Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...
Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.
This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...
William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla
This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...
California Natural Resource Agency — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...
...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Wicaksono, Irmandy
Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.
Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li
Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...
Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green
This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).
Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.
Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.
California Natural Resource Agency — This is a GIS version of California State Park (CSP) operational boundaries and does not represent official property boundary determinations. This GIS version is...
Wenyan, W.; Fanghua, H.; Ying, C.; Ouyang, W.; Yuan, Q.
Massive fossil fuel burning caused by industrialization development is one major reason of global climate change. After Copenhagen climate summit, the studies of low-carbon city gain attentions from many countries. On 25th Nov. 2009, the State Council executive meeting announced that by 2020 China will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% compared with the level of 2005. Industrial Park as an important part of city, has developed rapidly in recent years, and turns into a key element and an alternative mechanism to achieve emission reduction target. Thus, establishing a low carbon development model for industrial park is one of the most effective ways to build sustainable low carbon cities. By adopting the self-evaluation system of low carbon industrial park, this research aims to summarize the low carbon concept in industrial park practice. According to The Guide for Low Carbon Industrial Development Zones, the quantitative evaluation system is divided into 4 separate categories with 23 different quantitative indicators. The 4 categories include: 1) energy and GHG management (weigh 60%), 2) circular economy and environmental protection (weigh 15%), 3) administration and incentive mechanisms of industrial parks (weigh 15%), and 4) planning and urban forms (weigh 10%). By going through the necessary stages and by leading continuous improvements low carbon development goals can be achieved. Tianjin TEDA industrial park is selected as one case study to conduct an assessment on TEDA low-carbon development condition. Tianjin TEDA Industrial Park is already an ecological demonstration industrial park in China, with good foundations on environmental protection, resource recycling, etc. Based on the self-evaluation system, the indicators, such as the energy using efficiency and the degree of land intensive utilization, are also analyzed and assessed. Through field survey and data collection, in accordance with the quantitative self
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...
Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space
Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.
Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said
One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...
Michael Nisengard; Miklos Gratzer
This project examines attitudes towards management strategies of four Allegany State Park recreational user groups: cabin users, recreational vehicle users, tent users, and day users. It investigates recreational user group attitude differences, and attitude change over a ten year time period, in regard to the following park management strategy categories: park...
Dwiputra Albertus Ega
Full Text Available Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is conducted by installing three sensor circuits and server in a parking lot. The tests consist of measuring time that required for data transmission and the rate of success of data transmission from the parking lot to the Cloud. Based on above tests, it is observed that the sensor circuit and Radio Frequency Identification are able to transmit the parking lot data without error. This system require maximum 1 min to update parking lot data. The process of obtaining data until the data being stored in Cloud takes 12 s and the process of acquiring parking condition data from Cloud to smartphone takes 30 s. The accuracy level of parking lot data transfer is 100 %.
Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar
The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...
Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space; determine a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the wireless signal; and identify a presence of a vehicle located at the parking space based at least in part on the RSSI. In another example, a method includes receiving a wireless signals from a base station controller and a parking controller located at a parking space; determining RSSIs from the wireless signals; and determining a location of the mobile computing device in a parking facility based at least in part on the RSSIs. In another example, a RSSI can be received, a parking occupancy can be determined using the RSSI, and an electronic record can be updated based on the parking occupancy.
Full Text Available Reasonable parking charge and supply policy are essential for the regular operation of the traffic in city center. This paper develops an evaluation model for parking policies using system dynamics. A quantitative study is conducted to examine the effects of parking charge and supply policy on traffic speed. The model, which is composed of three interrelated subsystems, first summarizes the travel cost of each travel mode and then calibrates the travel choice model through the travel mode subsystem. Finally, the subsystem that evaluates the state of traffic forecasts future car speed based on bureau of public roads (BPR function and generates new travel cost until the entire model reaches a steady state. The accuracy of the model is verified in Hangzhou Wulin business district. The related error of predicted speed is only 2.2%. The results indicate that the regular pattern of traffic speed and parking charge can be illustrated using the proposed model based on system dynamics, and the model infers that reducing the parking supply in core area will increase its congestion level and, under certain parking supply conditions, there exists an interval of possible pricing at which the service reaches a level that is fairly stable.
Panomruttanarug, Benjamas; Higuchi, Kohji
This paper presents an emulation of fuzzy logic control schemes for an autonomous parallel parking system in a backward maneuver. There are four infrared sensors sending the distance data to a microcontroller for generating an obstacle-free parking path. Two of them mounted on the front and rear wheels on the parking side are used as the inputs to the fuzzy rules to calculate a proper steering angle while backing. The other two attached to the front and rear ends serve for avoiding collision with other cars along the parking space. At the end of parking processes, the vehicle will be in line with other parked cars and positioned in the middle of the free space. Fuzzy rules are designed based upon a wall following process. Performance of the infrared sensors is improved using Kalman filtering. The design method needs extra information from ultrasonic sensors. Starting from modeling the ultrasonic sensor in 1-D state space forms, one makes use of the infrared sensor as a measurement to update the predicted values. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of sensor improvement.
Williams, Floyd K.
This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Merchants Millpond State Park in North Carolina to teach students in grades 4-6 about the habitat and lifestyle of the beaver. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Parks System, the Merchants Millpond State…
Dwiputra Albertus Ega; Khoswanto Handry; Sutjiadi Raymond; Lim Resmana
Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is ...
San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del
Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)
The purpose of this planning project is to analyze alternatives and design a Traveler Information System (TIS) that will enhance the experience of visitors to the NYNH parks and other sites managed by federal, state and local partners. The system wil...
Howard, J. H.; Baldwin, R.; Pitt, A. L.; Baldwin, E. D.
Biodiversity management has been historically confined to parks and protected areas and these types of formally-protected areas may help to mitigate the effects of climate change and habitat loss by preventing further fragmentation, degradation and the spread of invasive species. Much research has demonstrated the importance of parks and other such protected areas for their ecological, conservational, and socio-cultural benefits. Protected areas constitute ~ 12% of the earth's land surface and are described as an essential core unit for for in situ conservation. State parks provide a type of a priori conservation, allowing areas which are identified as ecologically important within state park boundaries to be more rapidly prioritized for conservation and management. The development of South Carolina's state parks strongly contributed to cultural, social and ecological improvement across the state and we demonstrate that this network of protected areas can also help scientists to better locate, study and conserve cryptic or unprotected habitats. Our goals for this study were to use the SC state park system to 1) examine the structural and functional differences between wetlands located inside versus outside the state park system, and 2) suggest a conservation framework for small wetlands incorporating both state parks and adjacent areas with variable ownership status. At each wetland, we variables at the within-pond and local (5 m buffer around pool) scales. We visited each study wetland (N = 41, park pool = 19, non-park pools = 22) 5 times during both 2010 and 2011; collected water quality data and recorded the presence and activity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton and benthic algae. We hypothesized that wetlands within state parks would have better water quality and higher species richness compared to non-park wetlands. Our case study revealed that wetlands outside of state parks exhibited less variable depths and
ANEES ABU SNEINEH
Full Text Available Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking system. An intelligent automotive parking system is effectively implemented by integrating image processing technologies and an Arduino controller. Results show that intelligent parking is successfully implemented based on car ID image capture to meet the need for managing and organizing car parking systems.
Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose
The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car.
Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose
The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car. PMID:28406426
This study examines advanced parking management systems (APMSs) in three venues: airports, central business districts, and transit park-and-ride locations. Specifically, the systems examined in this study provide directional and space availability in...
Ho Gi Jung
Full Text Available This paper proposes a semi-automatic parking slot marking-based target position designation method for parking assist systems in cases where the parking slot markings are of a rectangular type, and its efficient implementation for real-time operation. After the driver observes a rearview image captured by a rearward camera installed at the rear of the vehicle through a touchscreen-based human machine interface, a target parking position is designated by touching the inside of a parking slot. To ensure the proposed method operates in real-time in an embedded environment, access of the bird's-eye view image is made efficient: image-wise batch transformation is replaced with pixel-wise instantaneous transformation. The proposed method showed a 95.5% recognition rate in 378 test cases with 63 test images. Additionally, experiments confirmed that the pixel-wise instantaneous transformation reduced execution time by 92%.
Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.
The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.
... system shall, at all times, be capable of being applied by either the driver's muscular effort or by... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking brake system. 393.41 Section 393.41... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.41 Parking brake system. (a) Hydraulic-braked vehicles...
...; bureau; office telephone number and e-mail address; and type of parking permit and desired [[Page 22445... authentication and time out function. All Department of State employees and contractors with authorized access...
California State Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento.
This guide is intended to assist teachers in organizing and preparing a field trip to Bodie State Historic Park (California). Although it is intended to assist in the trip to Bodie, it also provides information for organizing group tours or family outings to other areas. Activities include before, during, and after visit exercises focusing on the…
South Carolina State Dept. of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, Columbia. Div. of Engineering and Planning.
The guide was developed to assist physically handicapped persons in using South Carolina State Parks. It describes some of the accessibility problems identified in a 1986 Inventory of Handicapped Accessibility in South Carolina State Parks and Welcome Centers. It is noted that building construction since 1967 has met handicapped design criteria…
Shian Lim Yeu
Full Text Available Due to lack of vehicle parking slot in front of Block Q, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (FKEE, UTHM, the enhanced vehicle parking monitoring system (E-VPMS 1.0 is developed to identify parking slots available in the parking area as well as to detect double parking problem. Once this system is implemented, time consume for searching available parking slots as well as double parking problem that may cause unwanted accident can be reduced. In the development of E-VPMS 1.0 system, whole system are designed and developed in three different phases; which are video processing phase, login and registration phase, and webview development phase. In video processing phase, video sources are processed through few video processing function. In login and registration phase, series of webpage function have been created that accessible in both smartphone and laptop. While, in webview development phase, webview function have been developed and through this function, content of E-VPMS 1.0 system can be displayed directly via web browser for both smartphone and laptop. Through E-VPMS 1.0, availability parking slots can be checked by registered user through input recorded video before entering the specific parking area. Other than that, performance analysis in terms of numbers of registered user and parking slot availability at different situations such as during peak event or normal event can be managed and controlled by admin through visualisation data method.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of... States Park Police, National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... Keeping Requirements, the United States Park Police (USPP) invites public comments on an extension of a...
Full Text Available Consistent determination of the main problems concerning the system of intercepting parking – lot design with the purpose of transport systems improvement downtown is grounded. The given approach allows to fully satisfy the demand for parking-lots of urban transport systems in combination with the system of downtown parkings and the capacity of the highway network.
Humberg, Heinz; Maeder, Hans Friedrich; Will, Frank
The new possibilities offered by worldwide data transmission networks, which are being used for the remote diagnosis of mechanized parking systems are discussed. This has led to a reduction in service costs for systems installed in Asia and elsewhere. The principles of the mechanized multistorey car park and their control concept are described. The parking facilities are fully geared up for remote diagnosis, the key functions of which are: data collection, data storage, data transmission, and data evaluation. The reports transmitted from the parking facility are analyzed using an evaluation system. The objectives are to detect impending component failures and to quickly identify the causes of irregularities which have occurred. The evaluation system can be easily adapted for other applications.
Visnadi, Sandra Regina; Vital, Daniel Moreira
A total of 34 bryophyte species were identified (25 hepatics, 9 mosses) from restinga at Setiba State Park, Guarapari Municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Several species reported previously from restinga appear to be erroneous records, based on misidentification.
Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari
This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...
SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU
Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...
Bulan, Orhan; Loce, Robert P.; Wu, Wencheng; Wang, YaoRong; Bernal, Edgar A.; Fan, Zhigang
Urban parking management is receiving significant attention due to its potential to reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, and emissions. Real-time parking occupancy detection is a critical component of on-street parking management systems, where occupancy information is relayed to drivers via smart phone apps, radio, Internet, on-road signs, or global positioning system auxiliary signals. Video-based parking occupancy detection systems can provide a cost-effective solution to the sensing task while providing additional functionality for traffic law enforcement and surveillance. We present a video-based on-street parking occupancy detection system that can operate in real time. Our system accounts for the inherent challenges that exist in on-street parking settings, including illumination changes, rain, shadows, occlusions, and camera motion. Our method utilizes several components from video processing and computer vision for motion detection, background subtraction, and vehicle detection. We also present three traffic law enforcement applications: parking angle violation detection, parking boundary violation detection, and exclusion zone violation detection, which can be integrated into the parking occupancy cameras as a value-added option. Our experimental results show that the proposed parking occupancy detection method performs in real-time at 5 frames/s and achieves better than 90% detection accuracy across several days of videos captured in a busy street block under various weather conditions such as sunny, cloudy, and rainy, among others.
Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X; Smith, Jordan W
This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings--farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.
... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia... affiliated with the human remains should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation...
Full Text Available The crowdsourcing-based parking reservation system is a new computing paradigm, where private owners can rent their parking spots out. Security is the main concern for parking reservation systems. However, current schemes cannot provide user privacy protection for drivers and have no key agreement functions, resulting in a lot of security problems. Moreover, current schemes are typically based on the time-consuming bilinear pairing and not suitable for real-time applications. To solve these security and efficiency problems, we present a novel security protocol with user privacy called SCPR. Similar to protocols of this field, SCPR can authenticate drivers involved in the parking reservation system. However, different from other well-known approaches, SCPR uses pseudonyms instead of real identities for providing user privacy protection for drivers and designs a novel pseudonym-based key agreement protocol. Finally, to reduce the time cost, SCPR designs several novel cryptographic algorithms based on the algebraic signature technique. By doing so, SCPR can satisfy a number of security requirements and enjoy high efficiency. Experimental results show SCPR is feasible for real world applications.
... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by April 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia... contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...
Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Miller, Anna B.
Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the
Chen, Xiao; Zhen; Qian; Rajagopal, Ram; Stiers, Todd; Flores, Christopher; Kavaler, Robert; Williams III, Floyd
This paper describes a smart parking sensing and information system that disseminates the parking availability information for public users in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The hardware framework of the system is built on advanced wireless sensor networks and cloud service over the Internet, and the system is highly scalable. The parking information provided to the users is set in the form of occupancy rates and expected cruising time. Both are obtained from our analytical algorithm ...
...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O. Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650... it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks...
Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin
Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...
Full Text Available Ensuring local community support for national parks is viewed as a paramount ingredient for conservation and sustainability. This is advocated for the park to meet its conservation goals. The Okomu National Park (ONP, Edo State, Nigeria, is one of such protected areas of lush green rain forest requiring conservation.
..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...
May Thaw Htet
Full Text Available With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Parking is parking garage system that utilizes various technologies to implement best parking system. The proposed system is aimed to inform drivers about the number of available parking spaces without any parking difficulties. This system is designed for two- level parking slots with twenty six parking spaces and one aisle on each floor. The condition of parking slots is detected by IR sensors and is reported periodically to main controller via floor controllers and self controllers. PIC 18F4550 is chosen to be used as controllers because it is suitable for the proposed system. Each floor contains LCD display which will show available parking spaces of that floor. LCD display at the entrance gate will show overall available parking slots of two floors. In this paper a new parking system called Smart Parking system is proposed to help drivers getting the real-time parking information and to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time. This kind of system minimizes not only traffic congestion problems but also staff requirements to control the traffic in the car park.
Glendon W. Smalley; Carlie McCowan; S. David Todd; Phillip M. Morrissey; J. Andrew McBride
This paper summarizes the application of a land classification system developed by the senior author to the Standing Stone State Forest and State Park (SSSF&SP) on the Eastern Highland Rim. Landtypes are the most detailed level in the hierarchical system and represent distinct units of the landscape (mapped at a scale of 1:24,000) as defined by climate, geology,...
Urban Park System is an integrated concept between nature system and urban life. The problems caused by urban population activity resulted in the need to increase the balance between two systems. Establishment of urban park system is a response to the need for resilience of urban space structures. As an ideal requirement it needs to be built integration between the ecological, social, economic, aesthetic aspects of urban landscape architecture. The methodology was developed based on an approach to issues affecting the conditions due to urban issues and its relation to the development efforts of urban park system; Observation of Jakarta problem was obtained based on published studies and data, literature, characteristic and potential analyzes, local physical, from limited field observations. Both are simple methods aimed to describe the nature of a condition as well as form characteristics of problems in controlling the development of region, to examine the causes and symptoms. This method try to assess an object study compared between the conditions before and after. The benefits of urban park system development will not only improve the urban environment, but the value of urban pride, identity and control urban growth in line with efforts to improve the balance between conservation and development. Integrated urban park system will enhance the multifunctional role, connectivity, habitability, durability, identity and investment.
Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.
... at the address in this notice by September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks... Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native... request Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...
...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given... written request with information in support of the request to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and...
ANEES ABU SNEINEH; WAEL A. SALAH
Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking sys...
Jiang, Kaichum; Seneviratne, L. D.
This paper presents an automated parking strategy for a car- like mobile robot. The study considers general parking manoeuvre cases for a rectangular robot, including parallel parking. The robot is constructed simulating a conventional car, which is subject to non-holonomic constraints and thus only has two degrees of freedom. The parking space is considered as rectangular, and detected by ultrasonic sensors mounted on the robot. A motion planning algorithm develops a collision-free path for parking, taking into account the non- holonomic constraints acting on the car-like robot. A research into general car maneuvers has been conducted and useful results have been achieved. The motion planning algorithm uses these results, combined with configuration space method, to produce a collision-free path for parallel parking, depending on the parking space detected. A control program in the form of a graphical user interface has been developed for users to operate the system with ease. The strategy is implemented on a modified B12 mobile robot. The strategy presented has the potential for application in automobiles.
Full Text Available Using smart parking systems has become very important, and particularly so for metropolitan areas, because of the benefits for drivers in many aspects, such as time, frustration, stress, and anger, in addition to the increased consumption of fuel while searching for a vacant parking space. This paper proposes a review of recent advances in sensing and communication technology concerning smart parking systems. It includes a brief study of the selected topics and provides an implementation process of those selected systems. Moreover, this work proposes a design approach for a smart car parking system prototype based on utilizing CCTVs (nodes, it is also illustrates the algorithms used for computer vision detection through simulation and real environments, as the system has been deployed in both these environments. Furthermore, the system has been tested and evaluated by stakeholders via a user-centred design process by applying a qualitative research; the promising results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype. Finally, this paper discusses the benefits of engaging the stakeholders to develop the prototype.
Full Text Available The Signage System is essential to establishing a national park. The authors conducted surveys, analysis and research of identification signs, informational sign, directional signs and functional signs from the signage systems adopted by five national parks in Yunnan Province. Relying on the results, with reference to industry experience, years of research related to national park, successful cases of overseas national parks and the current signage systems across China’s national parks, the paper aims to explore future development strategies of national park signage systems that are suitable for China.
Elliott, Sarah M.; VanderMeulen, David
Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013–15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10–15 ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16–120 ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (> 1000 ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000 ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and
Mace, Britton L.; Marquit, Joshua D.; Bates, Scott C.
Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.
Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda
Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well
Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun
The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…
Bach, O.; Krawack, S.; Thordrup, J.
Larger parking information system are evaluated in relation to their possible influence with regard to energy conservation and air pollution abatement. As a case in point, an analysis of the current parking situation in Lyngby was based on a detailed registration of the activities of each vehicle parked within the area during a certain period of time. The possible effect of a parking information system on the parking situation in this area was investigated. It is suggested that the utilization of such a system could result in a 10% reduction of air pollution in areas of towns where parking places are most in demand. However a parking information system's contribution to energy conservation was found to be negligable. (AB).
Islam, Mohummad Shariful; Tithi, Afshana Morshed; Hossain, Farzad; Shetu, Rifat Sultana; Amin, S. M. Abdullah Al; Chowdhury, Shakia Zannatul Ferdous
Bangladesh is the most densely populated city in the whole world, which is visible more in the capital city Dhaka. People have to suffer and valuable times are being wasted for this chronic quandary. Lack of proper planning of the city, different speed vehicles on the same road, over population, inadequate road space, unplanned stoppage or parking etc. are responsible for causing the traffic congestion in Dhaka City. Among those insufficient/unplanned parking system is one of the main reasons for causing traffic congestion. The automated rotary car parking system is the best and suitable because of its less utilization of space compared to other systems. It is a friendly parking system due to the non-utilization of noise/pollution related mechanism. The aim of this paper is to develop an automated car parking system with a minimum cost for reducing congestion in Dhaka city.
Full Text Available This paper aims at realizing an automatic parking method through a bird's eye view vision system. With this method, vehicles can make robust and real-time detection and recognition of parking spaces. During parking process, the omnidirectional information of the environment can be obtained by using four on-board fisheye cameras around the vehicle, which are the main part of the bird's eye view vision system. In order to achieve this purpose, a polynomial fisheye distortion model is firstly used for camera calibration. An image mosaicking method based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to combine four individual images from fisheye cameras into one omnidirectional bird's eye view image. Secondly, features of the parking spaces are extracted with a Radon transform based method. Finally, double circular trajectory planning and a preview control strategy are utilized to realize autonomous parking. Through experimental analysis, we can see that the proposed method can get effective and robust real-time results in both parking space recognition and automatic parking.
Full Text Available It is very difficult to find the minimum route to travel in amusement park navigation. A searching system for visitors would be useful. Therefore, we constructed a system to find the route with the minimum total traveling time. Facility visitors can employ this system on a smart phone. The system is composed of Java and a Java Servlet. We conclude that our system is useful and can greatly shorten travel time within a typical amusement park.
Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini
The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.
A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕc=e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕc and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.
A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕ c =e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕ c and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan/Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... review and comment a joint Final EIS/EIR for the Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House...
Kim, Young Woo; Narikiyo, Tatsuo
This paper presents a motion control system of an unmanned vehicle, where parallel parking task is realized based on a self-organizing affine system modeling and a quadratic programming based robust controller. Because of non-linearity of the vehicle system and complexity of the task to realize, control objective is not always realized with a single algorithm or control mode. This paper presents a hybrid model for parallel parking task in which seven modes for describing sub-tasks constitute an entire model
Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.
Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.
Full Text Available As a feature of the built neighborhood environment, parks have been associated with a range of positive health outcomes. Recognition of these contributions has prompted advocates to suggest parks are a part of our healthcare system. Despite these developments, park investments have declined over the past decade nationally, lagging behind expenditures on other community services such as health. Perhaps the idea of parks as a solution to the nation's health concerns has not diffused across the population. To date, however, public perception of parks' role in healthcare has not been documented. This study responds to this gap by assessing whether parks are perceived as an essential part of the healthcare system. Self-administered surveys were completed by a statewide sample of Pennsylvania adults (2014 and by a sample of primary care clinic visitors in Hershey, Pennsylvania (2015. Participants from both studies were asked the extent they agreed with the following statement: Parks, trails, and open space are an essential component of our healthcare system. Response was also compared across demographic characteristics to assess whether this belief was universally held. Findings indicate 73% of the statewide sample and 68% of the clinical sample agreed parks, trails, and open space are an essential element of the healthcare system. Males, those with lower levels of educational attainment, and rural residents were statistically less likely to agree with this statement. Results indicate widespread belief in parks as an essential part of the healthcare system, suggesting consideration of health-sector investments in these settings.
The USGS and NASA, in conjunction with Colorado State University, George Mason University and other partners, have developed the Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS), a flexible tool that capitalizes on NASA's remote sensing resource to produce dynamic habitat maps of invasive terrestrial plant species across the United States. In 2006 ISFS was adopted to generate predictive invasive habitat maps to benefit noxious plant and fire management teams in three major National Park systems: The Greater Yellowstone Area (Yellowstone / Grand Tetons National Parks), Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, and interior Alaskan (between Denali, Gates of The Arctic and Yukon-Charley). One of the objectives of this study is to explore how the ISFS enhances decision support apparatus in use by National Park management teams. The first step with each park system was to work closely with park managers to select top-priority invasive species. Specific species were chosen for each study area based on management priorities, availability of observational data, and their potential for invasion after fire disturbances. Once focal species were selected, sources of presence/absence data were collected from previous surveys for each species in and around the Parks. Using logistic regression to couple presence/absence points with environmental data layers, the first round of ISFS habitat suitability maps were generated for each National Park system and presented during park visits over the summer of 2006. This first engagement provided a demonstration of what the park service can expect from ISFS and initiated the ongoing dialog on how the parks can best utilized the system to enhance their decisions related to invasive species control. During the park visits it was discovered that separate "expert opinion" maps would provide a valuable baseline to compare against the ISFS model output. Opinion maps are a means of spatially representing qualitative knowledge into a quantitative two
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne; Cornachione, Egan
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2017, the National Park System received an estimated 331 million recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated \\$18.2 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 306 thousand jobs, \\$11.9 billion in labor income, \\$20.3 billion in value added, and \\$35.8 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.5 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with \\$3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
Full Text Available Because of many common scenes of reverse parking in real life, this paper presents a fuzzy controller which accommodates front and back adjustment of vehicle’s body attitude, and based on chaotic-genetic arithmetic to optimize the membership function of this controller, and get a vertical parking fuzzy controller whose simulation result is good .The paper makes the hardware-software embedded design for system based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, and set up a 1:10 verification platform of smart car to verify the fuzzy garage parking system with real car. Verification results show that, the system can complete the parking task very well.
Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant and human activities have increased atmospheric Hg concentrations 3- to 5-fold during the past 150 years. This increased release into the atmosphere has resulted in elevated loadings to aquatic habitats where biogeochemical processes promote the microbial conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury, the bioavailable form of Hg. The physicochemical properties of Hg and its complex environmental cycle have resulted in some of the most remote and protected areas of the world becoming contaminated with Hg concentrations that threaten ecosystem and human health. The national park network in the United States is comprised of some of the most pristine and sensitive wilderness in North America. There is concern that via global distribution, Hg contamination could threaten the ecological integrity of aquatic communities in the parks and the wildlife that depends on them. In this study, we examined Hg concentrations in non-migratory freshwater fish in 86 sites across 21 national parks in the Western United States. We report Hg concentrations of more than 1,400 fish collected in waters extending over a 4,000 kilometer distance, from Alaska to the arid Southwest. Across all parks, sites, and species, fish total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 1,109 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww) with a mean of 77.7 ng/g ww. We found substantial variation in fish THg concentrations among and within parks, suggesting that patterns of Hg risk are driven by processes occurring at a combination of scales. Additionally, variation (up to 20-fold) in site-specific fish THg concentrations within individual parks suggests that more intensive sampling in some parks will be required to effectively characterize Hg contamination in western national parks. Across all fish sampled, only 5 percent had THg concentrations exceeding a benchmark (200 ng/g ww) associated with toxic responses within the fish themselves. However, Hg concentrations in 35 percent
Maria Cristiane Fernandes da Silva Lunas
Full Text Available The urban environmental conditions are an increasing concern in several segments of civil society and the urban parks are part of this context. However, discussions about urban parks are less emphatic when compared to the prominence given to other environmental problems. This study sought to report the real situation of the three main urban environmental parks in the municipality of Dourados/MS, presenting their current state of conservation and maintenance and the main management actions that have been taken since the creation of each park. The main goal of this study was to identify the situation of these parks to propose measures that will help their conservation. The methodology consisted of the bibliographical survey, which reinforced the importance of green areas in urban spaces, a detailed field survey in the parks, as well as the study of documents that broached these parks. It was possible to verify that the parks have grave environmental problems and they are at risk due to poor conservation. Furthermore, the population starts to feel the social impact of abandoned urban green areas, besides the environmental effects. It was noted that the punctual projects elaborated for the parks have not had the desired effects, given the difficulty of allocating resources and the existence of political barriers. To that end, the elaboration of management plans for the parks was recommended, besides a detailed study about the management model that has been developed in these areas.
Timmerman, Jonas; Vandevelde, Lieven; Van Eetvelde, Greet
To mitigate climate destabilisation, human-induced greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be curbed. A major share of these emissions originates from the industry and energy sectors. Hence, a low carbon shift in industrial and business park energy systems is called for. Low carbon business parks minimise energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by maximal exploitation of local renewable energy production, enhanced energy efficiency, and inter-firm heat exchange, combined in a collective energy system. The holistic approach of techno-economic energy models facilitates the design of such systems, while yielding an optimal trade-off between energetic, economic and environmental performances. However, no models custom-tailored for industrial park energy systems are detected in literature. In this paper, existing energy model classifications are scanned for adequate model characteristics and accordingly, a confined number of models are selected and described. Subsequently, a practical typology is proposed, existing of energy system evolution, optimisation, simulation, accounting and integration models, and key model features are compared. Finally, important features for a business park energy model are identified. - Highlights: • A holistic perspective on (low carbon) business park energy systems is introduced. • A new categorisation of techno-economic energy models is proposed. • Model characteristics are described per model category. • Essential model features for business park energy system modelling are identified. • A strategy towards a techno-economic energy model for business parks is proposed
Abdul Rahman, N.; Kolot, A.
The intentions of renewable energy utilization in Sarawak national parks were to reduce the environmental impacts to the protected surrounding and to overcome fuel transportation problem, as most national parks in Sarawak are not viable for the state electricity grid connection. The study was conducted at three national parks in southern Sarawak; viz. Samusan, Tanjung Datu and Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park. The study focused on the effectiveness of the system implementation, energy load and associated problems. Both Samusan and Tanjung Datu National systems are hybrids, which consist of solar photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and diesel generators, whereas, Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park is a stand alone system of solar photovoltaic panels only. In addition, the inefficient energy usage was observed at Samusan National Park. The study have identified that lack of local expertise, spare parts availability, transportation and inefficient energy management as the major problems associated to the solar and wind energy system in all national parks studied. Albeit the problems mentioned, the study discovered that the systems were acceptably reliable and satisfactorily supply fraction of the energy requirements to the national parks communities
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current state of water and sewage management in the communes where the Roztocze National Park (RNP is located. The park is located in Lubelskie voivodship, in the territory of four communes: Zamość, Zwierzyniec, Adamów and Józefów, while its buffer zone is located in the communes of Krasnobród, Tereszpol and Szczebrzeszyn. The paper uses data from surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016. On average, 68.9% of the population used the water supply system in the municipalities surveyed, while 33.4% of the inhabitants had the possibility of discharging sewage to the sewerage system. In the area of the communes, there are 10 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity exceeding 5 m 3 ·d -1 . The households which are not connected to the sewage network discharge wastewater mainly to non-return tanks. Four out of the seven surveyed communities had 64 domestic sewage treatment plants, including 60 systems with infiltration drainage, which do not ensure high efficiency of removing pollution and may even contribute to the degradation of groundwater quality. In order to solve the existing problems in the area of sewage and water management occurring in the communes where the Roztocze National Park is located, it is necessary to further develop collective sewage systems and equip the areas with dispersed buildings with highly efficient, residential sewage treatment plants, e.g. constructed wetlands.
Henderson, Ana; Fry, Christine R
Improving parks in low income and minority neighborhoods may be a key way to increase physical activity and decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children at the greatest risk. To advocate effectively for improved recreation infrastructure, public health advocates must understand the legal and policy landscape in which public recreation decisions are made. In this descriptive legal analysis, we reviewed federal, state, and local laws to determine the authority of each level of government over parks. We then examined current practices and state laws regarding park administration in urban California and rural Texas. We identified several themes through the analysis: (1) multiple levels of governments are often involved in parks offerings in a municipality, (2) state laws governing parks vary, (3) local authority may vary substantially within a state, and (4) state law may offer greater authority than local jurisdictions use. Public health advocates who want to improve parks need to (1) think strategically about which levels of government to engage; (2) identify parks law and funding from all levels of government, including those not typically associated with local parks; and (3) partner with advocates with similar interests, including those from active living and school communities.
Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency
Vítek, Stanislav; Melničuk, Petr
The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.
Full Text Available The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.
Full Text Available The automatic and real-time license plate detection system can be used as an access control entry of vehicles into the parking area. The problem is how to recognize the vehicles that will go into the parking lot and how to recognize various types of license plates in various light conditions quickly and accurately. In this research, the prototype was developed with a detection system to recognize the vehicles that will enter the parking area, and a license plate recognition system. In the license plate recognition system, the Fourier transform and Hidden Markov model method have proposed to detect location of license plate and as characters segmentation to recognize Indonesia license plates. The research results have shown that the developed prototype system has successfully recognized all Indonesia license plates in several of light condition and camera position. The percentage of plate recognition in the real-time experiment is 84.38%, and the average execution time for all recognition process is 5.834 second.
For this report, researchers have examined smart parking, which is a parking management tool that uses various technologies to aid drivers in efficiently locating and paying for available parking. Smart parking systems allow drivers to know where the...
Sandra Rideout; Brian P. Oswald
This study was conducted to evaluate the initial effectiveness of prescribed burning in the ecological restoration of forests within selected parks in east Texas. Twenty-four permanent plots were installed to monitor fuel loads, overstory, sapling, seedling, shrub and herbaceous layers within burn and control units of Mission Tejas, Tyler and Village Creek state parks...
Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.
Full Text Available Transhumance – the summer transfer of livestock to highland pastures – is a traditional practice in the European Alps and is considered an integral part of the mountain ecosystem. Mountain lakes are generally oligotrophic systems and are particularly sensitive to the nutrient input caused by livestock. The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of livestock grazing on the trophic state of high-altitude lakes in an area where transhumance is a traditional practice (Gran Paradiso National Park, Western Italian Alps, taking into account its dual value of ecosystem component and potential threat to lakes’ trophic status. The impact of flocks and herds grazing was estimated on sensitive parameters related to the trophic state of alpine lakes: water transparency, nutrient content, bacterial load and chlorophyll-a concentration. Transhumance produced a significant increase in the trophic state of lakes with high grazing pressure, but little or no effect was found at soft-impacted lakes. Even though heavy-impacted lakes represent a minority of the studied lakes (three out of twenty, we indicated conservation measures such as fencing, wastewater treatment and livestock exclosure to be tested in Gran Paradiso National Park.
This system enables a driver to park the car at a predetermined spot without the driver seeing the outside scene. The system shows on a driver seat display the steps that the driver is to follow and thereby supports the driver when visibility is poor, when the parking space is difficult to approach, when the driver is a novice, or when the driver is aged. The system ensures accurate positioning of the car by showing the steering direction and angle, the car speed, and the force of braking to the driver. For this purpose, the system knows the absolute car position by the use of an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag which is a kind of IC (Integrated Circuit) card and D-GPS (Differential-Global Positioning System), grasps the relative car position by the use of a gyroscope, and collects data from plural sensors, which are complementary to each other, such as a car-speed sensor and a steering sensor. (translated by NEDO)
The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, located along the border between North Carolina and Tennessee, is the most visited national park in the United States. This rugged, mountainous area presents many transportation challenges. The immense popularity of the Smokies and the fact that the primary mode of transportation within the park is the personal vehicle have resulted in congestion, damage to the environment, impacts on safety, and a degraded visitor experience. Access to some of the Smokies historical, cultural, and recreational attractions via a mass transit system could alleviate many of the transportation issues. Although quite a few organizations are proponents of a mass transit system for the Smokies, there is a lack of coordination among all parties. In addition, many local residents are not completely comfortable with the idea of transit in the Smokies. This document provides a brief overview of the current transportation needs and limitations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, identifies agencies and groups with particular interests in the Smokies, and offers insights into the benefits of using Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies in the Smokies. Recommendations for the use of rural ITS transit to solve two major transportation issues are presented.
Vera-Gómez, Juan A; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando
In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected.
Richardson, Leslie A.; Huber, Christopher; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Koontz, Lynne
Lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) provide a wide range of beneficial services to the American public. This study quantifies the ecosystem service value of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems within NPS units in the conterminous United States for which data were available. Combining annual net carbon balance data with spatially explicit NPS land unit boundaries and social cost of carbon estimates, this study calculates the net metric tons of carbon dioxide sequestered annually by park unit under baseline conditions, as well as the associated economic value to society. Results show that, in aggregate, NPS lands in the conterminous United States are a net carbon sink, sequestering more than 14.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually. The associated societal value of this service is estimated at approximately $582.5 million per year. While this analysis provides a broad overview of the annual value of carbon sequestration on NPS lands averaged over a five year baseline period, it should be noted that carbon fluxes fluctuate from year to year, and there can be considerable variation in net carbon balance and its associated value within a given park unit. Future research could look in-depth at the spatial heterogeneity of carbon flux within specific NPS land units.
Full Text Available Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.
Yenigun, B.; Karas, I. R.; Demiral, E.
Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.
Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed. Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community
Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community
Full Text Available This study takes an intuitive step to develop the user-convenient smart vehicle parking system (SVPS, a smart system able to manage the massive crowd of vehicles during parking searching and do the better jobs of parking reservation and management, with the shorter-path processing tactics. For that, this study inclusively employed the mapping strategy, where the system parking points are prevalent, to assist the users to get the parking information fast and conveniently. This study is comprised of the several parking points systematically spread over the several locations and traceable over the available graphical map, and the overall information is easily accessible using smart devices. For parking information, a smart web application which is another important module of this study is designed, with which the SVPS system’s registered users are able to access all the services provided for smart vehicle parking searching and reservation in efficient and reliable ways. An integrated network approach, RFID (radio frequency identification and wireless sensors network (WSN, called RF-WSN, is employed to retrieve the real-time information from the installed and configured sensor devices in RFID-WSN network.
Atacak, Ismail; Erdogdu, Ertugrul
Nowadays, with the increasing population in urban areas, the number of vehicles used in traffic has also increased in these areas. This has brought with it major problems that are caused by insufficient parking areas, in terms of traffic congestion, drivers and environment. In this study, in order to overcome these problems, a multi-storey automatic parking system that automatically performs vehicle recognition, vehicle parking, vehicle delivery and pricing processes has been designed and the...
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.
Full Text Available For several years, the population of cities has continued to multiply at a rapid pace. The main cause of this phenomenon in developing countries like Morocco is the rural exodus. In fact, rural youth are increasingly attracted by the modern way of life and the opportunities of employment offered by cities. This increase in population density has a large number of negative effects on the quality of life in the city. The most obvious is the intensity of the traffic, which has become an almost insurmountable problem and which causes a great deal of damage, such as the increase in the number of accidents that cause serious bodily harm to the road users, the pollution caused by the large amount of CO2 released by the vehicles, and the continuous stress of drivers who must drive in often narrow and very busy roads and who must look for a long time to find a space to park. Thus, to solve the parking problem, several modern technologies have been created to equip car parks with smart devices that help road users identify the nearest car park that has a free space. These technologies most often use wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things (IoT technology. In this paper, we present the design and development of a smart parking system using the latest technologies based on wireless sensor networks (WSN. Our system uses an adaptable and hybrid self-organization algorithm for wireless sensor networks that adapts to all types of car parks existing in the city (linear and mass parking, and offers a better management of the energy consumption during the wireless communication to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and the longevity of the WSN. This system also offers innovative services which facilitate the task to the drivers when looking for an available parking space in the city near their destination, in a fast and efficient manner.
Pei-Chun Lee; Sheng-Shih Wang
This paper presents a route guidance system for car owners to find their cars in parking garages. The presents system comprises a positioning-assisting subsystem and a car-finding mobile app. The positioning-assisting subsystem mainly uses the iBeacon technology for indoor positioning. The car-finding mobile app guides car owners to their cars based on a non-map navigation strategy. This study also designs a virtual coordinate system to support identifying the locations of parking spaces and ...
The continuous global increase in the number of cars has led to an increase in parking issues, particularly with respect to the search for available parking spaces and finding cars. In this paper, we propose a navigation system for car owners to find their cars in indoor parking garages. The proposed system comprises a car-searching mobile app and a positioning-assisting subsystem. The app guides car owners to their cars based on a “turn-by-turn” navigation strategy, and has the ability to correct the user’s heading orientation. The subsystem uses beacon technology for indoor positioning, supporting self-guidance of the car-searching mobile app. This study also designed a local coordinate system to support the identification of the locations of parking spaces and beacon devices. We used Android as the platform to implement the proposed car-searching mobile app, and used Bytereal HiBeacon devices to implement the proposed positioning-assisting subsystem. We also deployed the system in a parking lot in our campus for testing. The experimental results verified that the proposed system not only works well, but also provides the car owner with the correct route guidance information.
Maxoel Barros Costa
Full Text Available Since its initial human occupation, the Atlantic Forest suffers from impacts. The damage worsened with the subsequent colonization and exploitation of the area for economic and industrial purposes. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the sandbank is the most threatened of all ecosystems that make up this biome due to its location in the coastal areas. Currently, there is less than 10% of its original area. The North Fluminense region has large remnants of sandbank. For years, the possibility of creating an Environmental Protection Area that would encompass this area was considered. The Decree 43.522/2012 establishes the creation of Açu Lagoon State Park, which encompasses the Boa Vista Marsh, the Açu Lagoon and part of the Salgada Lagoon within its boundaries, an area with a range of conserved sandbank vegetation, ponds, lagoons, streams that are of great environmental importance to the region. This review aims to make a general analysis from the data collected about the different physical and biotic features of this park, besides the legal parameters that govern it.
...; Areas of the National Park System AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: The... activities. We removed historic wallpaper from the dining room and upstairs bedroom areas for cleaning... comment on this rule would be unnecessary and contrary to the public interest, we find under the...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An operator...
Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent
In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...
... amended. Certification: I hereby certify that the renewal of the National Park System Advisory Board is... of the Interior by the National Park Service Organic Act (16 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), and other statutes...
Apanovitch, Audrey; Champany, Victoria; Wilson, Meghan; Emam, Hadeer; Ruiz, Kelly; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality among teens in the United States. Beginning in the 1990s, many states enacted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems to delay full licensure while allowing beginners to obtain experience under lower-risk conditions. Many high schools require parent and guardians of newly licensed teen drivers to complete a student parking pass application (PPA) for their son/daughter to drive, park, and transport themselves to and from school activities. The objective of this study was to describe the content of these PPAs for compliance with Connecticut's GDL law. PPAs were requested via e-mail, fax, or telephone from all Connecticut's high schools (n = 233). PPA variables included school demographics, parking rules, prohibitions and sanctions for violations, as well as reference to GDL law. Seventy-four schools were excluded because students were not allowed to park and schools did not require PPAs or declined to send us a copy of their PPAs. Of the remaining 159 schools, 122 (76.7%) sent us their PPAs. Responding schools were more likely to be suburban or rural. Most PPAs included a section on prohibitions and sanctions for driving misbehavior. Forty-three percent prohibited students from going to car during school hours, and 34% prohibited driving off campus/parking lot. Seventy percent warned of consequences for dangerous driving in parking lot, and 88% included the possibility of revocation for infractions. Only 14% had any reference to Connecticut's GDL law on their PPAs. A small percentage of Connecticut high schools include information about GDL laws on their PPAs. All states should examine their PPA content and adopt a uniform high school PPA that includes key provisions of their state's GDL laws in an effort to promote teen driving safety. Therapeutic study, level V.
Yosemite National Park is one of the nation's most scenic and ecologically/geologically important parks. Unfortunately, the park is subject to extensive development of concession facilities and associated high levels of visitor use. Those concerned with preservation of the park's resources have attempted to limit the types and extent of such facilities to reduce adverse impacts. Strictly speaking, resolution of the preservation versus use controversy must be based on whether the National Park Service is adhering to its legislative mandate to regulate development and use in the parks. The common interpretation of legislative mandates for national parks, including Yosemite, is that they call for a difficult balancing between the conflicting goals of preservation and use. Accordingly, although concession developments cause significant impacts, they usually have been interpreted to be within the legal discretion allowed the secretary of the interior. However, the usual interpretations of the meanings of legislative mandates for Yosemite National Park have not considered Title 16 United States Code §55, which is a very restrictive statute limiting concession facilities. Many of the limitations imposed on concession facilities by the plain language of the statute have been exceeded. If it can be shown that 16 United States Code §55 is a valid statute, the policy implications for park management in Yosemite National Park would be considerable — namely, that significant reductions in concession facilities could be required. This article examines whether the statute can reasonably be thought to be valid and encourages others to conduct further examination of this question.
Full Text Available Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6% and noncombustible-only users (30.0% than any combustible users (21.3%. The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments.
Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian
Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments. PMID:27589779
Full Text Available It is proposed to use the known dependence of the change of indicators of transport traffic functioning, namely the total travel time, depending on the nature of placing the cars parked on the road network of the city to determine the effectiveness of the system of parking. The technique tested on example of Kharkiv allowed to establish that as a result of formation of car parks in cities the total travel time of all road users of the road network is reduced.
Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Zika, Rod G.; Farmer, Charles; Ray, John D.
Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at three rural sites in the southeast U.S. national parks: Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky; Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee; and Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In 1995 the three locations were sampling sites for the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) Nashville Intensive, and the measurements of VOCs for Shenandoah were also made under contract with the National Park Service. Starting in 1996, the National Park Service added the other two parks to the monitoring contract. Hydrocarbon measurements made during June through September for the years 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed in this study. Source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and ratioing were developed and applied to these data. The results show that anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust appeared to be dominant at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, but other sources were also important at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park. Correlation and ratio analysis based on chemical reactivity provides a basis for source-receptor relationship. The most abundant ambient VOCs varied both in concentration and order depending on park and year, but the following VOCs appeared on the top 10 list for all three sites: isoprene (6.3 to 18.4 ppbv), propane (2.1 to 12.9 ppbv), isopentane (1.3 to 5.7 ppbv), and toluene (1.0 to 7.2 ppbv). Isoprene is naturally emitted by vegetation, and the others are produced mainly by fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation.
Martens, C.J.C.M.; Benenson, I.
This paper presents an explicit agent-based model of parking search in a city. In the model, “drivers” drive toward their destination, search for parking, park, remain at the parking place, and leave. The city’s infrastructure is represented by a high-resolution geographic information system (GIS)
Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan
Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver's side and the city government's side. From the driver's side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government's side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver's side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.
Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel
To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.
Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan
Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably. PMID:27271620
Full Text Available Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.
Full Text Available This article aims at making public parks system municipal strategies and management instruments clear in Salvador, state of Bahia/Brazil, from the analysis of the city Directing Plan of Urban and Environment Development (PDDUA, pointing out the possible contradiction and paradox between the late politics of urban re-qualification and the PDDUA determinations and directives. It analyses the spatial vegetal cover distribution and its “ecologic value” in the municipal territory and the classification of conservation unities in the city as well as the urban re-qualification politics undertaken by the municipal administrations in the two last decades. The analyses of the presented examples show that, in despite of the Directing Plan’s approach of public parks both on environmental way than in the recreation one.The last way as the directive of urban re-qualification politics of these spaces in the city prevails. At the end of the article, it is emphasized the central importance of the physical and symbolic access question and of the spatial distribution of nature public spaces for one deep academic discussion looking for other basis for the municipal territory public parks management from one critical analyses of the ideas of sustainable development and sustainability.
Lincoln R Larson
Full Text Available Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of subjective wellbeing at the city level. Using 2014 data from 44 U.S. cities, we evaluated the relationship between urban park quantity, quality, and accessibility and aggregate self-reported scores on the Gallup-Healthways Wellbeing Index (WBI, which considers five different domains of wellbeing (e.g., physical, community, social, financial, and purpose. In addition to park-related variables, our best-fitting OLS regression models selected using an information theory approach controlled for a variety of other typical geographic and socio-demographic correlates of wellbeing. Park quantity (measured as the percentage of city area covered by public parks was among the strongest predictors of overall wellbeing, and the strength of this relationship appeared to be driven by parks' contributions to physical and community wellbeing. Park quality (measured as per capita spending on parks and accessibility (measured as the overall percentage of a city's population within ½ mile of parks were also positively associated with wellbeing, though these relationships were not significant. Results suggest that expansive park networks are linked to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing in cities and positively impact urban quality of life.
Ferro, M. L.; Sites, R. W.
Thirty-seven streams within 15 Missouri State Parks were sampled for immature and adult Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) through 2002 and early 2003. All totaled, 34,251 EPT larvae were collected, all specimens of which were identified to the lowest taxon possible. Of approximately 70,000 adult specimens collected, 10,342 were identified to the lowest taxon possible. Fifteen species endemic to the Interior Highlands and two species on the Missouri Species of Conservation Concern Checklist were collected. This research revealed a total of 214 species in 100 genera and 37 families of EPT in the designated state parks, accounting for 52% of the EPT fauna known from Missouri. Specifically, 57 species in 35 genera and 13 families of Ephemeroptera, 43 species in 18 genera and 8 families of Plecoptera, and 114 species in 47 genera and 16 families of Trichoptera were collected. Of seven mesohabitats designated, species richness was significantly highest in the riffle. Many species are reported from each state park for the first time and Serratella sordida McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) and Triaenodes perna Ross (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) were collected in Missouri for the first time.
Veitch, Jenny; Abbott, Gavin; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Besenyi, Gina M; Lamb, Karen E
This study examined relationships between three measures of park availability and self-reported physical activity (PA), television viewing (TV) time, and overweight/obesity among women from Australia and the United States. Having more parks near home was the only measure of park availability associated with an outcome. Australian women (n=1848) with more parks near home had higher odds of meeting PA recommendations and lower odds of being overweight/obese. In the US sample (n=489), women with more parks near home had lower odds of watching >4h TV per day. A greater number of parks near home was associated with lower BMI among both Australian and US women. Evidence across diverse contexts provides support to improve park availability to promote PA and other health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu
On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...
May Thaw Htet; Chaw Myat New; Hla Myo Tun
With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Pa...
Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels
system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...
Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.
This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...
The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.
Asiah, Wan Nur; Salmah, Che M. R.; Sivec, Ignac
Only one variable Etrocorema species, E. nigrogeniculatum (Enderlein), is currently recognized from Peninsular Malaysia. During limnological study in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, specimens of a new species of Etrocorema, E.belumensis n. sp., were discovered. Illustrations of male and female genitalia, eggs, and larvae of this new taxon are provided.
Mayssa Mascarenhas Grise
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985076The National Park of Superagüi is located on the north coast of Paraná state. It is the largest continuous area of the Atlantic Forest remaining in the country and this biome is among the most threatened ones in the world. This area covers the north coast of the state and includes several conservation units of different categories, and the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, is the largest one. The objective of this study was to analyze the landscape structure (matrix and patches of the National Park of Superagüi, and its buffer zone. The classification of land cover and the definition of the attributes of the area and perimeter were made using a digital image Landsat 5 TM. According to the landscape structure analysis, it was observed that the Park matrix is formed by native vegetation interrupted by the presence of patches. Approximately 7% of the studied area is composed by fragments, which belong to class of changed vegetation, exposed soil, urban areas, sand and water; mostly have less than one hectare and have a regular shape. The Park buffer zone is not fully incorporated within the limits of Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, where marine areas form a great portion. It follows that landscape structure analysis, through its structural components matrix and patches, is an efficient subsidy to verify the park land cover functionality and its buffer zone.
SFpark is a demonstration of a new approach to parking management that : will evaluate the effectiveness of demand-responsive pricing and real-time : information on parking availability for reducing congestion and greenhouse gas : emissions and provi...
Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.
... possession of any form of fish bait other than artificial flies or lures on any park stream while in... nonresident license issued by either State may fish throughout the park irrespective of State boundaries... the park boundary are open to fishing in accordance with the Cherokee Fish and Game Management...
Sartorius, Tara Cady
Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…
Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.
where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...
Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay
Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate
Davis, L. L.; Reineke, K. A.
The importance of water, rain and snow at ten national parks in the western US and the connection to continued enjoyment of the parks was highlighted during a 4-week field-trip general education course. Each park was used as a natural laboratory in which to learn about introductory geology, camping and hiking, to gain an appreciation of nature and to learn the importance of preserving our national parks. At each place, it turns out that water was the most important aspect; whether it was in the form of precipitation, groundwater, surface storage, streams, waterfalls or snow on the ground. Its presence or absence strongly correlated to the amount of learning and enjoyment: whether it was enjoyment from vegetation, animals, physical pleasure, or cleanliness, water made an enormous difference to our group and to the success of the trip. Of course the group had thought of this before the course began: a 19-mile hike at Big Bend Ranch State Park was only going to be possible if the springs were flowing. Before attempting our rim-to-rim hike at the Grand Canyon, we found out all we could about dehydration and hyponutremia so that we could be prepared for the hike that is unfortunately deadly at times. Camping at the parks, though, under unusually harsh conditions made all of us aware of the fragile relationship. A natural question to ask as we either sat in the heat of the Chihuahuan Desert or waited out a blizzard at Yellowstone was: How will these parks be affected and how would trips to the parks differ with global warming and future climate changes? More questions came up: How much of a change will it take to make the visits unbearable, such that attendance at parks changes? How will current national park water management affect future enjoyment? If water management at the parks is not taken more seriously (or given more funding), then the possibility of more dam breaks like the one that occurred recently near Supai will more than likely increase.
Surafel Luleseged Tilahun
Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the main issues in the study of transportation planning and management. It creates different problems including environmental pollution and health problem and incurs a cost which is increasing through years. One-third of this congestion is created by cars searching for parking places. Drivers may be aware that parking places are fully occupied but will drive around hoping that a parking place may become vacant. Opportunistic services, involving learning, predicting, and exploiting Internet of Things scenarios, are able to adapt to dynamic unforeseen situations and have the potential to ease parking search issues. Hence, in this paper, a cooperative dynamic prediction mechanism between multiple agents for parking space availability in the neighborhood, integrating foreseen and unforeseen events and adapting for long-term changes, is proposed. An agent in each parking place will use a dynamic and time varying Markov chain to predict the parking availability and these agents will communicate to produce the parking availability prediction in the whole neighborhood. Furthermore, a learning approach is proposed where the system can adapt to different changes in the parking demand including long-term changes. Simulation results, using synthesized data based on an actual parking lot data from a shopping mall in Geneva, show that the proposed model is promising based on the learning accuracy with service adaptation and performance in different cases.
Kinzel, Moritz; Thuesen, Ingolf
The Poster summarized the Masterplan for the Heritage Park in NW-Qatar and the componants of the Project presented at SMARTdoc Heritage Symposium in Philladelphia in November 2010......The Poster summarized the Masterplan for the Heritage Park in NW-Qatar and the componants of the Project presented at SMARTdoc Heritage Symposium in Philladelphia in November 2010...
Iozzolino, I. [Naples Univ. (Italy)
The presented paper deal with the future of Vesuvium National Park. A brief history of the park institution is stated together with geo-physical, floristical, and faunistical aspects. Some considerations are reported about human activities and economic aspects in park area. Furthermore, future problems in park management are pointed out.
Saeed Asadi Bagloee
Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.
Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP
future work in this program aiming to develop a stronger appreciation of environment and geological processes and connections between what K-12 students do and their impact on Earth systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the following evaluation methods: 1) pre-post surveys administered to examine depth and breadth of geological knowledge, awareness of cultural significance, and emotional meanings and attachments toward the park, and 2) semi-structured interviews with participants, park staff, and academic faculty to determine how these programs can be best implemented and improved in both parks and classrooms alike. Learning about Earth system processes can be fostered by employing different ways of knowing, or the art of interpretation. It is hoped that this engagement between teachers, parks, and academia will increase diversity in Earth Science, enrich Earth Science curriculum, and help develop a sense of place for students
Maxoel Barros Costa
Full Text Available Large extensions of the coastal sandy soils (restinga vegetation of the northern region of Rio de Janeiro had been eliminated since the colonization, with replacement of the native vegetation by sugarcane cultivation followed by agricultural expansion. The Açu Lagoon State Park (PELAG was created with the goal of preserve part of the remaining ecosystem, sandbanks, swamps, marshes and coastal lagoons, reminiscent of ecosystems that existed in the region before its degradation. In order to have a better characterization of the area delimited for its implantation, the present work has the objective of mapping the land use in the Park. The classification was performed through supervised classification with visual interpretation pixel by pixel and applying the maximum likelihood, where the following categories were considered: water, wet soils, vegetation, exposed soils and pastures. The results obtained were consistent with the reality observed in the field. It was observed that the highest percentage of soil cover is composed of pasture (27.8%, followed by wetlands (25.74% and wet soil (22.22%. Approximately 16.0% of the area of the park is covered by vegetation, characterized mainly by coastal sandy soils (restinga. A large part of the park area is devoid of vegetation cover, and it is necessary to recompose it, mainly that from the permanent preservation areas.
Full Text Available Evaluating comprehensive performance of assisted parking system has been a very important issue for car companies for years, because the overall performance of assisted parking system directly influences car intellectualization and customers’ degree of satisfaction. Therefore, this article proposes two-tuple linguistic analytic hierarchy process to evaluate assisted parking system so as to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. The performance evaluation attributes for assisted parking system are established initially. Subsequently, the information entropy theory is proposed to improve the evaluation attribute weight determined by analytic hierarchy process for the influencing factors of the randomness in parking test process. Furthermore, the evaluation attribute measure values of comprehensive performance are calculated and the assisted parking system evaluation results are obtained with ordered weighted averaging operator. Finally, numerical examples of vehicle types equipped with eight different assisted parking systems and computational results are presented.
Malik, A.; Akbar, R.; Maryati, S.; Natalivan, P.
Public space plays a role in defining the character of a city and is a valuable asset for a city and one of the indicators in assessing whether a city is considered successful or not. In the context of urban sociology, high-quality public spaces with well-maintained environments can improve the quality of the heterogeneous life of urban social communities by creating economic, social, or environmental value-added. Urban societies tend to be heterogeneous, individualistic, and characterized by high competition that often causes conflicts. Another reason for conflicts is the relatively high social differentiation because of the level of religious differences, customs, languages, and sociocultural aspects brought by immigrants from various regions. In the context of space, the city is a system that does not stand alone because internally the city is a unified system of functional activities in it. Meanwhile, externally, the city is influenced by its surrounding environment. As part of the public space, park has an important role in the environmental, aesthetic, recreational, psychological, social, educational, and economic aspects of the city. Public space can be understood as open spaces in urban areas, where everyone regardless their interests and backgrounds can be intersectional and have social contact and serve as an “urban regenerator” including educational functions through innovation and technological intervention. Moreover, park can also absorb carbon dioxide emissions, produce oxygen, improve air and water quality, regulate the microclimate, reduce noise, protect soil and water, and maintain biodiversity. However, many things cause the function of parks to decrease. One reason relates to the distribution of parks related to the characteristics of their location. Research has not seen many studies on the characteristics of locations in the planning of public space. The provision of public space should consider these location characteristics. This study
In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig
Warman, E.; Nasution, F. S.; Fahmi, F.
Street and park lighting system is part of a basic infrastructure need to be available in such a friendly city. Enough light will provide more comfort to citizens, especially at night since its function to illuminate roads and park environments around the covered area. The necessity to add more and more lighting around the city caused the rapid growth of the street and park lighting system while the power from PLN (national electricity company) is insufficient and the cost is getting higher. Therefore, it is necessary to consider other energy sources that are economical, environmentally friendly with good continuity. Indonesia, which located on the equator, have benefited from getting solar radiation throughout the year. This free solar radiation can be utilized as an energy source converted by solar cells to empower street and park lighting system. In this study, we planned the street and park lighting with solar technology as alternatives. It was found that for Kota Medan itself, an average solar radiation intensity of 3,454.17 Wh / m2 / day is available. By using prediction and projection method, it was calculated that the energy cost unit for this system was at Rp 3,455.19 per kWh. This cost was higher than normal energy cost unit but can answer the scarcity of energy availability for street and park lighting system
The aim of the study was to present plans (up to 2030) for the development of infrastructure and tourism activities in the Polish landscape parks located in the area of the State Forests’ administration. At the end of 2013, a survey was conducted the results of which were verified and their analysis completed in 2014. The questionnaire was sent to the directorates of all 122 parks. 70.5% of the directorates replied to the open question inquiring about their plans and demands for tourist ac...
Cremer, H.; Pearce, C.; Wagner-Cremer, F.
Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov. is described from a short peat core recovered in Highlands Hammock State Park, Florida, U.S.A. The morphology of the new diatom species is documented by light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in detail, including a comparison with related species in
Jae Kyu Suhr
Full Text Available An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision.
Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.
The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload
Wang Kaiyu; Yu Zongmin; Guan Sanghai; Yang Xing; Sheng Menglin; Tang Zhenan
Because of many common scenes of reverse parking in real life, this paper presents a fuzzy controller which accommodates front and back adjustment of vehicle’s body attitude, and based on chaotic-genetic arithmetic to optimize the membership function of this controller, and get a vertical parking fuzzy controller whose simulation result is good .The paper makes the hardware-software embedded design for system based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and set up a 1:10 verification platfo...
As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html) Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...
In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.
Full Text Available National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem.
Full Text Available Brescia’s downtown is outlined by link roads built up at the Venetian walls, known as “Ring. The “Ring” is characterized by high traffic flows, as well as by the presence of several paid parking lots located on and off street. Furthermore, several facilities are located on these link roads. Nowadays city of Brescia is equipped with an ITS system able to manage off street parking spaces, allowing the share of information about parking availability to potential users, through the use of variable message panels. The parking supply issue and its management are strongly felt by citizens, as well as many other cities communities, whether European or not. This contribution aims to encourage an integration of the existing ITS system for the off street parking management with additional devices, which allow to manage also the on street paid parking supply located on “Ring” roads. The minimization of so-called “shared traffic” component of traffic flows, as well as the increase of road safety, in the context of a medium-sized Italian city are the main objectives of the ITS system integration. ITS asset chosen for the Brescia case study springs from the analysis of some non-European experiences about on street parking management (for example, San Francisco and Boston and certainly can be considered suitable for the parking supply management of the whole city. It could become the main starting point in Italian cities for the application of performance based parking pricing, widely experienced in many U.S. cities.
Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; El-Moursi, M. S.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour Hassan
This paper addresses implementation issues associated with a novel damping control algorithm for a STATCOM in a series compensated wind park for mitigating SSR (subsynchronous resonance) and damping power system oscillations. The IEEE first benchmark model on subsynchronous resonance is adopted...... the SSR, damping the power system oscillation and enhancing the transient stability margin in response to different SCRs....... in the STATCOM control structure. The performances of the controllers are tested in steady state operation and in response to system contingencies, taking into account the impact of short circuit ratios (SCRs). Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the controllers for mitigating...
NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN
Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...
Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron
using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...
Siderelis, Christos; Smith, Jordan W.
State parks play a substantial role in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities within the United States. Park operators must make crucial decisions in how they allocate capital expenditures, labor, and parkland to maintain recreation opportunities. Their decisions are influenced, in part, by the ecological characteristics of their state's park system as well as the vitality of their state's economy. In this research, we incorporate the characteristics of states' ecosystems and their local economies into a formal production analysis of the states' park systems from the years 1986 to 2011. Our analysis revealed all three factors of production were positive and inelastic. Expenditures on labor had the largest effect on both park utilization and operational expenditures. Our analysis also found a large degree of variability in the effects of ecological characteristics on both utilization and operating expenditures. Parkland utilization and operational expenditures were more elastic in areas such as Oceania and Mediterranean California relative to other ecological regions. These findings lead us to conclude that state park operators will experience variable levels of difficulty in both accommodating increasing demands for recreation from state parks and maintaining the existing quality of outdoor recreation provided within their system.
In this report, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. In addition, a study of the suitability of various DC/DC-converters is made. Three DC/DC-converters, Boost, Full Bridge and Full Bridge Isolated Boost, are found to be interesting candidates as the 'transformer' component in potential DC-based wind parks. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km.
Meintz, Andrew; Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Ragatz, Adam; Markel, Tony; Kelly, Ken
System right-sizing is critical to implementation of wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EVs). This study will analyze potential WPT scenarios for the electrification of shuttle buses at Zion National Park utilizing a modelling tool developed by NREL called WPTSim. This tool uses second-by-second speed, location, and road grade data from the conventional shuttles in operation to simulate the incorporation of WPT at fine granularity. Vehicle power and state of charge are simulated over the drive cycle to evaluate potential system designs. The required battery capacity is determined based on the rated power at a variable number of charging locations. The outcome of this work is an analysis of the design tradeoffs for the electrification of the shuttle fleet with wireless charging versus conventional overnight charging.
Meintz, Andrew; Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Ragatz, Adam; Markel, Tony; Kelly, Ken
System right-sizing is critical to implementation of wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles. This study will analyze potential WPT scenarios for the electrification of shuttle buses at Zion National Park utilizing a modelling tool developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory called WPTSim. This tool uses second-by-second speed, location, and road grade data from the conventional shuttles in operation to simulate the incorporation of WPT at fine granularity. Vehicle power and state of charge are simulated over the drive cycle to evaluate potential system designs. The required battery capacity is determined based on the rated power at a variable number of charging locations. The outcome of this work is an analysis of the design tradeoffs for the electrification of the shuttle fleet with wireless charging versus conventional overnight charging.
Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur C.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Sigolo, Joel B.
In the last years urban soils received increasing attention by scientists, leading to studies focused on their description and investigation all over the world, due to the increasing metal pollution derived from incinerators, industrial waste, atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols, and other activities. Metal contamination in Sao Paulo public parks is an important environmental question and there is little information on this subject. As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) from Ibirapuera park of Sao Paulo. Ibirapuera park is one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo, receiving during the weekends more than 400,000 visitors. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). For As, Ba, Cr and Sb, in some samples the concentrations were even higher than the Prevention values reported by CETESB. The high concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn in the Ibirapuera park top soils suggest an anthropogenic source and indicate a potential damage to soil quality. (author)
David Nowak; Gordon Heisler
Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...
Full Text Available Park and Ride (P&R is the original transport system of public passengers, acting as a traditional supplement of public transport. The system is becoming widely popular in European cities. The central core of this system is composed of parking facilities in the specified parking areas at the approaches to the city with connections to public transport or special buses that allow people reach the city centre. The P&R system is based on a reduction in car density in the city centre as well as on a decrease in traffic noise, air and visual pollution. Furthermore, the P&R system is an economical and time-saving way to travel. This article has been prepared according to structural support provided by the European Union (EU for the purpose of developing the P&R system in five major Lithuanian cities – Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai and Panevezys. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the development and application of the theoretical model of the P&R system to Lithuanian cities according to external good and bad practice.
Subhadra, Bobban; Edwards, Mark
Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.
Full Text Available Methods of solving the problems of temporary parking of vehicles in the city by using the automatic parking systems are considered. The investigation of vehicle parking is described and the comparison of the ramp-type and automated parking lots is presented.Article in Lithuanian
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of... the admission of commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in § 5.4 of...
Faber-Langendoen, Don; Aaseng, Norman; Hop, Kevin; Lew-Smith, Michael
INTRODUCTION The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program is to classify, describe, and map vegetation for most of the park units within the National Park Service (NPS). The program was created in response to the NPS Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring Guidelines issued in 1992. Products for each park include digital files of the vegetation map and field data, keys and descriptions to the plant communities, reports, metadata, map accuracy verification summaries, and aerial photographs. Interagency teams work in each park and, following standardized mapping and field sampling protocols, develop products and vegetation classification standards that document the various vegetation types found in a given park. The use of a standard national vegetation classification system and mapping protocol facilitate effective resource stewardship by ensuring compatibility and widespread use of the information throughout the NPS as well as by other Federal and state agencies. These vegetation classifications and maps and associated information support a wide variety of resource assessment, park management, and planning needs, and provide a structure for framing and answering critical scientific questions about plant communities and their relation to environmental processes across the landscape. This field guide is intended to make the classification accessible to park visitors and researchers at Voyageurs National Park, allowing them to identify any stand of natural vegetation and showing how the classification can be used in conjunction with the vegetation map (Hop and others, 2001).
Yoshioka, Yoshio; Mito, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kouji
Maintenance jobs at coin parking places (CP) are very important for keeping trouble free operation. Such maintenance jobs include special inspection at the initiation of new CP and ordinal maintenance works. In order to level up the skill of maintenance people in the company, education of the basic knowlege of electricity, facility and maintenance skills are required. We made an original text for maintenance people, and practiced education by use of web conference system, because they are distributed in whole country, This paper describes a content of text on fundamental knowledge of electricity, facility of coin parking system and trouble experiences, and also a practice of remote education using web conference system. Problems of remote education which were found by practice and the future education plan of practical skill are also described.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.
Schwabe, KA; Carson, RT; DeShazo, JR; Potts, MD; Reese, AN; Vincent, JR
© The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav. The incentives for resource extraction and development make the conservation of biodiversity challenging within tropical forestlands. The 2007 establishment of the Royal Belum State Park in the Malaysian state of Perak offers lessons for creating protected areas in tropical countries where subnational governments are major forestland owners. This article elucidates the social and political forces that influe...
Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.
..., Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore--Off-Road Vehicle Management AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule designates off-road vehicle (ORV... operation of motor vehicles off of roads within areas [[Page 3124
Full Text Available Introduction The Biodiversity Information System (BIS of the National Parks Administration of Argentina (NPA was launched in 2002, with the support of the Global Environmental Fund (GEF through the Biodiversity Conservation Project in Argentina. The BIS consists of a set of thematic databases and Geographic Information System (GIS set to support management decisions, and to provide information to the general public on the national protected areas of Argentina. Currently, the BIS-NPA progr...
Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan
Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-stre...
Bennett, James P.
Twenty-two midwestern U.S. national parks were studied to examine the similarities of their floras and analyses of the floras in each national park were used to construct groupings of these smaller sample areas at various similarity levels in order to classify larger floristic areas. The parks were not on average very similar based on Jaccard's similarity index. The maximum average park similarity was 21% (St. Croix National Scenic Riverway), and the maximum park pair similarity was just over 55% for Isle Royale National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. The average similarity of parks increased with park area and numbers of native species, and weakly decreased with the percentage of non-native species. Weak trends were observed with latitude and negative trends with longitude. Four park groups were partitioned by cluster analysis of species relative abundance data: 7 prairie parks, 6 northern parks, 4 intermediate parks and 5 southern parks. The average percentage of non-native species was ~33% in the prairie and southern park clusters, while percentage of evergreen perennials was 2 to 4 times greater in the northern parks (8%) compared with other clusters. Deciduous perennials approached 80% in the northern and intermediate park clusters, compared with about 70% for the prairie and southern clusters. Percentage of annuals was almost double in the prairie and southern clusters (average 24%) compared with the northern and intermediate clusters (average 13%).
Subhadra, Bobban [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Mark [Marketing and Sustainability, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)
Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed. (author)
The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use. Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...
Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian
As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver...... is informed about any initiation of PP via SMS message. If the driver finds the payment erroneous, it can be cancelled via SMS message. Parking attendants can check if the car in question has an ongoing payment for parking. To handle the problems with GNSS-based positioning in densely built-up areas......, an advanced map matching algorithm was integrated in the PP app. 24 of the participating vehicles used the PP app, and 58 parking payments were carried out without errors. In a few cases, the wrong parking area was selected. This was due to lack of information in the map rather than errors in the map matching...
Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru
Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...
...: Significant health benefits can be derived from bicycling and trail users at the park would benefit from..., foster mental and physical health, and promote learning and personal growth. The health benefits derived... Parks'' initiative of the NPS and the President's ``America's Great Outdoors'' initiative. White Oak...
Lincoln R. Larson; Viniece Jennings; Scott A. Cloutier
Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managingÂ factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that publicÂ parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits toÂ urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensiveÂ measures of...
This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.
Alkheder, Sharaf A.; Al Rajab, Murad M.; Alzoubi, Khalid
Car parking is a serious problem in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in general and in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in particular. This problem has been associated with the exceptional growth in the number of cars, buses, trucks, and other modes of transportation over the past few decades. In Abu Dhabi (the capital city of UAE), finding a parking at some locations is a real challenge due to the lack of available parking slots in the city. In 2009, in order to organize the randomness in ...
After the Second World War's conclusion, Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) experienced a massive rise in visitation. Mobilized by an affluent economy and a growing, auto-centric infrastructure, Americans rushed to RMNP in droves, setting off new concerns over the need for infrastructure improvements in the park. National parks across the country experienced similar explosions in visitation, inspiring utilities- and road-building campaigns throughout the park units administered by the National Park Service. The quasi-urbanization of parks like RMNP implicated the United States' public lands in a process of global change, whereby wartime technologies, cheap fossil fuels, and a culture of techno-optimism--epitomized by the Mission 66 development program--helped foster a "Great Acceleration" of human alterations of Earth's natural systems. This transformation culminated in worldwide turns toward mass-urbanization, industrial agriculture, and globalized markets. The Great Acceleration, part of the Anthropocene--a new geologic epoch we have likely entered, which proposes that humans have become a force of geologic change--is used as a conceptual tool for understanding the connections between local and global changes which shaped the park after World War II. The Great Acceleration and its array of novel technologies and hydrocarbon-powered infrastructures produced specific cultures of tourism and management techniques within RMNP. After World War II, the park increasingly became the product and distillation of a fossil fuel-dependent society.
... System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA Transit and Guaranteed Ride Home... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is deleting the systems of records for EPA Parking Control Office File... through the EPA Internet under the ``Federal Register'' listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/ . Dated...
Poeller, Markus; Achilles, Sebastian [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)
The increasing amount of wind power generation in European power systems requires stability analysis considering interaction between wind-farms and transmission systems. Dynamics introduced by dispersed wind generators at the distribution level can usually be neglected. However, large on- and offshore wind farms have a considerable influence to power system dynamics and must definitely be considered for analyzing power system dynamics. Compared to conventional power stations, wind power plants consist of a large number of generators of small size. Therefore, representing every wind generator individually increases the calculation time of dynamic simulations considerably. Therefore, model aggregation techniques should be applied for reducing calculation times. This paper presents aggregated models for wind parks consisting of fixed or variable speed wind generators.
... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise... intersection with the Black Bay to Moose Bay portage, across Locator, War Club, Quill, Loiten, and Shoepack... management, weather, and park management objectives. (4) Maps showing the designated routes are available at...
Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE data have been made public for the majority of the area in the combined Mt. McKinley National Park and Denali National Monument. Besides indicating potential raw material deposits, these data are also useful for geologic mapping, water quality, pollution and othe geological, biological, and environmental studies in the park
Luczak-Urlik, D.; Bleher, M.; Jacob, P.; Mueller, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Hofer, E.; Krzykacz, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Greece)
The (PARK) program package for assessment and abatement of off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents establishes radiologic analyses and prognoses on the basis of the measured data obtained by the IMIS system for ambient radiation monitoring. A probabilistic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis has been performed of the PARK-based mean specific activities of fodder and food and the potential radiation exposure of the population. Uncertainties were expressed in model input parameters, i.e. in measured values and radioecologic parameters via subjective probability distributions, within the framework of various emission scenarios (nuclide spectra describing two release modes, dry and wet deposition, and at three times over a one-year period). The resulting output data distributions were determined by Monte Carlo simulations. As a rule, the results of the analyses depend on the selected emission scenario. Measured values proved to be the major source of uncertainties (especially from in-situ soil activity measurements), and also the activity transfer data from fodder to food. As for wet deposition, uncertainties were added by the parameters used for determination of the interception factors. As the measuring stations cannot correlate their measured gamma dose rates with meteorologic data (precipitations), derived information relating to larger areas such as a ``Kreis`` (administrative district) is very much subject to uncertainties. The uncertainties of the PARK results are increasing with assessed increases in rainfall. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Programmsystem zur Abschaetzung und Begrenzung radiologischer Konsequenzen (PARK) erstellt radiologische Analysen und Prognosen aufgrund von Messdaten, welche im Rahmen des Integrierten Mess- und Informationssystems zur Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet (IMIS) erhoben werden. Es wurde eine probabilistische Unsicherheits- und Sensitivitaetsanalyse fuer die in PARK berechneten mittleren spezifischen Aktivitaeten
Gumiero, Felipe C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur; Sigolo, Joel B.
As part of a project which aims metal concentration assessment in urban park soils of Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Buenos Aires park of Sao Paulo. This park is located in central region of the city, and is surrounded by avenues and streets, with different traffic volumes. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). These results suggest that these elements have anthropogenic origin and indicate a potential risk for soil quality. (author)
N. F. Taylor
Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.
Under NPDES permit number CO-0034398, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park wastewater treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.
... Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), (2) the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35 Circle, Austin, TX 78753; and United States...
Park, Yong Ha; Byun, Byoung Seol; Chung, Hoe Seong; Kim, Mi Sook; Kim, Jeong Won; Joo, Yong Joon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)
National parks in Korea have been selected for preserving beautiful sceneries of nature or diversity of organisms. Today as the increase of population and industrialization has caused the increase of natural resource demand, it is difficult to preserve all ecosystems equally. Therefore the national park system has established to prevent the damage to an ecosystem or to preserve a region that can be damaged by selecting a valuable area. The objective of this study is to recommend an efficient support plan for national park residents, to induce their activities to be environmental friendly and to preserve an ecosystem in a national park. To achieve this, the similar systems, laws and cases in the advanced countries have compared and reviewed and a support plan for residents appropriate for Korean situation has discussed. 41 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.
Full Text Available Advances in mobility are clearly illustrated by the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in developing countries. Following the dramatic incensement of traffic demand, the parking problem has been becoming much more seriously important in many metropolises. With the aim of seeking solutions as to how the parking system could operate more efficiently by using new technologies and new methodologies, this paper discusses the application of geographic information system into the parking planning and management for traffic operation effectiveness in metropolis. The concentration of this paper includes the characteristics of parking demand and the causations of parking problems, especially the basic parking principle and strategies for solving parking problems from the perspective of geographic information system are discussed in enough detail in this paper.
Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.
The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.
Full Text Available The water supply is currently a problem, given the over-exploitation of groundwater and contamination of surface water, so it is important to find alternative supplies. The rain water harvesting is considered one of the most viable options for the supply of the vital liquid; some of the most utilized systems for this purpose are the jagüeyes. State Park General Lázaro Cárdenas del Río better known as "Flor del Bosque", it is located east of the city of Puebla and listed as Protected Natural Area, this park has jagüeyes which store water from rain. In this research, the main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water stored in four jagüeyes of “Flor del Bosque” were measured according to Mexican regulations, in order to establish its quality and determine the uses that are given as a watering wooded areas and drinking trough do not represent a risk to the flora and fauna of the park. Composite samples of each jagüey were analyzed, during two dry weather stations and two rainy weather stations between the moths of November 2011 and October 2012. The water of the four jagüeyes has microbiological contamination by helminth eggs, Fasciola hepatica, fecal (180 CFU and total coliforms (475 CFU, this represents a risk to the health of wildlife; as well as lots of settleable and suspended solids. Since these systems have been installed for watering wooded areas and drinking trough of animals live there, it would be advisable before use be given appropriate treatment, plus it aims to improve its design or construction to be suitable for the intended uses.
Harp, Edwin L.; Reid, Mark E.; Godt, Jonathan W.; DeGraff, Jerome V.; Gallegos, Alan J.
During spring 2006, talus from the toe area of a rock-block slide of about 800,000 m3 buried California State Highway 140, one of the main routes into heavily-visited Yosemite National Park, USA. Closure of the highway for 92 days caused business losses of about 4.8 million USD. The rock slide, composed of slate and phyllite, moved slowly downslope from April to June 2006, creating a fresh head scarp with 9-12 m of displacement. Movement of the main rock slide, a re-activation of an older slide, was triggered by an exceptionally wet spring 2006, following a very wet spring 2005. As of autumn 2006, most of the main slide appeared to be at rest, although rocks occasionally continued to fall from steep, fractured rock masses at the toe area of the slide. Future behavior of the slide is difficult to predict, but possible scenarios range from continued scattered rock fall to complete rapid failure of the entire mass. Although unlikely except under very destabilizing circumstances, a worst-case, rapid failure of the entire rock slide could extend across the Merced River, damming the river and creating a reservoir. As a temporary measure, traffic has been rerouted to the opposite side of the Merced River at about the same elevation as the buried section of Highway 140. A state-of-the-art monitoring system has been installed to detect movement in the steep talus slope, movement of the main slide mass, local strong ground motion from regional earthquakes, and sudden changes in stream levels, possibly indicating damming of the river by slide material.
Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard
Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...
Full Text Available Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat preferences of mammals were studied in the newly proclaimed QwaQwa National Park (QQNP and compared with those of the adjacent 33 year-old Golden Gate Highlands National Park, a nearby protected area in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg, Lesotho, and the rest of the Free State Province. In total, 53 mammal species were recorded inside the park and the probability of another 14 likely inhabitants, discussed. The fact that the QQNP contains ca. 70 of mammalian fauna recorded in the Free State and between five and 10 Red Data species stresses the importance of this park and the necessity for correct management of this ca. 21 000 ha conservation area. The low small mammal numbers, variety, and mean diversity found on 17 transects in the QQNP is attributed to previous human habitation and activities@some of which are still present in the park.
Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo
This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking po...
... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002... material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...
Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang
Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.
Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.
Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang
Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179
Ho Phooi Wai
Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.
Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...
... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.45 Everglades National Park. (a) Information...-edible form of fresh or salt water aquatic life for the purpose of sale or barter. (4) Dipnet means a... outboard motor, water-jet or an enclosed propeller or impeller system, where persons ride standing, sitting...
Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.
positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking
LightSavers is a project undertaken by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund to accelerate the use of lighting technologies. As part of the project a pilot test has been carried out in the Direct Energy Center in Toronto. The aim of this report is to present the study and its results. The Direct Energy Center is a large event facility with an large underground parking facility. A lighting energy management system, the energy control system (ECS), capable of adjusting lighting levels based on occupancy was implemented in the centre and data was collected during over one year. Results showed that the ECS permitted a reduction in energy consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions by 47% and the payback will take less than 6 years. This project demonstrated that the energy control system provides better energy, environmental and economic performance than a traditional automation system.
... Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY... Historical Park is modified to include 0.50 acre of adjacent land identified as Tract 101-13. This tract is... United States of America without cost by enactment of Chapter 37 of the Laws of 2009, on July 23, 2009...
Full Text Available City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m2 of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.
Wang, Kai; Liu, Jianjun
City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m² of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.
Yuri Breno Silva e Silva
Full Text Available In this study, the first survey of anuran species in the Cancão Municipal Natural Park is presented, a protected area of approximately 370 hectares of Amazonian forest located in the northwest center region of the state of Amapá, Brazil. The work was performed during the dry and rainy season, through active visual and auditory survey, totaling 216 man hours of sampling effort. Forty-nine species of anuran amphibians were recorded in the Cancão Municipal Natural Park, including three new records: Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense, Pristimantis cf. ockendeni, and Scinax garbei. Three species, Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense, Ameerega pulchripecta, and Anomaloglossus baeobatrachus, are listed as Data Deficient and one is listed as Vulnerable (Atelopus hoogmoedi according red lists of IUCN. The rarefaction curve cumulative species did not reach an asymptote, indicating that site has potential for species that have not yet been recorded. Nine species were represented by only one individual and were considered rare in the studied environments, eight species were defined as common, and the 32 remaining species were classified as having intermediary abundance. Our data indicated that Cancão Municipal Natural Park contains a considerable portion of the anurans species richness of Amapá state, turn the area into a place of great importance for the conservation of the anurans of the Eastern Amazon.
Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett
State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.
Full Text Available Abstract Operators of parking guidance and information (PGI systems often have difficulty in providing the best car park availability information to drivers in periods of high demand. A new PGI configuration model based on the optimized combination method was proposed by analyzing of parking choice behavior. This article first describes a parking choice behavioral model incorporating drivers perceptions of waiting times at car parks based on PGI signs. This model was used to predict the influence of PGI signs on the overall performance of the traffic system. Then relationships were developed for estimating the arrival rates at car parks based on driver characteristics, car park attributes as well as the car park availability information displayed on PGI signs. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the optimal display PGI sign configuration to minimize total travel time. A genetic algorithm was used to identify solutions that significantly reduced queue lengths and total travel time compared with existing practices. These procedures were applied to an existing PGI system operating in Deqing Town and Xiuning City. Significant reductions in total travel time of parking vehicles with PGI being configured. This would reduce traffic congestion and lead to various environmental benefits.
Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui
The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity.
Mayssa Mascarenhas Grise; Daniela Biondi
http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985076The National Park of Superagüi is located on the north coast of Paraná state. It is the largest continuous area of the Atlantic Forest remaining in the country and this biome is among the most threatened ones in the world. This area covers the north coast of the state and includes several conservation units of different categories, and the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, is the largest one. The objective of this study was to analyze the lan...
Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Saunders, Michael C.
We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks' conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a -1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.
Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti
Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity.
Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.
The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.
Full Text Available A key strategy of sustainable transportation, parking pricing can directly contribute to decreased greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This paper describes an optimal structure of parking rates in terms of parking locations and time of day. A two-level parking model based on game theory is established using parking survey data collected in Beijing in 2014. The model was estimated based on Stackelberg game and the Nash equilibrium. Using the two-level parking model, the optimal structure of parking rates for inside/outside business zones and during peak/off-peak hours was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the government (which represents the public benefit and car users, as well as the relationships among car users in the parking system were investigated. The results indicate that equilibrium among all of the agents in the parking system can be obtained using the proposed parking rate structure. The findings provide a better understanding of parking behavior, and the two-level parking model presented in the paper can be used to determine the optimal parking rate to balance the temporal and spatial distribution of parking demand in urban areas. This research helps reduce car use and the parking-related cruising time and thus contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions and air pollution.
Full Text Available This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.
Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel
This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.
Cowell, Carly Ruth; Cheney, Chad
To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage. A priority ranking system was used to score each block. The oldest or most threatened vegetation types were not necessarily the top priority blocks. Selected blocks were burnt and burning fewer large blocks proved more effective economically, ecologically and practically due to the limited burning days permitted. The prioritization process was efficient as it could be updated annually following prescribed burns and wildfire incidents. Integration of prescribed burn planning and wildfire suppression strategies resulted in a reduction in operational costs. We recommend protected areas make use of a priority ranking system developed with expert knowledge and stakeholder engagement to determine objective prescribed burn plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom
The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.
Full Text Available This article studies the building of a national park system in Colombia, with reference to other countries in Latin America, as part of what can be called the Nature State, that is, the expansion of the state’s remit to include caring for, and not just exploiting, nature. In the absence of an environmental movement that lobbied for the establishment of protected areas, it was the concentration of power in the president that led to the initial building of national parks. After explaining what it terms “gentleman’s politics,” the article reconstructs the creation on the ground of Tayrona National Park, which inclued the eviction of peasants and a public fight with those who promoted high-end international tourism. This story shows how the Nature State emerged with the help of certain state institutions and in opposition to others, and how it contributed to strengthen the central state, gaining legitimacy in the eyes of some constituents but not of others.
Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker
Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...
Visitors constitute an important component of a university business. Given that visitors are typically unfamiliar with university campus layouts, special assistance may be needed to assist them with their parking needs. For example, personal and foll...
U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt has instructed the U.S. Geological Survey to examine options to relocate staff and programs at the agency's 16-acre Menlo Park Facilities within 5 years. The agency was directed on August 21 to submit a preliminary action plan by September 25.A memo from USGS Director Gordon Eaton states that Babbitt is concerned about high real estate costs in the Menlo Park area and the need for the agency to locate near other Interior and federal offices.
Amin Victor Luna
Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.
Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi
Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.
Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.
Mikkelsen, Lars Møller; Toledo, Raphael; Agerholm, Niels
availability, location and pricing schemes. The intelligence of the IPA system consists of automatically fetching parking lot information from the relevant service, automatically registering when the vehicle is stopped, evaluating whether the vehicle is stopped inside a payed parking lot, and automatically......The Intelligent Parking Assistant (IPA) system is developed based on work done in the Danish ITS Platform project. The IPA system includes an Android app that helps the user chose, find and pay for parkings. The app uses information about parking lots fetched from a web service, including live...... initiating the payment for the parking. The IPA app and the back end services, are published via the MOBiNET platform which is a European-wide platform supporting ITS services, and offering functionalities enabling easy migration of services. The migration is enabled by defining a common methodology...
Pavese, Arthur C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta
As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Aclimacao park of Sao Paulo. Urban soils play an important role in maintaining the environmental quality as they can act as both source and sink for pollutants that can affect human health. Parks and playgrounds are where urban children spend most of their time outdoors and are also where children most frequently come in contact with soil. Aclimacao park is located at the central region of the city, in a residential area. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used for metal analysis. The results obtained for Zn were higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), but lower than the Prevention values. For Ba, Cr, and Sb, the results obtained showed concentration levels higher than Prevention value reported by CETESB. According to CETESB, metal concentration levels above the Prevention value can cause prejudicial alterations in soil and subterranean water quality. For As, in the 0-5 cm samples, the concentration levels were near or above the Intervention value for agricultural area reported by CETESB. (author)
Please note that, owing to the flag-raising ceremony to mark the accession of Romania to the status of CERN Member State, the flagpole car park will be inaccessible from the morning of 1 September 2016 until around 1 p.m. on 5 September 2016. Users of the car park are therefore invited to remove their vehicles before 1 September and to use the Globe car park instead. ATTENTION: any vehicle left in the car park will be removed at the owners expense.
Elisabete de Santis Braga
Full Text Available Abstract Marine parks constitute important areas for the conservation of marine life and the genetic heritage around the world. The creation of such marine parks must be accompanied by careful measures to guarantee the coexistence of natural biota and human activities in these systems. The State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS is so close to an industrial pole and urban area that its creation and maintenance is an example for humanity. However, no program has yet been installed for the monitoring of its biotic and abiotic water parameters. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide hydrological and hydrochemical parameters with emphasis on dissolved nutrients to establish a starting point for the monitoring of these waters. The presence of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the marine park during the spring and summer sampling periods was evidenced by the observation of low temperatures ( 7.00 µmol L-1, while the concentration of N-ammonium (maximum 9.86 µmol L-1 demonstrated a rapid regeneration of the organic matter, mainly in the euphotic zone. Analysis of the data from summer periods revealed an annual difference, showing January 2014 to be drier than January 2015, which influenced the availability of some nutrients and the standard distribution of hydrochemical parameters in this region. The results of the distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the marine park confirms the preserved conditions of the seawater around the Laje de Santos, demonstrated by the excellent water quality, concluding the need to implant monitoring actions based on these reference data to preserve this important reserve of marine life.
Lu, Yi; Chen, Bin; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus
Energy production and industrial processes are crucial economic sectors accounting for about 62% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally in 2012. Eco-industrial parks are practical attempts to mitigate GHG emissions through cooperation among businesses and the local community in order to reduce waste and pollution, efficiently share resources, and help with the pursuit of sustainable development. This work developed a framework based on ecological network analysis to trace carbon metabolic processes in eco-industrial parks and applied it to a typical eco-industrial park in Beijing. Our findings show that the entire metabolic system is dominated by supply of primary goods from the external environment and final demand. The more carbon flows through a sector, the more influence it would exert upon the whole system. External environment and energy providers are the most active and dominating part of the carbon metabolic system, which should be the first target to mitigate emissions by increasing efficiencies. The carbon metabolism of the eco-industrial park can be seen as an evolutionary system with high levels of efficiency, but this may come at the expense of larger levels of resilience. This work may provide a useful modeling framework for low-carbon design and management of industrial parks.
Full Text Available 2013 Romania shows the bigger economic development than in the last years and increases the GDP by 3,5%, that was the most significant growth in the EU. The biggest contributing sector to this expansion is the industry. This sector contributed the most with 2,3% to this growth. The importance of the industry in a country’s development not only the Romania`s case, but for other economies too. More and more authors emphasise the importance of Industrial parks, they act as pull factors. The effects of the industrial placements like the industrial parks are multiple regarding a region’s development and competitiveness. The most of these benefits are well known already, but the competitiveness of the industrial parks is not a frequent theme, tough this will contribute to the competitiveness of the region. What are the basic and decisive factors that influence the final decision of the companies to choose a particular industrial park? While analysing the competitiveness factors of industrial parks I intend to emphasize the reasons and factors that influences companies in their decision to appear in the industrial parks that they are resident in. The purpose of this paper is to present all the important factors in the same place that make an industrial park competitive. First I want to present the factors that were identified by now based on theoretical, and practical experiences starting from some second hand information. The caracteristics of the successful parks will br presented with the well-kown examples, and also with caese not known to everybody. Some of the reasons why industrial companies chooses a park are well kown, for example the placement, the good accesibility, for which is essential a good infrastructure. Another decisive factor is the suport of the state and the local autorities, the most important factors are tax and other costs relief. There are more things that influance companies in choosing their sites.
..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and visitor accessibility. Impacts associated with each... oversnow vehicles on the park's soundscapes. NPS Approved Snowmobiles and Snowcoaches The Superintendent..., air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is proposing to continue...
Galdino, Marco Antonio; Silva, Patricia de Castro da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org; Masi, Monica di [Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro (SMAC/RJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: email@example.com
This paper presents the current status of the project run by the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, though its Secretary for the Environment, aiming the implantation of photovoltaic (PV) systems for electrification of the Nature Parks of the City. Relevant characteristics of 6 parks, which are to receive first the PV systems, are discussed here, including Parks Prainha, Dois Irmaos, Chico Mendes, Marapendi and Bosque da Barra, as well as the PV systems to be installed in each park. The projects include stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems, and plans to install a total power of more than 60kWp of PV panels. This activity is considered innovative and a part of the preparation of the City for important international events of the coming years: World Cup 2014 and Olympic Games 2016. (author)
Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker
Public parks play an important role in healthy, active living, but the extent to which parks influence the physical activity (PA) of diverse youth outside of urban areas has not been adequately explored. This study used systematic behavioural observations to examine demographic factors and environmental attributes associated with youth PA in non-urban state parks of...
Shafer, Craig L
The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.
Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel
This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. PMID:27854282
Monahan, William B.; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Ault, Toby R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Gross, John E.; Weltzin, Jake F.
Many U.S. national parks are already at the extreme warm end of their historical temperature distributions. With rapidly warming conditions, park resource management will be enhanced by information on seasonality of climate that supports adjustments in the timing of activities such as treating invasive species, operating visitor facilities, and scheduling climate-related events (e.g., flower festivals and fall leaf-viewing). Seasonal changes in vegetation, such as pollen, seed, and fruit production, are important drivers of ecological processes in parks, and phenology has thus been identified as a key indicator for park monitoring. Phenology is also one of the most proximate biological responses to climate change. Here, we use estimates of start of spring based on climatically modeled dates of first leaf and first bloom derived from indicator plant species to evaluate the recent timing of spring onset (past 10–30 yr) in each U.S. natural resource park relative to its historical range of variability across the past 112 yr (1901–2012). Of the 276 high latitude to subtropical parks examined, spring is advancing in approximately three-quarters of parks (76%), and 53% of parks are experiencing “extreme” early springs that exceed 95% of historical conditions. Our results demonstrate how changes in climate seasonality are important for understanding ecological responses to climate change, and further how spatial variability in effects of climate change necessitates different approaches to management. We discuss how our results inform climate change adaptation challenges and opportunities facing parks, with implications for other protected areas, by exploring consequences for resource management and planning.
Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson
Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of...
Ho Phooi Wai
Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.
Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.
Zapata Pardo, Maria Victoria; Martinez Zarate, Camilo; Gonzalez, Carlos A
The objective of this project was to generate a tool to improve the handling, conservation and administration of the Park National Natural - Cliffs of Cali, belonging to the Special Administrative Unit of the System of Natural National Parks, UAESPNN, of the Ministry of the Environment. With this purpose it was implemented a System of Geographical Information, GIS, like methodological model. The GIS; Cliffs of Cali used a database relational, developed with the software ACCESS t m, compatible with the used GIS Arc/INFO t m and Arc/View t m (for work station). The data space accessed to the database were those of topography, hydrology, areas of life, geology, limit, fronts, to zone with handling ends, precipitation, indigenous occupation and municipalities; it contain related alphanumeric information, administrative, socioeconomic handling and physique among others
Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.
Platter, Heather N; Pokorny, Steven B
Behavioural interventions, such as smoke-free signage, are used to support air quality in public outdoor spaces that are not protected by a smoke-free policy, such as states with preemptive clause legislation. However, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. This paper is an evaluation of whether smoke-free signage posted in public parks altered smoking behaviours of park patrons. A time-series quasi-experimental design was used. Cigarette butts were collected at the same day and time every week in ten amenities within four parks in 2011. Each park completed a baseline period until a stable trend emerged at six weeks, then received smoke-free signage for the six week intervention period. There were 1684 cigarette butts collected during baseline and 1008 collected during the intervention phase. Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that smoking at seven out of ten amenities decreased and the overall decrease was significant at p=0.028. Individual parks and amenities grouped by type did not experience a statistically significant change. A neighbourhood median income trend was visually discovered, revealing that as income increased, there was a greater decrease in cigarette butts. This study provides evidence on the impact of smoke-free signage not supported by local ordinance in public parks using a reproducible measure. States, especially those with a preemptive clause legislation, may benefit from incorporating smoke-free signage in public areas to protect community members from exposure to tobacco smoke, reduce littering, and denormalise smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The article presents the results of surveys sent to managers directly responsible for bicycle tourism in the Polesie National Park and Roztocze. Based on the answers to the questionnaire survey the author of the paper presented information on the rules of access to national parks, tourist sites of the bicycle tourists, quality, functionality and the degree of difficulty and the number of available routes, and the discipline of cycling tourists moving along the designated routes. The managers were asked to determine how the national parks are going to promote cycling and what actions they intend to take (or not) in the near future, managing the national parks. During the field research there have been evaluated the two bike trails (bike trail "Mietiułka" in the Polesie National Park and the bicycle path "Zwierzyniec - Florianka - Górecko Stare" in the Roztocze National Park). Special attention has been paid to: the state of tourism development, marking and passable routes (the type and condition of surface) set out.
Full Text Available Park-and-ride (PnR facilities provided by Australian transport authorities have been an effective way to encourage car drivers to use public transport such as trains and buses. However, as populations grow and vehicle running costs increase, the demand for more parking spaces has escalated. Often, PnR facilities are filled to capacity by early morning and commuters resort to parking illegally in streets surrounding stations. This paper reports on the development of a location-based parking finding service for PnR users. Based on their current location, the system can inform users which is the best station to park their cars during peak period. Two criteria—parking availability and the shortest travel time—were used to evaluate the best station. Fuzzy logic forecast models were used to estimate the uncertainty of parking availability during the peak parking demand period. A prototype using these methods has been developed based on a case study of the Oats Street and Carlisle PnR facilities in Perth, Western Australia. The system has proved to be efficacious and has the potential to be applied to other parking systems.
Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.
Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.
Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern
conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...
Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.
Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker
A growing body of research has documented positive relationships among youth physical activity levels and park use. However, most investigations to date have focused on municipal parks, and relatively little is known about the physical activity levels of racially and ethnically diverse populations of youth using different types of parks in non-urban settings. This...
Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang
Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service p...
Hung, Li-Wei; Duriscoe, Dan M.; White, Jeremy M.; Meadows, Bob; Anderson, Sharolyn J.
The US National Park Service (NPS) characterizes night sky conditions over Chaco Culture National Historical Park using measurements in the park and satellite data. The park is located near the geographic center of the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and the adjacent Four Corners state. In the park, we capture a series of night sky images in V-band using our mobile camera system on nine nights from 2001 to 2016 at four sites. We perform absolute photometric calibration and determine the image placement to obtain multiple 45-million-pixel mosaic images of the entire night sky. We also model the regional night sky conditions in and around the park based on 2016 VIIRS satellite data. The average zenith brightness is 21.5 mag/arcsec2, and the whole sky is only ~16% brighter than the natural conditions. The faintest stars visible to naked eyes have magnitude of approximately 7.0, reaching the sensitivity limit of human eyes. The main impacts to Chaco’s night sky quality are the light domes from Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, Farmington, Bloomfield, Gallup, Santa Fe, Grants, and Crown Point. A few of these light domes exceed the natural brightness of the Milky Way. Additionally, glare sources from oil and gas development sites are visible along the north and east horizons. Overall, the night sky quality at Chaco Culture National Historical Park is very good. The park preserves to a large extent the natural illumination cycles, providing a refuge for crepuscular and nocturnal species. During clear and dark nights, visitors have an opportunity to see the Milky Way from nearly horizon to horizon, complete constellations, and faint astronomical objects and natural sources of light such as the Andromeda Galaxy, zodiacal light, and airglow.
Full Text Available Globally, invasion by non-native plants threatens resources that nature reserves are designated to protect. We assessed the status of non-native plant invasion on 1,662, 0.1-ha plots in Death Valley National Park, Mojave National Preserve, and Lake Mead National Recreation Area. These parks comprise 2.5 million ha, 23% of the national park land in the contiguous USA. At least one non-native species inhabited 82% of plots. Thirty-one percent of plots contained one non-native species, 30% two, 17% three, and 4% four to ten non-native species. Red brome (Bromus rubens, an ‘ecosystem engineer’ that alters fire regimes, was most widespread, infesting 60% of plots. By identifying frequency of species through this assessment, early detection and treatment can target infrequent species or minimally invaded sites, while containment strategies could focus on established invaders. We further compared two existing systems for prioritizing species for management and found that a third of species on plots had no rankings available. Moreover, rankings did not always agree between ranking systems for species that were ranked. Presence of multiple non-native species complicates treatment, and while we found that 40% of plots contained both forb and grass invaders, exploiting accelerated phenology of non-natives (compared to native annuals might help manage multi-species invasions. Large sizes of these parks and scale of invasion are formidable challenges for management. Yet, precisely because of their size, these reserves represent opportunities to conserve large landscapes of native species by managing non-native plant invasions.
Joel Frater; Arthur Graham
Current research on the credentialing process in parks, recreation and leisure services has focused primarily on accreditation and certification and has largely ignored the civil service exam as a credentialing toll or condition of employment in many state and municipal parks and recreation departments.
Piovesan, Nicola; Turi, Leo; Toigo, Enrico; Martinez, Borja; Rossi, Michele
We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1) outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2) clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps). These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.
Full Text Available We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1 outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2 clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps. These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.
Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...
Ginessa Corrêa Lemos
Full Text Available Park visitation has been increasing every year; however, the majority of the protected areas have no satisfactory and qualified administrative structure to control visitation, especially when island ecosystems are considered. The State Park of Ilhabela (PEIb is a good example of this, and was therefore selected for this study, which hoped to identify indicators for better management of park visitation. In order to select indicators to be used as a reference for this purpose, this study employed the Bountîle – Base of observation for nautical and terrestrial purposes within islands - developed by French researchers for the National Park of Port-Cros, and complemented this with guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Environment and other authors. These led to the selection of the following indicators: a opportunities of recreation for a diverse public; b visitation security; c satisfaction with the experience; d minimal environmental impact; e spinoff of socioeconomic development of the surrounding community. Based on the PEIb analyses, 20 management indicators were identified using the following criteria: uses and users; climatic conditions; well-being of the residents; security; profile of the visitor; well-being of the visitors; behavior of the visitors; certification, management, and institutional integration. The criteria of the indicators is greatly diversified, as it is believed that such diversity is essential to encompass the varied aspects that must be considered by a visitation management system in a conservation area. The indicators are flexible, and can be changed anytime, so that they will always be in harmony with the goals of the park management plan. In order to be efficient, they should be feasible economically, technically, and operationally. It is essential that indicators and protocols be discussed and tested with park workers and local actors, ensuring active management and continuous monitoring.
Full Text Available Parking charge is a powerful tool for solving parking and traffic congestion problems. In order to achieve the expected effects without any adverse impact it is necessary to understand well the users’ responses to this policy. This paper, based on a sample of interviewed parking garage users, has developed binary logit model for identification and quantification of characteristics of users and trips, on which the acceptance of parking price is dependent. In addition, multinomial logit model has been made in order to predict what the users will opt for when faced with an increase in parking price. For the first time the parameter “shorten duration” has been introduced which has shown to be the most significant in making behaviour-related decisions. The results show that the users with the purpose work are the most sensitive to an increase in parking charge, what can be deemed positive for policy makers. However, great sensitivity of the users with the purpose shopping should cause their concern. The results of the multinomial model show that they would not discontinue coming into the area after all.
Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan
Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.
... meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a... to the shows, as well as providing additional time should they run over the scheduled period. The... running east along the shoreline of Jones Beach State Park to approximate position 40[deg]35'49'' N, 073...
The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.
Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.
James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth
The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...
Kitzing, Lena; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten
the respective countries. This study focuses on how investors in wind parks and transmission systems are affected by the choice of regulatory regime in offshore grids with one to four countries connected. In order to capture the uncertainties related to the exposure to market prices as well as risks related...
Dick Stanley; Bruce Jackson
The cost-effectiveness of park operations is often neglected because information is laborious to compile. The information, however, is critical if we are to derive maximum benefit from scarce resources. This paper describes an automated system for calculating cost-effectiveness ratios with minimum effort using data from existing data bases.
..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. (a) Beginning one year after January 23, 1995, a Superintendent will not permit or allow a person to dispose of solid waste at a National Park Service operated...
Camargo, Sonia P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Pavese, Arthur C.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta
The presence of elevated metal concentrations in soils of the urban environment has been recognized as an important source of metal intake to humans, particularly to children, which are more susceptible to the adverse effects of soil ingestion than adults. There has been little research on urban soils in Sao Paulo, a very populated city with severe pollution problems, and there is little information about metal concentration levels in public parks of Sao Paulo. As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Sb and Zn were determined in topsoil samples (0- 5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Alfredo Volpi (Morumbi) park of Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed higher concentrations of As, Ba and Sb compared with the values considered as reference for soils in Sao Paulo, according to Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). In some samples Ba showed concentration levels higher than the Prevention values reported by CETESB. (author)
Maria Angela Campelo de Melo
Full Text Available This article aims to identify appropriate methodologies for the planning of a Services for People Innovation Park-SPIP, designed according to the model proposed by the Ibero-American Network launched by La Salle University of Madrid. Projected to form a network, these parks were conceived to provoke social change in their region, improving quality of life and social welfare, through knowledge, technology and innovation transfer and creation of companies focused on developing product and services to reduce social inequalities. Building a conceptual framework for the identification of planning methodologies compatible with the SPIP problemátique, this article analyses the theories of complex systems and adaptive planning, considering the particularities presented by Innovation Parks. The study deepens the understanding of the problems inherent in park planning, identifies the key issues to be considered during this process, and characterizes the SPIP as active adaptive complex system, suggesting methodologies more appropriate to its planning.
Wei, Cun; Zhang, Gaijing; Song, Peipei
This paper introduce the development and characteristics of new energy, Eco-city and Distributed Energy System in China, a case study of Qingdao Sino-German Eco-park, research on practical application about planning and construction of Distributed Energy System in Eco-city. Results show that: we must first do a good job in energy planning, giving full play to their own advantages, and Distributed Energy System based renewable energy resources is a promising option for reducing emissions from electricity generation in Eco-city.
Choi, Jae Hyung; Kuk, Jung Gap; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Nam Ik
This paper proposes an algorithm for the detection of pillars or posts in the video captured by a single camera implemented on the fore side of a room mirror in a car. The main purpose of this algorithm is to complement the weakness of current ultrasonic parking assist system, which does not well find the exact position of pillars or does not recognize narrow posts. The proposed algorithm is consisted of three steps: straight line detection, line tracking, and the estimation of 3D position of pillars. In the first step, the strong lines are found by the Hough transform. Second step is the combination of detection and tracking, and the third is the calculation of 3D position of the line by the analysis of trajectory of relative positions and the parameters of camera. Experiments on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method successfully locates and tracks the position of pillars, which helps the ultrasonic system to correctly locate the edges of pillars. It is believed that the proposed algorithm can also be employed as a basic element for vision based autonomous driving system.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ke'e Lagoon is a popular Kauai destination for tourist and resident beach-goers and snorkelers. It is part of the Haena State Park, and is located at the end of...
Linde Van Hecke
Full Text Available Parks have the potential to increase physical activity at the community level by providing opportunities to be active. In order to inform interventions to promote physical activity in parks, insight is needed concerning park user characteristics, the activity level of park users, the types of activities performed and associations between park areas and temporal variables with observed physical activity levels. Park user characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and activity level were recorded within pre-defined park areas in two parks in Ghent (Belgium using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. Most park users were male, adult, and engaged in vigorous-intensity physical activity (48%. Most popular activities were biking (38%, sitting (23% and walking (15%; accordingly, trails were used most and had the highest levels of physical activity compared to other park areas. Parks were used least frequently in the morning, during the weekend and by seniors. Therefore, active park use during morning periods, on weekend days and by seniors should be promoted and urban planners should consider that different park areas can possibly elicit varying activity levels among park users.
Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira
The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.
Blinova, I.; Bredikhin, A.
Attractiveness of relief, diversity and rareness were always the basic features of overall recreational attractiveness of a territory. Mountainous regions with high geomorphic diversity served as model for first recreation and tourism researches. The above features often favoured sustainability of touristic system. Unique relief forms are commonly referred to natural sites. They differ from the others in structure or have some morphological and morphometric characteristics not found in other forms of the earth's surface. Such monuments form the main natural functional kernel for a recreation system which is created and exists around them. In general, functions of geomorphological sites in recreation can be divided into socio-cultural and economic. Socio-cultural function is the principal function of recreation. It responds to the cultural or spiritual needs of people such as the knowledge in the broader sense, knowledge of the world and their place in it. The economic function is to create consumer demand for goods and services, and sometimes an entire economy sector. Natural sites are particularly vulnerable to dangerous occurrence of endogenous and exogenous processes as guarantee of environmental stability is an essential condition for a proper system functioning. This requires a comprehensive study of relief dynamics, monitoring and forecasting its evolution in recreation areas. Nowadays educational and environmental tourism in Russia develop rapidly. The unique tectonic position of Kamchatka Peninsula (the active geodynamic area dedicated to the subduction zone) formed a variety of landscapes, attracting visitors from all over the world. Recreational development of this region is slow due to remoteness and poor transport accessibility. However, there are 3 state federal reserves and one federal wildlife sanctuary, 4 natural parks of regional significance, 23 nature preserves of regional significance, and 105 natural monuments officially marked in this region
Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei
Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.
Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei
Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866
Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.
Sharwood, Lisa N; Adams, Susan; Blaszkow, Tracy; Eager, David
To quantify an apparent increase in indoor trampoline park related injuries in children and young people across Australia, and to understand the implications for current regulatory standards. Retrospective analyses of three state-based Injury Surveillance databases, identifying children and adolescents presenting to emergency departments between the years 2005 and 2017, who had sustained injuries during trampolining activity at an indoor trampoline park. Across the three datasets, 487 cases were identified. No cases were recorded prior to 2012, the year the first indoor trampoline park opened. At least half occurred among those aged 10-14 years. In Victoria, 58% were male, with 52% in Queensland and 60% in Western Australia being male, respectively. Hospital admission rates in these states were 15%, 11.7% and 14.5%, respectively. The most frequent injury types were dislocations, sprains and strains, followed by fractures, with some head and spinal injuries. Across several states in Australia, the incidence of indoor trampoline park related injuries is concerning, as these venues are increasing in number. Some injuries can be serious and result in lifelong disability for children or adolescents. Implications for public health: National safety standards that apply to indoor trampoline park operators are not currently mandatory; injury prevention efforts would be assisted if such standards were mandatory. © 2018 The Authors.
Full Text Available Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.
Hults, Chad P.; Capps, Danny L.; Brease, Phil F.
The Denali National Park & Preserve area provides one of the few opportunities in Alaska for road-side access to good rock outcrops. The rocks and surficial deposits exposed in the Denali area span from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary. It is a structurally complex area that contains a history of rifting, accretion, and orogeny. There is evidence of multiple metamorphic events in the Mesozoic, mountain building in the Tertiary, and faulting in the present day. The region is the site of active faulting along one of the largest intra-continental fault systems, the Denali Fault system, which was the locus of a 7.9 M earthquake in 2002. This guidebook describes the key outcrops viewable along the Denali Park Road from the entrance to the Eielson Visitor Center, and along the Parks Highway from Healy to Cantwell.
Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen
This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is â€œover-parkedâ€ in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...
Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku' uipo
This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a commercial parking lot lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Technology GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The parking lot is for customers and employees of a Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas and this installation represents the first use of the LED Parking Lot Performance Specification developed by the DOE’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance. The application is a parking lot covering more than a half million square feet, lighted primarily by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal halide wall packs were installed along the building facade. This site is new construction, so the installed baseline(s) were hypothetical designs. It was acknowledged early on that deviating from Walmart’s typical design would reduce the illuminance on the site. Walmart primarily uses 1000W pulse-start metal halide (PMH) lamps. In order to provide a comparison between both typical design and a design using conventional luminaires providing a lower illuminance, a 400W PMH design was also considered. As mentioned already, the illuminance would be reduced by shifting from the PMH system to the LED system. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) provides recommended minimum illuminance values for parking lots. All designs exceeded the recommended illuminance values in IES RP-20, some by a wider margin than others. Energy savings from installing the LED system compared to the different PMH systems varied. Compared to the 1000W PMH system, the LED system would save 63 percent of the energy. However, this corresponds to a 68 percent reduction in illuminance as well. In comparison to the 400W PMH system, the LED system would save 44 percent of the energy and provide similar minimum illuminance values at the time of relamping. The LED system cost more than either of the PMH systems when comparing initial costs
Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce; Saunders, Michael C.
We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks’ conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a −1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.
Weston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas
The presence of domestic dogs Canis familiaris in public open spaces is increasingly controversial. In our review of the literature, we located 133 publications of various types (papers, reports etc.) that examine some aspect of dogs in parks and open spaces (50 % focussed solely on dogs). There has been an exponential growth in the cumulative number of articles ( R 2 = 0.96; 82 % published since 1997); almost all pertain to temperate latitudes (97 %) and most to the northern hemisphere (62 %). Most articles focus on impacts on wildlife (51 %), zoonotic diseases (17 %), and people's perceptions regarding dogs (12 %). Articles mostly describe problems associated with dogs, while reports of low compliance with dog regulations are common. We outline six major findings regarding dogs in parks: (1) there is a paucity of information on dogs in parks, particularly in relation to their interactions with wildlife and regarding their management; (2) published studies are mainly restricted to a handful of locations in developed countries; (3) sectors of societies hold different views over the desirability of dogs in parks; (4) the benefits and risks of dogs to humans and park values are poorly documented and known; (5) dogs represent a notable disease risk in some but not all countries; and (6) coastal parks are over-represented in the literature in terms of potential negative impacts. Park managers globally require better information to achieve conservation outcomes from dog management in parks.
Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern
Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated...... on the comparison of the common conditions related to the international nature protection obligations in the parks, primarily expressed through the management under the EU Natura2000-program. In part 2, a comparison of the 8 parks concerning extent, land use composition, population in and around the park...
Kristine D. Johnson; Fred P. Hain; Katherine S. Johnson; Felton Hastings
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is the dominant species in a variety of sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Hemlock covers approximately 3820 acres (1528 hectares) or one percent of the Park, which at 524,856 acres is the largest area managed as wilderness in the eastern United States. Since timber was never harvested in about...
Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present the current state of water and wastewater management in the municipalities where the Polesie National Park (PNP is located. The PNP is situated in Lublin Voivodeship, in the area of six municipalities: Sosnowica, Hańsk, Urszulin, Stary Brus, Wierzbica and Ludwin. The data used in this paper, were obtained on the basis of the surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016 by the Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. In the analyzed communes, there was a very large disproportion between the usage of sewerage and the water supply network. It has been shown that 79.1% of the inhabitants living in the afore-mentioned communes used the water supply network and only 22.5% of them used sewerage. In the discussed communities there are 9 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of over 5 m3d-1. On the farms located in the scattered areas, which are not connected to the sewerage, wastewater is discharged mainly to the septic tanks. In four out of the six analyzed municipalities, there were 2345 septic tanks registered. Domestic sewage from some farms is purified in household wastewater treatment plants (395 pieces. The plants with the drainage systems are prevalent (84.9%, which may contribute to the groundwater quality degradation. In order to protect the natural environment within the communes that form the PNP, it is necessary to undertake the actions that will contribute to the improvement of the current state of water and wastewater management. While solving the existing problems related to water supply and wastewater treatment, it is strongly required to adhere to the principle of sustainable development and use highly effective systems in order to ensure that the ecological effects are appropriate.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a planning support concept (PSC to implementation of sustainable parking development projects (SPDP in ancient Mediterranean cities. It is conceptualized by the logic of decision support systems and a multicriteria analysis approach. The purpose of the concept is to support setting of implementation priorities for subprojects (construction of new and/or improvement of existing parking within a SPDP. Analysing the existing and a planned state of parking within the city a goal tree is established. Subprojects are defined accordingly. Objectives from the last hierarchy level within the goal tree are used as criteria for assessment of defined subprojects. Representatives of stakeholders provided criteria weights by application of AHP and SAW methods. PROMETHEE II was used for priority ranking and PROMETHEE V ensured a definition of project’s implementation phases. The result of the presented concept is the implementation plan for such projects. The concept is tested on the city of Trogir.
Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli
Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.
Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.
Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.
Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require
Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang
Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.
... Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton is at the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, and includes the... elk, moose, bison, pronghorn, grizzly and black bears, grey wolves, and coyotes. Other species such as...
Brocher, Thomas M.; Carr, Michael D.; Halsing, David L.; John, David A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Tiedeman, Claire
In the spring of 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Menlo Park Center Council commissioned an interdisciplinary working group to develop a forward-looking science strategy for the USGS Menlo Park Science Center in California (hereafter also referred to as "the Center"). The Center has been the flagship research center for the USGS in the western United States for more than 50 years, and the Council recognizes that science priorities must be the primary consideration guiding critical decisions made about the future evolution of the Center. In developing this strategy, the working group consulted widely within the USGS and with external clients and collaborators, so that most stakeholders had an opportunity to influence the science goals and operational objectives.The Science Goals are to: Natural Hazards: Conduct natural-hazard research and assessments critical to effective mitigation planning, short-term forecasting, and event response. Ecosystem Change: Develop a predictive understanding of ecosystem change that advances ecosystem restoration and adaptive management. Natural Resources: Advance the understanding of natural resources in a geologic, hydrologic, economic, environmental, and global context. Modeling Earth System Processes: Increase and improve capabilities for quantitative simulation, prediction, and assessment of Earth system processes.The strategy presents seven key Operational Objectives with specific actions to achieve the scientific goals. These Operational Objectives are to:Provide a hub for technology, laboratories, and library services to support science in the Western Region. Increase advanced computing capabilities and promote sharing of these resources. Enhance the intellectual diversity, vibrancy, and capacity of the work force through improved recruitment and retention. Strengthen client and collaborative relationships in the community at an institutional level.Expand monitoring capability by increasing density, sensitivity, and
Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs
Dardanelli, G.; Carella, M.
This article summarizes the experience gained between 2012 and 2013 by the department of "Civil Engineering, Environmental, Aerospace and Materials" of University of Palermo on the integrated survey of Ninni Park Cassara Park in Palermo and the subsequent testing of methods, tools and techniques based on current research regarding the acquisition and processing of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) data and laser-scanner. A fruitful time dedicated to the design of the survey has allowed us to become aware of the critical issues that the site presents because of its vast extent and diversity in size and number of the elements of which it is composed. The work has been addressed thematizing the elements to detect and selecting the techniques as possible economic and fast to be applied in the acquisition phase. Sixteen control points evenly distributed within the site were first materialized and detected with static GNSS mode. The survey mode NRTK (Network Real Time Kinematic) of the elements was then planned and carried out. The survey of the numerous planting was done by exploiting the mode with EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) correction. We continued the work experimenting with MMS (Mobile Mapping System) acquisition through which it was possible to acquire data on the morphology of the terrain, the conditions of the state of footpaths, buildings and on the distribution of street furniture. The point clouds obtained were subjected to both automatic and manual procedures to verify, finally, their actual descriptive possibilities of real forms detected.
Kaczynski Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and
..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the... monitoring, including data regarding air quality, wildlife, soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in... impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is...
Moses, Christopher S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Beavers, Rebecca; Brock, John
In 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program directed the initiation of a benthic habitat mapping program in ocean and coastal parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. With 74 ocean and Great Lakes parks stretching over more than 5,000 miles of coastline across 26 States and territories, this Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) is essential. This program will deliver benthic habitat maps and their associated inventory reports to NPS managers in a consistent, servicewide format to support informed management and protection of 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. The NPS and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop June 3-5, 2008, in Lakewood, Colo., to discuss the goals and develop the design of the NPS SBMP with an assembly of experts (Moses and others, 2010) who identified park needs and suggested best practices for inventory and mapping of bathymetry, benthic cover, geology, geomorphology, and some water-column properties. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards (such as gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products) as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs (for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities). SBMP Mapping Process. The SBMP calls for a multi-step mapping process for each park, beginning with a gap assessment and data mining to determine data resources and needs. An interagency announcement of intent to acquire new data will provide opportunities to leverage partnerships. Prior to new data acquisition, all involved parties should be included in a scoping meeting held at network scale. Data collection will be followed by processing and interpretation, and finally expert review and publication. After publication, all digital materials will be archived in a common format. SBMP Classification Scheme. The SBMP will map using the Coastal and Marine Ecological
Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The
Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.
We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the
Gallagher, J.; Gill, L. W.; McNabola, A.
An investigation was carried out to establish the effectiveness of parked cars in urban street canyons as passive controls on pedestrian pollutant exposure. A numerical model of a generic street canyon was developed using a large eddy simulation (LES) model to compare personal exposure on the footpath with and without the presence of parked cars. Three configurations of car parking systems were investigated (parallel, perpendicular and 45° parking) in addition to the influence of wind speed, wind direction and car parking occupancy. A tracer gas (CO 2) was used as a representative pollutant from vehicular sources within the street canyon models. The results indicated that parked cars may act as a temporary baffle plate between traffic emissions and pedestrians on the footpath. Reductions in exposure of up to 35% and 49% were attained on the leeward and windward footpaths in perpendicular wind conditions, with parallel winds allowing up to 33% pollutant reduction on both footpaths for parallel parking. The perpendicular and 45° car parking configurations investigated proved less successful as passive controls on air pollution exposure and an increase in pollutant concentration occurred in some models. An investigation of parking space occupancy rates was carried out for parallel parked cars. The fraction of parked cars influenced the level of reduction of pollutants on the footpaths with steady reductions in perpendicular winds, yet reductions were only evident for occupancy rates greater than approximately 45% in parallel wind conditions. One negative impact associated with the parked cars study was the increase of pollutant levels on the roadway as the parked cars acted as a baffle wall, which trapped pollutants in the road. The paper underlines the potential of on-street car parking for reducing the personal exposure of pollutants by pedestrians and the optimum parking layout to achieve maximum health protection.
Mantovani, M. S. M.; Bernardelli Massabki, P.; Massambani, O.
