20. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  1. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  2. Pollution Prevention Guideline for Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edwin; Barnett, Stanley M.; Ray, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to manage waste after a classroom laboratory experiment which generally has the potential to generate large amounts of waste. Focuses on pollution prevention and the selection processes to eliminate or minimize waste. (YDS)

  3. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227 Section 52.2227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1934 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments. Guidance for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide help to you, Hanford waste generators, in finding ways to reduce waste through Pollution Prevention (P2) and Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs). It is based on guidance from other sites, and serves to compliment the Hanford-specific training on P2OAs offered by the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The chapters of this document include help on how to choose major waste generating activities, how to conduct a P2OA, how to get results, and how to show progress. There is also a chapter on special situations and problems your facility may encounter. This first chapter tells you why you should consider conducting P2OAs and why they may be required

  6. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  7. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639 Section 52.1639 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  9. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11 Section 52.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. ...

  10. Pollution-Prevention Information Campaigns for Small Businesses: An Audience Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarsky, Greg; Long, Marilee; Zimmerman, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the results of a random phone survey of 300 small businesses in order to develop a pollution-prevention campaign. Results indicate that respondents understood the concept of pollution prevention and were taking steps to reduce their part in it. Businesses preferred to obtain their information from suppliers, publications, and other…

  11. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative requirements specified in... comply by using the pollution prevention alternative must begin with the same starting material(s) and...

  12. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Pollution Prevention... of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this table that an individual facility must comply with to be eligible for the pollution prevention alternative is...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  15. Integrated pollution prevention and control scares industrial companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)

  16. Special issue review of pollution prevention management within the Department of Energy, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) national role and overall mission has been undergoing significant change. In the post-Cold War era, a new emphasis on cleaning up the wastes from the past has emerged. These changes provide both significant challenges as well as new opportunities for DOE. While the challenges may seem overwhelming as DOE realizes the magnitude of its environmental problems, its network of national laboratories and sites provide the resources to become a leader in environmental management through the development of new technologies and management practices. Because of the growing importance of pollution prevention in the United States and more specifically to DOE's environmental management strategy, the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) identified this as an area worthy of a Special Issue Review. A Special Issue Review is not an audit but rather an in-depth review of key environmental programs or activities which cut across organizational boundaries. The purpose of a Special Issue Review is to identify strengths and weaknesses of a program as well as significant crosscutting issues or challenges that are important to the future success of that program. The scope of the review included an assessment of pollution prevention program activities at Headquarters, selected operations offices, and selected sites offices and contractor organizations. All aspects of a pollution prevention program were considered including program strategy, infrastructure, management systems, and implementation practices. Also summarized are future pollution prevention challenges and recommendations

  17. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  18. 77 FR 63803 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know..., Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information'' on your attached document. Fax: 202-501-4067. Mail...

  19. 77 FR 52341 - Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0001; OMB Number 1014-NEW] Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control... the regulations under Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. This notice also provides the... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. OMB...

  20. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  1. A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.; Fish, J.; Brown, C.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

  2. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvon, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    This plan contains the Pollution Prevention (P2) Program for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC). The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc.(BHI) to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. The purpose of this plan is to guide ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for pollution prevention. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC P2 Program

  3. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility's mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility's mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  4. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its contractors have a clear

  5. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its contractors have a clear

  6. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports

  7. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy's waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation

  8. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  9. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment benchmarking: Recommendations for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) are an important first step in any pollution prevention program. While P2OAs have been and are being conducted at Hanford, there exists no standard guidance, training, tracking, or systematic approach to identifying and addressing the most important waste streams. The purpose of this paper then is to serve as a guide to the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford in developing and implementing P2OAs at Hanford. By searching the literature and benchmarks other sites and agencies, the best elements from those programs can be incorporated and pitfalls more easily avoided. This search began with the 1988 document that introduces P2OAs (then called Process Waste Assessments, PWAS) by the Environmental Protection Agency. This important document presented the basic framework of P20A features which appeared in almost all later programs. Major Department of Energy programs were also examined, with particular attention to the Defense Programs P20A method of a graded approach, as presented at the Kansas City Plant. The graded approach is a system of conducting P2OAs of varying levels of detail depending on the size and importance of the waste stream. Finally, private industry programs were examined briefly. While all the benchmarked programs had excellent features, it was determined that the size and mission of Hanford precluded lifting any one program for use. Thus, a series of recommendations were made, based on the literature review, in order to begin an extensive program of P2OAs at Hanford. These recommendations are in the areas of: facility Pollution Prevention teams, P20A scope and methodology, guidance documents, training for facilities (and management), technical and informational support, tracking and measuring success, and incentives.

  11. Particle (Soot Pollution in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria—Double Air Pollution Burden? Understanding and Tackling Potential Environmental Public Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhumode H. Yakubu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Residents of Port Harcourt in Rivers State, Nigeria, and its environs have since the last quarter of 2016 been experiencing adverse environmental impacts of particle (soot pollution. This “double air pollution burden”—the unresolved prevailing widespread air pollution and the “added” emergence of particle pollution considered an environmental health threat, led to protests against government inaction in some parts of the state. In February 2017, several months following the onset of the pollution, the government declared an Emergency, and set up a Task Force to investigate and find a solution to the problem. Global research suggests that particle pollution correlates positively with a range of morbidities and an increased risk of mortality among exposed populations. This underscores the need for rigorous implementation of existing environmental legislations established to protect the environment and public health. Nigeria’s rapid response to the 2014–2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD and successful prevention of its spread provides some lessons for addressing such environmental health emergencies—strategic action, including effective environmental risk communication, environmental audit, and monitoring is key. Epidemiological studies of the affected population is imperative. A concerted effort by the Rivers State Ministries of Environment and Health, as well as academia and private organizations is required. Public service campaign in terms of government providing up to date information on the existing situation is required.

  12. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G F

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  14. Reducing nonpoint source pollution through collaboration: policies and programs across the U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Scott D; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than $204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act's Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  15. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1994-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  16. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  17. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the second section 5.1 is removed. [FR Doc. 2011-8328 Filed 4-5-11; 8:45 am...

  18. A computer based system for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunity assessments at SNL/NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, M.S.; Leishman, N.L.; Walsh, M.L.; Nelson, J.D.; Davis, R.L.; Bueno, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Prioritizing waste generators is necessary to determine which are the best candidates for Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs). This paper describes the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) PPOA Ranking System. The system uses a multimedia approach that considers hazardous and radioactive waste disposal data, and hazardous chemical usage data (from which air emissions are extrapolated). Pollution prevention information is included, from the SNL Pollution Prevention Opportunities database that identifies waste streams that have readily apparent pollution prevention opportunities. The system also considers the relative costs of waste management and the chargeback fees paid for waste generation. From these data, organizations are ranked with an algorithm developed in Microsoft Access trademark on a personal computer. The concept could readily be transferred to other facilities needing to decide where to perform PPOAs

  19. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  20. Pollution prevention and industrial transformation; Evoking structural changes within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Hofman, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Pollution prevention has developed as an attractive method for improving the environmental performance of companies. Often the concept is promoted in a project format, for instance in a regional perspective or for a specific sector of industry. This article analyzes the contribution of pollution

  1. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know... by Information Collection 9000- 0147, Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information by any of...

  2. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in China: A Research Agenda for Science and Technology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Rodolfo Andres

    2016-01-01

    China’s air pollution has reached a critical state, and is characterized by heavy coal smoke and a wide presence of ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5). From 2011, through the 12th five year plan, the prevention and control of air pollution entered a new ‘transition stage’ guided by the principles of sustainability and energy conservation, and also intensified by pressure from the society. This article is divided into two parts: first, it introduces the most important changes, problems and a...

  3. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  4. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs)

  5. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  6. [Pollution prevention and control of aqueous extract of astragali radix processed with ZrO2 inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Men; Huang, Min-Yan; Guo, Li-Wei

    2012-11-01

    To study the measures for preventing and controlling the pollution of aqueous extract of Astragali Radix proceeded with inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration, in order to find effective measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. The resistance distribution, polymer removal and changes in physical and chemical parameters of the zirconium oxide film of different pore diameters were determined to analyze the state or location of pollutants as well as the regularity of formation. Meanwhile, recoil and ultrasonic physical measures were adopted to strengthen the membrane process, in order to explore the methods for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. When 0.2 microm of ZrO2 micro-filtrated aqueous extract of Astragali Radix, the rate of pollution was as high as 44.9%. The hole blocking resistance and the concentration polarization resistance were the main filtration resistances, while the surface deposit resistance decreased with the increase in the membrane's hold diameter; after micro-filtration, the liquid turbidity significantly reduced, with slight changes in both pH and viscosity. The 0.2 microm ZrO2 micro-filtration membrane performed better than the 0.05 microm pore size membrane in terms of conductivity. The 0. 2 microm and 0.05 microm pore diameter membranes showed better performance in the removal of pectin. The ultrasonic measure to strengthen membranes is more suitable to this system, with a flux rate up by 41.7%. The membrane optimization process adopts appropriate measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution, in order to reduce the membrane pollution, recover membrane performance and increase filtration efficiency.

  7. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  8. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Technical Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.M.

    1995-09-01

    This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted to evaluate Technical Art, which is part of the Technical Communications Department at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It is located in Building 912, Room 138. This assessment documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, and recommends possible ways to minimize waste

  10. Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The information presented is a summary with emphasis on those items believed to be…

  11. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  12. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  13. Pollution prevention/waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan - WBS 1.11.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howald, S.C.; Merry, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy's preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices

  14. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  15. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report

  16. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R. [ENSR, Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  17. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    a comparative study of the water policies of Denmark, France, Germany and the Netherlands, he shows how, in contrast to administrative regulation, green taxes have made pollution prevention pay and promoted the "ecological modernization" of industry. He goes on, however, to challenge the prevailing orthodoxy...

  18. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  19. Joint Group on Pollution Prevention: Partnering for Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) partnership. Details are given on what groups comprise JG-PP, the proven methodology for what JG-PP can accomplish, the common problems, joint solutions, and shared efforts, and some of the JG-PP projects.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the... must contain the following information: (i) A description of pollution prevention or waste minimization...

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure

  4. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for the SNL/NM cafeterias.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2005-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the two Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico cafeteria facilities between May and August 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to assess waste and resource reduction opportunities and issue Pollution Prevention (P2) recommendations for Sandia's food service facilities. This PPOA contains recommendations for energy, water and resource reduction, as well as material substitution based upon environmentally preferable purchasing. Division 3000 has requested the PPOA report as part of the Division's compliance effort to implement the Environmental Management System (EMS) per DOE Order 450.1. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM P2 Group will work with Division 3000 and the respective cafeteria facilities to implement these options.

  5. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  6. Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

    2007-03-22

    The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.

  7. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  8. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  9. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project`s objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE`s PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex.

  11. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project's objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE's PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex

  12. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  14. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively [es

  15. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively

  16. Educational understanding of pollution prevention in decontamination and decommissioning/environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsch, M.D.; Lewis, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world's largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D ampersand D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D ampersand D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site

  17. A proposed framework for conducting pollution prevention design assessments (P2DAs) on U.S. Department of Energy design projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsey, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a framework for project managers, engineers, and designers to integrate pollution prevention principles and features into DOE design projects. The framework suggested is referred to as the pollution prevention design assessment (P2DA). The P2DA is based on DOE's method for conducting pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) on existing waste-generating operations, but the P2DA is modified because the facility or process it assesses does not physically exist during design. Before the P2DA framework is introduced in the manual, recommendations for establishing the P2DA team and budget are provided. Specific pollution prevention requirements and opportunities for each design stage as delineated in DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System are also discussed and a sample format for drafting a P2DA report is provided in the appendix. The scope of this manual includes not only the P2DA framework, but also a background discussion of pollution prevention and related topics; the regulatory requirements mandating design for pollution prevention; the benefits and barriers of designing for pollution prevention; and the impact that pollution prevention and related environmental avoidance concepts have had on the engineering profession

  18. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  19. Labor and pollution prevention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an account of Canadian Chemicals Policy over the past three decades, including the project for the "virtual elimination" of toxic chemicals and the federal government's Chemical Management Plan. The latter is what remained when the virtual elimination program achieved few results. The article then embarks on its central theme: explaining how the labor movement introduced the concept and the practice of Pollution Prevention (P2) to Canada, as well as its impact on legislation and policies over the use reduction of chemical pesticides. The Appendix is a glossary of terms and concepts used in the article.

  20. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  1. Prosperity without pollution: The prevention strategy for industry and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschhorn, J.S.; Oldenburg, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    Here is the first book to explain why only a preventative environmental strategy can work: because growing population, consumption and industrialization cripple current, rather haphazard, remedial efforts. This book shows how our society can make more with less, be more competitive and less polluting, while maintaining our standard of living by reducing and eventually eliminating the production of wastes and pollutants from industry, commerce, homes, farms, and institutions. This may seem far-fetched, but be prepared to discover in this book that there can be a middle ground between ecology and economy - and that you can help achieve it. You'll find data and examples that any person can use, from engineers in industry to office workers to activists. Every concerned citizen will also want to consider the authors' innovative suggestions for taxing wastes and using the proceeds to help companies and communities switch to new industrial processes. Also, you should evaluate their proposals to reburies meaningful waste and toxicity information on product labels, to make bans on chemicals and products a more credible and available corrective measure, and to secure permanent, high-level government support for pollution prevention

  2. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  3. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) of the Act requires that each SIP provide for authority comparable to that in section 303 of the Act and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority. EPA is proposing to approve Arizona's SIP revision as meeting the authority and contingency plans for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or standards).

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a brief profile of the wood furniture industry, discusses pollution prevention activities typically implemented, describes the four low-VOC/HAP coating technologies studied. and summarizes one case study for each of the low-VOC/HAP coating yechnologies inves...

  6. State enforcement of federal standards: Implications for interstate pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Emma; Kennedy, Peter W. [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    This paper explores the relationship between interstate air pollution and the division of power between federal and state agencies in setting and enforcing standards. In the context of the US Clean Air Act we argue that the EPA is able to monitor the adoption of technology-based standards more closely than it can monitor state-level enforcement, and that this causes an effective division of control between federal and state agencies. Our analysis offers three main insights into the interstate pollution problem in this setting. First, states have an incentive to enforce standards less stringently on firms located close to downwind borders, and this leads to excessive interstate pollution in equilibrium. Second, there can arise an inherent substitutability in the regulatory problem between strict standards and compliance effort, and this creates a strategic linkage between the federal policy on standards and state policies on enforcement. In particular, a tighter federal standard can induce less selective enforcement but can also lead to less enforcement overall. Third, states will attempt to neutralize the impact of location-based federal standards (that specifically target interstate pollution) in a way that actually exacerbates the underlying enforcement problem. (author)

  7. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malay...

  8. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.

  9. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  10. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  11. Effects of the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentives Grant (SPF SIG) on state prevention infrastructure in 26 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Robert G; Stein-Seroussi, Alan; Edwards, Jessica M; Landy, Ann L; Flewelling, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG) program is a national public health initiative sponsored by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to prevent substance abuse and its consequences. State grantees used a data-driven planning model to allocate resources to 450 communities, which in turn launched over 2,200 intervention strategies to target prevention priorities in their respective populations. An additional goal was to build prevention capacity and infrastructure at the state and community levels. This paper addresses whether the state infrastructure goal was achieved, and what contextual and implementation factors were associated with success. The findings are consistent with claims that, overall, the SPF SIG program met its goal of increasing prevention capacity and infrastructure across multiple infrastructure domains, though the mediating effects of implementation were evident only in the evaluation/monitoring domain. The results also show that an initiative like the SPF SIG, which could easily have been compartmentalized within the states, has the potential to permeate more broadly throughout state prevention systems.

  12. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  13. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  14. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  15. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  16. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  17. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  19. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M ampersand C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division's pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M ampersand C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams

  20. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  1. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  2. [Analysis and prevention of dust pollution caused by 5 common prosthetic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-Wen; Wei, Bin; Zhu, Cao-Yun; Qian, Liang; Li, Yi-Han

    2017-10-01

    To analyze and evaluate dust pollution in prosthodontic clinic and make proposal for reasonable protection. This study analyzed the particle size, element composition and dust concentration of 5 materials which were commonly used in dental restorations (veneering ceramics, cobalt-chromium alloy, photosensitive plastic, hard base resin, advanced artificial teeth) by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) and dust concentration laser tester, in order to assess the effects of prosthodontic dust posed on medical staff health and put forward reasonable suggestions for prevention and control of dust pollution. The particle size of veneering ceramics, cobalt-chromium alloy, photosensitive plastic, hard base resin and advanced artificial teeth was (2.15±3.00), (33.78±24.33), (7.78±11.86), (31.16±44.35) and (28.45±39.21)μm, respectively. The time weighted average respirable dust concentration of veneering ceramics was 0.393 mg/m 2 which was beyond the scope of national security. Dust pollution is serious in prosthodontic clinic to which we should pay more attention and take appropriate prevention measures.

  3. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-01

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation

  4. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Elela, S.I.; Zaher, F.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  5. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elela, S.I. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Water Pollution Control Dept.; Zaher, F. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Fats and Oil Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  6. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP- approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These proposed revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  7. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  8. Preliminary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.J.; Muntoni, A.; Ruggeri, R.; Winfield, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sardinia has to deal with significant environmental problems related to heavy-metal contamination, mainly located at its abandoned mining districts. In particular, acid mine drainage management and groundwater pollution are typical problems associated with mining activities which constitute a serious threat to human health. To prevent contaminant spread over the adjacent environment, it is of great interest to consider using an electric field as a containment fence to counteract pollutant transport. In this application, contaminant transport due to a hydraulic gradient driving force is prevented by the combined effect of electro-osmosis and electro-migration. Although there are other alternative containment technologies, the electrokinetic fence offers many advantages, as it is easy to operate, there is a minimal exposure to the operating personnel and it is likely to be effective for a wide range of contaminants. In this work, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tests have been carried out. In the 1D tests, the efficiency of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent cadmium from polluting an uncontaminated sample was investigated; soil pH, metal concentration and current intensity have been monitored; results indicate that the barrier can prevent or significantly reduce heavy-metal contamination from spreading against a hydraulic gradient of 7. In 2D tests, two rows of electrodes inserted in a horizontally flat soil tank were used to generate an electric field. It was found that an electric field of 125 V m -1 was sufficient to prevent significant copper incursion from a contaminant flow under a hydraulic gradient of 1.3

  9. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Diane; Solomon, Gina

    2004-01-01

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  10. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-20

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation.

  11. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  12. Study on the relationship between the opening of environmental tax and the prevention and control of air pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guilin; Wang, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    This article systematically expounds the status quo and sources of air pollution, the experience of foreign environmental tax policy, the advantages and disadvantages of environmental taxes levied in our country through literature research, historical analysis and comparative analysis and put forward recommendations on tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution by combining with the specific national conditions in our country. As one of the basic means of national macro-control, the tax policy is the major countermeasure that cannot be ignored in the prevention and control of air pollution. Studying the tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution will help to effectively control air pollution, develop a green economy and recycle economy and achieve the goal of improving environmental quality.

  13. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa

    2008-01-01

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)

  14. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP-approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  15. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumski, J. T.; Swindle, D. W.; Bates, L. D.; DeLozier, M. F.P.; Frye, C. E.; Mitchell, M. E.

    1991-09-30

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy.

  16. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy

  17. Pollution prevention at a profit in the production of iron and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, H.A.; Molbug, J.; Gorsevski, V.; Briskin, J.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.

    1997-01-01

    Many different processes and flow sheets exist for the production of iron and steel. These individual processes and process combinations consume differing amounts of energy and result in differing carbon dioxide emissions, greatly complicating evaluation of new, energy conserving technologies. Not only does a large array of competing energy saving technologies exist, but these technologies must be applied to this diverse set of production facilities. A methodology now under development for performing a multiple pathways analysis that characterizes both energy usage and carbon emissions is described in this article. This methodology can examine multiple options at each step in the process for the production of iron and steel, and the potential economic and pollution prevention opportunities that each may have. A first order estimate of the role of energy and materials conservation in returning historical investment is also provided, demonstrating past pollution prevention at a profit. Finally, a preliminary analysis of selected strategies for further prevention at a profit in the production of iron and steel is provided

  18. Federalism and entrepreneurship: Explaining American and Canadian innovation in pollution prevention and regulatory integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, B.G.

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom provides an increasingly strong endorsement of far-reaching decentralization and delegation of authority to bureaucratic agents as the most likely mechanisms to attain such central environmental policy goals as pollution prevention,cross-media regulatory integration, and development of reliable measures of environmental outcomes. Canada would appear an unusually fertile context for such innovation, given its far-reaching deference to individual provinces and their environment ministries in environmental policy. Comparative analysis of select subnational governments in Canada and the United States suggests that the states in general are far ahead of their provincial counterparts in most of these areas of innovation. Despite all the opprobrium heaped on the American environmental policy system, a combination of federal policy tools and state policy entrepreneurship appear to contribute directly to this innovation in some states and are almost completely absent in the Canadian system. These findings suggest a need for careful study of the mix of intergovernmental policy tools and principal-agent relations most likely to realize desired environmental policy goals.

  19. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  1. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  3. Integrated environmental assessment and pollution prevention in Vietnam: the case of anthracite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinh, L.D.; Gheewala, S.H.; Bonnet, S. [King Mongkuts University of Technology at Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Abstract: Using the concept of life cycle analysis, the whole life cycle of anthracite production in Vietnam was assessed and the environmental 'hot-spots' were identified. These include (I) dust pollution at coal transfer points or piles in storage; (ii) noise pollution resulting from the usage of heavy equipment, and (iii) high volume of acid and turbid mine water discharged into the environment. Pollution prevention and treatment options were identified and discussed in this study which consists of wet treatment of dust, planning, collection and treatment of mine water, planting of trees for dust and noise reduction as well as minimization of erosion. Some recommendations are made for pollution abatement from coal production and improvement of anthracite production in the region.