The State Park of Ipiranga Springs (PEFI), a native forest of 543 ha enclosed in one of the world largest Metropolis, represents more than 10% of the total of the green areas in the city of São Paulo. This space has been preserved through the efforts of three main institutions: the Botanic Garden, the Zoo Foundation and the University of São Paulo (USP). The districts surrounding the Park, with c.a. 2 millions of inhabitants, are mostly low-income families, with limited opportunities of leisure and cultural activity. There, violence and crime present the highest index for the whole Metropolitan Region, and recent statistics indicate a growing demographic pressure to occupy these areas. The proposal of the University of São Paulo, to promote in its property within PEFI a Science and Technology Park, represents a rare opportunity and valuable contribution to the social promotion in these districts and to the maintenance of that portion of green area: a residue of the Serra do Mar (Atlantic) Forest. This space of 141 ha of which 20 ha were occupied by the Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmosphere Science Institute of USP, encloses an exceptionally interesting inheritage for the City of São Paulo. A set of historical buildings of the fourth decade of last century, was recognized by the Council for the Preservation of Historical, Archeological, Artistic and Tourist Heritage of the State of São Paulo, and the City Council for the Preservation of Historical, Cultural and Natural Heritage of the City of São Paulo. The USP proposal resulted into an agreement with the Science and Technology Secretary of the São Paulo State Government, that supported financially the basic architectural project. This project was elaborated by seven of the most gifted Brazilian Architects, taking into account the restoration of the historical buildings and their integration with a new architectural set where the exhibits, interactive activities and cultural programs will take place. While the
... soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the alternatives..., soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in formulating the alternatives in the Plan/SEIS. Applies the... To mitigate impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety...
Flug, M.; Kallemeyn, L.W.
An overview of lake and river regulation at Voyageurs National Park, which resides on the Minnesota-Ontario border, is given to demonstrate how water policy agreements can work. In 1905 the United States and Canada authorized private dams with turbines on the Rainy River. The International Joint Commission regulates these dams. The National Park Service is mandated to preserve the natural environment for future generations. State, private, and public sector interests are tourism, flood protection, the pulp and paper industry, native wild rice growth; etc. Rule curves for regulating reservoirs have changed and committee with broad representation is cooperating to better manage the waters of Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake
In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...
Costigan, Sarah A; Veitch, Jenny; Crawford, David; Carver, Alison; Timperio, Anna
Parks in the US and Australia are generally underutilised, and park visitors typically engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Better understanding park features that may encourage visitors to be active is important. This study examined the perceived importance of park features for encouraging park-based PA and examined differences by sex, age, parental-status and participation in PA. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by local residents ( n = 2775) living near two parks (2013/2015). Demographic variables, park visitation and leisure-time PA were self-reported, respondents rated the importance of 20 park features for encouraging park-based PA in the next fortnight. Chi-square tests of independence examined differences in importance of park features for PA among sub-groups of local residents (sex, age, parental-status, PA). Park features ranked most important for park-based PA were: well maintained (96.2%), feel safe (95.4%), relaxing atmosphere (91.2%), easy to get to (91.7%), and shady trees (90.3%). All subgroups ranked 'well maintained' as most important. Natural and built environment features of parks are important for promoting adults' park-based PA, and should be considered in park (re)design.
The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...
... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...
Sibani, Paolo; Boettcher, Stefan
Also known for its application to granular compaction (E. Ben-Naim et al., Physica D, 1998), the Parking Lot Model (PLM) describes the random parking of identical cars in a strip with no marked bays. In the thermally activated version considered, cars can be removed at an energy cost and, in thermal equilibrium, their average density increases as temperature decreases. However, equilibration at high density becomes exceedingly slow and the system enters an aging regime induced by a kinematic constraint, the fact that parked cars may not overlap. As parking an extra car reduces the available free space,the next parking event is even harder to achieve. Records in the number of parked cars mark the salient features of the dynamics and are shown to be well described by the log-Poisson statistics known from other glassy systems with record dynamics. Clusters of cars whose positions must be rearranged to make the next insertion possible have a length scale which grows logarithmically with age, while their life-time grows exponentially with size. The implications for a recent cluster model of colloidal dynamics,(S. Boettcher and P. Sibani, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2011 N. Becker et al., J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2014) are discussed. Support rom the Villum Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.
Allen, Craig D.; Lissoway, John; Yarborough, Keith
The Southwest Region has been supporting Resource Basic Inventory (RBI) efforts to establish baseline data for comparisons with long-term monitoring results to be conducted in the future. This “pulse taking” is a part of the Servicewide initiative being fostered so that resource managers, scientists, and park managers will be able to track the health of park resources by determining changes and trends. The RBI work is being linked with the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at Bandelier, Big Thicket, Big Bend, Padre Island, and Guadalupe Mountains. Many of the parks in the southwest Region have only partially completed RBIs. This informational shortcoming is a pervasive threat to the parks because without detailed knowledge of the parks’ respective resources the Service cannot protect them adequately. To overcome this deficiency, the SWRO’s Division of Natural Resources Management and Science has fostered at Bandelier a pilot research effort, which started in FY ’87 and utilizes a landscape ecology paradigm. This concept links the RBI, GIS, and research activities in a park to present an overall picture of the park in its regional ecosystem setting. The flowchart diagrams this project’s concept. The results have been encouraging. A final report was recently completed (Allen 1989). This concept may now be applied to other Southwest Region parks.
National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it
Piccot, C.; Groenendijk, L.; Rot, M.; Van der Meijs, P.; Rakers, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Annema, J.A.; Pel, A.; Vleugel, J.
This project is carried out on request of the BVOW, the interest group of the neighbourhoods Olofsbuurt and Westerkwartier in Delft, in order to propose solutions for the parking issue of Spoorzone Delft expected between 2015 and 2017. They are worried that parking disturbances will emerge in their
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.
Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...
Demarais, S.; Cornicelli, L.; Kahn, R.; Merrill, E.; Miller, C.; Peek, J.M.; Porter, W.F.; Sargeant, G.A.
Enabling legislation—that which gives appropriate officials the authority to implement or enforce the law—impacts management of ungulates in national parks of Canada and the United States (U.S.). The initial focus of such legislation in both countries centered on preserving natural and culturally significant areas for posterity. Although this objective remains primary, philosophies and practices have changed. A Canadian vision for ungulate management emerged during the latter half of the 20th century to protect and maintain or restore the ecological integrity of representative samples of the country’s 39 distinct landscapes, and to include provisions for traditional hunting and fishing practices representative of past cultural impacts on the environment. The current ungulate management approach in the U.S. relies on natural (ecological) processes, as long as normal conditions are promoted and there is no impairment of natural resources. Emphasizing natural processes as the basis has been a challenge because ecosystem dynamics are complex and management is multi-jurisdictional. Additionally, natural regulation typically will not prevent ungulates from reaching and sustaining densities that are incompatible with preservation or restoration of native flora and fauna, natural processes, or historical landscapes.
Nordgren, Tyler E.
The U.S. national parks that protect our enjoyment of the landscape around us by day, also protect our enjoyment of the sky above at night. With the growth of light pollution, the view of the stars and Milky Way overhead has become as rare as the views of glaciers, geysers, and grizzlies that bring millions of visitors to the parks every year. Through the pristine view of a starry sky at night park visitors are primed to learn about our planet, its place in the solar system, and the larger Universe in which we live. The national parks are therefore the largest informal educational setting for reaching millions of people from all over the world who might not otherwise encounter astronomical outreach. The material in this presentation has been field tested in national parks, campgrounds, lodges, and visitor centers over the last four years and is elaborated on in the just released book: "Stars Above, Earth Below: A Guide to Astronomy in the National Parks.” Funding for this project was provided by The Planetary Society.
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
Mafrica , Stefano; Servel , Alain; Ruffier , Franck
International audience; Although several (semi-) automatic parking systems have been presented throughout the years –, car manufacturers are still looking for low-cost sensors providing redundant information about the obstacles around the vehicle, as well as efficient methods of processing this information, in the hope of achieving a very high level of robustness. We therefore investigated how Local Motion Sensors (LMSs) , , comprising only of a few pixels giving 1-D optical fl...
The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)
BÖRKLÜ, Hüseyin; KALYON, Sadık
The increase in the number of cars made it necessary to protectthe parking areas. This research includes a literature review aboutcommercially available barriers, which are arm barriers, rising bollards, chainbarriers, automatic and manual private barriers from the point of common andside-by-side parking lots. Their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.After the literature review work, a design requirements list for a car parkprotector, which includes important and strong properties of ...
Manchester, R. N.
The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...
Full Text Available Parking is an integral component of the transport system. It plays a crucial role in the management of traffic and congestion. On-street parking constitutes one major problem that makes traffic situation chaotic in Nigeria cities. Most roads in Nigeria cities are narrow and lack pedestrian lanes. There are cases of double parking along these narrow roads thereby causing traffic congestion. This is due to the non-availability of off-street parking facilities along the transportation routes. This study examines the challenges of on-street parking in Nigerian cities’ transportation routes using Ibadan North-East Local Government area as a case study. Both primary and secondary data which were collected in 2009 were used in the study. Among the issues examined in the study are the situation of existing parking facilities along the transportation routes in the area; perception of road users (drivers and passengers about motorist’s parking behavior and the effect of on-street parking in the area. Policy implications are discussed in the paper.
Michelle Ferreira Mazetto
Full Text Available Environment accessibility influences the quality of performance of the activities developed by individuals in their daily lives with autonomy and independence, and also guarantees the equal right to ‘come and go’. Thisstudy aimed to assess the parking spaces reserved for people with disabilities at bank branches in Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, analyzing whether they are in accordance with the current technical standards of accessibility. The study is characterized by being a quantitative survey with a sample consisting of bank branches established in the municipality. Data was collected using a form with nine questions to be filled through observation of space - outdoor parking spaces at the agency. The data were processed using the technique of content analysis, pointing as a result four categories according to the verification carried out, namely: (i signaling, (ii parking spaces, (iii accessible route, and (iv other elements. Thirty-seven banks were listed; eight were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 29 banks included in the study, only nine had reserved parking spaces for people with disabilities and, from those, six were adequate.
Urban green spaces are essential element of urban life which, due to their structure and multi functionality, can play an exemplary role in the vitality and quality of urban life. Urban Parks are not only used as active recreational and leisure areas for its citizens but also an important catalyst for community development and enhancement. These spaces in the city act like its lungs and play a critical role in supporting the ecological and environmental system. In the dense urban areas, even Small Parks (less than one acre in size) can also contribute a lot to improve environmental quality of city life. In a populated city where it is difficult to incorporate large Public Parks, these small green area can complement large Public Park system. Accordingly the study is concerned to evaluate the environmental performances of Small Parks on the built environments of urban Dhaka. The analysis identifies that Small Parks has strong environmental impact, the intensity of which depends on the type and quality of its vegetation, its design parameters, connectivity and of course on surrounding urban morphology. And it is confirmed that park with more canopy tree is suitable for our environment and therefore a good combination of vegetation (wide canopy trees at periphery, medium canopy trees beside internal walkway and small canopy tree, shrub and grass cover elsewhere) are recommended for better environmental performance of Small Parks. The research will be an approach to find the ways and means to restore the Small Parks of Dhaka city to ensure the livability of the city and enhance the quality of city image.
This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...
Le E Saw
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that contact with urban green spaces can produce positive effects on people's stress, health and well-being levels. However, much of this research has been conducted in the temperate regions of Europe or North America. Additionally, most studies have only compared the effects of urban and natural areas on health and well-being, but not made a finer distinction between different types of urban green spaces. We tested the relationship between well-being and the access or use of different types of green spaces among young adults in Singapore, a tropical city-state. The results showed that extraversion and emotional stability increased subjective well-being, positive affect and life satisfaction and decreased stress and negative affect. In addition, we found that level of physical activity increased positive affect and health problems increased negative affect. Neither access to green spaces nor the use of green spaces in Singapore significantly affected the well-being metrics considered, contradicting findings in the temperate regions of the world. We hypothesize that the differences in temperature and humidity and the higher greenery and biodiversity levels outside parks in Singapore could explain this phenomenon. Our results thus question the universality of the relationship between well-being and park usage and highlight the need for more research into the multifaceted effects of green spaces on well-being in the tropics.
Adiati, M. P.; Lestari, N. S.; Wiastuti, R. D.
Sustainable urban tourism development should provide better places for people to live in and for people to visit. Jakarta as the capital city has a potential for its urban tourism. Thus, urban tourism attribute such as Public Park should be in high- quality to cope with the needs of urban people and outside visitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate Public Park attributes and to analyze its compliance refer to Public Park that eventually supports sustainable urban tourism. This paper used a qualitative approach. Primary data obtain from direct field observation in seven Public Parks in Jakarta; Menteng Park, Suropati Park, Situ Lembang Park, Ayodhya Park, Cattleya Park, Kodok Park, and Langsat Park. Observation checks list use as guidance. The result provides an assessment of Public Park based on four categories; the accessibility, park activities, safety, and user. The implication of this study offers recommendations to enhance Public Park so that it complies with good public park design- attributes and with the obligations of sustainable urban tourism in Jakarta.
Nielsen, K.; Schultz, M.; Williams, B.; Gay, J.; Johnson, S.; Dunn, P.
The unique geo-environment offered in Capitol Reef National Park and its surrounding areas has a long-standing history of inspiring geological scientific exploration. The Capitol Reef Field Station was established in 2008 as part of collaboration between the National Park and Utah Valley University in order to support teaching and research of the natural environment found within the park and on the Colorado Plateau. The facility itself situated deep within the park, well off any public road system offers state of the art alternative energy and sustainable construction and makes extensive use of passive heating and cooling, in order to maintain its status of being "off-grid." The field station is a 6200 square foot complex of classrooms and dormitories supporting university level education and field studies of the Colorado Plateau. The complex includes a classroom and dining area, professional kitchen, and two separate dormitories, which can sleep up to 24 overnight visitors, while the daytime usage can accommodate up to 40 visitors. The vision of the facility is to support teaching and research toward responsible, respectful, and sustainable stewardship of the natural world - including Interdisciplinary learning between arts and sciences Student internships and service learning in collaboration with the National Park Service Field-based scientific research (as well as inventorying and assessing Park ecosystems changes) Field training in scientific research Collaboration between National Park Service scientists and local, regional, and national institutions The park is situated at 38°N 249°E at elevations greater than 2000 m in Southern Utah. In contrast to the more famous neighboring sister parks such as Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks, which are in relatively close proximity to large road systems and cities, Capitol Reef offers what is believed to be the darkest night sky in the US. The culmination of features creates an ideal location for studies of the
.... America is fortunate to have a long history of conservation pioneers, like President Theodore Roosevelt... National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, America... and vitality of all Americans. In no place is America's natural and historic legacy more evident than...
... Statistical Abstract, in 2012 there were approximately 282 million visits to units of the National Park System...: 16 U.S.C. 1, 3, 9a, 462(k). 0 2. In Sec. 2.51 revise the introductory text of paragraph (f) to read...), paragraph (b)(4), and the introductory text of paragraph (e) to read as follows: Sec. 2.52 Sale or...
Gallerani, David G; Besenyi, Gina M; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Kaczynski, Andrew T
This study explored youths' experiences and perceptions about community engagement as a result of participating in a community-based data collection project using paper and mobile technology park environmental audit tools. In July 2014, youth (ages 11-18, n=50) were recruited to participate in nine focus groups after auditing two parks each using paper, electronic, or both versions of the Community Park Audit Tool in Greenville County, SC. The focus groups explored the youths' experiences participating in the project, changes as a result of participation, suggested uses of park audit data collected, and who should use the tools. Four themes emerged related to youths' project participation experiences: two positive (fun and new experiences) and two negative (uncomfortable/unsafe and travel issues). Changes described as a result of participating in the project fell into four themes: increased awareness, motivation for further action, physical activity benefits, and no change. Additionally, youth had numerous suggestions for utilizing the data collected that were coded into six themes: maintenance & aesthetics, feature/amenity addition, online park information, park rating/review system, fundraising, and organizing community projects. Finally, six themes emerged regarding who the youth felt could use the tools: frequent park visitors, community groups/organizations, parks and recreation professionals, adults, youth, and everyone. This study revealed a wealth of information about youth experiences conducting park audits for community health promotion. Understanding youth attitudes and preferences can help advance youth empowerment and civic engagement efforts to promote individual and community health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Min; LI; Gaoli; XIONG
Construction of theme park has been launched since the early 1990s in Chengdu City,but ended up as a losing proposition after its short-term prosperity because of similar scale and similarity with those in other cities.As more international well-known theme parks entering the market,theme parks in Chengdu have been faced with the transition,and novel concepts are also introduced into the operation of these parks.To adapt to the market,it is imperative to make marketing strategies and combine marketing elements.Through analyzing current development of local theme parks and introducing successful marketing modes of domestic and overseas theme parks,a favorable marketing mode for theme parks in Chengdu was defined on the basis of fully exploring Ba-Shu culture(Ba and Shu are two ancient kingdoms in the history of Sichuan).By defining a favorable theme,focusing more on visitors’experience,devoting more in developing new products,adopting flexible price strategies,and integrating advertisement marketing,internet marketing,and other marketing methods,outstanding brands will be formed,and tourism cultures with distinguished features of Chengdu will be created.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,516] Lamb Assembly and Test, LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL; Notice of Negative... workers of Lamb Technicon, a division of Unova, Warren, Michigan and Lake Orion, Michigan were previously...
Zhdonec S. V.
Full Text Available A clinical case of one variant of congenital venous angiodysplasia – Parkes Weber-Rubashov syndrome of the right lower extremity is presented in the article. The features of its clinical presentation and diagnosis difficulties are described. The analysis of the scientific data and own clinical observation showed that Parkes Weber-Rubashov syndrome belongs to the rare congenital disease of the vascular system, in some cases with the absence of typical clinical manifestations and combination with other disorders of the venous system. The best method for diagnosing the syndrome is radiopaque arteriography. The separation of the patent’s arteriovenous fistulas is justified as a radical method of its surgical treatment.
Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July. As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...
Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.
This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)
Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.
Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan
Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. - A collaborative approach between scientists and policymakers is described for addressing nitrogen deposition effects to Rocky Mountain National Park, USA
Xu, Naizhong; Xi, Rong; Ren, Tingyan; Zhao, Peng; Chuai, Zeyao
The paper discusses the current situation and existing problems of ecological restoration and tourist infrastructure development of Xiamen Xianyue Park located in Xiamen Island, China. Issues of ecosystem restoration and landscape improvement, restoring habitats, and ecosystem management system are analyzed. Options of further optimization of the tourist-targeted infrastructure are proposed, which take into account the ecological system and landscape pattern optimization, promotion of ecotourism, and implementation of the ecological management system. The particular solution envisages the park zoning with three primary zones (ecological protection, ecological buffer, and general activity zones) and five secondary ones (scenic landscape, ecotourism, religious activity, buildings and structures, and entertainment zones). By integrating the ecological principles into other land use objectives, taking full advantage of the park ecological and cultural heritage, and improving its ecological management, it is expected to provide the ecological restoration of the park under study and optimize its contribution to the regional economic and social development.
Lee, B.; Wei, Y.; Guo, I. Y.
To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle's dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.
Full Text Available To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle’s dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.
Full Text Available This paper establishes the kinematic model of the automatic parking system and analyzes the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Furthermore, it solves the problem where the traditional automatic parking system model fails to take into account the time delay. Firstly, based on simulating calculation, the influence of time delay on the dynamic trajectory of a vehicle in the automatic parking system is analyzed under the transverse distance Dlateral between different target spaces. Secondly, on the basis of cloud model, this paper utilizes the tracking control of an intelligent path closer to human intelligent behavior to further study the Cloud Generator-based parking path tracking control method and construct a vehicle path tracking control model. Moreover, tracking and steering control effects of the model are verified through simulation analysis. Finally, the effectiveness and timeliness of automatic parking controller in the aspect of path tracking are tested through a real vehicle experiment.
Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.
The purpose of FMCSAs SmartPark initiative is to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consists of two phases. Phase I was a field operational test ...
Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T
We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals.
Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.
Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.
... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...
... access to Defendants' property to plant, water, and monitor replacement trees, and conduct other appropriate activities. Defendants will also supply water and equipment to water the trees. The publication of....C. 19jj et seq., for destruction of, loss of, or injury to park system resources of the Saint Croix...
General Infrastructure Services Department
The site surveillance service is also responsible for supervising compliance with the parking regulations on the CERN site. In that context, it ensures that the following rules are complied with on the CERN car park: Vehicles may not be left on a CERN car park for longer than 5 consecutive working days. However, CERN users are entitled to leave their vehicles parked at CERN for a longer period in the car park near Building 588 , subject to completing the application form "Demande d'autorisation pour un stationnement de longue durée" (application for a long-term parking permit) and sending it to the Reception and Access Control Service (firstname.lastname@example.org) prior to departure. Parking spaces, which are in short supply in many crowded areas of the CERN site, must not be occupied by abandoned vehicles/wrecks. The service organizes the disposal of such vehicles. Any CERN users wishing to get rid of a private vehicle parked on one of the CERN car pa...
Cheng, Ruzhong; Zhao, Yong; Li, Zhichao; Jiang, Weigang; Wang, Xin'an; Xu, Yong
A panorama parking assistant system (PPAS) for the automotive aftermarket together with a practical improved particle swarm optimization method (IPSO) are proposed in this paper. In the PPAS system, four fisheye cameras are installed in the vehicle with different views, and four channels of video frames captured by the cameras are processed as a 360-deg top-view image around the vehicle. Besides the embedded design of PPAS, the key problem for image distortion correction and mosaicking is the efficiency of parameter optimization in the process of camera calibration. In order to address this problem, an IPSO method is proposed. Compared with other parameter optimization methods, the proposed method allows a certain range of dynamic change for the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, and can exploit only one reference image to complete all of the optimization; therefore, the efficiency of the whole camera calibration is increased. The PPAS is commercially available, and the IPSO method is a highly practical way to increase the efficiency of the installation and the calibration of PPAS in automobile 4S shops.
A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani
Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development
Mech, L. David; Barber, Shannon M.
Because of the naturalness of National Parks and because of the public’s strong interest in the parks, the National Park Service (NPS) must gather as much information as needed to help understand and preserve the natural functioning of its ecosystems, and especially of its wildlife. The most useful technique for studying wildlife is radio-tracking, or wildlife telemetry. Radio-tracking is the technique of determining information about an animal through the use of radio signals from or to a device carried by the animal.The basic components of a traditional radio-tracking system are (1) a transmitting subsystem consisting of a radio transmitter, a power source and a propagating antenna, and (2) a receiving subsystem including a “pick-up” antenna, a signal receiver with reception indicator (speaker and/or display) and a power source. Most radio tracking systems involve transmitters tuned to different frequencies (analogous to different AM/FM radio stations) that allow individual identification.Three distinct types of radio-tracking are in use today: (1)conventional, very-high-frequency (VHF) radio tracking, (2) satellite tracking, and (3) Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. VHF radio-tracking is the standard technique that has been in use since 1963.However, radio-tracking can be considered intrusive in that it requires live-capturing animals and attaching a collar or other device to them. A person must then monitor signals from the device, thus usually requiring people in the field in vehicles, aircraft, and on foot. Nevertheless, most national parks have recognized the benefits of radio-tracking and have hosted radio-tracking studies for many years; in some parks, hundreds of animals have been, or are being, so studied.As a result, some NPS staff are concerned about actual or potential intrusiveness of radio-tracking. Ideally, wildlife studies would still be done but with no intrusion on animals or conflict with park visitors.Thus the NPS has decided to
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In December 1988 and July 1989, samples were collected at Confederate Reef and at Galveston Island State Park to assess an oyster reef and adjacent areas as nursery...
Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setälä, Heikki
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for the growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, ∼50, and >100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM fungal communities. ECM fungal community composition differed between the two habitats but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM fungal taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi, as inferred in relation to the time since park construction, differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age-related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM fungus interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity. IMPORTANCE In urban environments, soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. ECM fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities
Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis
managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... importance and performance (I–P) of the indicators. In 2012, a follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with the managers to study if their views regarding these indicators and their performance had changed. Results from the 2004 and 2012 surveys revealed changing perceptions regarding both I...
Full Text Available The Park of Renewable Energy is an environmental technology park in the middle of Italy that has an innovative integrated system for the production of renewable energy. Recently, the Park launched a public invitation: to become part of a great widespread community for the production of renewable energy, and to promote energy conservation and a sustainable lifestyle. This empowerment process that turns consumers into energy producers – and also into those who convey the culture of sustainability – might, over time, give life to a community that actually lives according to the geoethical principles of biosustainability. The route for the identification and dissemination of the Park of Renewable Energy community is an interesting example of the generative process, whereby rather than doggedly pursuing a predetermined objective, such as a model to be implemented, the actors involved, “look for directions and values that are inherent in the means available” [Bateson 2000], including communication networks and methodologies of social participation. The community components focus their attention on the action and relationship effects, rather than on ways to reach a predefined goal. In this perspective, the Park of Renewable Energy experience aims to become an interesting object of observation and reflection for its green ethics. This ecological approach promises unexpected new creations: there is a chance we will at last see the birth of a sustainable form of social organization adapted to the human community.
Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A
The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity.