  4. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  5. Pollution prevention at the Kansas City Division through process waste assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.E.; Gentile, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) is committed to the hazardous waste minimization requirements set forth under RCRA as amended by the Pollution Prevention Act and DOE Order 5400.1. To assure compliance with these regulations, the KCD has developed a comprehensive Pollution Prevention Program which focuses on the elimination or minimization of all material releases to all environmental media. The ownership of waste minimization is given to all of the waste generators through Departmental Pollution Prevention Plans. These plans include tools to achieve the waste minimization goals. One of these tools is the process waste assessment (PWA). A PWA is a planned procedure with the objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce or eliminate waste. A material balance is performed around a specific process which qualifies and quantifies the materials entering and exiting the process. These materials are further defined to the hazardous component level. The exiting materials are separated into what goes into the product, sent to waste management, and what is released to the air (fugitive or point source). Next, opportunities are identified and evaluated for the ability to eliminate or minimize the waste streams exiting the process. Therefore, the PWA provides the basic tool for the creation of a comprehensive process baseline and identification of opportunities to eliminate/minimize the release of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. This presentation will describe the status and activities of the program conceived to initiate PWAs at the Kansas City Division (KCD) of Allied-Signal Inc.. This program is organized through business units Which consist of manufacturing, quality, and engineering personnel from a specific product line. The departments that these business units represent are the generators of the major process waste at the KCD. Included in the update will be a brief overview of the lessons learned from the methodology development and

  6. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  7. The planned EC Directive on 'Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control' (IPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.; Schnutenhaus, J.

    1993-01-01

    This EC Directive is intended to incorporate integrated pollution control as a mandatory obligation in the legal provisions governing industrial installations licensing within the EC. The article in hand presents an assessment of the Directive and discusses some possible impacts on the German national law in the field of pollution control, which hitherto has been defined on the basis of a preferably medium-oriented approach. A serious point of deviation from the German approach is seen in the fact that the draft's provisions relating to the licensing of industrial installations defines certain pre-conditions allowing a plant in a low-polluted area to be licensed, although the pollution control systems of the plant do not them come up to the state-of-the-art in pollution abatement technology. This is seen as a fact jeopardizing the principle of precantionary measures which has been firmly established in German pollution control law. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  10. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  11. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreno Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs.

  12. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  13. Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective

  14. Pollution prevention, preparedness, and response coordination efforts between the US Coast Guard and Coastal, Great Lakes, and Inland River states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.

    1993-01-01

    Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations

  15. Decontamination of polluted soils in the new Federal States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, K.

    1993-01-01

    In the course of the privatisation of companies by the Treuhandanstalt (THA), there is a financial risk involved for the property user which is hard to estimate, should the suspicion arise that the property is contaminated with soil pollutants of older origin. Both the Federal Government and the States are prepared to meet some of the costs of the required decontamination treatment in the new Federal States if certain conditions are fulfilled. The necessary inspection and decontamination measures must, in many cases, be cleared with the Treuhandanstalt beforehand. The experiences of the Thuga AG in the inspection and decontamination of pollutants of older origin, especially in the new Federal States, is introduced here. (orig.) [de

  16. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  17. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  18. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  19. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  20. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION REPAIR LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  2. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  3. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Material Recycling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA- 60 Material Recycling Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Material Recycling Facility. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  4. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  6. Air Pollution and Allergic Airway Diseases: Social Determinantsand Sustainability in the Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution. Over one billion population are the sufferers during 2015 and will increase to 4 billion by 2050. Air pollution not only triggers the asthma episodes but also changes the genetic pattern in initiating the disease process. Over the years our concept of management of allergic airway disease has changed from control of symptoms to prevention of the disease. To achieve this we need positive development on clean air policies with standard norms, tracking progress, monitoring and evaluation, partnership and conventions with local and global authorities. We do have challenges to overcome like rapid urbanization, lack of multisectorial policy making, lack of finance for research and development and lack of monitoring exposure to health burden from air pollution. We need to prioritize our strategy by sustainable, safe, human settlement, cities, sustainable energy, industrialization, and research. The measures to be adopted are highlighted in this review article. With effective measures by all stake holders we can reduce air pollution and prevent the global warming by 2030, along with 194 countries as adopted by WHO in May 2015.

  7. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  8. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    A modeling study using hourly meteorological and pollution concentration data from across the coterminous United States demonstrates that urban trees remove large amounts of air pollution that consequently improve urban air quality. Pollution removal (03, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO)...

  9. Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez-Manjarrez Candi Ashanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and technological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  10. Parasite infection and immune and health-state in wild fish exposed to marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, María Cruz; Bagnato, Estefanía; Palacios, María Gabriela

    2017-06-15

    Association between parasitism and immunity and health-state was investigated in wild Sebastes oculatus after having determined that pollution exposure is associated with altered immune and health-state parameters. Given the importance of the immune system in antiparasite defense we predicted: (i) parasite infection would be higher in pollution-exposed than in control fish and (ii) fish with lower immune and health-state parameters would show higher parasitism than fish in better condition. Metazoan parasite fauna was compared between pollution-exposed and non-exposed fish and parasitic indices were correlated with integrated measures of immunity and health-state. Results provided little support for the predictions; some parasite taxa increased, some decreased, and some were not affected in pollution-exposed fish despite their altered health and immunity. Furthermore, there was no link between individual immune and health-state parameters and parasitism. These findings highlight the complexity of host-parasite-environment interactions in relation to pollution in natural marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The U.S. DOE new production reactor/heavy water reactor facility pollution prevention/waste minimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarsky, Myron M.; Tsang, Irving; Stepien, Walter P.

    1992-01-01

    A Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Program was established during the early design phase of the U.S. DOE's New Production Reactor/Heavy Water Reactor Facility (NPR/HWRF) to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the program was given to waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The paper discusses the regulatory and programmatic background as it applies to the NPR/HWRF and the waste assessment program developed as a phased approach to pollution prevention/waste minimization for the NPR/HWRF. Implementation of the program will be based on various factors including life cycle cost analysis, which will include costs associated with personnel, record keeping, transportation, pollution control equipment, treatment, storage, disposal, liability, compliance and oversight. (author)

  12. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  13. Environmental engineering and pollution prevention. European network of excellence and partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, J.; Halang, W.A.; Kraemer, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss the main goals, contents, projects, partners, and implications of a proposed non-profit European Research Network, which aims at establishing research nodes at key locations in European NATO and CP countries. All projects are directed to solutions for the heavily polluted 'Black Triangle' Bohemia, Saxony, and Silesia, which was selected as a nucleus for the network because of its geographical location and cross-border environmental problems. Papers are presented under the following subject headings: disarmament; environment; human resources; high technology; and health. They include papers on soil remediation at manufactured gas plants, and power generation in the Czech Republic and its contribution to air pollution prevention in Central Europe

  14. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  15. Strategy for Meeting the Secretary of Energy and Hanford Site FY 2001 Pollution Prevention Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this strategy is to identify the Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Hanford Site waste reduction, sanitary recycling and affirmative procurement goals and identify the action required to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's FY 2005 pollution prevention and the FY 2001 Hanford Site goals are met. The strategy and plan to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's routine waste reduction, recycling, cleanup/stabilization waste and affirmative procurement goals are met consists of four phases. The first phase is to ensure that the infrastructure is in place to support planning and organization. This phase involves ensuring that roles and responsibilities are identified; requirement documents are current; goals and successes are communicated; and accurate and current waste information is available. Roles and responsibilities are identified and the RL requirement documents (i.e., the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation) will specify the Secretary of Energy's goals. Goals will be communicated formally and informally via the Hanford Reach, training sessions, meetings and correspondence. Sharing of pollution prevention successes and goal progress are encouraged at the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PZ/WMin) quarterly meetings. Existing site waste generation databases will be utilized to provide current waste generation data. The second phase of the strategy and plan is to establish and allocate goals by prime contractor (i.e. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI), and CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG)). This requires determining current status toward meeting the Secretary of Energy's goals; establishing the Hanford Site FY goals, and allocating waste reduction goals by prime contractor. The third phase of the strategy and plan is goal implementation. This

  16. Effects of Automobile Emissions on Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ryan; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Currently, about more than 253,000,000 automobiles and trucks, some are new, old, gas and electric, ply on the roads in the United States of America. Around the world, human activities and energy demand are the main sources for the air pollution and ozone depletion, causing dense haze, fog and smog especially during winter season in the country like China and India and also observed in different parts of the world. In recent years, automakers have been pushed by new governmental regulations and global expectations to create more fuel-efficient vehicles that burn less fossil fuels and create fewer harmful emissions. Automakers are exploring alternative fuel options such as hydrogen, natural gas, hybrids, and completely electric vehicles. Since the Nissan Leaf's introduction in 2010, fully electric vehicles have become widely produced and just fewer than 400,000 fully electric cars have been sold in the United States. Taking the influx of more fuel-efficient and alternative energy vehicles in the market into account, we have analyzed satellite and ground observed atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gases during 2009-2014 in the United States of America. Our results show that the increasing population of hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles have cut down the atmospheric pollution and greenhouse emissions in US in general, whereas in California the pollution level has increased as a result frequency of fog and haze events are seen during winter season. We will present a comparison of atmospheric pollution over US and California State in view of the increasing hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles.

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities

  18. Effects of the integrated pollution prevention and control directive on environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kat, W. [Corus Staal BV, Evironmental Manangement Dept. (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC) published in the EU in 1996 is presented within an approach based on source-targeted measures. The Directive implementation is based on the granting of permits and it introduces new concepts like Best Available Technique (BAT), Best Reference Document (BREF) and Level Playing Field (LPF). The consequences for the EU steel industry are discussed. (author)

  19. Economic analysis of the CLC/FC regime as an oil pollution prevention instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research is to discuss the effectiveness of CLC/IOPC (Civil Liability Convention) liability regime in the field of oil pollution prevention. This study is mainly carried out from a law and economics perspective, although reference is also made to the economic analysis of international environmental agreements. The first two chapters explore the deterrent potential of the international regime in terms of oil spill prevention, from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The analysis of the effectiveness of the regime as such consists in, on the one hand, considering the ability of the international regime to compensate the entire social costs of oil spills (chapter 3) and, on the other hand, to examine the incentives given to operators in maritime oil transport to prevent accidental pollution (chapters 4 and 5). Sixth chapter considers the impacts of the voluntary nature of the international regime on its deterrent potential. The results obtained from this analysis enable to identify several mechanisms by which the deterrent effect of the existing regime could be increased. However, the overall effectiveness of the international regime appears to be limited by several factors that can not be corrected by means of a modification of the CLC and IOPC conventions. (author)

  20. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  1. Benzimidazole for the prevention of toxic effects of air pollutants on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, I; Fukuda, M; Kitano, H; Shinohara, T

    1974-02-02

    Tobacco plants were sprayed with benzimidazole before being exposed to 30 ppM of photochemical oxidants for a period of two hours. The plants were observed 48 hours after exposure and found to have suffered no toxic effects from the oxidants. It may be concluded that benzimidazole is an effective agent for preventing the toxic effects of air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidants on plants.

  2. Legal approaches to transboundary pollution - relating to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsteiner, G.

    2000-05-01

    This work examines the legal approaches to pollution in a transboundary context. Particular consideration is given to transboundary pollution that is related to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Since I have chosen to approach the very topic not so much in the hope of finding a single and unequivocal answer but rather by building a circumstantial case, the present work naturally relies to a great extent on decisions of international courts and tribunals, as well as on principles and rules stemming from international law in general. The international norm that basically guides the topic is the prohibition of transboundary pollution, or, expressed as a positive duty, i.e. the obligation to prevent transboundary harm, which has found expression in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment. The very obligation is relevant from the perspective of prevention of environmental harm, as well as reparation when harm has actually occurred. One of the primary issues of this work accordingly relates to the obligation's preventive function, thus its extent, meaning and scope are examined, and in particular its approach to transboundary risk-creation. In the overall context of transboundary pollution the principle of the sovereign equality of states and other basic rules that directly emanate from it are of continuos importance. This work is further strongly impacted by notions of equity together with the establishment of a balancing of interests test which application merits special consideration in cases where a conflict between two states cannot be solved by mere reliance on their sovereign rights. Rules relating to the prevention of environmental harm, now increasingly guided by the Precautionary Principle, are also relevant under the law of state responsibility for wrongful acts and in the context of defining obligations erga omnes. (author)

  3. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  4. Application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.M.; Walden, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution is discussed with particular emphasis on the 1972 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter. Under that Convention, wastes are divided into three categories according to their radioactivity. High level wastes, whose dumping is prohibited, and low level wastes which require a special dumping permit are studied on the basis of definitions established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Mention is made of the IAEA-recommended procedures for issue of the specific dumping as well as of the exceptions provided for ships and aircraft enjoying State immunity and cases of force majeure or emergencies. Also dealt with are the other international Conventions applying to prevention of radioactive marine pollution [fr

  5. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Problem of radioactive pollution as a result of Uranium ores processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, V.; Korovin, Yu.; Laszkiewicz, G.; Lee, L.; Koshik, Yu.; Shmatko, G.; Semenets, G.; Merkulov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Composition and properties of radioactive wastes accumulated within Dnieprodzerzhinsk and Dnepropetrovsk region as well as conditions of their storage promote the further growth of radioactive and chemical pollution. Prevention of growth of further environment pollution needs special measures including elimination of pollution sources, waste isolation and their second burial. Utilization of radioactive wastes and deactivation of living zone are the problems that must be solved at municipal, state and international level

  7. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... the environment, including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease... the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State...

  8. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  9. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAM...

  10. Health state of population as a criterion of harmfulness of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacatrian, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Valuation of children's health state living in an industrial city, in different microdistricts of which environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes takes place, is done. Investigation results established essential distinctions in health state of children's contingent under examination in dependence upon microdistrict of their permanent living in the given city which is connected with the environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes. The received data allow to examine the health state of population as an integral indicator of ecological situation in the region, and also as a criterion of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes. (au)

  11. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control: a review of health authorities' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Shelley; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2003-09-01

    In August 2000, health authorities in England and Wales became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the Environment Agency as part of the implementation of EU directives. This responsibility has since been delegated to Primary Care Trusts. To assess health authority responses to applications made under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) regulations, we collected data from public registers during the first 12 months of this new regulatory regime. There was evidence of 27 applications, of which 59 per cent had substantive comments from health authorities. There was wide variation in the length and content. Responses were from Consultants in Communicable Disease Control (57 per cent) or Directors of Public Health (43 per cent). Only two health authorities had a dedicated resource for responding to IPPC applications. Capacity and capability are lacking and require resources invested for consistent, effective public health input to the process of permitting potentially polluting industries.

  12. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  13. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  14. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  15. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  17. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  18. Learn About the Water Pollution Control (Section 106) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under CWA Section 106, EPA is authorized to provide grants to states, eligible interstate agencies, and eligible tribes to establish and administer programs, including enforcement programs,for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of water pollution.

  19. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  20. Development of a method to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of particular pollution prevention opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is obligated by House Joint Resolution 453 passed in 1995 by Virginia's General Assembly to develop and implement a pollution prevention (P2) program. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a...

  1. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  2. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  3. Regulation and perceived compliance: Nonpoint pollution reduction programs in four states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.W.; MacLeod, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Examining nonpoint-source water pollution programs in foresty is one way of looking at the complicated policy questions of striking a balance between voluntary and regulatory approaches to forest management on private lands. States have developed a variety of approaches in this area from completely voluntary to highly regulatory to archeive compliance. This article looks at several aspects: federal requirements, program types, predictive behavior theories, and specific state programs (Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Massachusetts). The study results indicate a significant difference in preceived compliance based on program type: as stringency increases, perceived compliance increases. The authors suggest that successful forestry nonpoint source water pollution reduction plans should combine regulatory and educational elements. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  4. 77 FR 63736 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... (condensables) in the definition of ``regulated NSR pollutant'' in the State's Prevention of Significant... West Virginia State Rule 45CSR14 to determine the extent to which its definition of ``regulated NSR pollutant'' satisfies the corresponding Federal definition, and will address this issue in a separate action...

  5. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  6. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE's sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities

  7. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  8. Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Gary M; Tear, Timothy H; Evers, David C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Cosby, B Jack; Dunscomb, Judy K; Driscoll, Charles T; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2009-04-01

    Conservation organizations have most often focused on land-use change, climate change, and invasive species as prime threats to biodiversity conservation. Although air pollution is an acknowledged widespread problem, it is rarely considered in conservation planning or management. In this synthesis, the state of scientific knowledge on the effects of air pollution on plants and animals in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States is summarized. Four air pollutants (sulfur, nitrogen, ozone, and mercury) and eight ecosystem types ranging from estuaries to alpine tundra are considered. Effects of air pollution were identified, with varying levels of certainty, in all the ecosystem types examined. None of these ecosystem types is free of the impacts of air pollution, and most are affected by multiple pollutants. In aquatic ecosystems, effects of acidity, nitrogen, and mercury on organisms and biogeochemical processes are well documented. Air pollution causes or contributes to acidification of lakes, eutrophication of estuaries and coastal waters, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs. In terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of air pollution on biogeochemical cycling are also very well documented, but the effects on most organisms and the interaction of air pollution with other stressors are less well understood. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence for effects of nitrogen deposition on plants in grasslands, alpine areas, and bogs, and for nitrogen effects on forest mycorrhizae. Soil acidification is widespread in forest ecosystems across the eastern United States and is likely to affect the composition and function of forests in acid-sensitive areas over the long term. Ozone is known to cause reductions in photosynthesis in many terrestrial plant species. For the most part, the effects of these pollutants are chronic, not acute, at the exposure levels common in the eastern United States. Mortality is often observed only at experimentally

  9. 78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... direct final rulemaking, Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

  10. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  11. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide...

  12. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... did the State submit? B. Are there other versions of this rule? C. What is the purpose of the...

  13. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  14. Integration of fall prevention into state policy in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terrence E; Baker, Dorothy I; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B

    2013-06-01

    To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy. We describe steps taken that led to funding and legislation of fall prevention efforts in the state of Connecticut. We summarize CCFP's direct outreach by tabulating the educational sessions delivered and the numbers and types of clinical care providers that were trained. Community organizations that had sustained clinical practices incorporating evidence-based fall prevention were subsequently funded through mini-grants to develop innovative interventional activities. These mini-grants targeted specific subpopulations of older persons at high risk for falls. Building collaborative relationships with existing stakeholders and care providers throughout the state, CCFP continues to facilitate the integration of evidence-based fall prevention into clinical practice and state-funded policy using strategies that may be useful to others.

  15. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  16. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  17. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  18. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  19. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.; Ambalam, T.T.

    1997-08-01

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project's total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments

  20. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  1. Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

    2001-07-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

  2. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  3. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  4. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  5. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  6. "APEC blue"--The effects and implications of joint pollution prevention and control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Hu, Qingmi

    2016-05-15

    To ensure good air quality in Beijing during Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, Beijing and its neighboring five provinces and the associated cities were combined under the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program, which implemented rigorous cooperative emission reduction measures. The program was a unique and large-scale artificial experiment that showed that such measures can achieve excellent results, and it led to the popular "APEC blue" catchphrase (i.e., Beijing's skies became blue as pollution levels decreased). This artificial experiment provided the means to effectively conduct JPCAP strategies in the future. Accordingly, our research focused on the characteristics of the six primary pollutants in Beijing. We found that the JPCAP measures directly reduced concentrations of all pollutants except O3. Through correlation analysis, we found that the band distribution of the cities with strong correlations in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was affected by wind conditions. Therefore, JPCAP measures should account for specific seasonal and climatic conditions. Based on cluster analysis using the results from the correlation analysis, we divided 13 cities within a 300-km radius of Beijing into different groups according to the similarity of their PM2.5 and PM10 correlation coefficients. For JPCAP measures relevant to PM2.5 and PM10, we found differences in the degrees of collaboration among cities. Therefore, depending upon the pollutant type, the JPCAP strategy should account for the cities involved, the scope of the core area, and the optimal cities to involve in the collaborative efforts based on cost-effectiveness and collaborative difficulty among the involved cities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... used by the California Air Resources Board and air districts for evaluating air pollution control...

  8. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... preempt Tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  9. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... 30, 2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended...

  10. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... section 307(b)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  11. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  12. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Par...

  14. Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer pilot projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.

    1996-08-01

    The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.

  15. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  16. Report: Pollution Prevention: Effectiveness of EPA’s Efforts to Encourage Purchase of Recycled Goods Has Not Been Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-P-00013, Sept 22, 2003. In an effort to prevent pollution and conserve natural resources and virgin materials, Congress requires that the Federal Government’s purchasing power be used to steer materials away from disposal toward recycling.

  17. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  18. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of... soils in open and agricultural areas. We are proposing action on local rules that regulate these...

  19. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  20. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  1. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    stream_size 30182 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Pollution... Bulletin, Volume 27, pp. 85-91, 1993. 0025-326X/93 $6.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. O 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd State of Oil Pollution in the Northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf Oil Spill R. SEN GUPTA, S. P. FONDEKAR and R. ALAGARSAMY National...

  2. Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost

  3. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  4. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutions in UK and Suggestions to China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Ren, Tianzhi; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanquiao; Bellarby, Jessica; Smith, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environmental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prev...

  5. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  6. Evaluation of major polluting accidents in China-Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yu; Zhang Tianzhu

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state-of-the-art requirements in pollution accident prevention. To improve this input in the People's Republic of China in a systematic way, a database for collecting and evaluating major pollution accidents is being established. This is being done in co-operation with Chinese Society for Environment Sciences and other national Institutions. At the time of writing over 80 major events from 2002-2006 have been collected. In this paper, a summary evaluation on the major polluting events in China from 2002 to 2006 is presented and some basic lessons drawn shown. There is no a systematic pollution accident notification system currently in China. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of emergency measures, maintenance, human factor issues and the role of safety organization. Chronic pollution, especially water pollution and air pollution should be paid the same attention as the sudden pollution. It is important to keep in mind that collecting information from major accidents represents a small percentage of the actual number of events taking place.

  7. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  8. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  9. Pollution Prevention Programs in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrup, Al

    1995-01-01

    Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 5-12 study businesses in their community to discover what efforts are being made to reduce pollution. Integrates science and social studies content. (DDR)

  10. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  11. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  12. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  13. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkloh, L.; Braun, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.) [de

  14. A preliminary assessment of the Montréal process indicators of air pollution for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Grethchen C. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States’ 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium....

  15. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This

  16. Increasing fine particulate air pollution in China and the potential use of exposure and biomarker data in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Chris H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Lo, Charles; Hertz, Marshall; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-16

    Increased industrialization and urbanization have led to marked increases in air pollutants in China over the last decade. Pollutant levels in the north and eastern regions are often four times higher than current daily levels in the United States. Recent reports indicate a higher incidence of lung cancer and mortality in men and urban dwellers, but the contribution of air pollution to these findings remains unknown. Future studies that define individual exposures, combined with biomarkers linked to disease, will be essential to the understanding of risk posed by air pollution in China.

  17. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  18. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  19. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS's program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives

  20. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  1. 76 FR 35167 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0312; FRL-9319-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations...