Oktavia Adiwijaya, Nelly; Herlambang, Yudha; Slamin
Agro Techno Park in University of Jember is a special area used for the development of agriculture, livestock and fishery. In this plantation, the process of watering the plants is according to the frequency of each plant needs. This research develops the optimization of plant watering scheduling system using edge coloring of graph. This research was conducted in 3 stages, namely, data collection phase, analysis phase, and system development stage. The collected data was analyzed and then converted into a graph by using bipartite adjacency matrix representation. The development phase is conducted to build a web-based watering schedule optimization system. The result of this research showed that the schedule system is optimal because it can maximize the use of all electric cars to water the plants and minimize the number of idle cars.
Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.
Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.
Tormo Ferrero, Manuel J.
The present article has as objective to provide a general overview on the spanish radiotherapy park, presenting how was its start and evolution until the current state. Considering only the units of teletherapy and the accelerators. Actually in Spain there is 28 units of Cobalt therapy, in functioning during the last two decades, being advised a rapid substitution to accelerators
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.
Full Text Available An evolutionary approach of parking space guidance based upon a novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm is proposed. In the newly proposed CPSO algorithm, the chaotic dynamics is combined into the position updating rules of Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the diversity of solutions and to avoid being trapped in the local optima. This novel approach, that combines the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimization and chaotic dynamics, is then applied into the route optimization (RO problem of parking lots, which is an important issue in the management systems of large-scale parking lots. It is used to find out the optimized paths between any source and destination nodes in the route network. Route optimization problems based on real parking lots are introduced for analyzing and the effectiveness and practicability of this novel optimization algorithm for parking space guidance have been verified through the application results.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking...
White, Dave D.
The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.
Wenxu Yan; Jing Deng; Dezhi Xu
In this article, a novel data-driven constrained control scheme is proposed for automatic parking systems. The design of the proposed scheme only depends on the steering angle and the orientation angle of the car, and it does not involve any model information of the car. Therefore, the proposed scheme-based automatic parking system is applicable to different kinds of cars. In order to further reduce the desired trajectory coordinate tracking errors, a coordinates compensation algorithm is als...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12713-002] Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site...: Reedsport OPT Wave Park, LLC. e. Name of Project: Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project. [[Page 11170
Asten, Michael W.
The article by Wilfred Elders, ``Different Views of the Grand Canyon,'' (Eos, 23 September 2003) is a valuable reminder of the continuing need for geoscientists to argue geological facts with groups who confuse belief with scientific study. However, his good work is somewhat diminished by the suggestion at the end of his article that a book published by creationists should not be sold within a National Park. There is a whiff of censorship in this proposal that could have consequences beyond what he may intend. I have noted in parks in the United States, and probably more obviously in parks in my own country of Australia, that much literature is available on the origins of the park's geology, flora, and fauna, as presented by the lore of indigenous peoples who claim historical links with the area. Any attempt to censor literature published by creationists would logically result in censorship of material from traditional custodians of the land as well, since their material is equally dubious in terms of its scientific foundation as seen by our post-Darwinian science. Such an attempt at censorship would be both unhelpful and unnecessary for the advancement of our profession in the eyes of the public.
van Enter, Aernout; Fleurke, Sjoert; Rudas, Imre J.
In this article a multilayer parking system with screening of size n = 3 is studied with a focus on the time-dependent particle density. We prove that the asymptotic limit of the particle density increases from an average density of 1/3 on the first layer to the value of (10 − √5 )/19 ≈ 0.4086 in
Hkakabo-razi is rich in biodiversity of flora and fauna which is situated in Northern Kachin State. Total area of Hkakabo-razi is 1472 sq miles and is the biggest National Park in Myanmar. Abundance of wild orchids, rhododendrons, ferns, trees, temperate and sub-tropical wild flowers grow well naturally in primary dense forests of this area. This area is habitat of CITES Appendis (I) listed orchid Paphiopedilum wardii and other uncommon and unusual native wild orchids. Three biological expeditions in 1997, 1998 and 2000 undertook the task of surveying the flora and fauna of this region jointlyh co-sponsored by Forest Department of Myanmar and Wildlife Conservation Society from United States. In this presentation, the native orchids of this area were described and presented as the preliminary result of above three biological expeditions conducted in Hkakabo-razi National Park.
FISCHER, JOHN H.
TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…
Full Text Available Using RFID Technology is increasingly integrated in our daily life. We are presenting in this paper the secured parking spots for physically challenged -SPSPC- system implementing the RFID technology for managing parking slots of physically challenged. We demonstrated using scenarios (car with tag, car with expired date tag, car without tag that the -SPSPC- system is able to recognize not only cars equipped with tag -then send accordingly welcoming SMS -but also cars without tags by checking with a step tag fixed in the wall. Operational mode of the -SPSPC- system is illustrated as well as main components, methods, snippets of code and interfaces are presented and commented. In addition, we demonstrated how the -SPSPC- system is providing the tracking of people committing repetitively these violations -by reporting them to the authorities- and generating statistics on parking occupancy rates helping in providing sufficient slots.
The study explored the contributions of Jos Wildlife Park towards conservation education in Plateau State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through observation, review of records, oral interview and structured questionnaires. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables, frequency of ...
Bocarro, Jason N.; Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.
Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North...
Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...
Paula Camila Ramirez
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p480 The characteristics of parks (availability, accessibility, conservation, quality, safety, etc. are important predictors of their use for physical activity practices. The aim of this study was to verify the association among the socioeconomic level of neighborhoods, the characteristics and quality of urban public parks for physical activity in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study, conducted in 2015, in which 10 parks with structures for physical activity were evaluated. The socioeconomic level of the district was evaluated based on the neighborhoods around the parks and classified in “low” and “high”. The number of residents in the surrounding area of parks were evaluated with Geographic Information System (GIS, site characteristics and quality with the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC and the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA, respectively. The association was analyzed with Mann Whitney U test and Spearman correlation (rho on STATA 14 and the significance level was maintained at 5%. A positive association was found between the socioeconomic level and the presence of walking paths (marginal, p=0.056, accessibility (rho=0.875; p=0.001 and general quality of parks (rho=0.657; p=0.039. The low socioeconomic level was associated with the presence of sports courts (p=0.032. These results can guide the actions of public managers for the modification of the built environment and structures of the parks for physical activity.
Arena, Ross; Bond, Samantha; O'Neill, Robert; Laddu, Deepika R; Hills, Andrew P; Lavie, Carl J; McNeil, Amy
The concept of Healthy Living (HL) as a primary medical intervention continues to gain traction, and rightfully so. Being physically active, consuming a nutritious diet, not smoking and maintaining an appropriate body weight constitute the HL polypill, the foundation of HL medicine (HLM). Daily use of the HL polypill, working toward optimal dosages, portends profound health benefits, substantially reducing the risk of chronic disease [i.e., cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulmonary disease, metabolic syndromes, certain cancers, etc.] and associated adverse health consequences. To be effective and proactive, our healthcare system must rethink where its primary intervention, HLM, is delivered. Waiting for individuals to come to the traditional outpatient setting is an ineffective approach as poor lifestyle habits are typically well established by the time care is initiated. Ideally, HLM should be delivered where individuals live, work and go to school, promoting immersion in a culture of health and wellness. To this end, there is a growing interest in the use of public parks as a platform to promote the adoption of HL behaviors. The current perspectives paper provides a brief literature review on the use of public parks for HL interventions and introduces a new HealthPark model being developed in Chicago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.
Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.
Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.
Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and
Arcuri, S.; Liserre, M.; Ricchiuto, D.
Typically the resonance problems related to the use of LCL-filters in grid connected inverters are analyzed assuming the operation of a single inverter. Wind and photovoltaic parks may experience propagation of resonance from a poorly damped inverter to other systems connected in parallel....... The paper focuses on the study of the resonance at a park system level with simulations and experimental results....
Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park. Fourteen fish species were collected during surveys carried out in the Heuningnes and Ratel river systems and a variety of endorheic pans from 2003 to 2005. Seven of the species are marine fishes tolerant of low salinity (Mugil cephalus, Liza richardsonii, Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Rhabdosargus holubi, Solea bleekeri, Gilchristella aestuaria with the remaining seven species being primary freshwater fishes. Three are indigenous, including Pseudobarbus burchelli, Sandelia capensis, and Galaxias zebratus of which two morphological forms were recorded within Agulhas National Park. The remaining four species are invasive aliens (Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus. Classification using physico-chemical variables indicated four major wetland groups, with fishes occurring predominantly in the group comprising palustrine, lacustrine and riverine wetlands, and in one instance in a brackish endorheic pan. Management actions which should facilitate conservation of indigenous fishes in the Agulhas region are suggested.
The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer(reg s ign) H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001
Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; E. William Schweiger,; Isabel W. Ashton,; Loren L. Bahls,
Didymosphenia geminata (didymo) is a freshwater alga native to North America, including Glacier National Park, Montana. It has long been considered a cold-water species, but has recently spread to lower latitudes and warmer waters, and increasingly forms large blooms that cover streambeds. We used a comprehensive monitoring data set from the National Park Service (NPS) and USGS models of stream temperatures to explore the drivers of didymo abundance in Glacier National Park. We estimate that approximately 64% of the stream length in the park contains didymo, with around 5% in a bloom state. Results suggest that didymo abundance likely increased over the study period (2007–2009), with blooms becoming more common. Our models suggest that didymo abundance is positively related to summer stream temperatures and negatively related to total nitrogen and the distance downstream from lakes. Regional climate model simulations indicate that stream temperatures in the park will likely continue to increase over the coming decades, which may increase the extent and severity of didymo blooms. As a result, didymo may be a useful indicator of thermal and hydrological modification associated with climate warming, especially in a relatively pristine system like Glacier where proximate human-related disturbances are absent or reduced. Glacier National Park plays an important role as a sentinel for climate change and associated education across the Rocky Mountain region.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-MWR-CUVA-10100; 6065-4000-409] Draft Trail... Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS... blueprint to guide the expansion, elimination, restoration, management, and use of the trail system and its...
Lu, Yi; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Chen, Bin; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming
Industrial sector is one of the indispensable contributors in global warming. Even if the occurrence of ecoindustrial parks (EIPs) seems to be a good improvement in saving ecological crises, there is still a lack of definitional clarity and in-depth researches on low-carbon industrial parks. In order to reveal the processes of carbon metabolism in a low-carbon high-tech industrial park, we selected Beijing Development Area (BDA) International Business Park in Beijing, China as case study, establishing a seven-compartment- model low-carbon metabolic network based on the methodology of Ecological Network Analysis (ENA). Integrating the Network Utility Analysis (NUA), Network Control Analysis (NCA), and system-wide indicators, we compartmentalized system sectors into ecological structure and analyzed dependence and control degree based on carbon metabolism. The results suggest that indirect flows reveal more mutuality and exploitation relation between system compartments and they are prone to positive sides for the stability of the whole system. The ecological structure develops well as an approximate pyramidal structure, and the carbon metabolism of BDA proves self-mutualistic and sustainable. Construction and waste management were found to be two active sectors impacting carbon metabolism, which was mainly regulated by internal and external environment.
Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael H.; Val, Dimitri V.
wind turbine systems and its components is developed accounting for the wind park functionality, i.e. power production, its operation and its cascading damage and failure scenarios. This system model facilitates to quantify the expected benefits and risks throughout the service life accounting......In the present paper, an approach for the quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information building upon a framework for infrastructure system utility and decision analysis is developed and applied to the operation of wind parks. The quantification of the value of SHM...... facilitates a benefit and risk informed assessment and optimization of SHM strategies and encompasses models for the infrastructure functionality, the structural constituent and system risks and its management as well as the performance of SHM strategies. A wind park system model incorporating the structural...
Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.
A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed
Veirs, Stephen D.; Stohlgren, Thomas; Schonewald-Cox, Christine
The papers in this proceedings were selected from the 63 presentations given at the Fourth Biennial Conference on Research in National Parks in California. The overall theme for this meeting was a recurring one: “The Integration of Research into National Park Service Resource Management Decisions.” The conference was held at the University of California, Davis, on 10-12 September 1991 and was sponsored by the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit and the Institute of Ecology at the University of California, Davis. This proceedings highlights a variety of research and resource management efforts to improve the stewardship of our most treasured landscapes. In the future, it will become increasingly more important for federal and state agencies, university scientists and students, and the public to cooperate fully to improve the quantity and quality of science and resource management programs in units of the National Park System. As many of the papers in this proceedings attest, we must look beyond the political boundaries of protected landscapes to incorporate entire ecosystems. Competing resource uses inside and outside parklands must be reexamined to weave a common thread of biological conservation. As scientists, our studies must bridge the gap from plots to landscapes and from landscapes to regions. Our studies must built on information from species and populations to ecosystems and the processes that influence them. The papers in this proceedings are modest but important contribution to those ideals. Each paper represents original research and has been peer-reviewed. Many agencies, institutions, and individuals contributed in the development of this product. In the planning stages, National Park Service Western Region scientists provided advice and assistance in structuring the conference format. University of California, Davis, graduate students, directed by Sharon Lynch, assisted with logistics at the meeting, and provided general assistance
Full Text Available We study the effect of the parking on heterogeneous commuters' travel choice in a competitive transportation system which consists of a subway and a parallel road with a bottleneck of limited service capacity. Every morning, commuters either use their private cars only or drive their cars to the bottleneck, park there, and then take the subway to the destination. Considering the effects caused by body congestion in carriage and the parking fees, we developed a bottleneck model to describe the commuters' travel choice. There exist several types of equilibrium that corresponds to user equilibrium. We investigated the influence of the capacity of the bottleneck and the total travel demand on the travel behaviors and on the total social cost. It is shown that there exists a scheme with suitable subway fare and parking fees to implement the minimum total social cost.
Anthony Érico Guimarães
Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.
In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.
Full Text Available The research is devoted to the development of the tools for the integration of innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises into the environment of industrial park as functional economic systems, which are capable on the own development basis to provide the development of resident enterprises. The article analyzes the opportunities for the development of mechanical engineering enterprises. The formed structure of the mechanism of integration of mechanical engineering enterprises as functional economic systems into the industrial park environment is based on: 1 the development of participation programs in the industrial park of the mechanical engineering enterprises as an innovation-oriented partner, which foresees the development of the enterprise immediately and the development of other residents; 2 the provision of high-tech equipment of resident enterprises of industrial parks; 3 the creation of subsidiary-spin-out enterprises of large mechanical engineering enterprises for high-tech production in the industrial park. The author proposes the road map that reveals the procedures for the integration and functioning the investigated enterprises through interaction as well as in the ecosystem of the industrial park and in the general ecosystem of functioning, and the tools for providing economic functionality through economic and organizational proceedings at preventive, partner and resident phases of integration. The tools allow the innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises to integrate into such territorial structures as industrial parks, this in complex will allow carrying out their purposes in the development of the real sector of the economy.
George, Jean Craighead
To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)
Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Schuurman, Gregor W; Monahan, William B; Ziesler, Pamela S
Climate change will affect not only natural and cultural resources within protected areas but also tourism and visitation patterns. The U.S. National Park Service systematically collects data regarding its 270+ million annual recreation visits, and therefore provides an opportunity to examine how human visitation may respond to climate change from the tropics to the polar regions. To assess the relationship between climate and park visitation, we evaluated historical monthly mean air temperature and visitation data (1979-2013) at 340 parks and projected potential future visitation (2041-2060) based on two warming-climate scenarios and two visitation-growth scenarios. For the entire park system a third-order polynomial temperature model explained 69% of the variation in historical visitation trends. Visitation generally increased with increasing average monthly temperature, but decreased strongly with temperatures > 25°C. Linear to polynomial monthly temperature models also explained historical visitation at individual parks (R2 0.12-0.99, mean = 0.79, median = 0.87). Future visitation at almost all parks (95%) may change based on historical temperature, historical visitation, and future temperature projections. Warming-mediated increases in potential visitation are projected for most months in most parks (67-77% of months; range across future scenarios), resulting in future increases in total annual visits across the park system (8-23%) and expansion of the visitation season at individual parks (13-31 days). Although very warm months at some parks may see decreases in future visitation, this potential change represents a relatively small proportion of visitation across the national park system. A changing climate is likely to have cascading and complex effects on protected area visitation, management, and local economies. Results suggest that protected areas and neighboring communities that develop adaptation strategies for these changes may be able to both
There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs
Park is one of the public spaces which is used by people to get happiness and comfort. Singha Merjosari Park is one of the parks in Malang that is functioned as a recreational and educational park for the citizen. In weekends and national holidays Singha Merjosari park get visited by so many visitors. But if we see the reality, there are still some problems regarding visitor satisfaction. Also, there are attributes that has performance levels decrease that will become another new problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of visitors about the level of visitor satisfaction and what attributes that need to be improved and developed by managers in the future. The approach method in this research is descriptive quantitative. Primary data is based on measurement and observation. The number of samples used is 100 respondents referring to the number of samples determination by Slovin formula with the sample selection used is accidental sampling technique. The analysis technique used is Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and Costumer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Based on the results of IPA analysis, the things that should get important attention and should be improved is the aesthetics of lighting, cleanliness of parking area and toilet, shade in park area, and availability of clean water. While the result of CSI value analysis is 65,30%. This means visitors are satisfied, but visitors are still not satisfied overall. Implications or changes that should be given is the aesthetics of lighting should be more creative and become the identity of the park (for example, lamp lanterns should be suitable with the concept of the park). Also, the change of toilet look so that visitors can enjoy the look and it can be iconic (toilet concept according to local culture of Malang) and the prevalence of lighting in the park area at night.
Galeone, Daniel G.
As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and
Des Marais, David J.
The search for evidence of life beyond Earth illustrates how the charters of NASA and the National Park Service share common ground. The mission of NPS is to preserve unimpaired the natural and cultural resources of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education and inspiration of this and future generations. NASA's Astrobiology program seeks to understand the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe, and it abides by the principles of planetary stewardship, public outreach, and education. We cannot subject planetary exploration destinations to Earthly biological contamination both for ethical reasons and to preserve their scientific value for astrobiology. We respond to the public's interest in the mysteries of life and the cosmos by honoring their desire to participate in the process of discovery. We involve youth in order to motivate career choices in science and technology and to perpetuate space exploration. The search for evidence of past life on Mars illustrates how the missions of NASA and NPS can become synergistic. Volcanic activity occurs on all rocky planets in our Solar System and beyond, and it frequently interacts with water to create hydrothermal systems. On Earth these systems are oases for microbial life. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found evidence of extinct hydrothermal system in Gusev crater, Mars. Lassen Volcanic National Park provides a pristine laboratory for investigating how microorganisms can both thrive and leave evidence of their former presence in hydrothermal systems. NASA scientists, NPS interpretation personnel and teachers can collaborate on field-oriented programs that enhance Mars mission planning, engage students and the public in science and technology, and emphasize the ethics of responsible exploration.
Adeyemi Johnson Ademowo
Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in finding out how, and why, the interplay of poverty and violence – the park stereotypes – has problematised the motor park space, and consequently the culture that has evolved from that space. Of great concern to us are the origin and the operation of the park; the existence of these stereotypes, how, if ever, they relate and the implication of the interplay on the organization, operation and representation of the space vis-à-vis its relationship with the general public and government in Oyo State. Using Victor Turner’s concept of social drama, we hope to provide explanations for ruptured social relations on the park and answer why the public is so imbued with the stereotypes that they have refused to appreciate the internal mechanisms for resolving the ‘constant’ conflicts.
Justice, C. J.
In 2011, central Texas had its worst drought since the 1950's. This, in conjunction with the strong winds produced by Tropical Storm Lee created conditions that made possible the Bastrop County Complex Fire in September 2011. These record-breaking wildfires burned over 95% of the 6,565-acre Bastrop State Park (BSP). Since 2003, BSP had been using prescribed burns as a management practice to reduce fuel load and prevent high severity wildfires. Although these prescribed fires did not prevent the 2011 wildfires they may have mitigated their effects. This study considered the effect of prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity on vegetation recovery in BSP since the 2011 wildfire. The hypotheses of this study are that prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity separately and jointly have affected post wildfire vegetation. To test these hypotheses, data were collected in 2013 from 46 plots across BSP using the Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory (FIREMON) protocol to determine herbaceous plant density, shrub density, overstory density, and midstory tree density. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of prescribed fire and wildfire severity on these vegetation measurements. It was found that more severely burned plots had more herbaceous plants, fewer midstory trees, and lower shrub densities than less severely burned plots. Contrary to an initial hypotheses, there were few relationships between prescribed burn history and wildfire effects. The only significant effect detected for prescribed burning was the positive effect of prescribed fire on midstory tree density, but only for plots that were not severely burned in the wildfire. In this system, burn severity had a greater effect on post-wildfire vegetation than prescribed burns.
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
Kasmire, Kathryn E; Rogers, Steven C; Sturm, Jesse J
Trampoline parks, indoor recreational facilities with wall-to-wall trampolines, are increasing in number and popularity. The objective was to identify trends in emergency department visits for trampoline park injuries (TPIs) and compare TPI characteristics with home trampoline injuries (HTIs). Data on trampoline injuries from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Sample weights were applied to estimate yearly national injury trends; unweighted cases were used for comparison of injury patterns. Estimated US emergency department visits for TPI increased significantly, from 581 in 2010 to 6932 in 2014 (P = .045), whereas HTIs did not increase (P = .13). Patients with TPI (n = 330) were older than patients with HTI (n = 7933) (mean 13.3 vs 9.5 years, respectively, P trampoline parks and homes. Compared with HTIs, TPIs were less likely to involve head injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.89), more likely to involve lower extremity injury (OR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.91-2.98), more likely to be a dislocation (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.10-4.09), and more likely to warrant admission (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). TPIs necessitating hospital admission included open fractures and spinal cord injuries. TPI mechanisms included falls, contact with other jumpers, and flips. TPI patterns differed significantly from HTIs. TPIs are an emerging concern; additional investigation and strategies are needed to prevent injury at trampoline parks. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Víctor Arufe Giráldez
Full Text Available The worry of the citizens for the health grows year after year, up to the point that numerous town halls have invested an important budget item in the creation of parks of physical activity for major, parks bio healthy or geriatric parks since some authors name. These parks can be defined as green spaces that numerous equipments integrates for the development of the physical condition inside an urban area or extraurban. His design is focused towards the offer of sports practice for adult population. Across this work one tries to analyze of descriptive form some of the services with those who count these parks. The sample was formed by 30 parks bio healthy of Galicia, constructed between the year 2010 and 2012. The withdrawal of information was realized across a created ad hoc questionnaire. The variables that surrendered to study for this work are the availability of a source with drinkable water, availability of a public bathroom, presence of a professional of the sport, been of the machines and information for the user on the use of the machines. The results state that many of the town halls promoters of parks bio healthy do not bear in mind the presentation of a few minimal services that are necessary for the practice of the physical exercise (fiscal year in major persons, in order to guarantee an ideal care of his health.
Ersoy, Fulya Yüksel; Ersoy, Fulya Yuksel
In this thesis, I analyze individuals' mode choice decisions and shopping mall's parking space pricing behavior. Individuals have three choices: first they may come to the mall by car in which case they have to park, second they may come by public transportation, or they do not visit the mall and go for their outside option. The mall determines the price of the good and the parking fee after the government sets public transportation fare. I find that the equilibrium parking fees are always le...
Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.
Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Results Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys’ and girls’ physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls’ activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0–5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Conclusion Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls’ physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys’ physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity. PMID:26086610
Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Smith, William R; Edwards, Michael B; Schultz, Courtney L; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J
Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.
Stoffer, Philip W.
This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.
Jin Han Park
Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.
. This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...
Full Text Available Although many ideologies today construct themselves with a liberal discourse, instead of universal understanding of human beings, a reality is drawn over the ideological rhetoric of the state and made dominant over the social. The legitimate violent monarch and the “obedient citizen” argument of the modern state is supposedly constituted by libertarian practices this time. The statist language in the mainstream media is also inevitably questioned on this basis. In this context as a social movement, Gezi Park Protests stand out as an example case in which many concepts can be questioned. The purpose of this study is to determine which ideological codes were used to turn the events of Gezi Park Protests into news in Hürriyet Newspaper, and to question how the concepts of “state” and “citizen” are defined through the “representation of violence”. For this purpose, 16 news items about Gezi Park Protests in Hürriyet Newspaper between 31 May-3 June 2013 were analyzed by using Van Dijk’s method of critical discourse analysis. In the end of the study, it became clear that Hürriyet Newspaper legitimized the monopoly of violence by the state and fixed the meaning in the “obedient citizen” retribution by dividing those who participated in the acts into the acceptable and marginal activist duality.
... occurred over the long course of our history. Our system of National Parks is entrusted to each generation... Lincoln Memorial and Ellis Island to the Great Smoky Mountains and Yellowstone, National Parks attract... shared history. From the Prehistoric Trackways National Monument to the Civil War battlefield at...
The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program
JasmaniI, Zanariah Binti
consists of several sub-variables or attributes. The attributes of physical characteristics include park size, land use, park shape, proximity to a road and the presence of a water element. Elements relating to vegetation diversity, such as the presence and share of native and exotic species, presence....... Birds and butterflies react differently to various park maintenance practices (e.g. mowing). Based on the overall results, findings and discussion of the key features for bird and butterfly richness and abundance, study IV proposes nine recommendations for small urban parks to improve their ecological...
The Counsellor's Guide to Parks Inner Child Therapy is the second book by Penny Parks about working with survivors of childhood abuse, the first being Rescuing the Inner Child, published in 1990, which introduced Parks Inner Child Therapy (PICT) as a specifically structured approach to inner child work.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) are developing Air Tour Management Plans ...
Full Text Available One of the main goals of urban planning by principles of sustainable development is the pursuit of diversity in structure, form and function in planning and design of urban public space. It is therefore necessary to redefine the concept and function of urban green areas and city parks, with the recommendation of identity preservation and promotion of social cohesion of this type of public space. In a theoretical sense, there is a problem of planning and designing urban parks in Serbia. This is due to failure to recognize the complexity underlying the possible role of urban public parks as an engine of urban renewal in the city or of any of his districts. Example of Kamenički park was chosen because of its complexity - in addition to being the largest green space in the city, this park also has high natural and cultural values (the park is protected as a cultural and natural heritage. The results indicate the reduced use of urban space. Based on existing theory and insights into the local planning process, general recommendations for improving its quality is the improvement of form/design of the park and it is necessary to define and promote the identity of space through the spatial analysis. The ultimate goal is to successfully respond to existing and potential customers' needs and thus define environmental, economic, cultural and social sustainability, which are key factors in managing the park.
Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999
Kuehn, Diane; Schuster, Rudy; Nordman, Erik
In order for natural resource managers to better understand conflicting landowner perspectives related to non-motorized, motorized, and personal watercraft use, this study examines the demographic and experiential characteristics, values, attitudes, and beliefs of landowners in the Saranac Lakes area of the Adirondack Park in New York State. A mixed-methods approach, composed of 20 in-depth interviews with land managers and a mail survey of 1000 landowners, was used. Three path analyses were completed, one for each type of boat use. Results indicate that resource-related values influence beliefs and attitudes related to boat use, supporting the cognitive hierarchy model of human behavior (Fulton, D. C., Manfredo, M. J., & Lipscomb, J. (1996). Wildlife value orientations: a conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1, 24–47). In addition, length of residence in the area, past participation in non-motorized and motorized boating, age, and education were found to influence attitudes towards certain types of boating. The results of this study can be used by natural resource managers to identify management strategies that better address the values and recreational interests of landowners.
Yang, Binzhang; Zhao, Chunli
Abstract: As a key part of the urban green spaces, urban park plays important role in city citizens’ life. The significances of park treating as a green lung in urban area demonstrate its unique contribution to people’s life not only in physical and tangible aspects such as environment, ecology a...... management and service have been contributed by this study. Specifically, the awareness for treating the urban park as an integral part of citizens’ welfare should be arose and educated in entire society. Key words: Harbin Metropolis, urban park, activity, public life...... in their daily life, second one tries to learn what problems they meet during their visit and using, third one focuses on what problems and challenges of urban park need to be resolved by administrative officers and park managers. The research samples, Shanzhi Park and Qingbin Park, were selected in two...... spaces in both numbers and sizes as the form of park. It also showed some problems and challenges faced in park design and management had to be enhanced. Finally, some suggestions aimed to improve the situation of urban spaces included constructing new urban parks and promoting the quality of park...
Full Text Available In this study, we used patient-specific and isogenic PARK2-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to show that mutations in PARK2 alter neuronal proliferation. The percentage of TH+ neurons was decreased in Parkinson’s disease (PD patient-derived neurons carrying various mutations in PARK2 compared with an age-matched control subject. This reduction was accompanied by alterations in mitochondrial:cell volume fraction (mitochondrial volume fraction. The same phenotype was confirmed in isogenic PARK2 null lines. The mitochondrial phenotype was also seen in non-midbrain neurons differentiated from the PARK2 null line, as was the functional phenotype of reduced proliferation in culture. Whole genome expression profiling at various stages of differentiation confirmed the mitochondrial phenotype and identified pathways altered by PARK2 dysfunction that include PD-related genes. Our results are consistent with current model of PARK2 function where damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via a PARK2/PINK1-mediated mechanism.
Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often addressed according to multiple approaches in national parks. However, the SANParks resource use policy provides a necessary set of guiding principles for resource use management across the national park system that allows for monitoring progress.
The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth
Full Text Available In this article, a novel data-driven constrained control scheme is proposed for automatic parking systems. The design of the proposed scheme only depends on the steering angle and the orientation angle of the car, and it does not involve any model information of the car. Therefore, the proposed scheme-based automatic parking system is applicable to different kinds of cars. In order to further reduce the desired trajectory coordinate tracking errors, a coordinates compensation algorithm is also proposed. In the design procedure of the controller, a novel dynamic anti-windup compensator is used to deal with the change magnitude and rate saturations of automatic parking control input. It is theoretically proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov stability analysis method. Finally, a simulation comparison among the proposed scheme with coordinates compensation and Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID control algorithm is given. It is shown that the proposed scheme with coordinates compensation has smaller tracking errors and more rapid responses than PID scheme.
William, Schweiger E.; Ashton, I.W.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Jones, L.A.; Bahls, L.L.
Didymosphenia geminata (didymo) is a freshwater alga native to North America, including Glacier National Park, Montana. It has long been considered a cold-water species, but has recently spread to lower latitudes and warmer waters, and increasingly forms large blooms that cover streambeds. We used a comprehensive monitoring data set from the National Park Service (NPS) and USGS models of stream temperatures to explore the drivers of didymo abundance in Glacier National Park. We estimate that approximately 64% of the stream length in the park contains didymo, with around 5% in a bloom state. Results suggest that didymo abundance likely increased over the study period (2007-2009), with blooms becoming more common. Our models suggest that didymo abundance is positively related to summer stream temperatures and negatively related to total nitrogen and the distance downstream from lakes. Regional climate model simulations indicate that stream temperatures in the park will likely continue to increase over the coming decades, which may increase the extent and severity of didymo blooms. As a result, didymo may be a useful indicator of thermal and hydrological modification associated with climate warming, especially in a relatively pristine system like Glacier where proximate human-related disturbances are absent or reduced. Glacier National Park plays an important role as a sentinel for climate change and associated education across the Rocky Mountain region.
Magaña Suarez, M.
In this paper we will develop a methodology for estimating the percentage of free parking spaces available in the area of the city where a user is interested through a real-time query in a mobile app. The smartphone screen will provide a colour-coded map of the requested area that indicates the saturation state of the parking spaces. (Author)
Judy Y. Ou
Full Text Available Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354 of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor. Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions.
Patricia J. Happe; Kurt J. Jenkins; Michael K. Schwartz; Jeffrey C. Lewis; Keith B. Aubry
With the translocation and release of 90 fishers [Pekania pennanti (formerly Martes pennanti)] from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008-2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to...
Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.
Full Text Available A number of studies have analyzed the possible impacts of bottom-up parking information or parking reservation systems on parking dynamics in abstract simulation environments. In this paper, we take these efforts one step further by investigating the impacts of these systems in a real-life context: the center of the city of Antwerp, Belgium. In our simulation, we assume that all on-street and off-street parking places are equipped with technology able to transmit their occupancy status to so-called smart cars, which can receive information and reserve a parking place. We employ PARKAGENT, an agent-based simulation model, to simulate the behavior of smart and regular cars. We obtain detailed data on parking demand from FEATHERS, an activity-based transport model. The simulation results show that parking information and reservation hardly impact search time but do reduce walking distance for smart cars, leading to a reduction in total parking time, that is, the sum of search time and walking time. Reductions in search time occur only in zones with high occupancy rates, while a drop in walking distance is especially observed in low occupancy areas. Societal benefits of parking information and reservation are limited, because of the low impact on search time and the possible negative health effects of reduced walking distance.
Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.
The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was
Full Text Available The article is addressing the problem of local authorities seeing in national parks a stimulus or a barrier for local development in Poland. The results of surveys conducted among representatives of authorities of selected municipalities (n=61, in which there are national park areas show that the assessment of the role and impact of this type of protected areas varies. In most cases the presence of national parks is viewed positively. Emphasis is put on their importance to the local socio-economic development. The economic benefit is seen mainly in the tourism sector and the development of associated services. However, local communities experience many restrictions resulting from functioning of protected areas, especially in regard to the possibility of increasing revenues to the budgets of municipalities, production entrepreneurship development and intensification of agricultural production and fisheries. It is believed that in the future parks should stimulate local development to a larger extent. To achieve this, it is necessary to see a national park as a system linked to the socio-economic environment and to take planning actions based on a holistic look at natural, social and economic issues of a national park and its neighbourhood. The cooperation between local authorities, parks’ management, non-governmental organisations and local tourism business should be strengthened as well as steps should be taken in order to increase social participation in shaping the development of these areas.
Full Text Available Differentiation is a way for gaining a sustainable competitive advantage or achieving a market position which enables companies to satisfy customers’ needs better than the competition. Differentiation can manifest itself through four dimensions: product, services, personnel and image. Nature parks, national parks, strict reserves and special reserves are categories of protected areas of national importance. Nature parks and national parks have exceptional potential for visiting system development, but are also responsible for the management of these activities. There are numerous nature protection restrictions arising from legislation and management documents. The principal task is to protect and preserve the natural and landscape values and ecological characteristics. Creating and realizing visiting activities as a part of tourist services supplied trough Public institutions are also specific. These services must be differentiated on the market in relation to the competition. Income generated from tourist services in the income structure of nature parks, will be even more important in the future, because of self-financing development and central budget dependency reduction. It must be emphasized that nature parks help the larger community through development of complementary economic activities. This paper is based on market research conducted in the period from 16 May to 10 June 2016 in Nature Park Kopački rit, which is one of the most visited nature parks in the Republic of Croatia. A poll survey was carried out among 300 randomly selected visitors. The research results may be used for policy suggestions for how to create adequate products, services and promotional activities, ensure quality education for visitors about natural, historical and cultural protected area values and minimize visitors’ impact on natural resources.
Sanjaya, I.; Fatimah, IS
Sleman Regency is one of the administrative area in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province which has increased the pace of infrastructure development activities that undertaken by the central government affects another surrounding area. The pace of infrastructure development impacts such problems in Sleman Regency such as, increasingly limited public spaces and changes in understanding the value of local wisdom. Sleman Regency has a park located in central government which is Denggung Park. This park has low visitors and less of aesthetic value which require re-design to improve the quality as public space for cultural identity space. The base concept of Urban Park adopted the philosophy that connects to four components in Javanese mythology. The four components in Javanese mythology symbolize the journey of human life in the Javanese cosmological theory, there are Mount Merapi, Keraton, Krapyak Stage, and South seas. The design concept inspired from pattern of Yogyakarta traditional clothing namely, Batik Kawung which describe of Philosophy “Four of Brotherhood and Five of Central itself” by means synergize four items creating world nature and human as life catalyzer. This study uses descriptive and spatial analysis method. The result of this research is expected to be a design recommendation for Sleman Regency governance in the urban park development.
Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)
This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.
Case study of an Ontario Hydro-installed photovoltaic system at Point Pelee Park, a bird sanctuary located on Lake Erie, is described. The system consists of a 1080 W photovoltaic array used to supply electricity to one of the washrooms. The cost for installing the system was $30,000 which was considerably cheaper than the $100,000 estimate for an underground power line. The independent system is the only source of energy for the washroom, therefore it was necessary to reduce the total electrical demand required by the facility. Electricity was used for the water pump, chlorinator and lighting. Motion sensors were installed to further reduce electrical demand. Washroom heaters were converted to propane. 2 figs.
Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V
Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.
In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) has funded a project for the Bentuang Karimun National Park (BKNP) of the Department of Forestry of Indonesia [Project Bentuang Karimun PD 26/ 93 Rev. 1 (F)]. It started on November 1995 and is implemented by WWF Indonesia. The main objective is to develop a model of natural forest management through a National Park system that not only will serve conservation of species and ecosystems, but will also accommodate other purposes such as the ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...
Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis
This study was conducted to determine the attributes which evoke ‘fear of crime’ and to determine the defensive behaviour among the urban park users. Findings are based on qualitative studies undertaken in the city of Kuala Lumpur among the park and non-park users (N = 19) by means of semi......-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...
Koontz, Lynne; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Ziesler, Pamela; Olson, Jeffrey; Meldrum, Bret
This paper provides an overview of the evolution, future, and global applicability of the U.S. National Park Service's (NPS) visitor spending effects framework and discusses the methods used to effectively communicate the economic return on investment in America's national parks. The 417 parks represent many of America's most iconic destinations: in 2016, they received a record 331 million visits. Competing federal budgetary demands necessitate that, in addition to meeting their mission to preserve unimpaired natural and cultural resources for the enjoyment of the people, parks also assess and showcase their contributions to the economic vitality of their regions and the nation. Key approaches explained include the original Money Generation Model (MGM) from 1990, MGM2 used from 2001, and the visitor spending effects model which replaced MGM2 in 2012. Detailed discussion explains the NPS's visitor use statistics system, the formal program for collecting, compiling, and reporting visitor use data. The NPS is now establishing a formal socioeconomic monitoring (SEM) program to provide a standard visitor survey instrument and a long-term, systematic sampling design for in-park visitor surveys. The pilot SEM survey is discussed, along with the need for international standardization of research methods.
Schipperijn, Jasper; Cerin, Ester; Adams, Marc A
Abstract Several systematic reviews have reported mixed associations between access to parks and physical activity, and suggest that this is due to inconsistencies in the study methods or differences across countries. An international study using consistent methods is needed to investigate...... the association between access to parks and physical activity. The International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study is a multi-country cross-sectional study using a common design and consistent methods Accelerometer, survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for 6......,181 participants from 12 cities in 8 countries (Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, UK, USA) were used to estimate the strength and shape of associations of 11 measures of park access (1 perceived and 10 GIS-based measures) with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity...
Nallusamy, N.; Sampath, S.; Velraj, R.
Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored
Tang, E. Y.-F.
There are nine distinguished national parks in Taiwan. Each one has its own wild variety of natural inhabitants and cultural resources. However, due to the geographical inaccessibility, partially closed by natural disaster, or under the restrict protection by the authority, most of the places are difficult to reach for the public, not to mention for the disabled people. Therefore, a scheme, with the cutting edge technology, comprising the essences of all nine national parks in a space located in one of the national parks which is more convenient with public transportation system is presented. The idea is to open a window in the hope to offer a platform for better and easy understanding the features of all national parks, to increase the accessibility for disabled people, and to provide advanced services for the public. Recently, the progressing of digital image technology becomes more and more promising. Using mutual interactive ways and game-liked formation to promote the participation of visitors to gain learning experiences is now becoming a mainstream for exhibition in visitor centers and museums around the world. The method of the motion-sensing interactive exhibition has personalized feature which is programmed to store visitor's behaviors and become smarter in response with visitor in order to make each person feel that they are playing in a game. It involves scenarios, concepts and visitors' participation in the exhibition design to form an interactive flow among human, exhibits, and space. It is highly attractive and low barrier for young, senior and disabled people, and for the case of no physical objects to exhibit, visual technology is a way of solution. This paper presents the features and difficulties of national parks in Taiwan. Visitors' behavior and several cases have been investigated and analysed to find a suitable way for combining all the features of national parks in an exhibition. However, it should be noticed that this is not an alternative
Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.
The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.
Das, Kirti V; Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A
The study examines the connections between minority status, park use behavior, and park-related perceptions using recent survey data from three low-income neighborhoods in Minneapolis, MN. Blacks and foreign-born residents are found to underutilize parks. Blacks, Asians, and American Indians perceive fewer health benefits of parks than whites, including the benefits of parks for providing exercise/relaxation opportunities and family gathering spaces. Foreign-born residents, blacks, and Hispanics perceive greater and unique barriers to park use in terms of not feeling welcome, cultural and language restrictions, program schedule and pricing concerns, and/or facility maintenance and mismatch concerns. When designing park strategies for addressing health disparities, we recommend to focus the efforts on increasing awareness of park-related health benefits and removing specific park use barriers among minority and foreign-born communities.
Full Text Available 800x600 The extension and designation of Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park has caused land conflict issue widely. Many local communities have used this national park land for their agriculture crops and dwelling. Through the historical perspective, it was found that this land conflict was due to ongoing change of land use policies. The government, from the Dutch Colonial to Japan occupation, imposed different land use policy to the Halimun-Salak land. These changing policies have caused many local communities living inside the current designated state forestland. Regretabbly, the current government did not solve this land conflict, but rather offered uncertainty by permitting and charging the local communities who cultivate inside the state forestland. Undoubtedly, this uncertainty has caused problems in the future to the national park. It was thought that border arrangement will solve this land conflict as it has been proven that changing policies have change the land-use in Halimun-Salak area. Key words: Halimun-Salak, taman nasional, Perum Perhutani, sejarah, tata batas Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
... point of origin of the tour, will be accorded admission to the park. (b) Colorado whitewater boat trips... conduct of a commercial or business activity in the park. (iii) An operation is commercial if any fee... will not interfere with park management or impair park resources. (i) Any permit issued will be valid...
Unlike the West, where many studies have explored how peopleâ s needs are fulfilled by urban parks, Malaysia has received very little attention from researchers. One reason for this is the fact that Malaysia has only a short public park tradition. Although folk art and stories have chronicled a long history of gardens and other parks, these spaces were only accessible to royal family members and autocrats. In Malaysia, the concept of free public parks is relatively recent, having been introd...
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...
Full Text Available Although an automatic parking system has been installed in many vehicles recently, it is still hard for the system to confirm by itself whether a vacant parking area truly exists or not. In this paper, we introduced a robust vision-based vacancy parking area detecting method for both indoor and outdoor environments. The main contribution of this paper is given as follows. First, an automatic image stitching method is proposed. Secondly, the problem of environment illuminating change and line color difference is considered and solved. Thirdly, the proposed algorithm is insensitive to the shadow and scene diversity, which means the detecting result satisfies most of the environment. Finally, a vehicle model is considered for tracking and reconfirming the detecting results to eliminate most of the false positives.
Margaret Carreiro; Wayne Zipperer
The responses of urban park woodlands to large disturbances provide the opportunity to identify and examine linkages in social-ecological systems in urban landscapes.We propose that the Panarchy model consisting of hierarchically nested adaptive cycles provides a useful framework to evaluate those linkages.We use two case studies as examples â Cherokee Park in...
Hara, T.; Kurita, A.; Younkins, T.D.; Sanchez-Gasca, J.J.; Chow, J.H.
This paper presents a conceptual design of a coordinated output feedback multivariable control system for a remote nuclear generation park connected to a load area with an HVDC link. The control design presented in this paper is for both normal operation (e.g., load following and frequency regulation) and contingencies (e.g., loss of a dc bipole or loss of two nuclear reactors). The design is simple and compact: four control signals, five measurements, and the integrals of two measurements are used to meet all the objectives and constraints for normal operation and contingencies. The multivariable control coordinates the measurements and controls according to the time frame of response and the amount of interactions between variables. This paper describes the model of the system, the multivariable control design, and the nonlinear time domain simulation of the overall system performance
Metadata only record In Uganda we are collaborating with the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), one of whose tasks is to manage the country's national parks. We are jointly implementing forest restoration projects in Mount Elgon National Park and Kibale National Park. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)
... Market Street (in Philadelphia) and the National Archives at New York City do not have onsite parking... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.12 Is parking available? (a) The National Archives Building. There is...
... for parking spaces is as follows: (1) Hotel: One parking space for each four sleeping rooms or suites; (2) Places of public assemblage other than hotels: (i.e., arena, armory, theater, auditorium...; (3) Retail, trade, and service establishments: one parking space for each 750 square feet of gross...
Following the Civil War, the United States intensified the exploration of her western frontiers to gain a measure of the vast lands and natural resources in the region now occupied by our Rocky Mountain States. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories was formed and staffed under the leadership of geologist Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden. Originally organized under the U.S. Public Land Office in 1861, the Hayden Survey (as it was most often identified) was placed under the Secretary of the Interior in 1869 and later, under the newly created U.S. Geological Survey. Its records, maps, and photographs were then transferred to the latter agency. In commemorating the centennial of Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey drew upon those items deposited by Hayden to describe the early exploration of the Yellowstone area and to recount events that led to the establishment of Yellowstone as the Nation's first national park.
Full Text Available Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned. This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, the integration of parking strategies in a comprehensive vision for the future of a city may significantly improve the allocation of resources and the reduction of the overall environmental externalities. The role of parking in the strategic planning of cities is discussed through the analysis of several recent projects in the city of Bari (Italy. The paper discusses the way these projects are linked (or eventually not linked to broader strategies for urban mobility, and how they might be coordinated into policy packages that promote more sustainable transportation. The use of an integrated land use transportation modeling approach to simulate the long-term evolution of the urban area may significantly contribute to estimate the long-term effects of the proposed policies. This approach may successfully support the process of policy evaluation and the selection of the optimal strategies to implement.
The organising team for the Open Days (28-29 September) would like to inform you that some parking sites in Meyrin and Prévessin will have to be kept free as of 18 September for the installation of tents and marquees. Next week, CERN Management will address parking concerns and give you more information on other parking possibilities. The Open Day organising team thanks you for your cooperation and apologises for any inconvenience.
Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.
The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.
Full Text Available The Khabr National Park is the most important national park that is located in the South East of the country. It benefits from a great deal of animal and plant biodiversity and climate variability that are of great importance for rural recreation. Therefore, the National Park's valuation could explain its importance to the rural people and the tourists inside the park.as well as affect the decisions of the managers. The main aim of this study is to estimate the value of protecting the natural resources of this national park. The Logit model and a dual two-part selection method was used in order to investigate the factors affecting rural people and tourists’ willingness to pay. The data needed for this research study was collected by completing questionnaires and interviews with 228 persons from local people and tourists in 2015. This activity was carried out for three months using the Cochran general formula and random sampling was used. The results showed that factors such as gender, education, previous participation in promotional classes, participation in state institutions, being a local resident and income have a positive and significant effect while age and the proposed amount have a negative and significant effect on local people's willingness to pay (WTP. The per person’s average willingness to pay is about 180 thousand Rials and the per family’s average willingness to pay is about 800 thousand Rials per month. The results show that the rural people and the tourists inside the park and other tourists place a high value on the natural resources. Therefore, it is recommended that politicians and policy-makers pay special attention to these natural resources and invest more on maintaining and improving the quality of these resources.
The making of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park took more than five times longer than the Manhattan Project itself. The first efforts to preserve some of the Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos began in 1999. Fifteen years later, Congress enacted legislation to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park in late 2014. This session will recount the how the park came into being and what to expect when you visit the park at Los Alamos, NM, Oak Ridge, TN, and Hanford, WA. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park!
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) are developing Air Tour Management Plans ...
Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona [Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University (South Africa); Muchapondwa, Edwin [EPRU, School of Economics, Environmental Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.
Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona; Muchapondwa, Edwin
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.
Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of Park and Ride facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pap...
Paul H. Gobster
A recent paper in this journal (Solecki and Welch, 1995) describes how urban parks that lie between racially different neighborhoods can become "green walls" or barriers to use and appreciation. Although this phenomenon is well grounded in the experience of many who plan for, manage, and live near parks in racially and ethnically segregated cities, an...
van Riet, W. F.; Cooks, J.
This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and zoning classes can be determined, are discussed in detail. The suitability of each of the various features is analyzed and a final zoning proposal for Kruger National Park is suggested. Furthermore a method for selecting a site for a new camp is illustrated by referring to the site for the new Mopane rest camp which is now under construction in the Kruger National Park. The conclusion is reached that the proposed ecological planning model can be used successfully in planning conservation areas such as Kruger National Park and for the selection of the most desirable sites for the establishment of new rest camps. Its suitability as a practical model in such planning exercises is proven by the fact that the siting proposals of two new camps based on this model have been accepted by the National Parks Board, the controlling body of Kruger National Park.
Kohut, Robert [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com
The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program.
Nassau Library System, Garden City, NY.
In the fall of 1974, the Nassau County Library System conducted a study of the New Hyde Park Public Library at the request of that library's directing board. Relevant documents and statistics were reviewed, building usage was studied, and the library staff and community organizations were questioned. The library was analyzed in terms of the…
Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Paulo, João; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf
The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g−1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g−1), PNSO (57 ng·g−1) and PNSB (27 ng·g−1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g−1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130
Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana. ... four main motivations of tourists who visited the park, namely adventure, education, ... Park were influenced by varied combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.