  2. Electric power and the environment: An analysis of pollutant emissions at Argentine state-owned electric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, D; Suarez, C E [Instituto de Economia Energetica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes the impact on particulate and 'greenhouse gases' emissions of substitution policies implemented by Argentine state-owned electric power stations. Those policies involve the substitution, on the one hand, of hydroelectric and nuclear energy for conventional thermal energy and, on the other hand, of natural gas for fuel oil, diesel oil and coal. As additional investments are required in conventional thermal power stations to prevent environmental pollution, the investment savings generated by substitution policies have been calculated. While the environmental impacts of hydroelectric, nuclear and natural gas facilities is locally significant and is experienced in geographical areas away from cities, there can be no doubt that the substitution policies implemented in the Argentine electricity sector have overall both ecological and economic benefits. (author). 1 ref., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. D and D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-01-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D and D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX(reg s ign) to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX(reg s ign) is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX(reg s ign) chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX(reg s ign), it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX(reg s ign) will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  4. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  5. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  6. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  7. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) and Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  8. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  9. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  10. HIV prevention and education in state prison systems: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.

  11. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  12. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  13. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  14. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  15. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  17. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  18. Measures to prevent oil pollution in oceans, and their preservation effect; Kaiyo no abura osen no boshi taisaku to hozen koka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, T; Fukuchi, N; Fujii, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, S

    1996-04-10

    It was intended to confirm, based on various problems surrounding oil flow-out accidents, that oil fences whose use is first considered when an oil flow-out accident occurs cause oil leakage due to oil pass-through phenomenon as the largest defect in performance of oil fences. Therefore, oil fence performance was analyzed by using a simulation. Furthermore, several types of diffusion prevention and avoidance measures, and combinations thereof were evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis. It was also elucidated how recognitions on the importance of methods to prevent oil pollution differ depending on standpoints. Difference in oil flow-out prevention performance of oil fences due to variation in tidal currents was made clear by combining a diffusion simulation using the finite element method with the prevention performance of oil fences relative to the tidal currents. In areas with no good hydrographic conditions where pollution spreads rapidly, it is necessary to suppress oil diffusion by extending oil fences double or triple, and using gelling agents. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Interactive effects of nutrition, reproductive state and pollution on molecular stress responses of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Sokolova, Inna

    2017-10-01

    Marine bivalves including mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis are commonly used as sentinels for pollution monitoring and ecosystem health assessment in the coastal zones. Use of biomarkers to assess the pollution effects assumes that the effects of pollutants on the biomarkers exceed the natural background variability; yet this assumption has rarely been tested. We exposed mussels at different reproductive stages and nutritive states to two concentrations of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene, 3 and 60 μg L -1 ) for three weeks. Expression levels of the molecular biomarkers related to the detoxification and general stress response [cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP450), glutathione S-transferases (GST-α; GST-S1; GST-S2), the multixenobiotic resistance protein P-glycoprotein (PgP), metallothioneins (MT10 and MT20), heat shock proteins (HSP22, HSP70-2; HSP70-3; HSP70-4), as well as mRNA expression of two reproduction-related genes, vitellogenin (Vitel) and vitelline coat lysin M7 (VCLM7)] were measured. The mussels' nutrition and reproductive state affected the baseline mRNA levels of molecular biomarkers and modulated the transcriptional responses of biomarker genes to the pollutant exposure. Thus, mussel physiological state could act as a confounding factor in the evaluation of the response of pollution through molecular biomarkers. The biomarker baseline levels must be determined across a range of physiological states to enable the use of biomarkers in monitoring programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Genetics

    2010-04-28

    Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and sequester the toxic elemental pollutants, like the heavy metal mercury. Our current working hypothesis is that transgenic plants controlling the transport, chemical speciation, electrochemical state. volatilization, and aboveground binding of mercury will: a) tolerate mercury and grow rapidly in mercury contaminated environments; b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain; c) remove mercury from polluted soil and water; and d) hyperaccumulate mercury in aboveground tissues for later harvest. Progress toward these specific aims is reported: to increase the transport of mercury into roots and to aboveground vegetative organs; to increase biochemical sinks and storage for mercury in leaves; to increase leaf cell vacuolar storage of mercury; and to demonstrate that several stacked transgenes, when functioning in concert, enhance mercury resistance and hyperaccumulation to high levels.

  1. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  2. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller; Kenneth W. Stolte; Daniel M. Duriscoe; John Pronos

    1996-01-01

    Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be applied to assessment of chronic...

  3. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  4. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  5. HIA and pollution prevention control: What they can learn from each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Vizard, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Following the implementation of the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations on 1st August 2000, health authorities (now Primary Care Trusts) became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the environmental regulators (the Environmental Agency, Local Authorities). The aims of this paper are to review the process of providing public health input in the light of its similarities to and differences from HIA and to identify the opportunities for both HIA and PPC to learn from each other's practice. We emphasise the challenges that are encountered by public health professionals who provide the public health input in the PPC. We use both our own experience of providing this input on behalf of health authorities and our expertise in HIA, environmental epidemiology and contaminated land

  6. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  7. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  8. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  9. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coatings of metal parts and products. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  10. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating of metal parts and products. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  11. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE's Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999

  12. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards... requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new nonroad engines or vehicles. Section 209(e)(2... requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50...

  13. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. SANCOR marine pollution research programme 1986-1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Pollution Research Programme is one of the series of SANCOR Programmes. Up to 1985 research into these aspects of oil pollution covered by the Prevention and combating of Pollution of the Sea by Oil Act (no. 6 of 1981) has been...

  15. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  16. 75 FR 78916 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... 19103. Copies of the State submittal are available at the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality...

  17. 77 FR 3389 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... final action to approve a revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator...

  18. 77 FR 3422 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) Section 111(d)/ 129...

  19. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Patterns and predictors of state adult obesity prevention legislation enactment in US states: 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Villanti, Andrea C; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L; Rutkow, Lainie

    2015-05-01

    This study examined bill- and state-level factors associated with enactment of adult obesity prevention legislation in US states. A review of bills in the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity's legislative database identified 487 adult obesity prevention bills, or proposed legislation, introduced between 2010 and 2013. Multilevel models were constructed to examine bill- and state-level characteristics associated with enactment. From 2010 to 2013, 81 (17%) of obesity prevention bills introduced were enacted across 35 states and the District of Columbia. Bills introduced in 2010 were more likely to be enacted than in 2013 (OR=9.49; 95% CI: 2.61-34.5). Bills focused on access to healthy food, physical activity, general and educational programs, as well as modifying rules and procedures (e.g., preemption) had greater odds of enactment relative to food and beverage taxes (OR=8.18; 95% CI: 2.85-23.4 healthy food; OR=17.3; 95% CI: 4.55-65.7 physical activity; OR=15.2; 95% CI: 4.80-47.9 general; OR=13.7; 95% CI: 3.07-61.5 rules). The year of bill introduction and overall bill enactment rate were related to adult obesity prevention legislation enactment in states. This study highlights the importance of a bill's topic area for enactment and provides insights for advocates and policymakers trying to address enactment barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  2. Oil pollution control mechanisms - statutes and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide a detailed picture of federal statutes and regulations, as well as case law, bearing on oil spill prevention and control. Emphasis has been placed on federal action occurring after a spill, although some effort is directed toward review of prevention statutes and regulations. In-depth consideration is given the control of oil pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act but this analysis also touches lightly upon acts that have a lesser effect on oil pollution control. These acts being: The Refuse Act; The Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; The Oil Pollution Act of 1961; The Deepwater Port Act of 1974, and The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

  3. 75 FR 73967 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  4. 75 FR 73996 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Resources and Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER...

  5. Waste minimization and pollution prevention in D ampersand D operations at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.; Ditch, R.W.; Fellhauer, C.R.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is implementing waste minimization and pollution prevention activities into its conduct of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. Many of these activities are rather straight forward and simple approaches, yet they are often overlooked and not implemented as often as they should or could be. Specific activities involving recycling and reuse of materials and structures, which have proven useful in lowering decommissioning and disposal costs on D ampersand D projects at ANL are presented

  6. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  8. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Rodríguez-Tapia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  9. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A

    2017-05-04

    Currently, one of Mexico's most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  10. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  11. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  12. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1996-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  13. Management of polluted deposit in lake and river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Eun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In this study, the perception and problem of polluted deposit in Korea, which does not have a clear concept of it, were analyzed and the need of a comprehensive polluted deposit management, including the present condition of pollution, assessment, pollution prevention, and disposal of polluted deposit, was presented. Based on the analysis on foreign management system, the framework of polluted deposit management in Korea was provided. 84 refs., 11 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  15. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  16. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  17. State Options for Supporting Delinquency Prevention: A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croan, Gerald M.; And Others

    A supplement to the related document "Delinquency Prevention: Theories and Strategies," this paper analyzes the options for state agencies (particularly state planning agencies participating in the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration formula grant program) to promote and support program forms recommended in the companion document.…

  18. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  19. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  20. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...EPA is finalizing disapproval of a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on March 22, 2010. This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions, from a wide variety of sources. Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), this action identifies a deficiency that precludes approval of this SIP revision.

  1. Voluntary arrangements to cope with diffuse pollution from agriculture and their role in European water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinz, I.; Andrews, K.; Brouwer, F.; Zabel, T.

    2002-01-01

    A limited number of Member States in the EU have gained experience with establishing co-operative agreements between agriculture and the water sector. Their main aim is to reduce or prevent water pollution caused by intensive farming practices. The research has shown that significant changes in

  2. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  3. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs’ moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole.

  4. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs' moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole.

  5. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  6. Significantly Reduced Health Burden from Ambient Air Pollution in the United States under Emission Reductions from 1990 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2015 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has listed air pollution as the fourth-ranking global mortality risk factor. Few studies have attempted to understand how these burdens change through time, especially in the United States (US). Here we aim to estimate air pollution-r...

  7. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  8. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  9. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on May 19, 2011 and concern New Source Review (NSR) permit programs for new and modified major stationary sources of air pollution. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  10. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbine generators. We are proposing action on a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  11. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  13. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  14. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  15. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Jagels, R.; Simpson, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  16. Estimating Air Pollution Removal Through an Analysis of Vegetation Communities in Government Canyon State Natural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Nicolas W.

    Ambient air pollution is a major issue in urban environments, causing negative health impacts and increasing costs for metropolitan economies. Vegetation has been shown to remove these pollutants at a substantial rate. This study utilizes the i-Tree Eco (UFORE) and i-Tree Canopy models to estimate air pollution removal services provided by trees in Government Canyon State Natural Area (GCSNA), an approximately 4,700 hectare area in San Antonio, Texas. For i-Tree Eco, a stratified project of the five prominent vegetation types was completed. A comparison of removal services provided by vegetation communities indicated there was no significant difference in removal rates. Total pollution removal of GCSNA was estimated to be 239.52 metric tons/year at a rate of 64.42 kg/ha of tree cover/year. By applying this value to the area within Bexar County, Texas belonging to the Balcones Canyonlands ecoregion, it was determined that for 2013 an estimated 2,598.45 metric tons/year of air pollution was removed at a health value to society of 19.4 million. This is a reduction in pollution removal services since 2003, in which 3,050.35 metric tons/year were removed at a health value of 22.8 million. These results suggest urban sprawl taking place in San Antonio is reducing air pollution removal services provided by trees.

  17. Turbo-gas emissions and integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Sera, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper considers the gas-turbine pollution and joints out that the NO, is the most important pollutant among others pollutants as well as the carbon oxide and the volatile organic compounds because the NO x , has a high mass production rate (in the combustion chamber), elevated toxicity to the ecosystem and because of being in the atmosphere a precursor of secondary ultrafine particles PM 2,5 . In with reference to the integrated pollution and control (IPPC) the job shows schemes of chain chemical reactions which are on the base of the formation of different types of NO x , thermal and organic, and it illustrates the influence of some operative parameters on the combustion's efficiency and then on the NO x , production rate. Also, the study gives the best absolvable techniques (BAT) to reduce the NO x , production rate and to demolish it before its introduction, as well as gas exhaust, in the atmosphere. At the end, the work shows that the gas-turbine are to consider thermal engines with a little environment impact index specially when they make use of the natural gas, as well as fuel [it

  18. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  19. Design of Polymeric Nanofiber Gauze Mask to Prevent Inhaling PM2.5 Particles from Haze Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 micron or less has become a major health hazard from the polluted air in many cities in China. The regular gauze masks are used to prevent inhaling the PM2.5 fine particles; however, those masks are not able to filter out the PM2.5 because of the large porosity of the mask materials. Some well-prevented masks usually have poor breathability, which increases other health risks. In this study, a polysulfone based nanofiber for mask filtration material was synthesized by electrospinning. That nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM, air permeability test, and PM2.5 trapping experiment. The results indicate that nanofiber mask material can efficiently filter out the PM2.5 particles and simultaneously preserve a good breathability. We attribute such improvement to the nanoscaled fibers, having the same porosity as that of regular gauze mask but with extremely reduced local interfiber space.

  20. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been

  1. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  2. [Light pollution, desynchronosis and aging: the state of problem and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, I A; Iliukha, V A; Khizhkin, E A; Uzenbaeva, L B; Il'ina, T N; Bukalev, A V; Goranskiĭ, A I; Matveeva, Iu P; Iunash, V D; Lotosh, T A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different light conditions (constant illumination, light deprivation, the standard regime of lighting and natural for Northwest Russia lighting in different seasons of the annual cycle) on indicators of biological age and homeostasis, the development of age-related pathology, oncogenesis and longevity of rats was investigated. Exposure to constant light on the studied parameters was evaluated at different ages--antenatal, early and late postnatal period. The data about influences of substances and hormones of pineal gland on biomarkers of aging, homeostasis, spontaneous oncogenesis and longevity in experimental animals was obtained. It has been established that the light pollution and disturbance of photoperiod lead to desynchronosys and as a result to premature aging of the organism and age associated diseases. Ways of preventing accelerated aging were outlined.

  3. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM 2.5 ) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality

  4. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail: giovanis95@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  5. Suicide Prevention Training: Policies for Health Care Professionals Across the United States as of October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Van Natta, Sara E; Holliday, Carrie

    2018-06-01

    To identify and compare state policies for suicide prevention training among health care professionals across the United States and benchmark state plan updates against national recommendations set by the surgeon general and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention in 2012. We searched state legislation databases to identify policies, which we described and characterized by date of adoption, target audience, and duration and frequency of the training. We used descriptive statistics to summarize state-by-state variation in suicide education policies. In the United States, as of October 9, 2017, 10 (20%) states had passed legislation mandating health care professionals complete suicide prevention training, and 7 (14%) had policies encouraging training. The content and scope of policies varied substantially. Most states (n = 43) had a state suicide prevention plan that had been revised since 2012, but 7 lacked an updated plan. Considerable variation in suicide prevention training for health care professionals exists across the United States. There is a need for consistent polices in suicide prevention training across the nation to better equip health care providers to address the needs of patients who may be at risk for suicide.

  6. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  7. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  8. Diving center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rus, Simona; Flesteriu, Catalin; Diaconu, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    Applying and developing constructive environment protection measures offers real and long lasting solutions that consolidate our future. In this context the Diving Center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution is enrolled. Our Center performed high quality services with authorised personal. Using their rich human, technological and scientific resources, the armed forces in general and our unity in this case, plays already an important role in supporting the development and natural environment, but results could be even greater and of high impact if the military and civilian requirements would be aligned, valorizing the qualified resources belonging to the military. The environment protection measures are an essential component of the sustainable development, which correctly and duly applied may provide a necessary and realistic option in the eternal confrontation between human activity and correct exploitation of environment. During pressure tests performed over years at the nuclear reactor from Cernavoda, the divers provided: - pressure test at Unit 1 reactor containment (test performed at a pressure of 128 kPa) in order to evaluate the loss rate; - solving previous problems of the sealing system of reactor containment and tracks of electrical cables, pipes, etc; - providing safety procedures for the Cernavoda NPP specialised personnel, after their entering the working area through the small transfer gate; - technical assistance and first aid in case of diving accidents, using the bi-place chamber (fitted with medication transfer sass) provided on site; - supervising the enforcement of legal procedures concerning training, organising and work protection in diving activities; - in case of a collective decompression accident, we had the responsibility to provide necessary treatment of personnel affected in the hyperbaric laboratory. All these activities, even though developed for specific military requirements, may satisfy the saving and protecting needs

  9. State practitioner insights into local public health challenges and opportunities in obesity prevention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Lewis, Moira; Khoong, Elaine C; Lasee, Claire

    2014-03-13

    The extent of obesity prevention activities conducted by local health departments (LHDs) varies widely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize how state obesity prevention program directors perceived the role of LHDs in obesity prevention and factors that impact LHDs' success in obesity prevention. From June 2011 through August 2011, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with directors of federally funded obesity prevention programs at 22 state and regional health departments. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify recurring themes and key quotations. Main themes focused on the roles of LHDs in local policy and environmental change and on the barriers and facilitators to LHD success. The role LHDs play in obesity prevention varied across states but generally reflected governance structure (decentralized vs centralized). Barriers to local prevention efforts included competing priorities, lack of local capacity, siloed public health structures, and a lack of local engagement in policy and environmental change. Structures and processes that facilitated prevention were having state support (eg, resources, technical assistance), dedicated staff, strong communication networks, and a robust community health assessment and planning process. These findings provide insight into successful strategies state and local practitioners are using to implement innovative (and evidence-informed) community-based interventions. The change in the nature of obesity prevention requires a rethinking of the state-local relationship, especially in centralized states.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  11. Control and prevention of industrial air pollution: Special issue; Bestrijding en preventie van industriele luchtverontreiniging: Thema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waque, W.P.G.M. [Bureau Vergunningen en Bedrijven, DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Schiedam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, W.M. [Bureau Milieu en Ruimtelijke Ordening, VNO/NCW, The Hague (Netherlands); Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [Paques, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar Development, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Corporate Research Laboratorium, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Jol, A. [Sector Milieutechnologie, DHV Milieu en Infrastructuur, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van Ham, J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    In four articles in this special issue of the magazine attention is paid to new techniques by which emissions to the air from the industry can be controlled and/or prevented. In the first article an overview is given of sources of air pollution, caused by dust. In the second article intermediate results of the KWS 2000 program (aimed at 50% reduction of the emission of volatile organic matter for the year 2000) are outlined. In the third article a cooperative biological (flue) gas desulfurization pilot plant project is discussed. In the fourth and last article the most important possible techniques to reduce the emission of volatile organic matter are highlighted

  12. Understanding environmental pollution: a primer. 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquita K. Hill [University of Maine, Orono, MN (United States)

    2004-08-15

    The book moves from the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, to air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. It also discusses persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals, and pesticides, and it places greater stress on global pollutants. The relationship between energy generation and use, and pollution is stressed, as well as the importance of going beyond pollution control, to pollution prevention. Impacts on human and environmental health are emphasized throughout. Contents are: 1. Understanding pollution; 2. Reducing pollution; 3. Chemical toxicity; 4. Chemical exposures and risk assessment; 5. Ambient air pollution; 6. Acid deposition; 7. Global climate change; 8. Stratispheric ozone depletion; 9. Water pollution; 10. Drinking water; 11. Solid waste; 12. Hazardous waste; 13. Energy; 14. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic; 15. Metals; 16. Pesticides; 17. Pollution at home; and 18. Zero waste, zero emissions. 69 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. Promoting Partnerships for Crime Prevention between State and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Partnerships for Crime Prevention between State and Private Security Providers in Southern Africa. Since the 1990s, private security companies (PSCs) have expanded their presence. In many parts of Africa and across the developing world, PSCs provide police-type security services at a scale far surpassing that ...

  14. Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

  15. 78 FR 40015 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental... negative declaration for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) units within the District of...

  16. 76 FR 38340 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... also harm human health and the environment by causing, among other things, premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, visibility impairment, and damage to vegetation and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  17. Development of a Comprehensive and Interactive Tool to Inform State Violence and Injury Prevention Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren; Deokar, Angela J; Zaesim, Araya; Thomas, Karen; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    The Center of Disease Control and Prevention's Core State Violence and Injury Prevention Program (Core SVIPP) provides an opportunity for states to engage with their partners to implement, evaluate, and disseminate strategies that lead to the reduction and prevention of injury and violence. Core SVIPP requires awardees to develop or update their state injury and violence plans. Currently, literature informing state planning efforts is limited, especially regarding materials related to injury and violence. Presumably, plans that are higher quality result in having a greater impact on preventing injury and violence, and literature to improve quality would benefit prevention programming. (1) To create a comprehensive injury-specific index to aid in the development and revision of state injury and violence prevention plans, and (2) to assess the reliability and utility of this index. Through an iterative development process, a workgroup of subject matter experts created the Violence and Injury Prevention: Comprehensive Index Tool (VIP:CIT). The tool was pilot tested on 3 state injury and violence prevention plans and assessed for initial usability. Following revisions to the tool (ie, a rubric was developed to further delineate consistent criteria for rating; items were added and clarified), the same state plans were reassessed to test interrater reliability and tool utility. For the second assessment, reliability of the VIP:CIT improved, indicating that the rubric was a useful addition. Qualitative feedback from states suggested that the tool significantly helped guide plan development and communicate about planning processes. The final VIP:CIT is a tool that can help increase plan quality, decrease the research-to-practice gap, and increase connectivity to emerging public health paradigms. The tool provides an example of tailoring guidance materials to reflect academic literature, and it can be easily adapted to other topic areas to promote quality of strategic plans

  18. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  19. Environmental health: an opportunity for health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Variance in personal susceptibility to environmental hazards may be attributable to age, gender, previous or concomitant exposure, economic status, race, or genetic endowment. Water pollution sources can be either point sources (a well-defined source, e.g., factory waste water discharge) or non-point sources (more diffuse sources including agricultural, industrial, and urban runoff, domestic lawn care, and air pollution). Pollutants can migrate from disposal sites, underground injection wells, or underground storage systems and contaminate ground and surface drinking water sources. The annual cost of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants from all sources is estimated to be between $40 to $50 billion. The death toll from exposure to particulate air pollution generated by motor vehicles, burning coal, fuel oil, and wood is estimated to be responsible for as many as 100,000 fatalities annually in the United States. Through the identification of individuals and groups at greater risk, occupational and environmental health nurses can use primary and secondary prevention activities to protect susceptible individuals and communities from adverse exposures and environmentally related disease.

  20. 75 FR 78952 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... Quality, 629 East Main Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James B. Topsale...

  1. 78 FR 40087 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental...) section 111(d)/129 negative declaration for the District of Columbia for hospital/medical/infectious waste...

  2. 76 FR 38155 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9426-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... toxic control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in... control measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in...

  3. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Examination of sustainability indicators for fall prevention strategies in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Durrett, Nicholas K; Schneider, Ellen C; Byers, Imani N; Shubert, Tiffany E; Wilson, Ashley D; Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    With 1-in-4 older adults suffering a fall each year, fall prevention efforts have emerged as a public health priority. Multi-level, evidence-based fall prevention programs have been promoted by the CDC and other government agencies. To ensure participants and communities receive programs' intended benefits, organizations must repeatedly deliver the programs over time and plan for program sustainability as part of 'scaling up' the initiative. The State Falls Prevention Project (SFPP) began in 2011 when the CDC provided 5 years of funding to State Departments of Health in Colorado, New York, and Oregon to simultaneously implement four fall prevention strategies: 1) Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance; 2) Stepping On; 3) Otago Exercise Program; and 4) STEADI (STopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) toolkit. Surveys were performed to examine systems change and perceptions about sustainability across states. The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine how funding influenced the capacity for program implementation and sustainability within the SFPP; and 2) assess reported Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT) scores to learn about how best to sustain fall preventing efforts after funding ends. Data showed that more organizations offered evidence-based fall prevention programs in participants' service areas with funding, and the importance of programming implementation, evaluation, and reporting efforts were likely to diminish once funding concluded. Participants' reported PSAT scores about perceived sustainability capacity did not directly align with previously reported perceptions about PSAT domain importance or modifiability. Findings suggest the importance of grantees to identify potential barriers and enablers influencing program sustainability during the planning phase of the programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Environmental pollution: An enormous and invisible burden on health systems in low- and middle-income counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background. Environmental pollution has become the leading risk factor for death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization and others calculate that exposures to polluted air - indoor and outdoor, water and soil resulted in 8.4 million deaths in LMICs in 2012. By comparison, HIV/AIDS causes 1.5 million deaths per year, and malaria and tuberculosis Less than 1 million each. The diseases caused by pollution include the traditional scourges of pneumonia and diarrhea, but increasingly they also include chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as such as heart disease, stroke and cancer. Method. We review the diseases caused by pollution and the multiple economic and human burdens that these diseases impose on health systems in countries with already limited resources. Results. We find that diseases caused by pollution increase health care costs, especially for high-cost NCDs. They impose an unnecessary load on health care delivery systems by increasing hospital staffing needs and thus diverting resources from essential prevention programmes such as childhood immunizations, infection control and maternal and child health. They undermine the development of poor countries by reducing the health, intelligence and economic productivity of entire generations. Pollution is highly preventable and pollution prevention is highly cost-effective. Yet despite their high economic and human costs and amenability to prevention, the diseases caused by pollution have not received the attention that they deserve in policy planning or in the international development agenda. Conclusion. Pollution is not inevitable. It is a problem that can be solved in our lifetime. Given the great impact of pollution on health and health care resources and the high cost-benefit ratio of pollution prevention, efforts to mitigate pollution should become a key strategic priority for international funders and for governments of LMICs. Recommendation. Assisting LMICs to

  6. Impact of state mandatory insurance coverage on the use of diabetes preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Lawrence

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 46 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have passed laws and regulations mandating that health insurance plans cover diabetes treatment and preventive care. Previous research on state mandates suggested that these policies had little impact, since many health plans already covered the benefits. Here, we analyze the contents of and model the effect of state mandates. We examined how state mandates impacted the likelihood of using three types of diabetes preventive care: annual eye exams, annual foot exams, and performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Methods We collected information on diabetes benefits specified in state mandates and time the mandates were enacted. To assess impact, we used data that the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System gathered between 1996 and 2000. 4,797 individuals with self-reported diabetes and covered by private insurance were included; 3,195 of these resided in the 16 states that passed state mandates between 1997 and 1999; 1,602 resided in the 8 states or the District of Columbia without state mandates by 2000. Multivariate logistic regression models (with state fixed effect, controlling for patient demographic characteristics and socio-economic status, state characteristics, and time trend were used to model the association between passing state mandates and the usage of the forms of diabetes preventive care, both individually and collectively. Results All 16 states that passed mandates between 1997 and 1999 required coverage of diabetic monitors and strips, while 15 states required coverage of diabetes self management education. Only 1 state required coverage of periodic eye and foot exams. State mandates were positively associated with a 6.3 (P = 0.04 and a 5.8 (P = 0.03 percentage point increase in the probability of privately insured diabetic patient's performing SMBG and simultaneous receiving all three preventive care, respectively; state mandates were not

  7. 76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The districts are required under Part D of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement a SIP-approved New Source Review (NSR) permit program. These rules update and revise the District's NSR permitting program for new and modified sources of air pollution. If EPA finalizes the limited approval and limited disapproval action, as proposed, then a sanctions clock would be triggered. We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  8. State of the Science White Paper: Effects of Plastics Pollution on Aquatic Life and Aquatic-Dependent Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a state-of-the-science review – one that summarizes available scientific information on the effects of chemicals associated with plastic pollution and their potential impacts on aquatic life and aquatic-dependent wildlife.

  9. Prevention of Polluting Rivers and Lakes from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Jolić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic on rivers and lakes in Europe has been ve1y well developed.The reason for this is the transport cost, relative speedand good connectivity of major European cities by rivers andcanals. In Croatia, this transport mode is lagging behind therest of Europe. Croatia is located at an interesting section of theriver transversal, but due to several reasons, river navigation inCroatia has not been developed to any major extent. As operatingriver ships the most frequent types are: towboats, pushboatsand self-propelled ships. The installed diesel engines, propulsionand auxiliary engines run at high power. Proportional tothe increase in the power of installed engines is also the increasein the volume of waste produced by the engines. Also, the olderthe engine, the greater volume of waste it produces. Ships mayalso cause pollution by wastewaters and garbage. This pollutionthreat grows with the greater number of people on boardand the age of the ship. In order to minimize these possibilitiesof pollution, it is necesswy to control all the time the properfunctioning of the ships, train the staff and construct receptionfacilities on land.

  10. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  11. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  12. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  13. A document analysis of drowning prevention education resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchmarchi, Adam Bradley; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Kipfer, Hannah Joy

    2018-03-01

    There have been long-standing calls to better educate the public at large on risks of drowning; yet limited evaluation has taken place on current resources in circulation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to develop an understanding of the content in currently circulated drowning prevention resources in the United States. Data points (n = 451) consisting of specific content within 25 different drowning prevention educational resources were analyzed using document analysis methods; a grounded theory approach was employed to allow for categorical development and indexing of the data. Results revealed six emerging categories, including safety precautions (n = 152), supervision (n = 109), preventing access (n = 57), safety equipment (n = 46), emergency procedures (n = 46), and aquatic education (n = 41). Results provide an initial insight into the composition of drowning prevention resources in the United States and provide a foundation for future research.

  14. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  15. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S; Swinburn, Tracy K; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda.

  16. Developing and maintaining state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B; Galano, J

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions. Key informants in five states throughout the southern United States were given semi-structured interviews regarding the adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions in their states. From these interviews and other documents, conclusions were drawn regarding the nature and importance of the environments within which these coalitions operate, the universe of activities in which coalitions engage, and the stages of development of these coalitions. Katz and Kahn's model of social organizations served as the basis for understanding coalitions in terms of these three considerations. Future research should consider the utility of organizational models that can explain more fully the organization--committee hybrid structure that tends to characterize these coalitions.

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the SNL/California waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braye, S.; Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    SNL/California's waste management facilities, Bldgs. 961 and 962-2, generate a secondary stream of hazardous and radioactive waste. This waste stream is generated mainly during the processing and handling of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (primary waste stream), which are generated by the laboratories, and when cleaning up spills. The secondary waste stream begins with the removal of a generator's hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste from specified collection areas. The waste stream ends when the containers of processed waste are loaded for shipment off-site. The total amount of secondary hazardous waste generated in the waste management facilities from January 1993 to July 1994 was 1,160.6 kg. The total amount of secondary radioactive waste generated during the same period was 1,528.8 kg (with an activity of 0.070 mCi). Mixed waste usually is not generated in the secondary waste stream. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted using the graded approach methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) PPOA task group. The original method was modified to accommodate the needs of Sandia's site-specific processes. The options generated for potential hazardous waste minimization, cost savings, and environmental health and safety were the result of a waste minimization team effort. The results of the team efforts are summarized

  18. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polle, Juergen [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States); Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  19. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste Dumpsite, Southern Nigeria. ... This study characterizes the leachates quality of an active dumpsite in Warri, Delta State and also analyses its contamination or pollution potential. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) - a tool for ...

  20. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  1. Reducing pollution: Who pays the bill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Since the nation's lawmakers passed a final version of the Clean Air Act, many utilities will now face large capital expenditures for pollution abatement in the next ten years. That prospect is likely to create problems for the nation's public utility commissioners, who are concerned about the costs to utility customers. A survey of PUC staff and commissioners found that while many are concerned about such issues, few have dealt with pollution abatement problems in the past few years. This survey was conducted during 1989 with all but three states that have commissions. The survey dealt with the ways that commissions have been handling pollution abatement expenditures including: how PUCs handled expenditures in their rate bases; PUC experience with pollution abatement expenditures in rate cases; PUC flexibility in dealing with previous pollution abatement cases; PUC management involvement with utilities; communication between the PUCs and the state air quality offices over problems involving pollution abatement

  2. Rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    During the 1982 conference of the International Law Association (ILA) in Montreal the ILA discussed and adopted a draft of rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. The draft presents criteria for the definition of transfrontier pollution and sets out rules for the prevention of such pollution and recommendations for a system of multilateral information, consultation, and co-operation in case of energy. (HP) [de

  3. IOC-UNEP regional workshop to review priorities for marine pollution monitoring, research, control and abatement in the wider Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The IOC-UNEP Regional Workshop to Review Priorities for Marine Pollution Monitoring, Research, Control and Abatement in the Wider Caribbean Region (San Jose, 24-30 August 1989) examined a possible general framework for a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP programme for marine pollution assessment and control in the Wider Caribbean region (CEPPOL). The overall objective of CEPPOL is to establish a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP Marine Pollution Assessment and Control Programme catering to the immediate and long-term requirements of the Cartagena Convention as well as the requirements of the member States of IOCARIBE. The specific objectives of the programmes are: (i) To organize and carry out a regionally co-ordinated marine pollution monitoring and research programme concentrating on contaminants and pollutants affecting the quality of the marine and coastal environment, as well as the human health in the Wider Caribbean and to interpret/assess the results of the programme as part of the scientific basis for the region; (ii) To generate information on the sources, levels, amounts, trends and effects of marine pollution within the Wider Caribbean region as an additional component of the scientific basis upon which the formulation of proposals for preventive and remedial actions can be based; (iii) To formulate proposals for technical, administrative and legal pollution control, abatement, and preventive measures and to assist the Governments in the region in implementing and evaluating their effectiveness; and (iv) To strengthen and , when necessary, to develop/establish the capabilities of national institutions to carry out marine pollution monitoring and research, as well as to formulate and apply pollution control and abatement measures

  4. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  7. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  8. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  9. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  10. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. [46 FR...

  11. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  12. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  13. Inventory of conventional air pollutants emissions from road transportation for the state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cristiane Duarte Ribeiro de; Silva, Suellem Deodoro; Silva, Marcelino Aurélio Vieira da; D’Agosto, Márcio de Almeida; Barboza, Arthur Prado

    2013-01-01

    Road transportation has contributed to increased emissions of conventional air pollutants and, consequently, to the increase in problems associated with the environment and human health, depending on the type of pollutant and the concentration of it. To support the development of public policies aimed to decrease total tonnes of emissions, we used a bottom-up approach to estimate the amount of air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), and aldehydes (RCHO), that are emitted by road transportation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 1980 to 2010. The results from 2010 show that cars are responsible for 55% of CO emissions, 61% of THC emissions, and 93% of RCHO emissions. Due to the use of hydrated ethanol and compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of petroleum based fuels during the period analyzed, 1,760,370 t of air pollutant emissions were avoided. Compared to Brazil, in 2010, RJ had a quantity of emissions per vehicle from 12% (CO) to 59% (PM) smaller than the national average. As strategies to reduce air pollutant emissions, we consider reducing the intensity of use, with a proportional reduction in emissions, and increased the use of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► We estimate road transportation emissions for Rio de Janeiro from 1980 to 2010. ► C gasoline was most responsible for CO (74%) and diesel for PM (91%). ► Emissions/vehicle for Rio de Janeiro are (12% to 59%) smaller than Brazilian. ► 1,760,370 t of emissions was avoided using non-petroleum-based fuels. ► Strategies to reduce the emissions of these air pollutants were proposed.

  14. Water pollution by non-radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenbrok, G.

    1974-01-01

    Water is in constant circulation from the ocean to the earth's atmosphere and back to the ocean. In the course of this cycle, the composition of the water is altered by natural and human influences. Depending on the prevailing conditions, the water may contain solute gases, undissolved substances, inorganic salts, organic compounds, and microorganisms of varying types and concentrations. Many of these substances are known to pollute the water and thus to threaten its various uses. Emitting sources of water pollutants are: waste waters, seepings from open dumpings, mineral fertilizers and biocides washed out from agricultural areas, water pollutants emitted during storage and transport, air pollutants, and erosions from roads. The thermal load is an additional factor. Technical and legal steps are necessary in order to prevent water pollution and to maintain the quality of water required for its various uses. These measures are treated in detail. (orig./AK) [de

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Biomarkers of Health Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Yang, Xuan; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the air pollution situation of our country is very serious along with the development of urbanization and industrialization. Studies indicate that the exposure of air pollution can cause a rise of incidence and mortality of many diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, myocardial infarction, and so on. However, there is now growing evidence showing that significant air pollution exposures are associated with early biomarkers in various systems of the body. In order to better prevent and control the damage effect of air pollution, this article summarizes comprehensively epidemiological studies about the bad effects on the biomarkers of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and genetic and epigenetic system exposure to ambient air pollution.

  16. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  18. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector AA-Fabricated Metal Products as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  19. Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination - United States, 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Saad B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS is associated with several negative outcomes, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of CRS and ASD cases prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States from 2001 through 2010. Methods Prevention estimates were calculated through simple mathematical modeling, with values of model parameters determined from published literature. Model parameters included pre-vaccine era CRS incidence, vaccine era CRS incidence, the number of live births per year, and the percentage of CRS cases presenting with an ASD. Results Based on our estimates, 16,600 CRS cases (range: 8300-62,250 were prevented by rubella vaccination from 2001 through 2010 in the United States. An estimated 1228 ASD cases were prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States during this time period. Simulating a slight expansion in ASD diagnostic criteria in recent decades, we estimate that a minimum of 830 ASD cases and a maximum of 6225 ASD cases were prevented. Conclusions We estimate that rubella vaccination prevented substantial numbers of CRS and ASD cases in the United States from 2001 through 2010. These findings provide additional incentive to maintain high measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccination coverage.

  20. Highlights of the EPA innovative regulatory strategies workshop: Market-based incentives and other innovations for air pollution control. Summary of workshop discussion sessions. Held in Washington, DC on January 15-17, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 allow, and in some cases require, States to adopt market-based strategies or other innovative types of air pollution control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) innovative regulatory strategies program seeks to encourage and facilitate, as appropriate, the development, demonstration, and implementation of a wide range of innovative regulatory air pollution programs, including market-based, informational, and pollution prevention approaches. The 3-day national workshop, attended by over two hundred people from Federal, State, and local agencies, industry, environmental and public interest groups, and the academic community highlighted issues associated with a variety of innovative, market-based strategies which are currently being developed or used by State and local authorities around the country

  1. Review of Agricultural Plastic Mulching and Its Residual Pollution and Prevention Measures In China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Chang-rong

    2014-04-01

    , crispat-ural cylindric and spherality existed in soil as horizontal, vertical and incline state. In present, there are machinery harvesting technique, re-ducing plastic film mulching technique, replacing technique with biodegradable plastic film to against this pollution. For plastic film residuespollution countermeasures, it is necessary to revise the standard of plastic film and strive monitoring the quality of plastic film, improve theretrievability of plastic residue; It is also necessary to extend reducing plastic film mulching technique, harvesting techniques and increaseharvesting rate of residue; strength the adaption study and promote the rational utilization of agricultural plastic film.

  2. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  3. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  4. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghorani-Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  5. Effect of modern technology in improving spoil bank design and reducing environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Pripremu Mineralnih Sirovina

    1988-01-01

    States that Yugoslav thermal power plants produce 10 Mt ash annually with only 10% being utilized as a secondary raw material, and that the environmental pollution resulting from inappropriate disposal methods is no longer acceptable. Points out that hydraulic ash transport at thermal power plants uses 20,000 m{sup 3} water per hour for 200 MW plants, and that the water dissolves heavy metal ions. Very high levels of Pb, As, and Cu ions together with sulphates were found in water released from the ash disposal sites of the Nikola Tesla and Kostolac thermal power plants where the level of suspended particles was found in spring 1985 to have risen to 4,500 mg/l against a permitted level of 30 mg/l. Recommends the use of sealing foil under ash disposal areas to prevent the contamination of ground water. The spraying of dry ash and slag waste is also recommended to prevent air pollution by dust. Slag is stated to be the more serious contaminant; typical ash to slag ratios vary from 95:5 to 80:20. With large disposal areas such as at the Kostolac or Nikola Tesla A and B power plants where 250-400 ha could be involved, a program of land reclamation and recultivation is suggested. Further recommends that outmined coalfields be used as sites for ash and slag disposal. 7 refs.

  6. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0547; FRL-9480-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on pages 214-217 in the issue of Wednesday, January 4, 2012, make the following corrections...

  7. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  8. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the…

  9. Mixing state of ambient aerosols during different fog-haze pollution episodes in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Honglei; Yin, Yan; Chen, Kui; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Zefeng; Kang, Hui; Shen, Lijuan

    2018-04-01

    The mixing state of aerosol particles were investigated using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) during a regional fog-haze episode in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) on 16-28 Dec., 2015. The aerosols were analyzed and clustered into 12 classes: aged elemental carbon (Aged-EC), internally mixed organics and elemental carbon (ECOC), organic carbon (OC), Biomass, Amine, Ammonium, Na-K, V-rich, Pb-rich, Cu-rich, Fe-rich and Dust. Results showed that particles in short-term rainfalls mixed with more nitrate and oxidized organics, while they mixed with more ammonium and sulfate in long-term rainfall. Due to anthropogenic activities, stronger winds and solar radiation, the particle counts increased and the size ranges of particles broadened in haze. Carbonaceous particles and Na-K mixed with enhanced secondary species during haze, and obviously were more acidic, especially for the ones with a size range of 0.6-1.2 μm. For local and long-range transported pollution, OC had distinct size distributions while the changes of ECOC were uniform. The secondary formation of ECOC contributed significantly in local pollution and affected much smaller particles (as small as 0.5 μm) in long-range transported pollution. And long-range transported pollution was more helpful for the growth of OC. Particles mixed with more chloride and nitrate/sulfate in local/long-range transported pollution.

  10. The role of regional pollution conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last 12 years a number of regional pollution conventions and action plans have been negotiated to protect the world's seas from pollution. This paper traces the development of this activity and points out the specific role of regional, as opposed to global, pollution conventions. Chief among the functions of regional conventions is the specific legal framework they provide for a particular geographical region. They also provide a forum for neighboring states to develop a coherent policy for a particular regional sea, as well as being the means of establishing regional control over potentially polluting activities. Regional agreements also constitute a suitable framework for monitoring the input of pollutants to the marine environment and assessing their effects. In addition, they provide a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information and for developing cooperation between states. The paper concludes by summarizing the most important functions of a regional convention and suggesting that, with increasing industrialization and pollution stress, there will continue to be a need for action to be taken at the regional level

  11. Heavy metals pollution at municipal solid waste dumpsites in Kano and Kaduna states in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Anake

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples collected from two major dumpsites each in Kano and Kaduna states were investigated for heavy metals pollution. Each of the dumpsite was divided into north, south, east and west. Four soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm from each part and pooled to form a composite sample. Soil samples from reserve areas within the same geographical locations as the dumpsites were collected as control. Acid-extractable cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and lead (Pb were determined using 2 M nitric acid solution and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ranges of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb levels for all the dumpsites were 0.30−49.8, 5.76−139, 0.39−19.1 and 42.6−9662 mg/kg, respectively. Kano dumpsite 2 was found to pollute most with Cd, Cr and Pb in 50-100 % soil samples collected having concentrations higher than the threshold limits set by regulatory body. Paper and food scraps showed higher percentages in both Kano and Kaduna dumpsites. The soil was high is sand for all the dumpsites implying high leaching potentials of the heavy metals pollutants.

  12. EPA Definition of Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  14. Global aspects of marine pollution policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The source and fate of marine pollutants are discussed in overview and exemplified with the case of radioactive wastes dumped at sea. Only 10% of marine pollutants originate with deliberate dumping; the other 90% come from land-based sources. Remarkably, there is no international convention regulating pollution from all sources, including land-based. The London Dumping Convention (LDC) is the chief international treaty for regulating and limiting dumping at sea. The LDC is moving away from regulation, however, and toward prohibition of most forms of dumping at sea. A new international 'Convention for the Protection of the Oceans from Pollution' (CPOP) is now needed, incorporating new waste management principles and having jurisdiction over all sources of marine pollution, including those from land-based sources. Such a convention could foster international cooperation in the prevention of marine pollution by serving as a clearing house for the exchange of technologies in the area of toxic waste source reduction and abatement. Possible hurdles to the formation of such an international instrument are discussed along with possible solutions. (author)

  15. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  16. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  17. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  18. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  19. [Use of macroalgae for the evaluation of organic pollution in the Preto river, northwest of São Paulo State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi Júnior, O; Branco, H Z; Dip, M R

    1994-01-01

    The Preto River, located in the northwest of São Paulo State, receives a total wastewater load of 15.150 kg DBO day-1, from which 13.685 kg DBO day-1 (90.5%) corresponds to domestic sewage, and the city of São José do Rio Preto contributes with 12.400 kg DBO day-1 (90% of domestic sewage). During the period from August 1990 through January 1991, monthly sampling was carried out to evaluate the use of macroalgae as bioindicator of organic pollution. Five sampling sites were established along the main river and the following variables were analised: temperature, conductance, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, total and fecal coliforms, and composition and abundance of macroalgal communities. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (four different approaches) and converted to biological indices (species deficit, relative pollution, saprobity, diversity and uniformity indices). A wide range in water quality was found (particularly for conductance, oxygen, BOD and COD) among the sampling sites, which were classified into three groups (polluted, moderately polluted and unpolluted/weakly polluted). As regards the occurrence and abundance of macroalgae the Rhodophyta were found only in unpolluted or weakly polluted sites, whereas Cyanophyta occurred mostly under high pollution load; the Chlorophyta species were observed under a wide range of conditions. Among the biological indices, saprobity was the most sensitive and correlated to all water variables and the other indices. Cluster analyses showed that the composition of macroalgal communities was consistent with the levels of organic pollution in the Preto River.

  20. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses