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Sample records for state mental hospitals

  1. Business as usual--at the state mental hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, M R

    1975-02-01

    Despite official policy and professional emphasis to the contrary, the custodial mental hospital continues to exist as a major form of state-provided mental health care. In this paper, one such institution, "New England State Hospital", is described, and the various features of hospital organization that sustain a system of custodial care are discussed. Although the custodial hospital offers little to its patients, its persistent survival can be explained by the number of non-patient vested interests that are well served by the state hospital, precisely in its existing custodial form. The case study of New England State Hospital suggests that reform of state mental institutions depends less on a programmatic formulation of desired changes than on an understanding of the structured resistance to such changes.

  2. Voting pattern of mental patients in a community state hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M M; Grossman, S A

    1967-06-01

    The voting pattern of mental patients in a community-based state hospital was studied. Patients were polled on the New York City mayoralty race. A comparison to the vote of the general population revealed that the hospital sample vote resembled most closely the election results of the hospital district. The results highlight the advantage of community-centered mental health facilities, which undertake the treatment and rehabilitation of mental patients under conditions that maintain ties with family and community.

  3. Hydrotherapy in state mental hospitals in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie

    2009-08-01

    This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION Erich W

  5. The Role of Mental Health Disease in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations: Findings From a Large State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Shah, Rohan; Kennedy, Danielle; Becker, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Preventable hospitalizations are markers of potentially low-value care. Addressing the problem requires understanding their contributing factors. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between specific mental health diseases and each potentially preventable hospitalization as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File, an administrative database of all Texas hospital admissions, identified 7,351,476 adult acute care hospitalizations between 2005 and 2008. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression model clustered by admitting hospital adjusted for patient and hospital factors and admission date. A total of 945,280 (12.9%) hospitalizations were potentially preventable, generating $6.3 billion in charges and 1.2 million hospital days per year. Mental health diseases [odds ratio (OR), 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.27] and substance use disorders (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.12-1.13) both increased odds that a hospitalization was potentially preventable. However, each mental health disease varied from increasing or decreasing the odds of potentially preventable hospitalization depending on which of the 12 preventable hospitalization diagnoses were examined. Older age (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.66-3.72 for age above 75 years compared with 18-44 y), black race (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.43-1.45 compared to white), being uninsured (OR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.51-1.54) or dual-eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.22-1.24) compared with privately insured, and living in a low-income area (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.17-1.23 for lowest income quartile compared with highest) were other patient factors associated with potentially preventable hospitalizations. Better coordination of preventative care for mental health disease may decrease potentially preventable hospitalizations.

  6. Mental Hospitals in India: Reforms for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daund, Muktesh; Sonavane, Sushma; Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash; Kumawat, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Mental hospitals are an integral part of mental health services in India. It is an interesting story how mental hospitals have responded to the challenges of contemporary period they were built in. It is beyond doubt that it is a progressive journey along with advances in mental health both in India and internationally. As in other countries, mental hospitals in India have responded to the social challenges, disparities, and poor resources of workforce and fiscal investment. Historically, there have been changes and three major reforms are needed, namely attempt to facilitate discharge and placing patients back into the family, introducing teaching and research in mental hospitals, and accountability to civil rights as per the requirements of the National Human Rights Commission. In this review, we explore the brief history of mental hospitals in India and examine the reforms in the clinical, administrative, and psychosocial areas of these hospitals and progress in teaching and research. We finally summarize and conclude the necessity and the relevance of mental hospitals in India akin to modern psychiatric practice. We believe that mental hospitals have an important and perhaps a central role in mental health services in India. Its modernization to address issues of long-term stay, burden on caregivers, stigma, research and teaching including undergraduate and postgraduate training, new curriculum, and training for nonpsychiatric professionals and primary care physicians are necessary components of the role of mental hospitals and responsibilities of both government and nongovernmental sectors. Last but not the least, it is obligatory for mental hospitals to ensure that evidence-based treatments are implemented and that the standard of care and respect of civil and human rights of the patients and families are provided while involving the people's participation in its functioning.

  7. 78 FR 45217 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... states may make to institutions for mental diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities. This... DSH payments to institutions for mental diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities is limited... 0938-AR91 Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental...

  8. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Ai-Ling; Minas, Harry; Cohen, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH) has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the fea...

  9. Mental Illness and Mental Healthcare Receipt among Hospitalized Veterans with Serious Physical Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Melissa M; Prigerson, Holly G; Neupane, Suvam; Penrod, Joan D; Johnson, Christopher E; Boockvar, Kenneth S

    2017-03-01

    Psychosocial distress among patients with limited life expectancy influences treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and physical health. Veterans may be at elevated risk of psychosocial distress at the end of life, and understanding their mental healthcare needs may help identify hospitalized patients to whom psychiatric services should be targeted. To examine mental illness prevalence and mental health treatment rates among a national sample of hospitalized veterans with serious physical illnesses. Design, Subjects, and Measurements: This was a retrospective study of 11,286 veterans hospitalized in a Veterans Health Administration acute care facility in fiscal year 2011 with diagnoses of advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or advanced HIV/AIDS. Prevalent and incident mental illness diagnoses during and before hospitalization and rates of psychotherapy and psychotropic use among patients with incident depression and anxiety were measured. At least one-quarter of the patients in our sample had a mental illness or substance use disorder. The most common diagnoses at hospitalization were depression (11.4%), followed by alcohol abuse or dependence (5.5%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (4.9%). Of the 831 patients with incident past-year depression and 258 with incident past-year anxiety, nearly two-thirds received at least some psychotherapy or guideline-concordant medication within 90 days of diagnosis. Of 191 patients with incident depression and 47 with incident anxiety at time of hospitalization, fewer than half received mental healthcare before discharge. Many veterans hospitalized with serious physical illnesses have comorbid mental illnesses and may benefit from depression and anxiety treatment.

  10. Motivation Types and Mental Health of UK Hospitality Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William

    2018-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34-50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.

  11. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentoumis, Anastasios; Mantzoufas, Nikolaos; Kouris, Gavriil; Golna, Christina; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2010-11-10

    To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals.

  12. Electrophysiological difference between mental state decoding and mental state reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bihua; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2012-06-29

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of Theory of Mind (ToM), but the neural correlates of its two components, mental state decoding and mental state reasoning, remain unclear. In the present study, participants were presented with various photographs, showing an actor looking at 1 of 2 objects, either with a happy or an unhappy expression. They were asked to either decode the emotion of the actor (mental state decoding task), predict which object would be chosen by the actor (mental state reasoning task), or judge at which object the actor was gazing (physical task), while scalp potentials were recorded. Results showed that (1) the reasoning task elicited an earlier N2 peak than the decoding task did over the prefrontal scalp sites; and (2) during the late positive component (240-440 ms), the reasoning task elicited a more positive deflection than the other two tasks did at the prefrontal scalp sites. In addition, neither the decoding task nor the reasoning task has no left/right hemisphere difference. These findings imply that mental state reasoning differs from mental state decoding early (210 ms) after stimulus onset, and that the prefrontal lobe is the neural basis of mental state reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golna Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.

  14. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Ai-Ling; Minas, Harry; Cohen, Alex

    2009-01-02

    Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH) has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the features of this transformation, which, over the past 20 years, has aimed to help extended stay inpatients with severe mental illness to integrate into the local community of Yuli even though it is not their original home. Using historical documents and oral narratives from Yuli inhabitants, workers and patients of YVH, we will offer a case study of the Yuli model. There are four main components of the Yuli model: holistic medical support, vocational rehabilitation, case management, and the residential program. The four components help patients recover two essential features of their lives: vocational life and ordinary daily routines. As the process of recovery evolves, patients gradually regain inner stability, dignity, self-confidence, and a sense of control. The four components are critical to rebuild the structure and order of life of the patients and are indispensable and interdependent parts of one service package. They operate simultaneously to benefit the patients to the greatest degree possible. There are many challenges to the further development and financial viability of the model of services developed at YVH. There are also important questions concerning the replicability of the Yuli model in other sociocultural and service system contexts. This case study reveals the possibility of transforming a custodial mental hospital into a hospital providing high quality care. Hospital and community are not in opposition. They are part of a continuum of care for the patients. We reinterpret and

  15. State and non-state mental health service collaboration in a South African district: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet

    2018-05-01

    The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires

  16. Public mental hospital work: pros and cons for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1984-09-01

    The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.

  17. Hospital care for mental health and substance abuse conditions in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Allison W; Thibault, Dylan P; Schmidt, Peter N; Dorsey, E Ray; Weintraub, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine mental health conditions among hospitalized individuals with Parkinson's disease in the United States. This was a serial cross-sectional study of hospitalizations of individuals aged ≥60 identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset from 2000 to 2010. We identified all hospitalizations with a diagnosis of PD, alcohol abuse, anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, impulse control disorders, mania, psychosis, substance abuse, and attempted suicide/suicidal ideation. National estimates of each mental health condition were compared between hospitalized individuals with and without PD. Hierarchical logistic regression models determined which inpatient mental health diagnoses were associated with PD, adjusting for demographic, payer, geographic, and hospital characteristics. We identified 3,918,703 mental health and substance abuse hospitalizations. Of these, 2.8% (n = 104, 437) involved a person also diagnosed with PD. The majority of mental health and substance abuse patients were white (86.9% of PD vs 83.3% of non-PD). Women were more common than men in both groups (male:female prevalence ratio, PD: 0.78, 0.78-0.79, non-PD: 0.58, 0.57-0.58). Depression (adjusted odds ratio 1.32, 1.31-1.34), psychosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 1.15-1.33), bipolar disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.74, 2.69-2.79), impulse control disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 1.31-1.75), and mania (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 1.18-1.74) were more likely among PD patients, alcohol abuse was less likely (adjusted odds ratio 0.26, 0.25-0.27). We found no PD-associated difference in suicide-related care. PD patients have unique patterns of acute care for mental health and substance abuse. Research is needed to guide PD treatment in individuals with pre-existing psychiatric illnesses, determine cross provider reliability of psychiatric diagnoses in PD patients, and inform efforts to improve psychiatric outcomes. © 2016 International Parkinson and

  18. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the features of this transformation, which, over the past 20 years, has aimed to help extended stay inpatients with severe mental illness to integrate into the local community of Yuli even though it is not their original home. Methods Using historical documents and oral narratives from Yuli inhabitants, workers and patients of YVH, we will offer a case study of the Yuli model. Results There are four main components of the Yuli model: holistic medical support, vocational rehabilitation, case management, and the residential program. The four components help patients recover two essential features of their lives: vocational life and ordinary daily routines. As the process of recovery evolves, patients gradually regain inner stability, dignity, self-confidence, and a sense of control. The four components are critical to rebuild the structure and order of life of the patients and are indispensable and interdependent parts of one service package. They operate simultaneously to benefit the patients to the greatest degree possible. Discussion There are many challenges to the further development and financial viability of the model of services developed at YVH. There are also important questions concerning the replicability of the Yuli model in other sociocultural and service system contexts. Conclusion This case study reveals the possibility of transforming a custodial mental hospital into a hospital providing high quality care. Hospital and community are not in opposition

  19. Community/hospital indicators in South African public sector mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J

    2003-12-01

    The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient

  20. Opening Doors to Recovery: Recidivism and Recovery Among Persons With Serious Mental Illnesses and Repeated Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Kelley, Mary E; Pope, Alicia; Smith, Kelly; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; DiPolito, June A; Druss, Benjamin G; Li, Charles; Lott Haynes, Nora

    2016-02-01

    Repeated hospitalizations and arrests or incarcerations diminish the ability of individuals with serious mental illnesses to pursue recovery. Community mental health systems need new models to address recidivism as well as service fragmentation, lack of engagement by local stakeholders, and poor communication between mental health providers and the police. This study examined the initial effects on institutional recidivism and measures of recovery among persons enrolled in Opening Doors to Recovery, an intensive, team-based community support program for persons with mental illness and a history of inpatient psychiatric recidivism. A randomized controlled trial of the model is underway. The number of hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and arrests (all from state administrative sources) in the year before enrollment and during the first 12 months of enrollment in the program were compared. Longitudinal trajectories of recovery-using three self-report and five clinician-rated measures-were examined. Analyses accounted for baseline symptom severity and intensity of involvement in the program. One hundred participants were enrolled, and 72 were included in the analyses. Hospitalizations decreased, from 1.9±1.6 to .6±.9 (precovery measures, and trajectories of improvement were apparent across the entire follow-up period. Opening Doors to Recovery holds promise as a new service approach for reducing hospital recidivism and promoting recovery in community mental health systems and is deserving of further controlled testing.

  1. Mental health in older adults of a public hospital network of Medellin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A.; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.; Posada-López, Adriana; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia. Facultad de Odontología, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas. Medellín, Colombia.; Meneses-Gómez, Edwin J.; Facultad de Odontología, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas. Medellín, Colombia.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of poor mental health and associated factors in older adults of the Social Enterprise of the State (ESE) Metrosalud. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study using two-stage sampling in hospital units and health centers in the network of the ESE Metrosalud of Medellin. Participants included 342 adults aged 65 and over(57.8% women). Variables: poor mental health (measured with the GHQ12), social support (Duke-11); sociodemographic: age, sex, socioeco...

  2. The characteristics of hospital emergency department visits made by people with mental health conditions who had dental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalliah, Romesh P; Da Silva, John D; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge regarding nationally representative estimates of hospital-based emergency department (ED) visits for dental problems made by people with mental health conditions. The authors conducted a study to provide nationwide estimates of hospital-based ED visits attributed to dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess made by people with mental health conditions. The authors used the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, which is a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. ED visits attributable to dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess were identified by the emergency care provider by using diagnostic codes in International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The authors examined outcomes, including hospital charges. They used simple descriptive statistics to summarize the data. In 2008, people with mental health conditions made 15,635,253 visits to hospital-based ED in the United States. A diagnosis of dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess represented 63,164 of these ED visits. The breakdown of the ED visits was 34,574 with dental caries, 25,352 with pulpal and periapical lesions, 9,657 with gingival and periodontal lesions, and 2,776 with mouth cellulitis/abscess. The total charge for ED visits in the United States was $55.46 million in 2008. In 2008, people with mental health conditions made 63,164 visits to hospital-based EDs and received a diagnosis of dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions or mouth cellulitis/abscess. These ED visits incurred substantial hospital charges. Programs designed to reduce the number of ED visits made by this population for common dental problems could have a

  3. [Mental Health in the General Hospital: Results of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in Four Hospital Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Delgado-Barrera, Lucía; Aparicio-Turbay, Soraya; Molano, Juan Carlos; Noguera, Efraín

    2012-03-01

    Few individuals have access to mental health services due in part to underdetection. As it is more likely to consult for medical conditions, primary care may be a useful gateway for early detection of mental health problems. Detection of the frequency of mental health problems in four hospital services at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá: Outpatient unit, hospitalization, emergency department, and primary care through a brief detection questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Cross-sectional study of patients seen at the four services who answered a Demographic Data Questionnaire and the PHQ together with information gathered about current medical diagnosis, history of visits, and hospitalizations during the last year. 1094 patients seen at the four hospital services between September 2010 and May 2011 were selected at random. A mental health problem was detected in 36.7% of the total sample. Major depressive disorder (7.3%), alcohol abuse (14.4%), and any anxiety disorder (7.7%) showed the highest prevalence with the emergency department showing the highest frequency of detection. The usefulness of a brief detection questionnaire such as the PHQ in hospital settings is demonstrated and implications in the design of mental health programs in the general hospital are discussed. The need to replicate this study in other settings and to undertake further research is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous...... studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient-controlled...... hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. DESIGN AND METHODS: We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare...

  5. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  6. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midin Marhani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented

  7. Risk characterization of hospitalizations for mental illness and/or behavioral disorders with concurrent heat-related illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Schmeltz

    Full Text Available Many studies have found significant associations between high ambient temperatures and increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in heat-related hospitalizations are elevated among individuals with diagnosed mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders (MBD. However, there are a limited number of studies regarding risk factors associated with specific mental illnesses that contribute, at least in part, to heat-related illnesses (HRI in the United States.To identify and characterize individual and environmental risk factors associated with MBD hospitalizations with a concurrent HRI diagnosis.This study uses hospitalization data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001-2010. Descriptive analyses of primary and secondary diagnoses of MBDs with an HRI were examined. Risk ratios (RR were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations among patients with mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders and HRI.Nondependent alcohol/drug abuse, dementia, and schizophrenia were among the disorders that were associated with increased frequency of HRI hospitalizations among MBD patients. Increased risk of MBD hospitalizations with HRI was observed for Males (RR, 3.06, African Americans (RR, 1.16, Native Americans (RR, 1.70, uninsured (RR, 1.92, and those 40 years and older, compared to MBD hospitalizations alone.Previous studies outside the U.S. have found that dementia and schizophrenia are significant risk factors for HRI hospitalizations. Our results suggest that hospitalizations among substance abusers may also be an important risk factor associated with heat morbidity. Improved understanding of these relative risks could help inform future public health strategies.

  8. Feasibility of a multiple-choice mini mental state examination for chronically critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguélez, Marta; Merlani, Paolo; Gigon, Fabienne; Verdon, Mélanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Ricou, Bara

    2014-08-01

    Following treatment in an ICU, up to 70% of chronically critically ill patients present neurocognitive impairment that can have negative effects on their quality of life, daily activities, and return to work. The Mini Mental State Examination is a simple, widely used tool for neurocognitive assessment. Although of interest when evaluating ICU patients, the current version is restricted to patients who are able to speak. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a visual, multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination for ICU patients who are unable to speak. The multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination and the standard Mini Mental State Examination were compared across three different speaking populations. The interrater and intrarater reliabilities of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination were tested on both intubated and tracheostomized ICU patients. Mixed 36-bed ICU and neuropsychology department in a university hospital. Twenty-six healthy volunteers, 20 neurological patients, 46 ICU patients able to speak, and 30 intubated or tracheostomized ICU patients. None. Multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination results correlated satisfactorily with standard Mini Mental State Examination results in all three speaking groups: healthy volunteers: intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.43 (95% CI, -0.18 to 0.62); neurology patients: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95); and ICU patients able to speak: 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92). The interrater and intrarater reliabilities were good (0.95 [0.87-0.98] and 0.94 [0.31-0.99], respectively). In all populations, a Bland-Altman analysis showed systematically higher scores using the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination. Administration of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination to ICU patients was straightforward and produced exploitable results comparable to those of the standard Mini Mental State Examination. It should be of interest for the assessment and monitoring of the neurocognitive

  9. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Mental Health and Job Burnout Among Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Haji Mohammad Hoseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work environment dictates physical, social and mental tensions each of which affect the staff’s health. Likewise, pre-hospital emergency care staff, due to the special nature of their job, are exposed to the tensions of emergency situations which can affect their health. Therefore, this study was conducted to scrutinize the relationship between the job burnout and mental health in pre-hospital emergencies of Qom Province. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive sectional study, 150 employed personnel of Qom 115 Emergency Care entered the study using census method. Data were gathered using questionnaires of “Background and Clinical Information”, “Mental Health”, and “Job Burnout”, and then based on central indices, Pearson correlation test and multiple linear regression statistical tests were run through software SPSS13 and then analyzed. Results: The average age of the participants was 30.8±5.8. The averages of the values of burnout and mental health were 69.43±12.4 and 60±14.1, respectively. According to Pearson correlation test, the values of the burnout and mental health have a significant negative correlation (r=-0.8. The results of multiple linear regression test showed that the correlation of the burnout and mental health considering the confounding variables is significant. (P=0.05 Conclusion: Pre-hospital employed personnel have desirable mental health and [low] burnout. Furthermore, improved mental health results in decreasing job burnout. Therefore, it is advisable to consider necessary facilities for caring for oneself.

  11. Mental health nurses' perspective of workplace violence in Jordanian mental health hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzam, Manar; Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Yahya; Tawalbeh, Loai; Poedel, Robin J

    2017-10-27

    The purpose was to assess the mental health nurses' perspectives of workplace violence in mental health departments in Jordan. A cross-sectional correlation study was utilized to address the study's purposes. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from nurses working in governmental mental health departments in Jordan. The findings indicated that 80% of the respondents were victims of at least one violent act in the last 2 years. Verbal abuse was the most indicated type of violence. Patients were considered the main source of violence. Policies and legislations addressing workplace violence should be implemented, and nurses should be trained on using such policies. Hospital managers should create a safe work environment by enforcing effective security measures and maintaining adequate staffing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among Alzahra Hospital nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Taheri, Mohamad Reza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a serious problem among the nursing staff. Mental workload is the major cause of MSDs among nursing staff. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental workload dimensions and their association with MSDs among nurses of Alzahra Hospital, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 247 randomly selected nurses who worked in the Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran in the summer of 2013. The Persian version of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) (measuring mental load) specialized questionnaire and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) was used for data collection. Data were collected and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient tests in SPSS 20. Results: Pearson and Spearman correlation tests showed a significant association between the nurses’ MSDs and the dimensions of workload frustration, total workload, temporal demand, effort, and physical demand (r = 0.304, 0.277, 0.277, 0.216, and 0.211, respectively). However, there was no significant association between the nurses’ MSDs and the dimensions of workload performance and mental demand (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The nurses’ frustration had a direct correlation with MSDs. This shows that stress is an inseparable component in hospital workplace. Thus, reduction of stress in nursing workplace should be one of the main priorities of hospital managers. PMID:25709683

  13. [Awareness and attitude toward suicide in community mental health professionals and hospital workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Nam; Lee, Kang Sook; Lee, Seon Young; Yu, Jae Hee; Hong, A Rum

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community mental health professionals and hospital workers attitude and awareness towards suicide. This study investigated 264 community mental health professionals and 228 hospital workers. SOQs (Suicidal Opinion Questionnaires) were used from July 2007 to September 2007. After a factor analysis for the attitude towards suicide, the items on ethics, mental illness, religion, risk, and motivation were included in the subsequent analysis. There were significant differences in the attitude towards suicide according to religion, age, educational background, the marriage status, the economic position, and different professional licenses. Hospital workers' view was different from the community workers'. The hospital workers judged that suicide was due to mental illness, and suicide was high for the people in a special environment and who lacked motivation, which caused them to fall in a dangerous situation. For the lower educational group, they thought that suicide was attributable to mental illness. The awareness for suicide was significantly higher in the group with a postgraduate education, unmarried people, mental health professionals and the persons who had concern and experience with suicide. The factors that had an influence on the awareness of suicide were the items of mental illness, religion, risk and motivational factors. This study suggested that the factors to increase the awareness and attitude for suicide were the experience of increased education and case management of suicide. Therefore, education dealing with suicide and reinforcement of crisis management programs should be developed.

  14. Medicolegal aspects of hospital treatment of violent mentally ill persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper deals with medicolegal aspects of the hospital treatment of patients suffering from severe mental disorders and who are prone to violent behavior, dangerous to self and others. Violent acts in this study were defined as deliberate and nonconsensual acts of actual, attempted or threatened harm to a person or persons, and classified into categories of any type of violence, physical violence and nonphysical violence, which is in accordance with approaches used in other risk assessment researches. Outline of Cases. The authors present four cases of mentally ill inpatients whose violent behavior toward self or other persons resulted in self-destruction and physical aggression against other persons. The presented cases involved: 1 selfinjury in a patient with acute organic mental disorder after jumping through a hospital window, 2 suicide by drowning of a patient with acute mental disorder after escaping from intensive care unit, 3 suicide in a depressive patient after escaping from a low-security psychiatry unit, 4 physical violence against body and life of other persons in a patient with chronic mental disorder. Conclusion. The presented cases are considered to be rare in clinical practice and risk of violent behavior and the consequent danger of mentally ill inpatients may be efficiently predicted and prevented with appropriate hospital management based on 1 repeated escalation of violent behavior and 2 protection of the patient and others. Hence, if the physician, in order to prevent harmful consequences, does not apply all the necessary measures, including appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as treatment in an adequate setting, such act is against the Criminal Law of the Republic of Serbia which sanctions physician's negligence. Also, according to the Law on Obligations of the Republic of Serbia this presents a legal ground for damage claim and the requirement of liability for nonmaterial damage

  15. [Mentally Ill Parents in Psychiatric Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwort, Ilka; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Christiansen, Hanna; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2016-09-01

    Offsprings of psychiatric patients are burdened and they are at risk of developing a mental disorder themselves. All admissions in a psychiatric hospital within a period of 6 months were screened for parenthood of underaged children. They were given standardized questionnaires for child behavior (SDQ), parenting behavior and subjective need for help in parenting. 21.5 % (N = 439) of the patients had underaged children, 194 patients participated in the study. They considered their children as having more psychological/behavioral problems than a control group (N = 97). Patients with personality or affective disorders and patients with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity rated their children most problematic. Although patients did not differ from controls in the evaluation of their parenting style, they expressed a higher need for help in parenting. Parenting and education issues need to be considered in the treatment of mentally ill patients. Effective support could be a relief for families and help to prevent mental disorders in offsprings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A case report using the mental state examination scale (MSES): a tool for measuring change in mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Irosh; Carter, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for a simple and brief tool that can be used in routine clinical practice for the quantitative measurement of mental state across all diagnostic groups. The main utilities of such a tool would be to provide a global metric for the mental state examination, and to monitor the progression over time using this metric. We developed the mental state examination scale (MSES), and used it in an acute inpatient setting in routine clinical work to test its initial feasibility. Using a clinical case, the utility of MSES is demonstrated in this paper. When managing the patient described, the MSES assisted the clinician to assess the initial mental state, track the progress of the recovery, and make timely treatment decisions by quantifying the components of the mental state examination. MSES may enhance the quality of clinical practice for clinicians, and potentially serve as an index of universal mental healthcare outcome that can be used in clinical practice, service evaluation, and healthcare economics. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. The functions of hospital-based home care for people with severe mental illness in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan-Yi; Lin, Mei-Jue; Yang, Tuz-Ching; Hsu, Yuan-Shan

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to understand the functions of hospital-based home care for people with severe mental illness in Taiwan, and the factors that affect functions of professionals who provide hospital-based home care. Hospital-based home care is a service which provides those people with serious mental illnesses who are in crisis and who are candidates for admission to hospital. Home care has been shown to have several advantages over inpatient treatment. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the functions of hospital-based home care for people with severe mental illness in Taiwan. This qualitative study was based on the grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. The study was conducted in six different hospital areas in central Taiwan in 2007-2008. Data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Constant comparative analysis continued during the open, axial and selective coding processes until data saturation occurred. Participants were selected by theoretical sampling. When theoretical saturation was achieved, 21 clients with mental illness, 19 carers and 25 professionals were interviewed. Several functions were found when these professionals provided hospital-based home care services for people with severe mental illness in Taiwan, including stabilising the clients illness, supplying emergency care services, improving life-coping abilities, employment and welfare assistance, emotional support for both clients and carers, assistance with future and long-term arrangements and assistance with communication between carers and clients. Hospital-based home care provides several important services for helping clients and their families to live in the community. The recommendations based on the findings of this study can be used as a guide to improve the delivery of hospital-based home care services to community-dwelling clients with severe mental illness and their carers.

  18. Medical Student Education in State Psychiatric Hospitals: A Survey of US State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurenberg, Jeffry R; Schleifer, Steven J; Kennedy, Cheryl; Walker, Mary O; Mayerhoff, David

    2016-04-01

    State hospitals may be underutilized in medical education. US state psychiatric hospitals were surveyed on current and potential psychiatry medical student education. A 10-item questionnaire, with multiple response formats, was sent to identified hospitals in late 2012. Ninety-seven of 221 hospitals contacted responded. Fifty-three (55%) reported current medical student education programs, including 27 clinical clerkship rotations. Education and training in other disciplines was prevalent in hospitals both with and without medical students. The large majority of responders expressed enthusiasm about medical education. The most frequent reported barrier to new programs was geographic distance from the school. Limited resources were limiting factors for hospitals with and without current programs. Only a minority of US state hospitals may be involved in medical student education. While barriers such as geographic distance may be difficult to overcome, responses suggest opportunities for expanding medical education in the state psychiatric hospitals.

  19. Day hospital and psychosocial care center: Expanding the discussion of partial hospitalization in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Trinta Weber

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Since the second half of the twentieth century the discussions about mental patient care reveal ongoing debate between two health care paradigms: the biomedical/biopsychosocial paradigm and the psychosocial paradigm. The struggle for hegemony over the forms of care, on how to deal optimally with the experience of becoming ill is underpinned by an intentionality of reorganizing knowledge about the health/disease dichotomy, which is reflected in the models proposed for the implementation of actions and services for the promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation of human health. Objective: To discuss the guidelines of care in mental health day hospitals (MHDH in contrast to type III psychosocial care centers (CAPS III. Method: Review of mental health legislation from 1990 to 2014. Results: A definition of therapeutic project could not be found, as well as which activities and techniques should be employed by these health services. Conclusion: The MHDH and PCC III are services that replace psychiatric hospital admission and are characterized by their complementarity in the care to the mentally ill. Due to their varied and distinctive intervention methods, which operate synergistically, the contributions from both models of care are optimized. Discussions on the best mental health care model reveal polarization between the biomedical/biopsychosocial and psychosocial paradigms. This reflects the supremacy of the latter over the former in the political-ideological discourse that circumscribes the reform of psychiatric care, which may hinder a better clinical outcome for patients and their families.

  20. The opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition in psychiatric hospitalization

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    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. Results: The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Conclusion: Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

  1. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E. Suman, PhD...Multicenter Study of the Effect of In-Patient Exercise Training on Length of Hospitalization, Mental Health , and Physical Performance in Burned...Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance,” Proposal Log Number 13214039, Award Number W81XWH-14

  2. Are AMI patients with comorbid mental illness more likely to be admitted to hospitals with lower quality of AMI care?

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    Xueya Cai

    Full Text Available Older patients with comorbid mental illness are shown to receive less appropriate care for their medical conditions. This study analyzed Medicare patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and determined whether those with comorbid mental illness were more likely to present to hospitals with lower quality of AMI care.Retrospective analyses of Medicare claims in 2008. Hospital quality was measured using the five "Hospital Compare" process indicators (aspirin at admission/discharge, beta-blocker at admission/discharge, and angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotension receptor blocker for left ventricular dysfunction. Multinomial logit model determined the association of mental illness with admission to low-quality hospitals (rank of the composite process score 90(th percentile, compared to admissions to other hospitals with medium quality. Multivariate analyses further determined the effects of hospital type and mental diagnosis on outcomes.Among all AMI admissions to 2,845 hospitals, 41,044 out of 287,881 patients were diagnosed with mental illness. Mental illness predicted a higher likelihood of admission to low-quality hospitals (unadjusted rate 2.9% vs. 2.0%; adjusted odds ratio [OR]1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.34, p<0.01, and an equal likelihood to high-quality hospitals (unadjusted rate 9.8% vs. 10.3%; adjusted OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.01, p = 0.11. Both lower hospital quality and mental diagnosis predicted higher rates of 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality.Among Medicare myocardial infarction patients, comorbid mental illness was associated with an increased risk for admission to lower-quality hospitals. Both lower hospital quality and mental illness predicted worse post-AMI outcomes.

  3. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health...

  4. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  5. Caring for homeless persons with serious mental illness in general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Leah K; Baggett, Travis P; Stern, Theodore A; O'Connell, Jim J; Shtasel, Derri

    2013-01-01

    The care of homeless persons with serious mental illness remains a common and challenging problem in general hospital settings. This article aims to review data on homelessness and its psychiatric comorbidities, and to expand the skills of providers who encounter homeless individuals in general hospital settings. Literature review reveals patient, provider, and systems factors that contribute to suboptimal health outcomes in homeless individuals. Diagnostic rigor, integrated medical and psychiatric care, trauma-informed interventions, special considerations in capacity evaluations, and health care reform initiatives can improve the treatment of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital care for mental health and substance abuse in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dylan P; Mendizabal, Adys; Abend, Nicholas S; Davis, Kathryn A; Crispo, James; Willis, Allison W

    2016-04-01

    Reducing the burden of pediatric mental illness requires greater knowledge of mental health and substance abuse (MHSA) outcomes in children who are at an increased risk of primary psychiatric illness. National data on hospital care for psychiatric illness in children with epilepsy are limited. We used the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality from 2003 to 2009 to examine MHSA hospitalization patterns in children with comorbid epilepsy. Nonparametric and regression analyses determined the association of comorbid epilepsy with specific MHSA diagnoses and examined the impact of epilepsy on length of stay (LOS) for such MHSA diagnoses while controlling for demographic, payer, and hospital characteristics. We observed 353,319 weighted MHSA hospitalizations of children ages 6-20; 3280 of these involved a child with epilepsy. Depression was the most common MHSA diagnosis in the general population (39.5%) whereas bipolar disorder was the most common MHSA diagnosis among children with epilepsy (36.2%). Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that children with comorbid epilepsy had greater adjusted odds of bipolar disorder (AOR: 1.17, 1.04-1.30), psychosis (AOR: 1.78, 1.51-2.09), sleep disorder (AOR: 5.90, 1.90-18.34), and suicide attempt/ideation (AOR: 3.20, 1.46-6.99) compared to the general MHSA inpatient population. Epilepsy was associated with a greater LOS and a higher adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for prolonged LOS (IRR: 1.12, 1.09-1.17), particularly for suicide attempt/ideation (IRR: 3.74, 1.68-8.34). Children with epilepsy have distinct patterns of hospital care for mental illness and substance abuse and experience prolonged hospitalization for MHSA conditions. Strategies to reduce psychiatric hospitalizations in this population may require disease-specific approaches and should measure disease-relevant outcomes. Hospitals caring for large numbers of

  7. Training Nurses in Cognitive Assessment: Uses and Misuses of the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koder, Deborah-Anne; Klahr, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments to screen for cognitive deficits within the hospital setting. However training in how to administer this widely used tool is scarce with little, if any, formal training for nursing staff. Scores are also often misused with over reliance on results and cut-offs to…

  8. Sleep, mental health status, and medical errors among hospital nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Mayumi; Imai, Makoto; Okawa, Masako; Fujimura, Toshimasa; Yamada, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    Medical error involving nurses is a critical issue since nurses' actions will have a direct and often significant effect on the prognosis of their patients. To investigate the significance of nurse health in Japan and its potential impact on patient services, a questionnaire-based survey amongst nurses working in hospitals was conducted, with the specific purpose of examining the relationship between shift work, mental health and self-reported medical errors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the shift work system, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and nurse errors: the odds ratios for shift system and GHQ were 2.1 and 1.1, respectively. It was confirmed that both sleep and mental health status among hospital nurses were relatively poor, and that shift work and poor mental health were significant factors contributing to medical errors.

  9. Features of Speech Reactions to Mental State Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina M. Alekseeva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of mental state associative speech representation. The study involved 31 Russian-speaking subjects (27 females and 4 males at the age of 18 - 22 years old. The experimental procedure using DMDX program allowed to measure the time of speech response to stimuli - the concepts of 25 mental states. The average reaction time to the concepts of mental states, shown on the computer monitor, made 2114.68 milliseconds. The most rapid associative speech response was the response to the following stimuli: "ecstasy" (1452.54 msec, "meditation" (1569.26 msec, "tranquility" (1685.21 msec, the slowest response is the response to "interest" (2517.5 msec and "indecision" (2454.63 msec. In total, 448 associations were given to the concepts of 25 mental states by tested subjects - speech reactions, i.e. 17.9 associations per mental state on the average. The greatest number of speech associations (24 was given to the concept of love. The smallest number was given to the concept of ecstasy (11 associations. Associative fields of mental states (meditation, ecstasy, melancholy, tiredness, loneliness have the most pronounced core. The prospects of the study consist in the performance of a similar associative experiment among the representatives of another culture, as well as in the studying of an estimated and situational associative representation of mental states.

  10. Predictors of outpatient mental health clinic follow-up after hospitalization among Medicaid-enrolled young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Leslie; Wissow, Lawrence S; Davis, Maryann; Abrams, Michael T; Dixon, Lisa B; Slade, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    To assess demographic and clinical predictors of outpatient mental health clinic follow-up after inpatient psychiatric hospitalization among Medicaid-enrolled young adults. Using logistic regression and administrative claims data from the Maryland public mental health system and Maryland Medicaid for young adults ages 18-26 who were enrolled in Medicaid (N = 1127), the likelihood of outpatient mental health follow-up within 30 days after inpatient psychiatric hospitalization was estimated . Only 51% of the young adults had any outpatient mental health follow-up visits within 30 days of discharge. Being black and having a co-occurring substance use disorder diagnosis were associated with a lower probability of having a follow-up visit (OR = 0.60, P young adults hospitalized for serious psychiatric conditions, half did not connect with an outpatient mental healthcare provider following their discharge. Outpatient transition supports may be especially needed for young adults who were not receiving outpatient services prior to being admitted for psychiatric inpatient care, as well as for young adults with substance use disorders and African Americans. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The Establishment and Administration of Operant Conditioning Programs in a State Hospital for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Thomas S., Ed.

    Seven articles treat the establishment of operant conditioning programs for the mentally retarded at Pacific State Hospital in California. Emphasis is on the administrative rather than the demonstration of research aspects of operant conditioning programs. Following an introduction and overview, the medical director's point of view on operant…

  12. Liaison psychiatry professionals' views of general hospital care for patients with mental illness: The care of patients with mental illness in the general hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblett, J; Caffrey, A; Deb, T; Khan, A; Lagunes-Cordoba, E; Gale-Grant, O; Henderson, C

    2017-04-01

    Explore the experiences of liaison psychiatry professionals, to gain a greater understanding of the quality of care patients with mental illness receive in the general hospital setting; the factors that affect the quality of care; and their insights on interventions that could improve care. A survey questionnaire and qualitative in depth interviews were used to collect data. Data collection took place at the Royal College of Psychiatrists Faculty of Liaison Psychiatry Annual conference. Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis. Areas of concern in the quality of care of patients with co-morbid mental illness included 'diagnostic overshadowing', 'poor communication with patient', 'patient dignity not respected' and 'delay in investigation or treatment'. Eleven contributing factors were identified, the two most frequently mentioned were 'stigmatising attitudes of staff towards patients with co-morbid mental illness' and 'complex diagnosis'. The general overview of care was positive with areas for improvement highlighted. Interventions suggested included 'formal education' and 'changing the liaison psychiatry team'. The cases discussed highlighted several areas where the quality of care received by patients with co-morbid mental illness is lacking, the consequences of which could be contributing to physical health disparities. It was acknowledged that it is the dual responsibility of both the general hospital staff and liaison staff in improving care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deconstructing myths, building alliances: a networking model to enhance tobacco control in hospital mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballbè, Montse; Gual, Antoni; Nieva, Gemma; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals -the early adopters- based on Rogers' theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units). Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals' awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. 'The singing hospital'--integrated group therapy in the Black mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, B

    1983-06-04

    Integrated group therapy was originally introduced at Sterkfontein Hospital in 1957, and reintroduced 6 years ago in an effort to overcome difficulties in communication with approximately 100 Black male and female mental hospital patients. This therapy consisted mainly of song and dance activation, sociodrama, psychodrama and behavioural modification methods. These techniques are flexible, and can be carried out by proxy therapists working with doctors and psychologists.

  16. Psychosocial work environment and hospital admissions due to mental disorders: a 15-year prospective study of industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2010-07-01

    Low levels of job control and social support may increase the risk of mental disorders, particularly depression, but the evidence is mostly based on self-reports. We examined whether components of job control and work-related social support predict medically-certified mental disorders. 13868 forest company employees with no previous hospital admissions for mental disorders responded to questionnaires on decision authority, skill discretion, co-worker and supervisor support. They were followed-up for hospital admissions due to mental disorders (ICD-9 codes 290 to 319), using national hospital discharge records (577 hospitalized, mean follow-up 15.1 years). In analyses adjusted for confounders, high skill discretion was associated with a reduced risk of hospital admission for mental disorders (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95). High decision authority was associated with an elevated risk (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87). Diagnosis-specific analyses showed high skill discretion to associate with a reduced risk of both depressive and non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. High decision authority was a risk factor for alcohol-related and depressive disorders. Good co-worker support was associated with a reduced risk of non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. Supervisor support was not associated with any mental disorders. We used a single time point estimate in an industrial sample comprising largely of men. Contrary to previous research on job control, high decision authority increased the risk of depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which suggest a need to reconsider the strategies for prevention and clinical practise in regard to psychosocial work environment and mental health.

  17. The attitudes of general hospital doctors toward patients with comorbid mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblett, Joanne E; Lawrence, Robert; Smith, Jared G

    2015-01-01

    What are the attitudes of general hospital doctors toward patients with comorbid mental illness? Do certain characteristics of the health professional related to attitude valence to patients with comorbid mental illness? An anonymous questionnaire was sent out to a cohort of doctors working in three General Hospitals in South West London. The questionnaire included vignettes to assess the respondents' attitudes toward eight patients presenting with a physical compliant with different clinical histories, including depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, diabetes, and criminal behavior. A total of 52 participants completed the questionnaire; 40 females and 12 males. Across all domains, the most positive attitudes were held toward patients without a diagnosis of mental illness. The least positive attitudes were toward patients with schizophrenia, personality disorder, and those classified as "criminals," and negative attitudes relating to the unpredictability of patients was identified in these categories. There was no statistically significant difference in attitudes depending on age or level of training. However, female participants tended to endorse more positive attitudinal responses, most clearly toward patients with depression and heroin addiction. Negative attitudes of doctors were identified toward certain mental illness diagnoses and are likely to contribute the physical health disparity between patients with and without a comorbid mental illness. This raises the question as to how these attitudes can be changed in order to improve the parity of physical health care between patient with and without mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Mental Health promotion of a hospital through the nurse in the liaison psychiatry team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cámara Conde

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We show a proposal to increase the quality of nursing cares, improving mental health care of hospitalized patients by creating the figure of the liaison nurse within the liaison psychiatry team. This nurse would not only be a reference to support the nursing staff at the level of patient care, but also the psycho-emotional self-care professional.Objectives: Justifying the need to include the figure of the specialist mental health team liaison psychiatry nurse. Method: The rotation as residents, for a month, with the interconsultation team psychiatric hospital Gregorio Marañón and literature review. Results: There have been partially unmet needs, these could be covered with the existence of a nurse specialist in mental health consultation in this hospital. Discussion: Possibly it poses difficulties in defining the roles of various liaison team professionals, which we expect can be defined at the start implementing the new member.The hospital itself has an own field defined, articulated through the NANDA, NIC, NOC methodology, which covers aspects that so far have not being made, there is not a nurse figure into the psychiatric consultation liaison team.

  19. Hospital-based shootings in the United States: 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelen, Gabor D; Catlett, Christina L; Kubit, Joshua G; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-12-01

    Workplace violence in health care settings is a frequent occurrence. Emergency departments (EDs) are considered particularly vulnerable. Gunfire in hospitals is of particular concern; however, information about such workplace violence is limited. Therefore, we characterize US hospital-based shootings from 2000 to 2011. Using LexisNexis, Google, Netscape, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, we searched reports for acute care hospital shooting events in the United States for 2000 through 2011. All hospital-based shootings with at least 1 injured victim were analyzed. Of 9,360 search "hits," 154 hospital-related shootings were identified, 91 (59%) inside the hospital and 63 (41%) outside on hospital grounds. Shootings occurred in 40 states, with 235 injured or dead victims. Perpetrators were overwhelmingly men (91%) but represented all adult age groups. The ED environs were the most common site (29%), followed by the parking lot (23%) and patient rooms (19%). Most events involved a determined shooter with a strong motive as defined by grudge (27%), suicide (21%), "euthanizing" an ill relative (14%), and prisoner escape (11%). Ambient society violence (9%) and mentally unstable patients (4%) were comparatively infrequent. The most common victim was the perpetrator (45%). Hospital employees composed 20% of victims; physician (3%) and nurse (5%) victims were relatively infrequent. Event characteristics that distinguished the ED from other sites included younger perpetrator, more likely in custody, and unlikely to have a personal relationship with the victim (ill relative, grudge, coworker). In 23% of shootings within the ED, the weapon was a security officer's gun taken by the perpetrator. Case fatality inside the hospital was much lower in the ED setting (19%) than other sites (73%). Although it is likely that not every hospital-based shooting was identified, such events are relatively rare compared with other forms of workplace violence. The unpredictable nature of this type of

  20. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  1. Mental State Talk Structure in Children’s Narratives: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.

  2. The fractured history of the mental hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2018-02-01

    The history of the mental hospital in Delhi is a fascinating story. Set up in colonial times, the asylum in Delhi seems to reflect the tumultuous and chaotic history of the city itself. It was perhaps established in the early 19 th century, and functions till 1857, when it is ransacked in the Mutiny. It is subsequently merged with the asylum at Lahore in 1861, set up again, and incredibly, closed again at the turn of the century. Subject to the whims of administrators and policy makers, the asylum then ceases to exist till the 1960s when a new avatar appears. In it's non continuity is the story of the neglect of mental illness.

  3. 42 CFR 440.10 - Inpatient hospital services, other than services in an institution for mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an institution for mental diseases. 440.10 Section 440.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... for mental diseases. (a) Inpatient hospital services means services that— (1) Are ordinarily furnished... and treatment of patients with disorders other than mental diseases; (ii) Is licensed or formally...

  4. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  5. Mental state attribution and the gaze cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Smith, Daniel T; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Theory of mind is said to be possessed by an individual if he or she is able to impute mental states to others. Recently, some authors have demonstrated that such mental state attributions can mediate the "gaze cueing" effect, in which observation of another individual shifts an observer's attention. One question that follows from this work is whether such mental state attributions produce mandatory modulations of gaze cueing. Employing the basic gaze cueing paradigm, together with a technique commonly used to assess mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals, we manipulated whether the gazing agent could see the same thing as the participant (i.e., the target) or had this view obstructed by a physical barrier. We found robust gaze cueing effects, even when the observed agent in the display could not see the same thing as the participant. These results suggest that the attribution of "seeing" does not necessarily modulate the gaze cueing effect.

  6. The community impact of consolidating long-term inpatient care at a single state hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, N

    2000-06-01

    A community impact model was used to estimate how consolidation of all long-term inpatient care at one state mental hospital affected the town in which the hospital was located. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to measure objective and subjective impacts of the hospital's expanded role. Objective impacts included employment, retail sales, and use of local services such as police, welfare, and education. Subjective impacts included residents' perceptions of safety. Data were obtained from hospital records, service providers, merchants, residents, and persons living on the streets or in shelters. Overall, the policy had a positive net impact on the community, estimated at roughly $4 million during the 18 months after implementation. Nearly $1 million was a direct payment from the state in lieu of taxes for the property occupied by the hospital. The hospital's payments to businesses in the town increased 10 percent. The number of hospital employees increased by 61 percent, to 1,336. The number of local residents working in the hospital grew from 200 to 320, and the proportion of the hospital's annual payroll paid to local residents increased from 14 to 24 percent. Local service use did not increase, and no change was noted in the crime rate. More patients were discharged to other towns than were admitted from the host town. Eighty percent of the residents surveyed said the town had either improved or had not changed. The benefits brought by the consolidation are likely to be sustained in the long run if the state continues the current rate of payments to the community and the hospital continues its policy of discharging patients to the town where they resided before hospitalization.

  7. Mental health in the Middle East: an Egyptian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, A

    1999-12-01

    This article introduces the reader to mental health in the Middle East with an Egyptian perspective, from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance, up until the current state. During Pharaonic times, mental illness was not known as such, as there was no separator between Soma and Psyche. Actually, mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterine diseases, as stated in Eber's and Kahoun's papyri. In spite of the mystical culture, mental disorders were attributed and treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were never subjected to any torture or maltreatment because of the inherited belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. The first mental hospital in Europe was located in Spain, following the Arab invasion, and from then on it propagated to other European countries. The 14th century Kalawoon Hospital in Cairo had four departments, including medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, and mental disorders. Six centuries earlier, psychiatry in general hospitals was recognized in Europe. The influence of Avicenna and Elrazi and their contributions to European medicine is well-known. This article discusses further the current state of the mental health services in Egypt and the transcultural studies of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion, and obsessive compulsive disorders. An outline of psychiatric disorders in children is discussed. The problem of drug abuse is also addressed, especially that in Egypt after 1983, where drugs like heroine replaced the common habit of hashish.

  8. Mental health care in prisons and the issue of forensic hospitals in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Paolo Francesco; D'Alema, Marco; Fioritti, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Mental health (MH) care for Italian prisoners and offenders with mental illness is a paradoxical issue. Theory and practice remained unchanged throughout the 20th century, despite radical changes to general psychiatric care. Until recently, Italy had one of the most advanced National Health Service (NHS)-run community psychiatry care systems and a totally obsolete system of forensic psychiatry managed by criminal justice institutions. Not until 2008, after substantial pressure by public opinion and International Human Rights bodies, did the government approve a major reform transferring health care in prisons and forensic hospitals to the NHS. Forensic hospitals were to be progressively closed, and specialized small-scale facilities were to be developed for discharged offenders with mental illness, along with diversion schemes to ordinary community care. Despite some important achievements, three major problem areas remain: this reform happened without changes to the Criminal Code; regions differ in organization and resources for ordinary psychiatric services; and legal/criminological expertise among NHS MH professionals is limited.

  9. Visa refusal following compulsory hospital admission under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales): fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, R

    2015-08-01

    Historically, compulsory hospital admission led to discrimination for service users. For example, until recently detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales) would disqualify a person from being a Member of Parliament. There is a belief among mental health professionals that compulsory hospital admission will result in service users being refused a tourist visa. However, there is a paucity of literature on this topic, particularly from an international perspective. Based on the information reviewed in this study, there is no evidence to support this belief. Of 262 travel destinations, 96 (36.6%) require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. Six (2.3%) destinations require applicants to declare a mental health condition in order to obtain a tourist visa. None of these destinations ask applicants to declare a history of compulsory hospital admission. However, the possibility exists that anyone declaring a mental health problem may be asked to provide further information about their condition before a visa is granted. Mental health nurses require education to ensure that their knowledge of mental health legislation is up to date. This education should include information on the potential consequences of compulsory hospital admission for the service user's social life following discharge. Service users and their families should be provided with written information on the potential social impact of detention along with a list of organizations that can provide advice on specific issues. This study sought to establish whether a history of compulsory hospital admission prevented a person from obtaining a tourist visa. A visa application form and/or other relevant information were obtained for 262 travel destinations visited by British citizens. Ninety-six (36.6%) destinations require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. All visas are issued subject to travellers meeting a number of conditions, for example being in possession of travel insurance

  10. MENTAL STATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: THE LONGITUDINAL ROLES OF ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2017-05-01

    Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Mental Workload and Its Determinants among Nurses in One Hospital in Kermanshah City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bakhshi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Mental workload is one of the factors influencing the behavior, performance and efficiency of nurses in the workplace. There are diverse factors that can affect mental workload level. present study performed with the aim of Surveying Mental Workload and its Determinants among Nursing in one of hospital in Kermanshah City Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 203 nurses from 5 wards of infants, emergency, surgery, internal and ICU were selected randomly and surveyed. Data collection tools were demographics and NASA-TLX questionnaires. The statistical data analysis conducted using Independent sample  t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient using software SPSS 19. Results: The mean and standard deviation of overall  mental workload estimated as 69.73±15.26. Among  aspects of mental workload,  the aspect of  effort with an average score of 70.96 was the highest and the aspect of frustration and disappointment with average of 44.93 was the lowest one. There were significant relationship between physical aspect of workload with age, type of shift working, number of shifts, type of employment, between temporal aspect of workload with BMI, type of employment and work experience, and between effort aspect with BMI (p-value≤0/05. Conclusion: Due to the different amount of mental workload in studied hospital wards, relocation of nurses between wards can improve situation and increase the number of nurses can lead to decrease mental workload.

  12. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMyrden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states - fatigue, frustration, and attention - on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 10% lower than average when self-reported frustration was low. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs.

  13. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. Materials and methods: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30–60, in 1982–3. Mental vulnerabili......: A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in ‘idiopathic’ and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.......Objective: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. Materials and methods: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30–60, in 1982–3. Mental vulnerability......, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993–4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected...

  14. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  15. Mental Health Services to State Corrections Inmates. Staff Brief 86-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jane R.

    This report was written for the Advisory Committee on Mentally Ill Inmates of the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It describes mental health services to inmates of Wisconsin's state prisons. Part I describes the organization of state level responsibilities for corrections, including the state…

  16. How Medicaid agencies administer mental health services: results from a 50-state survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, James; Barrett, Allison

    2008-10-01

    This brief report describes some notable variations in how state Medicaid agencies administer and fund Medicaid mental health services. Hour-long telephone interviews were conducted with all state and District of Columbia Medicaid directors or their designees. Responses indicated that Medicaid and mental health agencies were located within the same umbrella agency in 28 states, potentially facilitating collaboration. The mental health agency provided funding for some Medicaid mental health services in 32 states, and counties provided such funding in 22 states. Medicaid agencies generally delegated more authority to state mental health agencies in states where some Medicaid funding came from mental health sources and also in states where both agencies were in the same umbrella agency. The increasing role of Medicaid in funding state mental health services, combined with new federal limits on Medicaid financing of these services, underscores the importance of interagency collaboration and better alignment of Medicaid and mental health responsibilities.

  17. A família e o doente mental usuário do hospital-dia: estudo de um caso La familia y el enfermo mental usuário del hospital/día: estudo de un caso The family and the mentally-ill user of day-hospitals: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruth Macêdo Monteiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O hospital-dia, como modalidade de assistência psiquiátrica, proporciona a família a possibilidade de vivenciar junto ao seu familiar doente uma maior convivência durante o tratamento, e a leva a buscar junto a esse familiar formas de facilitar o processo adaptativo de interação na família. A proposta deste estudo se configura na busca de compreender de que modo a família e o usuário do hospital-dia interagem no recesso do lar e descrever a experiência narrada por uma família. A família deste estudo foi selecionada a partir de um usuário do hospital-dia que possuísse ou possua história anterior de internações psiquiátricas. Foram entrevistados cinco membros da família em estudo. A partir das experiências descritas pelos sujeitos emergiram duas grandes categorias temáticas: A família vivenciando junto ao seu familiar o hospital-dia , A convivência família ¾ usuário. As experiências relatadas pelos sujeitos neste estudo são bastante significativas para a construção de novas possibilidades na assistência à família do doente mental.El hospital-día como modalidad de atención psiquiátrica, proporciona a la familia la posibilidad de tener una mayor convivencia con su familiar enfermo durante el tratamiento y la lleva a buscar de forma conjunta con éste, formas para facilitar el proceso de adaptación e interacción en la familia. El estudio pretende comprender la manera como la familia y usuario del hospital-día interactuan en el ambiente del hogar y describir la experiencia narrada por una familia. La familia de este estudio fue seleccionada de un usuario del hospital-día que tuviese historia anterior de hospitalizaciones psiquiátricas. Fueron entrevistados cinco familiares. A partir de las experiencias descritas por los sujetos se formaron dos grandes categorías temáticas: La familia conviviendo con su familiar en el hospital-día y la convivencia familia/usuario. Las experiencias relatadas por los sujetos en

  18. Functional capacity and mental state of patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS as well as cardiac valve replacement and repair are procedures indicated to treat them. Thus, extracorporeal circulation (ECC is still widely used in these surgeries, in which patients with long ECC times may have greater neurological deficits. Neurological damage resulting from MRS can have devastating consequences such as loss of independence and worsening of quality of life. Objective: To assess the effect of cardiac surgery on a patient’s mental state and functional capacity in both the pre- and postoperative periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of subjects undergoing MRS and valve replacement. Participants were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as before their hospital discharge. Results: This study assessed nine patients (eight males aged 62.4 ± 6.3 years with a BMI of 29.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2. There was a significant decrease in DASI scores and VO2 from preoperative to postoperative status (p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed a loss of cognitive and exercise capacity after cardiac surgery. A larger sample however is needed to consolidate these findings.

  19. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  20. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in mental state associated with prison environments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Illingworth, C; Canning, A; Garner, E; Woolley, J; Taylor, P; Amos, T

    2014-06-01

    To develop an understanding of the stability of mental health during imprisonment through review of existing research evidence relating physical prison environment to mental state changes in prisoners. A systematic literature search was conducted looking at changes in mental state and how this related to various aspects of imprisonment and the prison environment. Fifteen longitudinal studies were found, and from these, three broad themes were delineated: being imprisoned and aspects of the prison regime; stage of imprisonment and duration of sentence; and social density. Reception into prison results in higher levels of psychiatric symptoms that seem to improve over time; otherwise, duration of imprisonment appears to have no significant impact on mental health. Regardless of social density, larger prisons are associated with poorer mental state, as are extremes of social density. There are large gaps in the literature relating prison environments to changes in mental state; in particular, high-quality longitudinal studies are needed. Existing research suggests that although entry to prison may be associated with deterioration in mental state, it tends to improve with time. Furthermore, overcrowding, ever more likely as prison populations rise, is likely to place a particular burden on mental health services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchio, Cristina; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Bertone, Cesare; Cavallo, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Is it possible to perceive others' mental states? Are mental states visible in others' behavior? In contrast to the traditional view that mental states are hidden and not directly accessible to perception, in recent years a phenomenologically-motivated account of social cognition has emerged: direct social perception. However, despite numerous published articles that both defend and critique direct perception, researchers have made little progress in articulating the conditions under which direct perception of others' mental states is possible. This paper proposes an empirically anchored approach to the observability of others' mentality - not just in the weak sense of discussing relevant empirical evidence for and against the phenomenon of interest, but also, and more specifically, in the stronger sense of identifying an experimental strategy for measuring the observability of mental states and articulating the conditions under which mental states are observable. We conclude this article by reframing the problem of direct perception in terms of establishing a definable and measurable relationship between movement features and perceived mental states.

  3. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caring Mental Patients Sharing the Same Rooms with Somatic Patients in General and Referral Hospitals in Rwanda: Analysis of Disadvantages and Advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitimbwa, Siméon Sebatukura

    2014-01-01

    Hospitalizing mental patients in the same rooms with somatic patients is one of the consequences of the decentralization of mental health units in all hospitals of Rwanda. There is a necessity to discover and to analyze advantages and disadvantages of this practice. Mental health staffs of 31 general and referral hospitals have been interviewed on questions about disadvantages and advantages to hospitalize mental patients together with somatic patients. Results show these disadvantages: a therapeutic environment not appropriate or a lack of harmony in the rooms (58.1% of respondents); a lack of bodily safety for somatic patients (51.6%); a lack of safety on the properties of somatic patients (45.2%); a lack of psychological wellbeing of somatic patients (29%); a lack of safety for mental patients (29%). About the main advantages, 100% of respondents pointed out the treatment of mental patients followed even during the week-end and the break time by the guard nurses doing the ward round visit or the guard; 72.2% said it prevents discrimination, because mental patient feel that he is a patient like others; 50% said it prevents stigmatization (to avoid for example, the expression "he is mad"); 16.7% said that mental patients receive help from somatic patients.

  5. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958) hospital physicians of one

  6. Changes in mental state and behaviour in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Parkinson, Ellice G; Rickards, Hugh E

    2016-11-01

    Changes in mental state and behaviour have been acknowledged in Huntington's disease since the original monograph in 1872 provided evidence of disinhibition and impaired social cognition. Behavioural problems can manifest before obvious motor symptoms and are frequently the most disabling part of the illness. Although pharmacological treatments are used routinely for psychiatric difficulties in Huntington's disease, the scientific evidence base for their use is somewhat sparse. Moreover, effective treatments for apathy and cognitive decline do not currently exist. Understanding the social cognitive impairments associated with Huntington's disease can assist management, but related therapeutic interventions are needed. Future research should aim to design rating scales for behaviour and mental state in Huntington's disease that can detect change in clinical trials. Generally, communication and understanding of behaviour and mental state in Huntington's would be enhanced by a clear conceptual framework that unifies ideas around movement, cognition, emotion, behaviour, and mental state, reflecting both the experience of the patient and their underlying neuropathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BIOFEEDBACK AS A METHOD FOR STUDENTS’ MENTAL STATE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Ababkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of

  8. Predicting everyday functional abilities of dementia patients with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Jill; Wong, Jennifer T; Dafaeeboini, Natalia; Edwards-Lee, Terri; Lu, Po; Alessi, Cathy; Josephson, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is a widely used cognitive screening measure. The purpose of the present study was to assess how 5 specific clusters of Mini-Mental State Examination items (ie, subscores) correlate with and predict specific areas of daily functioning in dementia patients, 61 patients with varied forms of dementia were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination and an observation-based daily functional test (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status). The results revealed that the orientation and attention subscores of the Mini-Mental State Examination correlated most significantly with most functional domains. The Mini-Mental State Examination language items correlated with all but the shopping and time orientation tasks, while the Mini-Mental State Examination recall items correlated with the Direct Assessment of Functional Status time orientation and shopping tasks. Stepwise regression analyses found that among the Mini-Mental State Examination subscores, orientation was the single, best independent predictor of daily functioning.

  9. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illness and possibly to death. Numerous studies demonstrate that mental distress of caregivers are two times compared to general populations. Despite it was not uncommon to observe manifestations of caregivers' mental distress, yet there was no study on this area. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among the caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in the out patients unit of Amanuel Hospital, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 31, 2013 at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique with "k" interval of 13 was employed to withdraw a total of 423 participants from study population. Five psychiatric nurses carried out interview by using standardized and validated Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. This study revealed that the overall prevalence of mental distress was found to be 221(56.7 %). The factors like missed social support, two or more times admission of patient, care giving for psychotic patient, being farmer and being female were found to be predictors for mental distress of caregivers with this [AOR 95 % CI = 9.523(5.002, 18.132)], 3.293(1.474, 3.3560), 2.007(1.109, 3.634), 2.245(1.129, 4.463) and 3.170(1.843, 5.454)] respectively. In this respect the study observed that there was a higher level of mental distress experienced by caregivers of

  10. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning about Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning…

  11. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  12. Integrating a Patient-Controlled Admission Program Into Mental Health Hospital Service: A Multicenter Grounded Theory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Trine; Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2018-01-01

    Patient-controlled admissions (PCAs) enable mental health patients by means of a contract to initiate an admission at a mental health hospital unit without using traditional admission procedures. This study was part of a 3-year Danish multicenter project, and we explored how mental health...... the mental health professionals strived to integrate PCA into clinical practice. The process was motivated by the idea of establishing a partnership with patients and involved two interrelated strategies to manage (a) the patient-related duties and (b) the admission contracts. The professionals moved from...

  13. Estimating mental states of a depressed person with bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel C.A.; Modena, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this work in progress paper we present an approach based on Bayesian Networks to model the relationship between mental states and empirical observations in a depressed person. We encode relationships and domain expertise as a Hierarchical Bayesian Network. Mental states are represented as latent

  14. A preliminary study of the mini-mental state examination in a Spanish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubial-Alvarez, Sandra; Machado, María-Clara; Sintas, Elena; de Sola, Susana; Böhm, Peter; Peña-Casanova, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is one of the most widely used screening tests for the adult population in daily neurologic practice. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination administered to Spanish children and to assess the relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the child's mental age/intelligence quotient. The study population included 181 children whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years. The neuropsychologic battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Percentiles were obtained for the Mini-Mental State Examination total score according to age ranges. Performance gradually increased from 4 to 10 years of age when a plateau in the total Mini-Mental State Examination score was reached. At the age of 6 years, results exceeded 24 on average. Pairwise mean comparisons showed statistically significant differences between the age groups (P Mini-Mental State Examination score correlated significantly with the child's chronologic (r = 0.80, P mental (r = 0.76, P Mini-Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population as well as a first step for the assessment of the usefulness of this instrument as a cognitive screening tool for children's development.

  15. Theory of mind in the wild: toward tackling the challenges of everyday mental state reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Wertz

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the cognitive systems underwriting theory of mind (ToM abilities requires articulating how mental state representations are generated and processed in everyday situations. Individuals rarely announce their intentions prior to acting, and actions are often consistent with multiple mental states. In order for ToM to operate effectively in such situations, mental state representations should be generated in response to certain actions, even when those actions occur in the presence of mental state content derived from other aspects of the situation. Results from three experiments with preschool children and adults demonstrate that mental state information is indeed generated based on an approach action cue in situations that contain competing mental state information. Further, the frequency with which participants produced or endorsed explanations that include mental states about an approached object decreased when the competing mental state information about a different object was made explicit. This set of experiments provides some of the first steps toward identifying the observable action cues that are used to generate mental state representations in everyday situations and offers insight into how both young children and adults processes multiple mental state representations.

  16. Mental illness in Sweden (1896-1905) reflected through case records from a local general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, Malin; Brådvik, Louise; Åsberg, Marie

    2018-02-01

    Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women. Those with a medical certificate for mental hospital care were very ill and showed no gender difference. There were no diagnoses for abuse, but 17% had a high level of alcohol consumption. The pattern of signs and symptoms displayed by patients does not appear to change with time.

  17. Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.

  18. The development of mental hospitals in West Bengal: A brief history and changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography. The volume and quality of research work, especially in the field of epidemiology led by Dr. D. N. Nandi is worth mentioning. A jail had been converted to mental hospital which is the largest in terms of bed strength ( n = 350) at Berhampore, Murshidabad district where Kazi Nazrul Islam and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had spent some period as prisoner during British rules. Bankura was the first district in West Bengal to start District Mental Health program. The various nongovernmental organizations are working together in public-private partnership model or indigenous ways in tandem over years for the betterment of mental health services both at institutional and community level.

  19. Correlation between the Mini Mental State Examination-Korean version and the Measurement of Quality of the Environment in the institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the cognitive level of the elderly and their attitude towards the living environment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 80 elderly people hospitalized in a nursing home in K city, South Korea, participated in this study. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between scores on the Mini Mental State Examination-Korean Version and Measurement of Quality of the Environment (facilitators and obstacles). [Results] A positive and moderately strong correlation (r = 0.462) was found between scores on the Mini Mental State Examination and the Measurement of Quality of the Environment (obstacle). [Conclusion] In a nursing home, patients with relatively higher cognitive levels can perceive more obstacles in the surrounding environment.

  20. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  1. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Markos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers

  2. [Relationship between job stress contents, psychosocial factors and mental health status among university hospital nurses in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Suk; Cho, Young-Chae

    2007-09-01

    The present study was intended to assess the mental health of nurses working for university hospitals and to establish which factors determine their mental health. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1,486 nurses employed in six participating hospitals located in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province between July 1st and August 31st, 2006. The questionnaire items included sociodemographic, job-related, and psychosocial factors, with job stress factors (JCQ) as independent variables and indices of mental health status (PWI, SDS and MFS) as dependent variables. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables, with hierarchical multiple regression used for determining the factors effecting mental health. The influence of psychosocial and job-related factors on mental health status was assessed by covariance structure analysis. The statistical significance was set at pnurses included sociodemographic characteristics such as age, number of hours of sleep, number of hours of leisure, and subjective health status; job-related characteristics such as status, job satisfaction, job suitability, stresses such as demands of the job, autonomy, and coworker support; and psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, locus of control and type A behavior patterns. Psychosocial factors had the greatest impact on mental health. Covariance structure analysis determined that psychosocial factors affected job stress levels and mental health status, and that the lower job stress levels were associated with better mental health. Based on the study results, improvement of mental health status among nurses requires the development and application of programs to manage job stress factors and/or psychosocial factors as well as sociodemographic and job-related characteristics.

  3. Negative illness perceptions associated with low mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs.

  4. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  5. Intervention pattern in crisis: mental health as a nursing care approach at a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; Kestenberg, Célia Caldeira Fonseca; Silva, Alexandre Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Testing and validating the application of Intervention in Crisis theory as an approach in mental health on HIV/AIDS patients care who are interned at a general hospital. Method: Help Interview has been accomplished as an activity for Mental Health subject according to an applied guide by graduation in nursing students in order to identify this illness psycho-social repercussion and draft therapeutic plan for patients under their care. The outcomes were the reports results presented...

  6. Reinstitutionalization by stealth: The Forensic Mental Health Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997 the Forensic Mental Health Service (FMHS) in the. Western Cape had a total of 205 state patients in its database, most of whom were inpatients at Valkenberg and Lenteguer. Hospitals. Currently the database has just over 800 state patients. The number of state patients in the Western Cape has more than.

  7. A proposed instrument for the assessment of job satisfaction in Greek mental NHS hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiris, Georgios; Gitona, Kleoniki; Drosou, Vasiliki; Niakas, Dimitrios

    2008-08-01

    Since its introduction in 1983, the Greek NHS is under an almost constant reform, aiming improvement on the efficiency and the quality of provided services. The national program of psychiatric reform "Psychargos" introduced new models of therapeutic approach to the care of the mentally ill, that required expansion of the existing roles and development of new roles of the healthcare staff. Consequently, the efficient management of the healthcare workforce in Greek mental facilities was identified as a primary determinant of the successful implementation of the program. Primary objective of this study was the development of a research framework for the assessment of job satisfaction in Greek Mental Health Hospitals. Among the objectives was the evaluation of the capacity of the underlying motivators and hygiene factors and the identification of potential correlations of the global job satisfaction and the motivation and retention factors with the demographic, social and occupational characteristics of the employees. A custom questionnaire was developed, based on Herzberg two-factor theory, after a systematic review of the relevant literature. The instrument was constructed by two parts and 37 items. Ten items addressed the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, while the remaining 27 items were distributed in 11 subscales which addressed the global satisfaction index and the "retention" and the "motivation" variables. The instrument was validated by means of the Cronbach alpha for each subscale and by confirmatory factor analysis. The study was conducted at the Public Mental Hospital of Chania (PMHC). From the 300 employees of the PMHC, 133 subjects successfully responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 44.3%). In accordance to former surveys, subjects presented average scores in the global satisfaction index (GSI). The professional category of the employee was identified as the primary determinant of the GSI. Nurses presented statistically

  8. "The family is the clinic, the community is the hospital": community mental health in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Zoe; Tilman, Teofilo

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the history and recent development of mental health services in Timor-Leste, a small developing country recovering from conflict. Challenges to effective service delivery are discussed as well as plans for future development. Timor-Leste's mental health service began just over a decade ago. Unlike many other low and middle income countries where hospital-based services predominate, the mental health model in Timor-Leste is entirely community based. However, challenges to effective mental health care delivery are similar to most developing countries and include a lack of sufficient financial resources, human resources, and mental health infrastructure. Addressing these issues successfully requires political will, a greater prioritization of mental health services, close coordination between stakeholders, as well as developments in the area of education, training and infrastructure. Greater understanding and education about the links between mental and physical health would benefit the overall health of the population, and integration of these respective policies may prove a successful method of more equitably redistributing finances and resources.

  9. Mental Health Expenditures: Association with Workplace Incivility and Bullying Among Hospital Patient Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Williams, Jessica A R; Boden, Leslie I; Tempesti, Tommaso; Wagner, Gregory R; Hopcia, Karen; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2018-03-13

    Bullied workers have poor self-reported mental health; monetary costs of bullying exposure are unknown. We tested associations between bullying and health plan claims for mental health diagnoses. We used data from 793 hospital workers who answered questions about bullying in a survey and subscribed to the group health plan. We used two-part models to test associations between types of incivility/bullying and mental health expenditures. Workers experiencing incivility or bullying had greater odds of any mental health claims. Among claimants, unexposed workers spent $792, those experiencing one type of incivility or bullying spent $1,557 (p for difference from unexposed=0.016), those experiencing two types spent $928 (p = 0.503), and those experiencing three types spent $1,446 (p = 0.040). Workplace incivility and bullying may carry monetary costs to employers, which could be controlled through work environment modification.

  10. Attitudes Towards the Mentally Ill: A Study with Health Workers at a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Sylvia Rosa Gonçalves; Abelha, Lúcia; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Sarução, Keli Rodrigues; Yang, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    As there are few studies about evaluation of attitudes of health care workers to people with mental disorders in Brazil, a cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the health professionals' attitudes working in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro and also examine the proportion of negative and positive attitudes endorsed by healthcare professionals in Brazil towards people with mental illness in comparison with other parts of the world. Data were collected using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) in a random sampling frame of health professionals (n = 246) working in a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro between April 2013 and June 2013. The CAMI consists of four sub-scales: Authoritarianism, Benevolence, Social Restrictiveness and Community Mental Health Ideology. The results showed attitudes that range from neutral to positive, with the Benevolence and Social Restrictiveness sub-scales showing the least stigmatizing results. The following individual characteristics were associated with negative attitudes: lower levels of education and less clinical experience. In general, health workers attitudes towards service users are characterized as positive when compared with other international studies. However, educational programs for health workers should be reinforced to further promote pre-existing positive attitudes towards people with mental health and the implementation of Brazilian Mental Health Policies.

  11. Sex on show. Issues of privacy and dignity in a Forensic mental health hospital: Nurse and patient views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    To explore perceptions of privacy and dignity for sexual relationships in a Forensic mental health hospital. The role of nurses in forensic mental health hospitals is frequently complicated by opposing expectations of therapeutic relationships and maintaining security. What can result is an over-emphasis on risk reduction by controlling patient behaviour, which can extend to patient intimacy and sexual relationships. An exploratory, qualitative approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 nurses and 10 patients in a forensic mental health hospital. Thematic data analysis was undertaken to identify the main themes. The need for a private and dignified place for patient intimacy was one major theme to emerge from this research from both nurse and patient participants and is the focus of this article. A disparity is reported between the level of support reported by nurse participants with the experience of the patient participants. Sexual intimacy and sexual relationships are important components of normal human behaviour. Institutional rules and rule adherence create barriers for patients, forcing their intimacy and sexual relationships into secrecy. There is a need for further research to consider the benefits and risks of patient intimacy and sexual relationships for long-term patients in forensic mental health settings. Patients in forensic hospitals are sexually active and seek support from nurses. Nurses are in an ideal role to recognise the important part they can play in supporting the intimacy and sexual relationship needs of patients. Strategies to assist in developing confidence in responding to normal human behaviour is a matter of priority. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be

  13. Alcoholism and degeneration in the Departmental Mental Hospital of Antioquia, Colombia (1920-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salazar Bermúdez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze 159 clinical records of patients with diagnoses related to alcohol at the Departamental Mental Hospital of Antioquia, between the years of 1920 and 1930. In that decade an institutional transformation began with the arrival at the direction of Dr. Lázaro Uribe Calad. Besides it was very discussed in the medical and political sector the idea of the racial degeneracy, a matter in which alcoholism played a central role. It is observed in medical publications a constant concern due to the terrible consequences that the high consumption of alcohol could bring in society. However, a deeper review of sources such as the annual Statistics of the Mental Hospital and the clinical records, shows how clinical practice reflected another reality. It is concluded that both, the number of patients who were diagnosed as alcoholic or whose etiology was related to the drink, were much lower than those indicated by the doctors. These incomes mainly responded to moral and social problems, but not to psychiatric issues.

  14. The Relationships of Mental States and Intellectual Processes in the Learning Activities of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander O.; Chernov, Albert V.; Yusupov, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the interaction of mental states and cognitive processes in the classroom allows us to solve the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training by activating cognitive processes and management of students' mental states. This article is concerned with the most general patterns of interaction between mental state and…

  15. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of Hospitalization, Mental Health, and Physical Performance in Burned Patients DOCUMENTS: Protocol , Version Date: June 30, 2016 The UTMB...throughout hospital stay across the US and (Aim 2) outcomes in burn in- patients . Over 4 years, we will enroll 96 patients (24 per site; MP10 n=64 and...to be safe) and during the entire BICU, on ventilator and in- hospital stay in burn individuals. UTMB, UC-Davis and UTSW are enrolling patients . The

  16. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  17. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  18. State mental health policy: Maryland's shared leadership approach to mental health transformation: partnerships that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semansky, Rafael M

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, Maryland received a mental health transformation grant from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Maryland's transformation efforts have differed from those in other grantee states and have evolved into a shared leadership approach that harnesses the power of leaders from all sectors of the community. This column describes Maryland's reform efforts, focusing in particular on the development of the position of a peer employment specialist to improve placement of consumers in employment. This shared leadership approach has the potential to enhance long-term sustainability of reform initiatives and uses fewer state resources.

  19. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  20. Reducing Medical Students' Stigmatization of People with Chronic Mental Illness: A Field Intervention at the "Living Museum" State Hospital Art Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Hutner, Lucy A.; Cortland, Clarissa; Graham, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed an intervention to reduce beginning medical students' stigmatization of people with chronic mental illness (CMI). Methods: Pre-clinical medical students visited a state psychiatric facility's "Living Museum," a combination patient art studio/display space, as the intervention. During the visit, students interacted…

  1. Nurses and opioids: results of a bi-national survey on mental models regarding opioid administration in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Guest,1 Fabian Sobotka,2 Athina Karavasopoulou,3 Stephen Ward,3 Carsten Bantel4,5 1Pain Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Division of Epidemiology and Biometry, Department of Health Services Research, Faculty 6, Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany; 3Pain Service, Barts Health, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, UK; 4Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Oldenburg University, Klinikum Oldenburg Campus, Oldenburg, Germany; 5Department of Surgery and Cancer, Anaesthetics Section, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital Campus, London, UK Objective: Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses’ mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. Material and methods: A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs. Latent variables that may underlie nurses’ mental models were identified using undirected graphical dependence models. Representative items of latent variables were employed for ordinal regression analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,379 nurses in two London, UK, hospitals (n=580 and one German (n=799 hospital between September 2014 and February 2015. Results: A total of 511 (37.1% questionnaires were returned. Mean (standard deviation age of participants were 37 (11 years; 83.5% participants were female; 45.2% worked in critical care; and 51.5% had more than 10 years experience. Of the nurses, 84% were not scared of opioids, 87

  2. Estimating inpatient hospital prices from state administrative data and hospital financial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Katharine R; Friedman, Bernard; Wong, Herbert S

    2013-10-01

    To develop a tool for estimating hospital-specific inpatient prices for major payers. AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases and complete hospital financial reporting of revenues mandated in 10 states for 2006. Hospital discharge records and hospital financial information were merged to estimate revenue per stay by payer. Estimated prices were validated against other data sources. Hospital prices can be reasonably estimated for 10 geographically diverse states. All-payer price-to-charge ratios, an intermediate step in estimating prices, compare favorably to cost-to-charge ratios. Estimated prices also compare well with Medicare, MarketScan private insurance, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey prices for major payers, given limitations of each dataset. Public reporting of prices is a consumer resource in making decisions about health care treatment; for self-pay patients, they can provide leverage in negotiating discounts off of charges. Researchers can also use prices to increase understanding of the level and causes of price differentials among geographic areas. Prices by payer expand investigational tools available to study the interaction of inpatient hospital price setting among public and private payers--an important asset as the payer mix changes with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  4. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  5. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  6. Advancing Care Within an Adult Mental Health Day Hospital: Program Re-Design and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Mehak, Adrienne; Marangos, Sandy; Kalim, Anastasia; Ungar, Thomas

    2017-11-13

    Day hospital mental health programs provide alternate care to individuals of high acuity that do not require an inpatient psychiatric stay. Ensuring provision of best practice within these programs is essential for patient stabilization and recovery. However, there is scant literature to review when creating such a program. This paper provides an overview of the steps an acute care hospital took when designing and implementing new programming within a day hospital program. Qualitative data was collected following initial program rollout. This data helped to inform the ongoing modification of groups offered, group scheduling and content, as well as ensuring patient satisfaction and adequate skill delivery during the rollout period and beyond. The goal of this paper is to inform health service delivery for other programs when attempting to build or re-design a day hospital program.

  7. Mental Disorder Hospitalizations among Submarine Personnel in the U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    hospitalization rates ( Lilienfeld , 1980). T- tests were used to assess statistical signi- ficance of differences in descriptive variables (McNemar, 1969... Lilienfeld , D. E. Foundations of epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. McNemar, Q. Psychological statistics. 4th ed. New York: Wiley...0 5/S I milI’l 11 1 ; 𔃻 28 112.5 U-2 11112.2 II~.2.4~ 11111J.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NADONAL BUJR[AU OF STANDARDS Ib3 A IvM Mental

  8. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette F; Dalton, Susanne O; Cederkvist, Luise; Jeppesen, Pia; Deltour, Isabelle; Hargreave, Marie; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Andersen, Klaus K; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings. Hospital contact for mental disorders was assessed in a population-based cohort of 7085 Danish children treated for cancer by contemporary protocols between 1975 and 2010 and in their 13 105 siblings by use of data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for first hospital contact were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared these sibling and survivor cohorts with two population-based cohorts who were not childhood cancer survivors or siblings of survivors. Survivors of childhood cancer were at increased risk of hospital contact for mental disorders, with HRs of 1·50 (95% CI 1·32-1·69) for males and 1·26 (1·10-1·44) for females. Children younger than 10 years at diagnosis had the highest risk, and increased risks were seen in survivors of CNS tumours, haematological malignancies, and solid tumours. Survivors had higher risk of neurodevelopmental, emotional, and behavioural disorders than population-based comparisons and siblings, and male survivors had higher risk for unipolar depression. Overall, siblings had no excess risk for mental disorders. However, our data suggest that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis of the survivor were at increased risk for mental disorders, whereas those older than 15 years at diagnosis were at a lower risk than the general population. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed up for mental late effects, especially those diagnosed in young age. Further, clinicians should also be aware that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis might be at increased risk for mental health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Association between Ambient Temperatures and Mental Disorder Hospitalizations in a Subtropical City: A Time-Series Study of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Lam, Holly C Y; So, Suzanne H W; Goggins, William B; Ho, Janice Y; Liu, Sida; Chung, Phoebe P W

    2018-04-14

    Background : Mental disorders have been found to be positively associated with temperature in cool to cold climatic regions but the association in warmer regions is unclear. This study presented the short-term association between temperatures and mental disorder hospitalizations in a subtropical city with a mean annual temperature over 21 °C. Methods : Using Poisson-generalized additive models and distributed-lagged nonlinear models, daily mental disorder hospitalizations between 2002 and 2011 in Hong Kong were regressed on daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and air pollutants, adjusted for seasonal trend, long-term trend, day-of-week, and holiday. Analyses were stratified by disease class, gender and age-group. Results : 44,600 admissions were included in the analysis. Temperature was positively associated with overall mental-disorder hospitalizations (cumulative relative risk at 28 °C vs. 19.4 °C (interquartile range, lag 0-2 days) = 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.15)), with the strongest effect among the elderly (≥75 years old). Transient mental disorders due to conditions classified elsewhere and episodic mood disorders also showed strong positive associations with temperature. Conclusion : This study found a positive temperature-mental-disorder admissions association in a warm subtropical region and the association was most prominent among older people. With the dual effect of global warming and an aging population, targeted strategies should be designed to lower the disease burden.

  10. What parents of mentally ill children need and want from mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Kathleen

    2002-09-01

    Child psychiatric hospitalization is a time of crisis for the parents of a child with a mental disorder. Prior to hospitalization, the child's problematic behavior has escalated. Parents have various types of contact with mental health professionals prior to, during, and after the hospitalization, which influence their ability to care for their child. This paper reports a qualitative descriptive study of what parents need and want from mental health professionals during this time frame. During the study, parents spontaneously talked about what they needed and wanted from mental health professionals, including nursing personnel. The perspectives of 38 parents of 29 hospitalized children were obtained through interviews. Parents identified needing informational, emotional, and instrumental support most often in the interviews. Specific examples from the data are included in this report.

  11. Census of mental hospital patients and life expectancy of those unlikely to be discharged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, T; Bland, J M; Ilo, M; Walch, E; Willington, G

    1975-12-20

    A census in a London mental hospital was performed so that the numbers of patients requiring permanent care for the next 20 to 40 years could be estimated. Of 1467 resident patients 20% had been admitted in the preceding five months and 15% in the year before that. Of the 65% who had been in hospital for over 17 months 1% (16 patients) had been in hospital for over 5o years. Altogether 257 (18%) patients would probably be discharged, 339 (23%) might possibly be discharged if there were adequate community facilities, but 871 (59%) were not likely to be discharged; 239 patients under the age of 65 who had been admitted between 1950 and 1973 were unlikely to be discharged. There were about 10 new younger long-stay patients from each year's admissions. Three conditions--schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, and affective illness--affected 79% of the population. Fourteen per cent had been employed on admission and 28% were considered employable or possibly employable. Half of those who might be considered for discharge (296) would need a hostel. No rehabilitation was needed or possible for 40% of the patients; 299 (20%) patients were chairbound or bedridden and 400 (27%) were totally dependent on nursing and 587 (40%) partly dependent. Twenty months after the census 361 (25%) patients had left (59 had been readmitted), 284 (19%) had died, and 822 (56%) had remained as inpatients. The most realistic future prediction was that 210 (14%) of these patients would still be in the hospital in 20 years and 43 (3%) in 40 years. In the light of these findings and the scarceness of resources current Department of Health and Social Security plans for phasing out mental hospitals must be challenged.

  12. Law Students' Attitudes toward and Preparedness for Mentally Ill Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Lisa-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Currently in the United States, there are far more mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons than in mental hospitals or other treatment facilities. Stigma toward this population presents as a major barrier to eradicating this indictment, yet research has shown that education can help to reduce stigma and, in turn, possibly decreasing the…

  13. A review of one year of British Armed Forces mental health hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, A; Finnegan, S; Gamble, D

    2007-03-01

    The paper provides a review of one year of military Mental Health (MH) hospital admissions. This includes an exploration into demographic trends, differences in clinical opinion and how information gained is used to improve the service and ensure appropriate, cost effective care in the optimum environment. The sample group is entitled military MH hospital admissions from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2006. Data was collected on questionnaires with SPSS used for the management and analysis of the quantitative data, with the information exposed to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. There were 344 admissions. The paper contains a detailed review of a number of variables. Depression was the most common diagnosis resulting in 112 (33%) hospital admissions and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder accounted for 23 (7%). There were statistically significant differences that may be attributable to gender with more women admitted with depression and more men with alcohol related disorders. The average length of stay was 21 days, with 48% of patients discharged within 3 weeks. 45% of all returns included significant events reporting that highlighted written evidence of good and poor practice. This study is part of an extensive monitoring programme of military MH hospital admissions. Depression is the most common MH problem leading to hospital admission. The results indicate that Service-personnel have access to a highly responsive service that provides brief assessment and treatment within a safe therapeutic environment. 45% of returns included significant event information that resulted in policy changes, leading to improved patient care and a better interface with the NHS. Bench-marking, both internally between military Departments of Community Mental Health and externally have improved visibility and self awareness leading to better GP induction programmes, PHC educational seminars and the establishment of MH web-pages. The Armed Forces need an effective MH service

  14. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  15. Profile of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Among Preschoolers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan M. Al-Sharbati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of mental and behavioral disorders in preschoolers is critical for a better prognosis, ultimately leading to improved quality of life for both the child and the family. Our study investigated the clinical profile of mental and behavioral disorders in children < 7 years of age, seeking consultation at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2010. The objective was to explore demographic variables, intervention types, and annual trends. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted by reviewing the electronic records of preschoolers seeking consultation on mental and behavioral disorders at the Department of Behavioral Medicine. The diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. Results: The total number of cases was 466, the majority (77.9% being boys. The cumulative frequencies and annual hospital-based prevalence rates were estimated for each category of mental and behavioral disorders. Our findings showed increased service utilization among preschoolers, as reflected in the annual trend and case-specific prevalence rates. While comorbidity was common, the most frequent disorders encountered were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (70.8%, developmental language disorder (23.6%, autism spectrum disorders (20.2%, and disruptive behavior disorders (11.6%. The most commonly prescribed drugs/supplementation were risperidone (18.7%, atomoxetine (9.7%, omega-3 (8.8%, and methylphenidate (6.2%. Conclusions: Consultations for mental and behavioral disorders are being sought for Omani preschoolers. Beside pharmacotherapy, other interventions, which are an integral part of a much desired multidisciplinary approach should be introduced. Readdressing the missing needs is essential for a comprehensive approach to managing mental and behavioral disorders.

  16. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30-60, in 1982-3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993-4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected using the Danish National Patient Registry. Ulcers were diagnosed in 166 subjects, including 83 complicated by bleeding or perforation. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted associations were significant for mental vulnerability (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.8), Helicobacter pylori (HR 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3), smoking (HR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), heavy drinking (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.4), abstinence (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.5), non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (HR 2.1, CI 1.5-3.0), and sedentary lifestyle (HR 1.9, CI 1.4-2.7). Adjusted for all behavioral mediators, the HR for mental vulnerability was 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2, p = .04). Mental vulnerability raised risk in Helicobacter pylori seropositive subjects and those exposed to neither Helicobacter pylori nor non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; its impact was virtually unchanged when analysis was limited to complicated ulcers. A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in 'idiopathic' and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.

  17. Stigma towards mental illness: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among caregivers in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness has a serious impact on the disease outcome and lives of people with mental illness as well as other family members. The objectives of this study were (i) To determine the level of self-perceived stigma toward mental illness, (ii) To measure perception to it among caregivers of people with mental illness, and (iii) To identify the factors associated with self-perceived stigma of caregivers. In this cross-sectional study, a structured interview was conducted among 200 caregivers of people with mental illness in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. Stigma and perception regarding mental illness were assessed with a validated 12-item Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue and 20-item perception scale, respectively. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics was also collected. Average stigma score (53.3 ± 13.2) was higher than 50% of maximum attainable score. Caregivers of higher age, female gender, low income, higher education, manual job, rural residence, and those who are single or widowed scored higher in stigma scale. Caregivers with female gender (P = 0.007) and rural residence (P = 0.01) were more likely to have stigma while the perception score was negatively associated (P illness and improve family life.

  18. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Do US Medical Licensing Applications Treat Mental and Physical Illness Equivalently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katherine J; Shih, Elizabeth R; Goldman, Edward B; Schwenk, Thomas L

    2017-06-01

    State medical licensing boards are responsible for evaluating physician impairment. Given the stigma generated by mental health issues among physicians and in the medical training culture, we were interested in whether states asked about mental and physical health conditions differently and whether questions focused on current impairment. Two authors reviewed physician medical licensing applications for US physicians seeking first-time licensing in 2013 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Questions about physical and mental health, as well as substance abuse, were identified and coded as to whether or not they asked about diagnosis and/or treatment or limited the questions to conditions causing physician impairment. Forty-three (84%) states asked questions about mental health conditions, 43 (84%) about physical health conditions, and 47 (92%) about substance use. States were more likely to ask for history of treatment and prior hospitalization for mental health and substance use, compared with physical health disorders. Among states asking about mental health, just 23 (53%) limited all questions to disorders causing functional impairment and just 6 (14%) limited to current problems. While most state medical licensing boards ask about mental health conditions or treatment, only half limited queries to disorders causing impairment. Differences in how state licensing boards assess mental health raise important ethical and legal questions about assessing physician ability to practice and may discourage treatment for physicians who might otherwise benefit from appropriate care.

  20. Case series of child sexual abuse: Abia State University Teaching Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoronkwo, N C; Ejike, O

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse remains a serious infringement on the rights of the child. Though it appears to be viewed less seriously among adolescents, the consequences may be more severe and less obvious for the younger child. Age of the child appears notto be a deterrent. There is paucity of local data in the sub-region on this important social problem. The circumstance surrounding child sexual abuse in our environment needs to be reviewed. This study sets out to evaluate the characteristics of victims of child sexual abuse and to proffer solutions on how to stem the tide of the crime. To examine the characteristics of sexually abused children presenting to the paediatrics department of Abia State UniversityTeaching hospital, Aba. The case records of 10 consecutive cases of sexually abused children that presented to the Children Outpatient Department of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba, from January to June 2006 were prospectively reviewed and the parents/child/abuser interviewed where possible. All the victims were females aged 3-11 yrs, while all the abusers were males 14-29 yrs. Both parties were of low socio-economic class. 50% of the victims reported the incident. Mental and psychological state of the perpetrators appears to be a factor. Physical injuries to the vulva-vaginal areas were common. This study shows that child sexual abuse may not be uncommon in our environment. The exact prevalence remains unknown.The perpetrators of child sexual abuse should be prosecuted as a deterrent and rehabilitated whenever possible.

  1. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Dawn; Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health interv...

  2. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default) or extrinsic (executive) attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator). After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement) and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression), suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  3. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitenburg Martijn M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.

  4. Forensic state patients at Sterkfontein Hospital: A 3-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Marais

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. State patients are individuals who have been charged with offences involving serious violence and who have been declared unfit to stand trial and/or who are not criminally responsible because of their mental illness or defect. They are referred by the courts for treatment, rehabilitation and indefinite detention at a forensic psychiatric facility. However, many of these state patients may ultimately be released back into the community. As these individuals may be considered a high-risk group, their rates of relapse and recidivism are of importance. There is a paucity of South African literature on the long-term outcome of state patients.  Objective. To describe the profile of state patients, and to examine their outcomes after 3 years, including recidivism rates.  Methods. A descriptive, retrospective study of the clinical records of 114 state patients admitted to Sterkfontein Hospital in 2004 and 2005 was conducted, and their profile and 3-year outcomes were determined. Results. The majority of state patients were male, single, unemployed, had a past psychiatric history (59%, and substance abuse history (71%. A third reported a past criminal history. The most common offences were assault with the intention to do grievous bodily harm (19%, rape (18% and murder (13%. Psychotic disorders represented the most common diagnostic category (69%, with schizophrenia being the most frequent diagnosis (44%. Most state patients had been found unfit to stand trial (96% and not criminally responsible (89%. At the end of the 3-year follow-up, the majority were in the community (69%, of whom most (72% were out on leave of absence (LOA, while a quarter had absconded and a minority were reclassified (3%. Most absconders (83% were state patients who had not returned from LOA. The recidivism rate was 4%.  Conclusion. Most state patients were out in the community at the end of the 3-year period. The following recommendations are suggested: improved

  5. [PTSD-positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims evacuated/ not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Luo, Xingwei

    2009-06-01

    To explore posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims who were evacuated/were not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month. The 3 groups included 235 victims who were not evacuated from Shifang territory (the incident scene, Group A), 44 victims who were evacuated to Second Xiangya Hospital (the wounded, Group B) and 36 relatives (the relatives, Group C). The mental state of all subjects was evaluated by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and other tools. (1) One month after the disaster, and the positive rate of PTSD screening in these survivors was 35.56%, the positive rate in women was significantly higher than that in men (chi(2)=16.27,PGender, place of residence and evacuating from the earthquake area or not were factors of PTSD symptoms. One month after the earthquake, the victims suffered psychologically. PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms were their major mental problems, more attention to especially women victims. The protection factors include dispersing victims to the secure place as soon as possible, expanding and strengthening society support. Early psychological interventions will help victims to raise their psychological endurance and prevent PTSD effectively.

  6. Using social bonding theory to examine 'recovery' in a forensic mental health hospital: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Livingston, James D; Verdun-Jones, Simon; Brink, Johann

    2015-07-01

    For people living with mental illness, recovery involves learning to overcome and manage their symptoms and striving to live fulfilling lives. The literature on achieving recovery emphasises the importance of social connections and positive role models. Hirschi's social bonding theory posits that an individual's attachment to others, belief in social norms, and their commitment and involvement in conventional activities are the major contributors to normalising social behaviour. The aim of this study is to understand the qualities of service identified by patients in a forensic hospital as being important and meaningful to recovery. Semi-structured interviews with 30 inpatients in a forensic mental health hospital in British Columbia, Canada, were audio recorded, and the transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes emerged: involvement in programmes, belief in rules and social norms, attachment to supportive individuals, commitment to work-related activities and concern about indeterminacy of stay. The first four themes map closely onto Hirschi's criminologically derived social bonding theory; however, indeterminacy of stay also arose as a common theme. In addition, the theory was too simple in its separation of elements; our data suggested the complex integration of themes. Our findings may be useful for informing evaluation of forensic mental health services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mental Health and Hospital Chaplaincy: Strategies of Self-Protection (Case Study: Toronto, Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional – hospital chaplains – who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Methods: Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, ...

  8. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  9. Medical students' attitudes to mental illnesses and to psychiatry before and after the psychiatric clerkship: Training in a specialty and a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Marina; Kontoangelos, Kontantinos; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria; Douzenis, Athanasios; Papadimitriou, George N

    2017-12-01

    Medical students' attitudes to mental illnesses and psychiatry may be reshaped during the psychiatric training, with important implications in their future practice of the profession. Therefore, the present study set out to explore the impact of the psychiatric clerkship in students' attitudes, while taking into consideration the site of their practical training. To this end, a total of 678 final-year medical students were recruited. Students completed a self-reported questionnaire entailing the Attitudes to Psychiatry scale, the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale and the Greek Social Distance scale before and after their placement. Findings indicate that the psychiatric clerkship had a positive effect in reducing stigma towards both psychiatry and mental illnesses, with the effect being more pronounced in the general hospital with respect to the former, while in the specialty hospital was more marked regarding the latter. A further exploration of the determinants of change revealed that the improvement discerned in the general hospital was only among those without professional experience of mental illnesses. Therefore, the psychiatric clerkship may exert a substantial influence on shaping favourable attitudes towards mental illnesses and psychiatry; however, other elements should also be taken into consideration, if the clerkship is to tackle stigma in healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. COGNITIVE MODELING OF EPISTEMIC MENTAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurovitskaya, L.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistemic states of mind, connected with the cognitive activity of a man, are aimed not only at apprehending the world around us, but also at the process of this apprehension. A very important step on this way is an attempt to model these states and processes in terms of formal logics and semantics, irrespective of the language of cognition. The article presents the idea of how formal logical and linguistic modeling of the process of thinking shows the correlation and the interdependence of semantic units connected with mental activities of human brain. The basic notions of the conceptual field of cognition are presented in the article

  11. Somatic hospital contacts, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality from heart disease in patients with severe mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben; Gasse, Christiane; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2009-07-01

    Excess mortality from heart disease is observed in patients with severe mental disorder. This excess mortality may be rooted in adverse effects of pharmacological or psychotropic treatment, lifestyle factors, or inadequate somatic care. To examine whether persons with severe mental disorder, defined as persons admitted to a psychiatric hospital with bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia, are in contact with hospitals and undergoing invasive procedures for heart disease to the same degree as the nonpsychiatric general population, and to determine whether they have higher mortality rates of heart disease. A population-based cohort of 4.6 million persons born in Denmark was followed up from 1994 to 2007. Rates of mortality, somatic contacts, and invasive procedures were estimated by survival analysis. Incidence rate ratios of heart disease admissions and heart disease mortality as well as probability of invasive cardiac procedures. The incidence rate ratio of heart disease contacts in persons with severe mental disorder compared with the rate for the nonpsychiatric general population was only slightly increased, at 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.14). In contrast, their excess mortality rate ratio from heart disease was 2.90 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-3.10). Five years after the first contact for somatic heart disease, the risk of dying of heart disease was 8.26% for persons with severe mental disorder (aged mental disorder as compared with the nonpsychiatric general population (7.04% vs 12.27%, respectively). Individuals with severe mental disorder had only negligible excess rates of contact for heart disease. Given their excess mortality from heart disease and lower rates of invasive procedures after first contact, it would seem that the treatment for heart disease offered to these individuals in Denmark is neither sufficiently efficient nor sufficiently intensive. This undertreatment may explain part of their excess

  12. Hospital-Based Physicians' Intubation Decisions and Associated Mental Models when Managing a Critically and Terminally Ill Older Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliko, Shannon; Downs, Julie; Mohan, Deepika; Arnold, Robert; Barnato, Amber E

    2018-04-01

    Variation in the intensity of acute care treatment at the end of life is influenced more strongly by hospital and provider characteristics than patient preferences. We sought to describe physicians' mental models (i.e., thought processes) when encountering a simulated critically and terminally ill older patient, and to compare those models based on whether their treatment plan was patient preference-concordant or preference-discordant. Seventy-three hospital-based physicians from 3 academic medical centers engaged in a simulated patient encounter and completed a mental model interview while watching the video recording of their encounter. We used an "expert" model to code the interviews. We then used Kruskal-Wallis tests to compare the weighted mental model themes of physicians who provided preference-concordant treatment with those who provided preference-discordant treatment. Sixty-six (90%) physicians provided preference-concordant treatment and 7 (10%) provided preference-discordant treatment (i.e., they intubated the patient). Physicians who intubated the patient were more likely to emphasize the reversible and emergent nature of the patient situation (z = -2.111, P = 0.035), their own comfort (z = -2.764, P = 0.006), and rarely focused on explicit patient preferences (z = 2.380, P = 0.017). Post-decisional interviewing with audio/video prompting may induce hindsight bias. The expert model has not yet been validated and may not be exhaustive. The small sample size limits generalizability and power. Hospital-based physicians providing preference-discordant used a different mental model for decision making for a critically and terminally ill simulated case. These differences may offer targets for future interventions to promote preference-concordant care for seriously ill patients.

  13. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  14. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Social Sciences, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, P.M.B. 5363 Ekiti. State, Nigeria ... Nigeria, towards epilepsy and mental illness in terms of work opportunities .... have a negative impact in the management of epilepsy (Nbuko et al, 2003).

  15. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  16. Conversations about mental states and theory of mind development during middle childhood: A training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Shinakee; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-09-01

    The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on serum lithium level and mental state in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Nazar, Zahid; Akhtar, Javaid; Akhter, Javed; Irfan, Muhammad; Irafn, Mohammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ejaz Hassan; Khatak, Ijaz Hassan; Naeem, Farooq

    2010-11-01

    The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder and on prophylactic lithium therapy before, during and after Ramadan. Sixty-two patients meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Research Diagnostic Criteria of bipolar affective disorder receiving lithium treatment for prophylaxis were recruited in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Serum lithium, electrolytes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were assessed at three points, 1 week before Ramadan, midRamadan and 1 week after Ramadan. The side effects and toxicity were measured by a symptoms and signs checklist. There was no significant difference in mean serum lithium levels at three time points (preRamadan=0.45±0.21, midRamadan=0.51±0.20 and postRamadan=0.44±0.23 milli equivalents/litre, P=0.116). The scores on HDRS and YMRS showed significant decrease during Ramadan (F=34.12, P=0.00, for HDRS and F=15.6, P=0.000 for YMRS). The side effects and toxicity also did not differ significantly at three points. In conclusion, the patients who have stable mental state and lithium levels before Ramadan can be maintained on lithium during Ramadan. Fasting in an average temperature of 28°C for up to 12 h per day did not result in elevated serum lithium levels or more side effects and did not have adverse effects on mental state of patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder.

  19. State of malnutrition in Cuban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto Penié, Jesús

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the current state of undernutrition as observed in 1905 patients hospitalized in 12 Cuban health care institutions, as part of a Latin American, multinational survey similar in design and goals. We surveyed 1905 randomly selected patients from 12 Cuban hospitals in a two-phase study. Patients' clinical charts were audited in phase 1, the Subjective Global Assessment was used to assess patients' nutritional status in phase 2. The study was locally conducted by a properly trained team. The frequency of undernutrition in Cuban hospitals was 41.2% (95% confidence interval = 38.9 to 43.4), and 11.1% of patients were considered severely undernourished. Statistically significant (P hospital services/specialties were identified: geriatrics (56.3%), critical care (54.8%), nephrology (54.3%), internal medicine (48.6%), gastroenterology (46.5%), and cardiovascular surgery (44.8%). Malnutrition rates increased progressively with prolonged length of stay. A high malnutrition rate was observed among participating hospitals. The design and inception of policies that foster intervention programs focusing on early identification of hospital malnutrition and its timely management is suggested to decrease its deleterious effects on outcomes of health care in the participating hospitals.

  20. Mental health and hospital chaplaincy: strategies of self-protection (case study: toronto, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional - hospital chaplains - who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski's method of qualitative description. The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains' emotional make-up. Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. None.

  1. Personality disorder is an excess risk factor for physical multimorbidity among women with mental state disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lucy B G; Lo, Barbara C Y; Macrae, C Neil

    2014-01-01

    The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

  3. Through your eyes or mine? The neural correlates of mental state recognition in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Rickards, Hugh E; Hansen, Peter C

    2018-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) can impair social cognition. This study investigated whether patients with HD exhibit neural differences to healthy controls when they are considering mental and physical states relating to the static expressions of human eyes. Thirty-two patients with HD and 28 age-matched controls were scanned with fMRI during two versions of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task: The standard version requiring mental state judgments, and a comparison version requiring judgments about age. HD was associated with behavioral deficits on only the mental state eyes task. Contrasting the two versions of the eyes task (mental state > age judgment) revealed hypoactivation within left middle frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus in HD. Subgroup analyses comparing premanifest HD patients to age-matched controls revealed reduced activity in right supramarginal gyrus and increased activity in anterior cingulate during mental state recognition in these patients, while manifest HD was associated with hypoactivity in left insula and left supramarginal gyrus. When controlling for the effects of healthy aging, manifest patients exhibited declining activation within areas including right temporal pole. Our findings provide compelling evidence for a selective impairment of internal emotional status when patients with HD appraise facial features in order to make social judgements. Differential activity in temporal and anterior cingulate cortices may suggest that poor emotion regulation and emotional egocentricity underlie impaired mental state recognition in premanifest patients, while more extensive mental state recognition impairments in manifest disease reflect dysfunction in neural substrates underlying executive functions, and the experience and interpretation of emotion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Implications of State Policy Changes on Mental Health Service Models for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…

  5. Structural Сharacteristics of Mental States in Women Experiencing Difficulties Coping with Midlife Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skripacheva E.H.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a midlife crisis in women is accompanied by forming mental states that affect the quality of life and determine the possibilities of transformation of midlife crisis into a new stage of self-development. Study sample were 168 women, aged 30 to 44 years. We used projective techniques, questionnaires, content analysis as study methods. The deviation indicator from autogenous norm of M. Lusher test in women with the crisis symptoms has a rather strong positive correlation with the «negative conditions» index (r=0,4; p<0,001. We have identified the parameters of mental states (antipathy, anxiety, tension, asintonia, fatigue that may contribute to the formation of negative mental states in general, hampering personal and social changes in the midlife crisis. The article defines the dominant motivations meaningful for development and transformation of midlife crisis in women. The results complement the scientific understanding of mental states and age characteristics from a gender perspective

  6. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  7. Mental vulnerability as a risk factor for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ditte; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2012-01-01

    Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression.......Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression....

  8. Spatial distribution for diarrhea hospitalization in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires Cecchetti Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to identify spatial pattern on hospitalization rates of children with diarrhea in the counties in São Paulo State. Methods: ecological and exploratory study on hospitalized data of children with diarrhea under the age of four in 2008 and 2012, the IDH mothers with low schooling level and children living with a low income less than half minimum wage were obtained from Datasus and inserted into digital map of the counties in São Paulo State. Moran's global index (I and Pearson's coefficients correlation and thematic maps of hospitalization rates of 1,000 children, Moran maps and kernel map were calculated. Results: there were 34, 802 hospital admissions, with an average rate of 4.7 hospitalizations / 1,000 children (SD=7.2. Hospitalization rates were correlated only with schooling (r= 0.09, p<0.05. Moran's index for hospitalization rate was I=0.31(p<0.01. The thematic map of the hospital admission rates showed a cluster of counties in the west of the State; the kernel map showed a higher density of hospitalization in this region and the Moran map identified 57 counties which deserve attention. Conclusions: the results provide subsidies for the counties and regional managers to implement measurements aiming to reduce these rates.

  9. [Mental health problems among female staff in a provincial maternal and child health hospital: an investigation of 647 individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W J; Xia, J H; Lv, X; Li, L M

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of depression and anxiety among female staff in a maternal and child health hospital, and to provide a basis for developing related prevention and intervention measures and promoting the mental health of female staff. Methods: The female staff from a provincial maternal and child health hospital completed a psycho-health questionnaire survey on Internet from June to October, 2016. The questionnaires used in the survey consisted of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) , Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) , and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) . The distribution features of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety were analyzed according to the results: of the questionnaire survey. Results Of all female staff surveyed, 42.04% showed depression symptoms, 28.90% showed anxiety symptoms, and 26.12% showed comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Moderate or severe depression (anxiety) was mainly distributed among the female staff with comorbid symptoms (90.63% and 97.01%, respectively) . There were significant differences in the distribution of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms between the medical staff and nursing staff (χ(2)= 5.81, P =0.05) and between those with intermediate and junior professional titles (χ(2)=7.99, P =0.018) . As for SCL-90 results, the total score, total average score, and scores on factors of somatization, compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety in the female staff with comorbid symptoms, moderate or severe depression, and moderate or severe anxiety were significantly higher than the national norm ( P staff with comorbid symptoms than in the female staff with a single symptom and asymptomatic female staff (both P staff in the maternal and child health hospital, mainly characterized by comorbid symptoms of moderate or severe depression and anxiety. Comorbidity is accompanied by mental health problems such as interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive compulsion

  10. The availability of abortion at state hospitals in Turkey: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Lou

    2017-02-01

    Abortion in Turkey has been legal since 1983 and remains so today. Despite this, in 2012 the Prime Minister declared that, in his opinion, abortion was murder. Since then, there has been growing evidence that abortion access particularly in state hospitals is being restricted, although no new legislation has been offered. The study aimed to determine the number of state hospitals in Turkey that provide abortions. The study employed a telephone survey in 2015-2016 where 431 state hospitals were contacted and asked a set of questions by a mystery patient. If possible, information was obtained directly from the obstetrics/gynecology department. I removed specialist hospitals from the data set and the remaining data were analyzed for frequency and cross-tabulations were performed. Only 7.8% of state hospitals provide abortion services without regard to reason which is provided for by the current law, while 78% provide abortions when there is a medical necessity. Of the 58 teaching and research hospitals in Turkey, 9 (15.5%) provide abortion care without restriction to reason, 38 (65.5%) will do the procedure if there is a medical necessity and 11 (11.4%) of these hospitals refuse to provide abortion services under any circumstances. There are two regions, encompassing 1.5 million women of childbearing age, where no state hospital provides for abortion without restriction as to reason. The vast majority of state hospitals only provide abortions in the narrow context of a medical necessity, and thus are not implementing the law to its full extent. It is clear that although no new legislation restricting abortion has been enacted, state hospitals are reducing the provision of abortion services without restriction as to reason. This is the only nationwide study to focus on abortion provision at state hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nurses and opioids: results of a bi-national survey on mental models regarding opioid administration in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Charlotte; Sobotka, Fabian; Karavasopoulou, Athina; Ward, Stephen; Bantel, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses' mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs. Latent variables that may underlie nurses' mental models were identified using undirected graphical dependence models. Representative items of latent variables were employed for ordinal regression analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,379 nurses in two London, UK, hospitals (n=580) and one German (n=799) hospital between September 2014 and February 2015. A total of 511 (37.1%) questionnaires were returned. Mean (standard deviation) age of participants were 37 (11) years; 83.5% participants were female; 45.2% worked in critical care; and 51.5% had more than 10 years experience. Of the nurses, 84% were not scared of opioids, 87% did not regard opioids as drugs to help patients die, and 72% did not view them as drugs of abuse. More English (41%) than German (28%) nurses were afraid of criminal investigations and were constantly aware of side effects (UK, 94%; Germany, 38%) when using opioids. Four latent variables were identified which likely influence nurses' mental models: "conscious decision-making"; "medication-related fears"; "practice-based observations"; and "risk assessment". They were predicted by strength of religious beliefs and indicators of informal learning such as experience but not by indicators of formal learning such as conference attendance. Nurses in both countries employ analytical and affective mental models when administering the opioids and seem to learn from experience

  12. Hospitals in the state of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDHH (2007) [hospitals_06_07_pub_LDHH_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Hospitals in the state of Louisiana. This database contains the responses provided by the hospitals to the "Emergency Response Hospital Data Verification Form" that...

  13. Audit of new long-stay patients in Permai Mental Hospital, Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Nur Aiza, Z; Paramasivam, S; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    We report a cross-sectional descriptive study of 90 new long-stay patients (NLS) (i.e. those who had been resident for six months to three years in Permai Mental Hospital, Johor) and studied from April to June, 1995. The age of this sample ranged from 18 to 85 years. Two subgroups were observed (i.e. younger NLS patients aged 18 to 34 years and older NLS patients aged 35 to 85 years). Among the younger NLS patients, the commonest diagnosis was schizophrenia (51.2%), followed by mental retardation with related problems (24.4%). Sixty-one percent of these younger patients had a history of serious violence or dangerous behaviour. Older NLS patients were likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia (79.6%), followed by mood disorder (6.1%) and dementia (4.1%). Forty seven percent of these older group had history of danger to others and 57.1% were at moderate or severe risk of non-deliberate self-harm. Focusing on the schizophrenic patients, all of them had some form of psychopathology, either positive, negative or general symptoms and about one-fourth were assessed to pose a risk for aggression.

  14. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  15. Additional measures do not improve the diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Admission Risk Profile for detecting downstream quality of life in community-dwelling older people presenting to a hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, K; Milanese, S; Beaton, K; Atlas, A

    2014-01-01

    The Hospital Admission Risk Profile (HARP) instrument is commonly used to assess risk of functional decline when older people are admitted to hospital. HARP has moderate diagnostic accuracy (65%) for downstream decreased scores in activities of daily living. This paper reports the diagnostic accuracy of HARP for downstream quality of life. It also tests whether adding other measures to HARP improves its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and forty-eight independent community dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were recruited in the emergency department of one large Australian hospital with a medical problem for which they were discharged without a hospital ward admission. Data, including age, sex, primary language, highest level of education, postcode, living status, requiring care for daily activities, using a gait aid, receiving formal community supports, instrumental activities of daily living in the last week, hospitalization and falls in the last 12 months, and mental state were collected at recruitment. HARP scores were derived from a formula that summed scores assigned to age, activities of daily living, and mental state categories. Physical and mental component scores of a quality of life measure were captured by telephone interview at 1 and 3 months after recruitment. HARP scores are moderately accurate at predicting downstream decline in physical quality of life, but did not predict downstream decline in mental quality of life. The addition of other variables to HARP did not improve its diagnostic accuracy for either measure of quality of life. HARP is a poor predictor of quality of life.

  16. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  17. An empirical analysis of mental state talk and affect regulation in two single-cases of psychodynamic child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Bekar, Ozlem; Gürleyen, Büşra

    2017-06-01

    Literature has shown the importance of mentalizing techniques in symptom remission and emotional understanding; however, no study to date has looked at the dynamic relations between mental state talk and affect regulation in the psychotherapy process. From a psychodynamic perspective, the emergence of the child's capacity to regulate affect through the therapist's reflection on the child's mental states is a core aspect of treatment. In an empirical investigation of 2 single cases with separation anxiety disorder, who were treated in long-term psychodynamic play therapy informed with mentalization principles, the effect of therapists' and children's use of mental state talk on children's subsequent capacity to regulate affect in play was assessed. One case was a positive outcome case, whereas the other did not show symptomatic improvement at the end of treatment. Children's and therapists' utterances in the sessions were coded using the Coding System for Mental State Talk in Narratives, and children's play was coded by Children's Play Therapy Instrument, which generated an index of children's "affect regulation." Time-series Granger Causality tests showed that even though both therapists' use of mental state talk significantly predicted children's subsequent affect regulation, the association between child's mental state talk and affect regulation was only supported for the child who showed clinically significant symptom reduction. This study provided preliminary support that mental state talk in psychodynamic psychotherapy facilitates emotion regulation in play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  19. Industrial neuroscience in aviation evaluation of mental states in aviation personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors’ cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.

  20. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured.

  1. Teachers' Language in Interactions: An Exploratory Examination of Mental State Talk in Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…

  2. Occupational stress and mental health among nurses in a medical intensive care unit of a general hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Omidi, Leila; Hosseini, Seyed Sodabeh Seyed; Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl

    2015-07-01

    Many nurses have reported experiencing high levels of occupational stress in their work environment. Stress, as an outcome of stressful workplaces and tasks, affects nursing behavior in hospital wards. The objectives of this research were to determine the prevalence of occupational stress and mental health problems in nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2013 and to determine the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on all of the nurses working in ICU at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Seventy-two nurses were selected as the population for this study, and all of them were female. Two questionnaires were used in this study, i.e., General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) for assessing mental health and an occupational stress test for assessing job stress. Furthermore, the relationship between occupational stress and mental health was examined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-test, and Pearson's product-moment correlation test were used to analyze the data. High and moderate levels of occupational stress were experienced by 83.9% and 10.7% of ICU nurses, respectively. The prevalence of mental disorders, somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression were 58.9, 60.7, 62.5, 71.4, and 10.7%, respectively. The findings of the independent samples t-test showed that somatic symptoms had significant relationships with age and working experience (p = 0.01). According to the independent samples t-test, there were no significant differences between somatic symptoms and working different shifts (p > 0.05). There was a high prevalence of occupational stress among ICU nurses. There was a significant relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Future interventions are needed to codify a comprehensive health program in this field to reduce occupational stress and enhance nurses

  3. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The crisis in United States hospital emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Ferguson, Emily D

    2011-01-01

    Emergency services are critical for high-quality healthcare service provision to support acute illness, trauma and disaster response. The greater availability of emergency services decreases waiting time, improves clinical outcomes and enhances local community well being. This study aims to assess United States (U.S.) acute care hospital staffs ability to provide emergency medical services by evaluating the number of emergency departments and trauma centers. Data were obtained from the 2003 and 2007 American Hospital Association (AHA) annual surveys, which included over 5000 US hospitals and provided extensive information on their infrastructure and healthcare capabilities. U.S. acute care hospital numbers decreased by 59 or 1.1 percent from 2003 to 2007. Similarly, U.S. emergency rooms and trauma centers declined by 125, or 3 percent. The results indicate that US hospital staffs ability to respond to traumatic injury and disasters has declined. Therefore, US hospital managers need to increase their investment in emergency department beds as well as provide state-of-the-art clinical technology to improve emergency service quality. These investments, when linked to other clinical information systems and the electronic medical record, support further healthcare quality improvement. This research uses the AHA annual surveys,which represent self-reported data by individual hospital staff. However, the AHA expendssignificant resources to validate reported information and the annual survey data are widely used for hospital research. The declining US emergency rooms and trauma centers have negative implications for patients needing emergency services. More importantly, this research has significant policy implications because it documents a decline in the US emergency healthcare service infrastructure. This article has important information on US emergency service availability in the hospital industry.

  5. The impact of hospital closures on geographical access: Evidence from four southeastern states of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Burkey

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of hospital closures on geographical access by potential patients, using data from four southeastern U.S. states. Using optimization models designed to minimize the adverse effects of hospital closures, extensive computations are performed and the results are discussed. The effects of the closures on the rural areas is also investigated. Finally, the paper determines which hospitals are most likely among those to be closed assuming that up to 10% of the existing hospitals in each of the four states were to be shut down. The overall conclusion of the empirical findings is that while differences exist among the states, efficiency, coverage, and equality measures for geographical access do not suffer significantly if only a few hospitals are closed in each state, provided these closures are done optimally to minimize impact. Further, for efficiency objectives, decision makers can follow a sequential strategy for closures and still be guaranteed optimality. The paper also discusses the effects of hospital closures on equity and it examines whether or not rural areas are disproportionately affected by closures. Keywords: Health care, Access to health care, Proximity, Hospital closures, Location problems, Facility planning

  6. Hospital librarianship in the United States: at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Diane G; Chastain-Warheit, Christine C; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Chayes, Marion C; Long, Bradley A

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments in hospital librarianship in the United States, including the current status of hospital-based clinical library services. Several examples of hospital library services are presented that demonstrate some characteristics of struggling and thriving services. The implications of the informationist concept are considered. The continuation of the hospital librarian's primary role in support of patient care is explored, as core competencies are reexamined for relevancy in the new millennium.

  7. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  8. Alzheimer's Dementia: Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Evelyn Lee; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed the performance of Alzheimer's patients (N=141) on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Performance on all items showed significant negative correlation with the duration of the illness. The most difficult item was "recall," and the improvement in recall was obtained with cuing. (Author/ABB)

  9. Hospital Mortality in the United States following Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah R. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common reason for hospital admission and complication of many inpatient procedures. The temporal incidence of AKI and the association of AKI admissions with in-hospital mortality are a growing problem in the world today. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of AKI and its association with in-hospital mortality in the United States. AKI has been growing at a rate of 14% per year since 2001. However, the in-hospital mortality associated with AKI has been on the decline starting with 21.9% in 2001 to 9.1 in 2011, even though the number of AKI-related in-hospital deaths increased almost twofold from 147,943 to 285,768 deaths. We discuss the importance of the 71% reduction in AKI-related mortality among hospitalized patients in the United States and draw on the discussion of whether or not this is a phenomenon of hospital billing (coding or improvements to the management of AKI.

  10. Mental states inside out: switching costs for emotional and nonemotional sentences that differ in internal and external focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Winkielman, Piotr; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Rotteveel, Mark; Fischer, Agneta H

    2012-01-01

    Mental states-such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy-have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can also be described from an "external" perspective, for example when referring to "smiling." In those cases, simulation of visible outside features may be more relevant for understanding. In a switching costs paradigm, we presented semantically unrelated sentences describing emotional and nonemotional mental states while manipulating their internal or external focus. The results show that switching costs occur when participants shift between sentences with an internal and an external focus. This suggests that different forms of simulation underlie understanding these sentences. In addition, these effects occurred for emotional and nonemotional mental states, suggesting that they are grounded in a similar way-through the process of simulation.

  11. STATE SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL POTENTIAL IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the state support fordevelopment of personnel potential in hospitality business in China. Hospitality frameshave quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The gap between the needs of business organizations of hospitality for highlyqualified personnel at all levels and theirpresence in such a gigantic scale of countriessuch as China, can only be overcome withthe assistance of the state targeted programplanning. Support for human resourcesdevelopment in the hospitality businessincludes directions - the integration of stateformation, educational institutions and businesses. Further step towards improving thecompetitiveness of Chinese tourism shouldbe to develop a national target program fortraining of hospitality

  12. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002-20121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Sara; Lionakis, Michail S; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002-2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005-2012 for men (annual change -3.9%) and women (annual change -4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease.

  13. State of the Nigerian child - neglect of child and adolescent mental health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, O; Ayinde, O O; Emedoh, C T; Oladimeji, O

    2015-05-01

    As most child health initiatives in Nigeria lack a child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) strategy, CAMH issues have remained obscure to the country's policy-makers. The lack of current and representative epidemiological data on the mental health of Nigerian children continues to be a barrier to advocacy for CAMH policy initiatives. In view of the importance of CAMH to national development, there must be a continued search for ways of bringing the state of CAMH in Nigeria to the attention of policy-makers. To use information from UNICEF's State of the World's Children as proxy data to speculate on the state of child mental health in Nigeria. With a view to discussing its CAMH implications, social and health indicators in the Nigerian child were extracted from UNICEF's 2012 edition. Most of the social and health indicators assessed reflect significant mental health risks. Up to 65% of households live on less than US$1·25 per day, child malnutrition is evident in up to 40% of children, and the primary and secondary school net enrolment ratios are only 63% and 25%, respectively. In addition, the rate of attendance for antenatal care was 45%, and only 39% of deliveries were supervised by skilled birth attendants. Child labour and under-age marriage is very common. A literature review demonstrates that children living in these circumstances are at significant risk of mental health problems. Current data on the state of Nigerian children contain indices that can serve as proxy information for the state of CAMH in the country. Policy-makers need to invest more in pre-emptive child health initiatives as a way of preserving the physical and mental health of children.

  14. Mental states, processes, and conscious intent in Libet's experiments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning and significance of Benjamin Libet's studies on the timing of conscious will have been widely discussed, especially by those wishing to draw sceptical conclusions about conscious agency and free will. However, certain important correctives for thinking about mental states and processes undermine the ...

  15. Mental Disorder Among Homeless Persons in the United States: An Overview of Recent Empirical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Marjorie J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews literature on the homeless reporting higher rates of psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and previous psychiatric hospitalization compared to the general population. However, understandardized methodology and lack of consistent findings across studies prohibit reliable prevalence estimates of mental disorder among the homeless.…

  16. Identifying the most efficient items from the Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive function assessment in older Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Yu, Po-Jui

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the most efficient items from the Mini-Mental State Examination for assessment of cognitive function. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most frequently used cognitive screening instrument. However, the Mini-Mental State Examination has been criticized for insensitivity to mild cognitive dysfunction, limited memory assessment and variability in level of difficulty of the individual items. This study used secondary data analysis. Item response theory two-parameter model was used to analyse the data from the admission assessment of mental status by the Mini-Mental State Examination for 801 patients. By using item response analysis, 16 items were selected from the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination. The 16 items included mainly the measures of orientation, recall and attention and calculation. The internal consistency of the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 0.84. The proposed new cut-off point for the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 11. The correct classification rate was 0.94, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 97.4%, when compared with the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination from the cut-off point of 24. This new cut-off point was determined for the purpose of over-identifying patients at risk so as to ensure early detection of and prevention from the onset of cognitive disturbance. Only a few items are needed to describe the subject's cognitive status. Using item response theory analysis, the study found that the Mini-Mental State Examination could be simplified. Deleting the items with less variation makes this assessment tool not only shorter, easier to administer and less strenuous for respondents, but also enables one to maintain validity as a cognitive function test for clinical setting.

  17. Mini-mental Parkinson (MMP) as a dementia screening test: comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    As populations age, screening instruments for cognitive impairment and dementia will become of increasing importance in clinical practice. Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP), a derivative of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was originally described as a cognitive screening instrument for use in Parkinson's disease. Its item content addresses some of the acknowledged shortcomings of the MMSE. Pragmatic use of MMP in general cognitive clinics has not previously been examined. To compare the performance of two scales, Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as cognitive screening instruments for dementia in a memory clinic population. MMP was administered prospectively to 201 consecutive new patient referrals independent of other tests used to establish dementia diagnosis according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV). Diagnostic utility of MMP for dementia was measured and compared with MMSE. MMP proved easy to use and acceptable to patients. Optimal test accuracy (0.86) was at MMP cutoff of ≤ 17/32, with sensitivity 0.51, specificity 0.97, positive predictive value 0.83, negative predictive value 0.87, and area under Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 0.89. Using a higher cutoff (≤ 29/32), MMP sensitivity was 1.00 with specificity 0.70. MMP scores correlated with MMSE (r = 0.93) and diagnostic agreement was high (κ = 0.85). MMP is a useful screening instrument in the memory clinic setting, with patients who fall below the designated cutoff requiring further investigation to ascertain a cause for their cognitive impairment.

  18. Detecting Mental States by Machine Learning Techniques: The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Sannelli, Claudia; Popescu, Florin; Fazli, Siamac; Danóczy, Márton; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) uses a machine learning approach to extract user-specific patterns from high-dimensional EEG-features optimized for revealing the user's mental state. Classical BCI applications are brain actuated tools for patients such as prostheses (see Section 4.1) or mental text entry systems ([1] and see [2-5] for an overview on BCI). In these applications, the BBCI uses natural motor skills of the users and specifically tailored pattern recognition algorithms for detecting the user's intent. But beyond rehabilitation, there is a wide range of possible applications in which BCI technology is used to monitor other mental states, often even covert ones (see also [6] in the fMRI realm). While this field is still largely unexplored, two examples from our studies are exemplified in Sections 4.3 and 4.4.

  19. Individuals with Mental Retardation and the Criminal Justice System: The View from States' Attorneys General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, James K.; Gural, Michele

    1988-01-01

    Results of a survey of state attorneys general (N=46) found that, with few exceptions, identification of persons with mental retardation in criminal justice is neither systematic nor probable. Protections lie in statutes pertaining to mental illness rather than to mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  20. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dodell-Feder

    Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  1. Using Fiction to Assess Mental State Understanding: A New Task for Assessing Theory of Mind in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P.; Hooker, Christine I.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others – an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task – the Short Story Task (SST) - intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters’ mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736

  2. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care.

  3. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...

  4. Insufficient dollars and qualified personnel to meet United States mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-04-01

    The American populace currently supports the need for providing additional mental health services for adolescents who frequently express anger and mood instability and maybe are at risk for major psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems; Vietnam, Iraqi, and Afghanistan veterans or military personnel still on duty diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or other similar combat-related disabilities; the approximately 1 million prisoners currently incarcerated primarily because of substance abuse and needing medically related rehabilitative services; and senior citizens who experience dementia and depression and require improved therapeutics. The problems outlined herein are as follows: far too limited monies are being spent for mental health services (5.6% of total US expenditures for health or roughly one fifth of what is consumed for hospital care); effective therapies are often lacking; and there is a shortage of qualified mental health personnel except in upscale urban and suburban areas. Unfortunately, these problems are so immense that, even with enhanced prioritization of our available resources, they are still not entirely solvable. The American public may continue to impart lip service when attempting to respond to our nation's mental health needs or may decide to spend vastly more money for such care. The latter choice may not be forthcoming in the near future for various cultural-societal-clinical-fiscal reasons.

  5. Is family size related to adolescence mental hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylmänen, Paula; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family size and psychiatric disorders of underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition-based psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring family size were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). The family size of the general Finnish population was used as a reference population. There was a significant difference between the family size of the inpatient adolescents and the general population: 17.0% of adolescents came from large families (with 6 or more children) while the percentage in the general population was 3.3. A girl from a large family had an about 4-fold risk of psychosis other than schizophrenia. However, large family size was not associated with a risk for schizophrenia. Large family size was overrepresented among underage adolescents admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in Northern Finland. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial risk at work and mental illness in hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ansoleaga M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Michael N.; Charter, Richard A.; Mostafavi, Beeta; Nibut, Lorraine P.; Smith, Whitney E.

    2005-01-01

    Criterion-referenced (Livingston) and norm-referenced (Gilmer-Feldt) techniques were used to measure the internal consistency reliability of Folsteins Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) on a large sample (N = 418) of elderly medical patients. Two administration and scoring variants of the MMSE Attention and Calculation section (Serial 7s only…

  8. [Philanthropic general hospitals: a new setting for psychiatric admissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrobla, Cristina; Botega, Neury José

    2006-12-01

    To understand the process that led Brazilian philanthropic general hospitals to implement psychiatric units and to describe the main characteristics and therapeutic approaches of these services. Ten institutions in three Brazilian states (Minas Gerais, São Paulo e Santa Catarina) were assessed in 2002. Forty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals who worked at the hospitals to collect data on service implementation process, therapeutic approaches and current situation. The interviews were audio-recorded and their content was analyzed. There was no mental hospital in the cities where the institutions were located. In five hospitals, psychiatric patients were admitted to general medical wards because there was no psychiatric unit. The therapeutic approach in six hospitals was based on psychopharmacological treatment. Due to lack of resources and more appropriate therapeutic planning, the admission of patients presenting psychomotor agitation increases resistance against psychiatric patients in general hospitals. Financial constraints regarding laboratory testing is still a challenge. There is no exchange between local authorities and hospital administrators of these institutions that are compelled to exceed the allowed number of admissions to meet the demand of neighboring cities. The need for mental health care to local populations combined with individual requests of local authorities and psychiatrists made possible the implementation of psychiatric units in these localities. In spite of the efforts and flexibility of health professional working in these institutions, there are some obstacles to be overcome: resistance of hospital community against psychiatric admissions, financial constraints, limited professional training in mental health and the lack of a therapeutic approach that goes beyond psychopharmacological treatment alone.

  9. Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance Use Disorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future Inpatient Mental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padyab, Mojgan; Armelius, Bengt-Åke; Armelius, Kerstin; Nyström, Siv; Blom, Björn; Grönlund, Ann-Sofie; Lundgren, Lena

    2018-04-23

    In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

  10. Functional mental capacity, treatment as usual and time: magnitude of change in secure hospital patients with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Julieanne; Kennedy, Miriam; Garland, Jackie; Rutledge, Emer; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-10-14

    Decision making ability can change with time, depending on mental or physical health. Little is known about the factors that determine this change and the relationship of capacity to time. As a pilot for studies using functional mental capacities as an outcome measure, we sought to quantify this relationship measuring change over time using competence assessment tools, and rating scales for symptoms and global function. We assessed 37 inpatients in a secure psychiatric hospital. All patients met the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition and International classification of diseases, 10th edition criteria for an Axis 1 mental illness, all with psychosis. Patients were interviewed twice a mean of 323 days apart (median 176 days range 17-1221 days). The MacArthur competence assessment tools for consent to treatment (MacCAT-T) and fitness to plead (MacCAT-FP) were used to quantify functional capacity along with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and global assessment of function (GAF) scale. A comparison was also made between those patients prescribed clozapine in comparison to other antipsychotics. The number judged by treating psychiatrists to lack capacity either to make a treatment choice or to plead in court fell from 35 to 8%. Change was greatest for those admitted within the previous 9 months. The measures of capacity improved between time 1 and time 2 for both consent to treatment and fitness to plead. The measures of capacity improved with positive symptoms within the PANSS and with GAF scores. Those with shorter lengths of stay at baseline had the greatest improvements in the MacCAT-FP scores. Effect sizes were medium or large (0.3-0.7+). As expected, patients prescribed clozapine had larger changes in functional mental capacities and larger effect sizes than those prescribed other psychotropics. The results show a strong relationship between the clinicians' assessment of capacity and structured rating scales. We

  11. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  12. Here, there and everywhere: emotion and mental state talk in different social contexts predicts empathic helping in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jesse; Paul, Elena F; Waugh, Whitney E; Hammond, Stuart I; Brownell, Celia A

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents' frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents' emotion and mental state talk (EMST) with their toddlers relates to toddlers' helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n = 38) interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g., happy, sad) and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g., think, know) in joint play. Parents' emotion and mental state discourse related to children's empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As EMST both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization in emerging prosociality.

  13. Severe Maternal Morbidity and Hospital Cost among Hospitalized Deliveries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yang; Chauhan, Suneet P; Blackwell, Sean C

    2018-05-03

     The objective of this study was to estimate the contemporary national rate of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and its associated hospital cost during delivery hospitalization.  We conducted a retrospective study identifying all delivery hospitalizations in the United States between 2011 and 2012. We used data from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The delivery hospitalizations with SMM were identified by having at least one of the 25 previously established list of diagnosis and procedure codes. Aggregate and mean hospital costs were estimated. A generalized linear regression model was used to examine the association between SMM and hospital costs.  Of 7,438,946 delivery hospitalizations identified, the rate of SMM was 154 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations. Without any SMM, the mean hospital cost was $4,300 and with any SMM, the mean hospital cost was $11,000. After adjustment, comparing to those without any SMM, the mean cost of delivery hospitalizations with any SMM was 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-2.2) times higher, and this ratio increases from 1.7-fold in those with only one SMM to 10.3-fold in those with five or more concurrent SMM.  The hospital cost with any SMM was 2.1 times higher than those without any SMM. Our findings highlight the need to identify interventions and guide research efforts to mitigate the rate of SMM and its economic burden. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne M; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Waqar, Muhammad

    2015-12-03

    A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis-intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. To review the effects of crisis-intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode compared to the standard care they would normally receive. If possible, to compare the effects of mobile crisis teams visiting patients' homes with crisis units based in home-like residential houses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials. There is no language, time, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. This search was undertaken in 1998 and then updated 2003, 2006, 2010 and September 29, 2014. We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis-intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses that met our inclusion criteria. We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to create a 'Summary of findings' table. The update search September 2014 found no further new studies for inclusion, the number of studies included in this review remains eight with a total of 1144 participants. Our main outcomes of interest are hospital use, global state, mental state, quality of life, participant satisfaction and family burden. With the exception of mental state, it was not possible to pool data for these outcomes.Crisis intervention may reduce repeat admissions to hospital (excluding index admissions) at six months (1 RCT, n = 369, RR 0.75 CI 0.50 to 1.13, high quality evidence), but does appear to reduce family burden (at six months: 1 RCT, n = 120, RR 0.34 CI 0.20 to 0.59, low quality evidence), improve

  15. Racial disparity in mental disorder diagnosis and treatment between non-hispanic White and Asian American patients in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Carrie; Chiang, Mathew; Harrington, Amy; Kim, Sun; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2018-04-01

    The present study sought to examine the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders comparing Asian American (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (WNH) drawn from a population accessing a large general hospital for any reason. Socio-demographic predictors of diagnosis and treatment were also explored. Data were obtained from de-identified medical records in the Partner Health Care System's Research Patient Data Registry. The final sample included 345,070 self-identified WNH and 16,418 self-identified AA's between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. WNH patients were more likely than AA patients to carry a diagnosis of a mental disorder (18.1% vs. 8.6%, p mental disorder or use of psychotropic medication. Our findings on the racial disparity in mental disorder diagnosis and treatment between AA and WNH patients suggest that mental disorders are under-recognized and mental health services are under-utilized in the AA community. There remains a need for health care providers to improve screening services and to gain a better understanding of the cultural barriers that hinder mental health care among AA patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mini‑Mental State Exam versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...

  17. Different contexts, different effects? Work time and mental health in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  18. Comparing clinical and demographic characteristics of people with mental illness in hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation units in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom; Stedman, Terry; Parker, Stephen; Curtis, Bretine; Jones, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine care pathways and characteristics of mental health consumers participating in both hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation programs. Methods An audit of consumers (n=240) in all publicly funded residential rehabilitation units in Queensland was performed on the same day in 2013. Data collection focused on demographic characteristics, clinical information and measures of consumer functioning. Results Significant differences emerged for consumers in community- and hospital-based services with regard to age, length of stay, functioning, Mental Health Act status, guardianship status, family contact and risk of violence. Consumers in hospital-based programs have more severe and complex problems. Conclusions Consumers in residential rehabilitation units have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Nonetheless, it is likely that a sizeable proportion of consumers occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options to move patients on were available. What is known about the topic? A small subgroup of people with severe and complex mental health problems is likely to require time in a residential rehabilitation program. This group is characterised by failure to respond to treatment, severe negative symptoms and some degree of cognitive impairment. What does this paper add? Patients currently occupying residential rehabilitation beds in Queensland have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Patients in hospital-based programs are more severely disabled than those in community-based programs. What are the implications for practitioners? It is likely that a sizeable proportion of patients occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options were available. Future planning initiatives need to focus on developing a greater array of community

  19. [From the Principle of Beneficence to the Principle of Autonomy. Assessment of Patients' Mental Competency in the General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Restrepo B; Carlos, Cardeño C; Marle, Duque G; Santiago, Jaramillo

    2012-06-01

    Refusing a medical procedure is a valid way of exercising every patient's right to autonomy. From the legal point of view, autonomy is based on the right to privacy. In recent decades the legal right to self-determination has gradually expanded and today patients in full possession of their mental faculties, have the moral and legal right to make their own decisions and these decisions take precedence over physician and family. Often liaison psychiatrists are called in to assess the mental competence of patients in the general hospital. To determine the psychiatrist's role in evaluating these patients. The assessment of a patient's ability to decide and self-determine is a common clinical problem in general hospitals. Evaluation of these patients requires a proper understanding of the philosophical, ethical, and legal issues that guide the appropriate treatment of these complex clinical problems. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194

  1. Malaysian mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.

  2. Additional measures do not improve the diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Admission Risk Profile for detecting downstream quality of life in community-dwelling older people presenting to a hospital emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available K Grimmer, S Milanese, K Beaton, A AtlasInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaIntroduction: The Hospital Admission Risk Profile (HARP instrument is commonly used to assess risk of functional decline when older people are admitted to hospital. HARP has moderate diagnostic accuracy (65% for downstream decreased scores in activities of daily living. This paper reports the diagnostic accuracy of HARP for downstream quality of life. It also tests whether adding other measures to HARP improves its diagnostic accuracy.Methods: One hundred and forty-eight independent community dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were recruited in the emergency department of one large Australian hospital with a medical problem for which they were discharged without a hospital ward admission. Data, including age, sex, primary language, highest level of education, postcode, living status, requiring care for daily activities, using a gait aid, receiving formal community supports, instrumental activities of daily living in the last week, hospitalization and falls in the last 12 months, and mental state were collected at recruitment. HARP scores were derived from a formula that summed scores assigned to age, activities of daily living, and mental state categories. Physical and mental component scores of a quality of life measure were captured by telephone interview at 1 and 3 months after recruitment.Results: HARP scores are moderately accurate at predicting downstream decline in physical quality of life, but did not predict downstream decline in mental quality of life. The addition of other variables to HARP did not improve its diagnostic accuracy for either measure of quality of life.Conclusion: HARP is a poor predictor of quality of life.Keywords: functional decline, HARP, quality of life, older people

  3. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  4. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajak Manguak Agau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disease with inability to differentiate real from unreal. In many African cultures a traditional view on mental disease results in stigma, negative attitudes, and ignorance of the patient and their symptoms. Objective: To explore the different attitudes and beliefs amongst relatives of patients having schizophrenia. Method: Cross-sectional survey among relatives of patients with schizophrenia treated at Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Results: A total of 44 were included. 30% believed schizophrenia to be a brain disease, 32% thought the cause was supernatural. The majority (80% thought that schizophrenia can be treated and preferably in hospitals (91%; 66% felt the best way to reduce schizophrenia was to pray to God, and many stated that being with the patients (73% or letting them be part of the community (80% was good ways of helping the patients. Conclusion: Beliefs about supernatural causes of schizophrenia and stigmatizing are still present in Uganda. However among participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of community. Education of the communities could be a way of improving the awareness of mental disorders and the role that the community play in recovery from mental illness.

  5. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders: study protocol for a nationwide prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Giacco, Domenico; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-09-28

    Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient-controlled hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare the use of coercive measures and of healthcare services, the use of medications and suicidal behaviour. Descriptive statistics will be used to investigate hospitalisations, global assessment of functioning (GAF) and patient satisfaction with treatment. To minimise selection bias, we will match individuals using patient-controlled hospital admission and controls with a 1:5 ratio via a propensity score based on the following factors: sex, age group, primary diagnosis, substance abuse as secondary diagnosis, coercion, number of psychiatric bed days, psychiatric history, urbanity and suicidal behaviour. Additionally, a historical control study will be undertaken in which patients serve as their own control group prior to index date. The study has been approved by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority (j.nr.: 3-3013-934/1/) and by The Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr.: 2012-58-0004). The study was categorised as a register study by The Danish Health Research Ethics Committee and therefore no further approval was needed (j.nr.: H-2-2014-FSP70). Findings will be disseminated through scientific

  6. Discharged from a mental health admission ward: is it safe to go home? A review on the negative outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loch AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Andrade LochLaboratory of Neurosciences, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mental health disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue.Keywords: suicide, stigma, rehabilitation, relapse, rehospitalisation

  7. Quality of follow-up after hospitalization for mental illness among patients from racial-ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nicholas J; Vesper, Andrew; Chen, Chih-Nan; Lê Cook, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Outpatient follow-up after hospitalization for mental health reasons is an important indicator of quality of health systems. Differences among racial-ethnic minority groups in the quality of service use during this period are understudied. This study assessed the quality of outpatient treatment episodes following inpatient psychiatric treatment among blacks, whites, and Latinos in the United States. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2004-2010) was used to identify adults with any inpatient psychiatric treatment (N=339). Logistic regression models were used to estimate predictors of any outpatient follow-up or the beginning of adequate outpatient follow-up within seven or 30 days following discharge. Predicted disparities were calculated after adjustment for clinical need variables but not for socioeconomic characteristics, consistent with the Institute of Medicine definition of health care disparities as differences that are unrelated to clinical appropriateness, need, or patient preference. Rates of follow-up were generally low, particularly rates of adequate treatment (<26%). Outpatient treatment prior to inpatient care was a strong predictor of all measures of follow-up. After adjustment for need and socioeconomic status, the analyses showed that blacks were less likely than whites to receive any treatment or begin adequate follow-up within 30 days of discharge. Poor integration of follow-up treatment in the continuum of psychiatric care leaves many individuals, particularly blacks, with poor-quality treatment. Culturally appropriate interventions that link individuals in inpatient settings to outpatient follow-up are needed to reduce racial-ethnic disparities in outpatient mental health treatment following acute treatment.

  8. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  9. Recent Trends in Out-of-Hospital Births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2013-01-01

    Although out-of-hospital births are still relatively rare in the United States, it is important to monitor trends in these births, as they can affect patterns of facility usage, clinician training, and resource allocation, as well as health care costs. Trends and characteristics of home and birth center births are analyzed to more completely profile contemporary out-of-hospital births in the United States. National birth certificate data were used to examine a recent increase in out-of-hospital births. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the number of out-of-hospital births increased from 35,578 in 2004 to 47,028 in 2010. In 2010, 1 in 85 US infants (1.18%) was born outside a hospital; about two-thirds of these were born at home, and most of the rest were born in birth centers. The proportion of home births increased by 41%, from 0.56% in 2004 to 0.79% in 2010, with 10% of that increase occurring in the last year. The proportion of birth center births increased by 43%, from 0.23% in 2004 to 0.33% in 2010, with 14% of the increase in the last year. About 90% of the total increase in out-of hospital births from 2004 to 2010 was a result of increases among non-Hispanic white women, and 1 in 57 births to non-Hispanic white women (1.75%) in 2010 was an out-of-hospital birth. Most home and birth center births were attended by midwives. Home and birth center births in the United States are increasing, and the rate of out-of-hospital births is now at the highest level since 1978. There has been a decline in the risk profile of out-of-hospital births, with a smaller proportion of out-of-hospital births in 2010 than in 2004 occurring to adolescents and unmarried women and fewer preterm, low-birth-weight, and multiple births. © 2013 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the United States.

  10. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.

  11. Acute general hospital admissions in people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Hayes, Richard D; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Stewart, Robert

    2018-02-28

    Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the general population in the same area. Records of 18 380 individuals with SMI aged ⩾20 years in southeast London were linked to hospitalisation data. Age- and gender-standardised admission ratios (SARs) were calculated by primary discharge diagnoses in the 10th edition of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes, referencing geographic catchment data. Commonest discharge diagnosis categories in the SMI cohort were urinary conditions, digestive conditions, unclassified symptoms, neoplasms, and respiratory conditions. SARs were raised for most major categories, except neoplasms for a significantly lower risk. Hospitalisation risks were specifically higher for poisoning and external causes, injury, endocrine/metabolic conditions, haematological, neurological, dermatological, infectious and non-specific ('Z-code') causes. The five commonest specific ICD-10 diagnoses at discharge were 'chronic renal failure' (N18), a non-specific code (Z04), 'dental caries' (K02), 'other disorders of the urinary system' (N39), and 'pain in throat and chest' (R07), all of which were higher than expected (SARs ranging 1.57-6.66). A range of reasons for non-psychiatric hospitalisation in SMI is apparent, with self-harm, self-neglect and/or reduced healthcare access, and medically unexplained symptoms as potential underlying explanations.

  12. A decentralised model of psychiatric care: Profile, length of stay and outcome of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies assessing the profile and outcome of psychiatric patients at entry-level public hospitals that are prescribed by the Mental Health Care Act to provide a decentralised model of psychiatric care. Objective. To assess the demographic and clinical profile as well as length of stay and outcomes of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape.  Method. Demographic data, clinical diagnosis, length of stay, referral profile and outcomes of patients (N=487 admitted to Helderberg Hospital during the period 1 January 2011 - 31 December 2011 were collected.  Results. Psychotic disorders were the most prevalent (n=287, 59% diagnoses, while 228 (47% of admission episodes had comorbid/secondary diagnoses. Substance use disorders were present in 184 (38% of admission episodes, 37 (57% of readmissions and 19 (61% of abscondments. Most admission episodes (n=372, 76% were discharged without referral to specialist/tertiary care.  Conclusion. Methamphetamine use places a significant burden on the provision of mental healthcare services at entry-level care. Recommendations for improving service delivery at this district-level public hospital are provided.

  13. Epidemiology of Serious Mental Illness in Malta - Consequences for developing a new psychiatric hospital and community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Anton

    2016-09-01

    Mental Health Services in Malta are presently at crossroads, because they are in the stage of increasing and strengthening the community services and considering closing the main psychiatric inpatient facility and replacing it with a new hospital. For proper planning of such changes, and ideal approach is that of basing these plans on results of population based epidemiological findings on rate of mental illness and required care. Such studies are strongly recommended, and this approach has already been used in Malta a couple of years ago prior to establishing inpatient care for Eating Disorders. In absence of such studies, this paper proposes ways how to use findings from available research and data to use as basis for such proper service plans.

  14. Salmonellosis Hospitalizations in the United States: Associated Chronic Conditions, Costs, and Hospital Outcomes, 2011, Trends 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Shafir, Shira; Wang, May; Sorvillo, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalized salmonellosis patients with concurrent chronic conditions may be at increased risk for adverse outcomes, increasing the costs associated with hospitalization. Identifying important modifiable risk factors for this predominantly foodborne illness may assist hospitals, physicians, and public health authorities to improve management of these patients. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the burden of salmonellosis hospitalizations in the United States, (2) describe hospitalization characteristics among salmonellosis patients with concurrent chronic conditions, and (3) examine the relationships between salmonellosis and comorbidities by four hospital-related outcomes. A retrospective analysis of salmonellosis discharges was conducted using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2011. A supplemental trend analysis was performed for the period 2000-2011. Hospitalization characteristics were examined using multivariable regression modeling, with a focus on four outcome measures: in-hospital death, total amount billed by hospitals for services, length of stay, and disease severity. In 2011, there were 11,032 total salmonellosis diagnoses; 7496 were listed as the primary diagnosis, with 86 deaths (case-fatality rate = 1.2%). Multivariable regression analyses revealed a greater number of chronic conditions (≥4) among salmonellosis patients was associated with higher mean total amount billed by hospitals for services, longer length of stay, and greater disease severity (p ≤ 0.05). From 2000 to 2011, hospital discharges for salmonellosis increased by 27.2%, and the mean total amount billed by hospitals increased nearly threefold: $9,777 (2000) to $29,690 (2011). Observed increases in hospitalizations indicate the burden of salmonellosis remains substantial in the United States. The positive association between increased number of chronic conditions and the four hospital-related outcomes affirms

  15. Community perceptions of mental illness in rural Uganda: An analysis of existing challenges facing the Bwindi Mental Health Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess community perceptions of mental illness in the Bwindi Community Hospital (BCH) catchment area: to recognise beliefs about the causes and the treatments for mental illness. To provide community data to staff at BCH as they work to develop more effective community mental health programmes. Background A shortage of mental health providers in Uganda has prompted research into community-based task-sharing models for the provision of mental health services in underserved communities. Methods Six focus group discussions, with a total of 54 community members (50% male, n = 27; mean age + s.d. [39.9 + 10.9 years]) from the BCH catchment area, were conducted to assess community member and stakeholder perceptions of mental illness and belief in the feasibility of community-based programming. Qualitative study of data through thematic analysis was conducted to assess the presence of commonly occurring perceptions. Results Qualitative thematic analysis revealed two major themes: (1) belief that any given patient’s metal illness results from either an intrinsic or an extrinsic cause and (2) belief in a need to determine treatment of mental illness based on the believed cause. Conclusion As BCH designs community-based mental health services, our findings provide support for the need for further education of community members and training of community health workers to address and integrate the above-stated beliefs regarding mental illness. PMID:29041798

  16. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  17. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemali ZN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeina N Chemali,1,2 Christina PC Borba,1,2 Tanya E Henderson,3 Markos Tesfaye41Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3International and Human Rights Law Consultants, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaAbstract: This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women's mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services.Keywords: global mental health, low income country, Africa, gender differences

  18. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  19. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  20. Parent-child picture-book reading, mothers' mental state language and children's theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.

  1. Modern approach to treating mental patients in colonial chosun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Literature produced by the government and the private sector in the colonial era was reviewed to determine the knowledge of the people of colonial Chosun of mental illness and mental patients and the mental patient management system that they implemented or intended to implement. The results of this study show that the people of Chosun realized the need to sterilize mental patients because they considered mental patients very violent, dangerous and eugenically inferior and they believed that mental patients would eventually impede the prosperity of Chosun. The people of colonial Chosun had learned about the lifelong mental hygiene movement, which had knowledge of mental illness prevention. However, they also recognized that people who developed mental illness despite efforts to prevent such condition needed help from the modern system, especially from modern Western psychiatry. The primary responsibility to attend to mental patients was imposed on their family. The family had to understand the symptoms of mental illness according to the modern medical classification and how to deal with them. When the family could not afford to take care of its mentally ill family member due to the increase in the member's risk behavior such as frenzied-convulsive excitement, paranoia and delusion of jealousy, the family was also responsible for isolating him and connecting him with a mental hospital. The police and social workers were also responsible for observing and monitoring mental patients in their community and for connecting them with a mental hospital. The police made a list of mental patients within their area of jurisdiction and prohibited them from wandering based on the law. It was also considered desirable for mental patients who could not identify their family members to be sent to a mental hospital. Social workers were responsible for managing mental patient sanatoriums, and district commissioners sent to the police mental patients who had no family to look after

  2. Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Itano, Joanne; Inouye, Jillian; Kim, Susie; Kuniviktikul, Wipada; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Pongthavornkamol, Kanuangnit; Gasemgitvattana, Saipin; Ito, Misae

    2004-08-01

    In an attempt to cross-culturally compare factors that may contribute to the nursing shortage within countries that have produced a limited number of research findings on role stress in nurses, this research examined work stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses from Japan, South Korea, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii). Subjects (n = 1554 hospital-based nurses) were administered four self-report questionnaires: Demographic Questionnaire, "Nursing Stress Scale", "Ways of Coping Questionnaire" and "SF-36 Health Survey". Findings suggested that nurses indicated similar workplace stressors, ways of coping, and levels of physical and mental health. While subjects, across countries, demonstrated a variety of predictors of physical and mental health, several predictors were found to be the same. Cross-culturally the role of nurses may vary; however, certain factors are predictive of the status of hospital nurses' physical health and mental health. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Inside the nation's largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Tala; Rubenstein, Linda; Sieleni, Bruce; Deol, Harbans; Wallace, Robert B

    2017-04-20

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. The average inmate (N = 8574) age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91%) and white (65%).Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%), of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males), and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%). The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6 th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition) of a substance abuse history was 11 months. There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  5. Mini mental state examination. Validering af en ny dansk udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, E.A.; Lauritzen, L.; Nilsson, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  6. Mini-mental state examination as a predictor of mortality among older people referred to secondary mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ping; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Hayes, Richard D; Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; To, David; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Lower levels of cognitive function have been found to be associated with higher mortality in older people, particularly in dementia, but the association in people with other mental disorders is still inconclusive. Data were analysed from a large mental health case register serving a geographic catchment of 1.23 million residents, and associations were investigated between cognitive function measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and survival in patients aged 65 years old and over. Cox regressions were carried out, adjusting for age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis, ethnicity, marital status, and area-level socioeconomic index. A total of 6,704 subjects were involved, including 3,368 of them having a dementia diagnosis and 3,336 of them with depression or other diagnoses. Descriptive outcomes by Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences between those with normal and impaired cognitive function (MMSE scoremental health services regardless of a dementia diagnosis. Causal pathways between this exposure and outcome (for example, suboptimal healthcare) need further investigation.

  7. Depression and Associated Factors among Adult Inpatients at Public Hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile Tilahun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Globally, depression is one of the three leading causes of disease and it will be the second leading cause of world disability by 2030. The prevalence of depression in Sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 15 to 30%. In Ethiopia, depression was found to be the seventh leading cause of disease burden and its prevalence has been increased in hospital compared to community setting because hospital environment itself is stressful. Yet, no study was done in Eastern Ethiopia, where substance use like Khat is very rampant. Objective. To assess depression and associated factors among adult inpatients at public hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, from February 01 to 28, 2017. Methodology. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed on 492 admitted adult patients in Harari region hospitals. Consecutive sampling method was used to include study population. The data were collected by interviewee and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. p value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant. Result. A total of 489 patients were interviewed with response rate of 99.4%. Having duration of 1-2 weeks in the hospital [AOR = 2.02, 95% CI: (1.28, 3.19], being diagnosed with chronic morbidity [AOR = 4.06, 95% CI: (2.23, 7.40], being users of psychoactive drugs [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: (1.18, 4.24], and having been admitted to surgical ward [AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: (0.31, 0.81] were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. Prevalence of depression among admitted inpatients was high. Therefore, increasing the awareness of benefits of early diagnosis of patients to prevent major form of depression and strengthening the clinical set-up and establishing good referral linkage with mental health institutions was considered to be cost-effective method to reduce its prevalence.

  8. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon; Paternite, Carl; Grimm, Lindsey; Hurwitz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH) service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a…

  9. Dementia in older people admitted to hospital: a regional multi-hospital observational study of prevalence, associations and case recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Suzanne; Manning, Edmund; Barrett, Aoife; Brady, Noeleen M.; Browne, Vanessa; O’Shea, Emma; Molloy, David William; O'Regan, Niamh A.; Trawley, Steven; Cahill, Suzanne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Woods, Noel; Meagher, David; Ni Chorcorain, Aoife M.; Linehan, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: previous studies have indicated a prevalence of dementia in older admissions of ∼42% in a single London teaching hospital, and 21% in four Queensland hospitals. However, there is a lack of published data from any European country on the prevalence of dementia across hospitals and between patient groups. Objective: to determine the prevalence and associations of dementia in older patients admitted to acute hospitals in Ireland. Methods: six hundred and six patients aged ≥70 years were recruited on admission to six hospitals in Cork County. Screening consisted of Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE); patients with scores dementia; with 29% in public hospitals. Prevalence varied between hospitals (P dementia had a previous diagnosis. Patients with dementia were older and frailer, with higher co-morbidity, malnutrition and lower functional status (P dementia (57%) on admission. Conclusion: dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals, particularly in acute medical admissions, and rural hospitals, where services may be less available. Most dementia is not previously diagnosed, emphasising the necessity for cognitive assessment in older people on presentation to hospital. PMID:26420638

  10. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–20121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Sara; Lionakis, Michail S.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis–associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002–2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005–2012 for men (annual change –3.9%) and women (annual change –4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease. PMID:27983497

  11. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  12. Examining the reliability and validity of the Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Mendel, A; Reicher, B; Bleich, A

    1999-10-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination is used worldwide for the screening and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination. The Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination was administered to 36 demented and 19 non-demented elderly persons. Test-retest reliability scores were calculated as exact agreement rates, and ranged from good to excellent for all the items. Strong convergent validity, as measured by the correlation between the MMSE and the CAM-COG (r = 0.94), was found. Good predictive value was observed as over three-quarters of the participants were correctly classified as demented or non-demented. The Hebrew version of the MMSE was found to be a useful and valid instrument for the determination of dementia in the elderly population.

  13. Legal frameworks and key concepts regulating diversion and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans Joachim; Gordon, Harvey

    2007-10-01

    There is only limited research on the various legal regulations governing assessment, placement and treatment of mentally ill offenders in European Union member states (EU-member states). To provide a structured description and cross-boundary comparison of legal frameworks regulating diversion and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in EU-member states before the extension in May 2004. A special focus is on the concept of criminal responsibility. Information on legislation and practice concerning the assessment, placement and treatment of mentally ill offenders was gathered by means of a detailed, structured questionnaire which was filled in by national experts. The legal regulations relevant for forensic psychiatry in EU-member states are outlined. Definitions of mental disorders given within these acts are introduced and compared with ICD-10 diagnoses. Finally the application of the concept of criminal responsibility by the law and in routine practice is presented. Legal frameworks for the processing and placement of mentally disordered offenders varied markedly across EU-member states. Since May 2004 the European Union has expanded to 25 member states and in January 2007 it will reach 27. With increasing mobility across Europe, the need for increasing trans-national co-operation is becoming apparent in which great variation in legal tradition pertains.

  14. Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, T; Wellman, H M

    2000-01-01

    Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.

  15. MENTAL HEALTH OF INCARCERATED WOMEN IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Márcia Vieira dos; Alves, Valdecyr Herdy; Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rodrigues, Diego Pereira; Marchiori, Giovanna Rosário Soanno; Guerra, Juliana Vidal Vieira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identifying the factors related to the mental health of women in a prison in the Statey of Rio de Janeiro. Method: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted between October 2014 and January 2015 in a female prison in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Forty (40) incarcerated women were interviewed. The information collected was discussed based on content analysis, using a thematic based modality. Results: the following factors that affect the mental health o...

  16. [Alteration of profile of treatment of the public psychiatric hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in the context of mental health care reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vívian Andrade Araújo; Volpe, Fernando Madalena; Diniz, Sabrina Stephanie Lana; Silva, Eliane Mussel da; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to describe the profile of treatment and internment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011. The changes in the characteristics of treatment and the profiles of the patients treated are analyzed in the context of health care reform. It is a study of temporal series with trend analysis by means of linear regression. There was a reduction in the total of patients treated in the period under scrutiny. Inversely, there was an increase in internments with a reduction in length of stay, though no change in readmission rates. Patients from Belo Horizonte prevailed, however a relative increase in demand from the surrounding area was observed. There was a reversal in the prevalence of morbidity switching from psychotic disorders to disorders resulting from the use of alcohol and/or other drugs. The alteration observed in the profile of treatment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte was concomitant with the progressive implementation of community mental health services, which have probably met the demand that was formerly directed to these hospitals. Currently the psychiatric hospital is not the first, much less the only venue for treatment in the mental health network in Minas Gerais.

  17. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Medication adherence levels and differential use of mental-health services in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to antipsychotics for schizophrenia is associated with favorable clinical outcomes. This study compared annual mental-health service utilization by recent medication adherence levels for patients treated for schizophrenia, and assessed whether adherence levels change from pre- to post-psychiatric hospitalization. Methods We analyzed data from a large prospective, non-interventional study of patients treated for schizophrenia in the United States, conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Detailed mental-health resource utilization was systematically abstracted from medical records and augmented with patients' self report. Medication possession ratio (MPR with any antipsychotic in the 6 months prior to enrollment was used to categorize patients as: adherent (MPR ≥ 80%, N = 1758, partially adherent (MPR ≥ 60% Results Adherent patients had a lower rate of psychiatric hospitalization compared with partially adherent and non-adherent patients (p Conclusion Adherence is associated with lower utilization of acute care services and greater engagement in outpatient mental-health treatment. Adherence is a potentially dynamic phenomenon, which may improve, at least temporarily, following patients' psychiatric hospitalizations.

  19. System flexibility in the rehabilitation process of mentally disabled persons in a hostel that bridges between the hospital and the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloush-Kleinman, Vered; Schneidman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization and community mental health services have become the focus of mental health care in the United States, Italy and England, and now in Israel. Tirat Carmel MHC developed an intervention model of organizational change implemented in a rehabilitation hostel. It is an interim service based on graduated transition from maintenance care to a transitional Half-way House, followed by a Transitional Living Skills Center oriented for independent community living. Of 205 rehabilitees who resided in the hostel since the beginning of the project, 138 were discharged to community residential settings: 67 patients were discharged to reinforced community hostels; 27 to sheltered housing and 23 to independent residential quarters; 7 patients were discharged to comprehensive hostels, 3 to old-age homes and 11 returned home to their families. In terms of employment, 79 were placed in sheltered employment facilities, 24 work in the open market and 3 returned to school; 22 work in therapeutic occupational settings and 10 patients discharged to comprehensive hostels and old-age homes are engaged in sheltered employment programs in those settings. The system flexibility model and the rehabilitation processes anchored in normalization supported the relocation of hospitalized psychiatric patients to community-based settings and enabled the rehabilitees to cope with readjustment to community life.

  20. Video Surveillance in Mental Health Facilities: Is it Ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolovy, Tali; Melamed, Yuval; Afek, Arnon

    2015-05-01

    Video surveillance is a tool for managing safety and security within public spaces. In mental health facilities, the major benefit of video surveillance is that it enables 24 hour monitoring of patients, which has the potential to reduce violent and aggressive behavior. The major disadvantage is that such observation is by nature intrusive. It diminishes privacy, a factor of huge importance for psychiatric inpatients. Thus, an ongoing debate has developed following the increasing use of cameras in this setting. This article presents the experience of a medium-large academic state hospital that uses video surveillance, and explores the various ethical and administrative aspects of video surveillance in mental health facilities.

  1. Mental health inpatient treatment expenditure trends in China, 2005-2012: evidence from Shandong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ruiyun; Xing, Jinshui; Su, Lei; Yu, Fenghua; Lu, Mingshan

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is increasingly becoming a huge public health issue in China. Yet for various cultural, healthcare system, and social economic reasons, people with mental health need have long been under-served in China. In order to inform the current on-going health care reform, empirical evidences on the economic burden of mental illnesses in China are urgently needed to contribute to health policy makers' understanding of the potential benefits to society from allocating more resources to preventing and treating mental illness. However, the cost of mental illnesses and particularly its trend in China remains largely unknown. To investigate the trend of health care resource utilization among inpatients with mental illnesses in China, and to analyze what are the factors influencing the inpatient costs. Our study sample included 15,721 patients, both adults and children, who were hospitalized over an eight-year period (2005-2012) in Shandong Center for Mental Health (SCMH), the only provincial psychiatric hospital in Shandong province, China. Data were extracted from the Health Information System (HIS) at SCMH, with detailed and itemized cost data on all inpatient expenses incurred during hospitalization. The identification of the patients was based on the ICD-10 diagnoses recorded in the HIS. Descriptive analysis was done to analyze the trend of hospitalization cost and length of stay during the study period. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis was conducted to assess the factors that influence hospitalization cost. Among the inpatients in our sample, the most common mental disorders were schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders. The disease which had the highest per capita hospital expense was behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence (RMB 8,828.4; US$ 1,419.4, as compared to the average reported household annual income of US$ 2,095.3 in China). The average annual growth rate of per capita

  2. Hospital-treated mental and behavioral disorders and risk of Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, V; Hartikainen, S; Taipale, H; Tiihonen, J; Tolppanen, A-M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating psychiatric disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have yielded heterogeneous findings. Differences in time windows between the exposure and outcome could be one explanation. We examined whether (1) mental and behavioral disorders in general or (2) specific mental and behavioral disorder categories increase the risk of AD and (3) how the width of the time window between the exposure and outcome affects the results. A nationwide nested case-control study of all Finnish clinically verified AD cases, alive in 2005 and their age, sex and region of residence matched controls (n of case-control pairs 27,948). History of hospital-treated mental and behavioral disorders was available since 1972. Altogether 6.9% (n=1932) of the AD cases and 6.4% (n=1784) of controls had a history of any mental and behavioral disorder. Having any mental and behavioral disorder (adjusted OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.00-1.16) or depression/other mood disorder (adjusted OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.05-1.30) were associated with higher risk of AD with 5-year time window but not with 10-year time window (adjusted OR, 95% CI 0.99, 0.91-1.08 for any disorder and 1.08, 0.96-1.23 for depression). The associations between mental and behavioral disorders and AD were modest and dependent on the time window. Therefore, some of the disorders may represent misdiagnosed prodromal symptoms of AD, which underlines the importance of proper differential diagnostics among older persons. These findings also highlight the importance of appropriate time window in psychiatric and neuroepidemiology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross border hospital use: analysis using data linkage across four Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Katrina; Rosman, Diana; Alan, Janine; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B

    2015-06-15

    To determine the quality and effectiveness of national data linkage capacity by performing a proof-of-concept project investigating cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths. Analysis of person-level linked hospital separation and death registration data of all public and private hospital patients in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia and of public hospital patients in South Australia, totalling 7.7 million hospital patients from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2009. Counts and proportions of hospital stays and patient movement patterns. 223 262 patients (3.0%) travelled across a state border to attend hospitals, in particular, far northern and western NSW patients travelling to Queensland and SA hospitals, respectively. A further 48 575 patients (0.6%) moved their place of residence interstate between hospital visits, particularly to and from areas associated with major mining and tourism industries. Over 11 000 cross-border hospital transfers were also identified. Of patients who travelled across a state border to hospital, 2800 (1.3%) died in that hospital. An additional 496 deaths recorded in one jurisdiction occurred within 30 days of hospital separation from another jurisdiction. Access to person-level data linked across jurisdictions identified geographical hot spots of cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths in Australia. This has implications for planning of health service delivery and for longitudinal follow-up studies, particularly those involving mobile populations.

  4. Shopping around for hospital services: a comparison of the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C M; Crystal, M; Detsky, A S; Redelmeier, D A

    1998-04-01

    Historical comparisons indicate that US hospitals are more expensive than Canadian hospitals, but health care system reform might have changed the relative costs and timeliness of health care in the 2 countries. To estimate the price and convenience of selected hospital services in the United States and Canada for patients in 1997 had they paid out-of-pocket. Cross-sectional telephone survey conducted May 1996 to April 1997. The 2 largest acute care general hospitals from every city in the United States and Canada with a population greater than 500000. Each hospital was telephoned and asked their price and waiting time for 7 services: magnetic resonance imaging of the head without gadolinium; a screening mammogram; a 12-lead electrocardiogram; a prothrombin time measurement; a session of hemodialysis; a screening colonoscopy; and a total knee replacement. Waiting times were measured in days until earliest appointment and charges were converted to American currency. Overall, 48 US and 18 Canadian hospitals were surveyed. Median waiting times were significantly shorter in American hospitals for 4 services, particularly a magnetic resonance imaging of the head (3 days vs 150 days; Preplacement ($26805 vs $10651; Preplacement in the United States. US hospitals still provide higher prices and faster care than Canadian hospitals for patients who pay out-of-pocket.

  5. First World War and Mental Health: a retrospective comparative study of veterans admitted to a psychiatric hospital between 1915 and 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagonia, Paolo; Aloi, Matteo; Magliocco, Fabio; Cerminara, Gregorio; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    The association between mental illness and war has been repeatedly investigated. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and an increased suicidal risk have been found in veterans. In this study we investigated the mental health conditions among Italian soldiers during the “Great War”, who were hospitalized in a mental health hospital in Italy. The study sample consists of 498 soldiers who were admitted during the World War I between 1915 and 1918, and 498 civilian patients admitted in two different periods (1898-1914, 1919- 1932). Psychiatric diagnoses have been recorded retrospectively by a detailed examination of clinical records. Socio-demographic informations, diagnosis at first admission, number of admissions, and deployment in war zones were collected. A logistic regression analysis was performed, the diagnosis of depression was considered as dependent variable while clinical and demographic variables as independent predictors. Soldiers deployed in war zones were more likely to have a diagnosis of depression compared to those not serving on the frontline. The logistic regression analysis showed that the diagnosis of depression is predicted by being a soldier and being deployed in a war area. Our data confirm that soldiers engaged in war are at higher risk of developing depression compared to non-deployed soldiers.

  6. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  7. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  8. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  9. Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…

  10. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Validation Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu Language for Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population. This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani's and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population.

  12. Clinical outcome and rehabilitation of homeless mentally ill patients admitted in mental health institute of South India: "Know the Unknown" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Guru S; Gopika, G; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Manjunatha, Narayana; Yadav, Ravi; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Dawn, Bharath Rose; Math, Suresh Bada

    2017-12-01

    Homeless Mentally Ill (HMI) patients represent a unique global problem and pose a challenge in treatment, management and rehabilitation services. There is sparse data on HMI patients in India. The objective of this paper is to study the clinical outcome and rehabilitation of HMI patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of 'HMI' patients from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2015, who were admitted under Department of Psychiatry at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India. Clinical outcomes were analysed by descriptive statistics and predictors of family reintegration were analysed by logistic regression model. Seventy-eight HMI (unknown) patients were admitted in fourteen years period. 64(82%) were improved at discharge, 40(51.3%) were reintegrated to the family; 15(19.2%) were sent to state home for women, and 17(21.8%) were sent to Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)/Rehabilitation Centre and 6 (7.8%) required multispecialty care in general hospital or absconded from the hospital during inpatient care. The logistic regression model showed that mental retardation (B=-2.204, P=0.002) was negatively correlated with family reintegration and clinical improvement at discharge (B=2.373, P=family reintegration. In our study majority of HMI patients improved at the time of discharge. Family reintegration was possible in about half of HMI patients after treatment. Mental retardation and clinical improvement are important predictors of family reintegration of HMI patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa's colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the ...

  14. Covert hepatic encephalopathy: does the mini-mental state examination help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; Rui, Michele D; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo; Merkel, Carlo; Amodio, Piero; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been utilized for the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, its threshold of abnormality has not been formally tested in patients with cirrhosis and its diagnostic/prognostic validity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess it in a large group of well-characterized outpatients with cirrhosis and no overt HE. One-hundred-and-ninety-one patients underwent clinical assessment, MMSE, electroencephalography (EEG) and paper-and-pencil psychometry (PHES); 117 were followed up for 8 ± 5 months in relation to the occurrence of HE-related hospitalizations. On the day of study, 81 patients (42%) had abnormal EEG and 67 (35%) abnormal PHES; 103 (60%) had a history of HE. Average MMSE was 26.6 ± 3.5; 22 (19%) patients had abnormal MMSE based on the standard threshold of 24. Patients with abnormal EEG/PHES/history of HE had worse MMSE performance than their counterparts with normal tests/negative history (25.7 ± 4.2 vs. 27.3 ± 2.7; P < 0.01; 25.5 ± 3.2 vs. 27.9 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001; 26.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.4 ± 2.6, P < 0.05, respectively). Based on the above results, MMSE thresholds of 26 and 27 were tested against abnormalities in clinical/EEG/PHES indices and significant associations were observed. An MMSE threshold of 26 was also a predictor of HE-related hospitalization (Cox-Mantel: P = 0.001); patients with MMSE <26 were significantly older than those with MMSE ≥26 but comparable in terms of liver dysfunction and ammonia levels. When MMSE items were considered separately, those which correlated most significantly with standard HE indices where spatial orientation and writing. In conclusion, an MMSE <26 identifies older patients with cirrhosis who are more prone to manifest HE signs.

  15. New measures of mental state and behavior based on data collected from sensors, smartphones, and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid and ubiquitous acceptance of new technologies, algorithms will be used to estimate new measures of mental state and behavior based on digital data. The algorithms will analyze data collected from sensors in smartphones and wearable technology, and data collected from Internet and smartphone usage and activities. In the future, new medical measures that assist with the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of psychiatric disorders will be available despite unresolved reliability, usability, and privacy issues. At the same time, similar non-medical commercial measures of mental state are being developed primarily for targeted advertising. There are societal and ethical implications related to the use of these measures of mental state and behavior for both medical and non-medical purposes.

  16. Mental health professionals' attitudes towards mental illness: professional and cultural factors in the INTER NOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo-Romero, Francisco; González-Blanco, María; Sarró, Salvador; Grácio, Jaime; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Martinez-Cabezón, Ana C; Perna, Giampaolo; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Varandas, Pedro; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Javier; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Vanni, Giovanna; González-Fraile, Eduardo

    2018-01-20

    Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27). Data were compared according to professional category, work setting and country. 34.06% (1525) professionals of the surveyed population responded adequately. Psychologists and social therapists had the most positive attitudes, and nursing assistants the most negative, on most factors of CAMI and AQ-27. Community staff had more positive attitudes than hospital-based professionals in most factors on CAMI and in discriminatory responses on AQ-27. Globally, mental health professionals showed a positive attitude towards mental illness, but also a relative support to coercive treatments. There are differences in attitudes modulated by professional category and setting. Results can guide preventive strategies, particularly for the hospital-based and nursing staff.

  17. Antimalarial prescribing patterns in state hospitals and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slowdown of progression to resistance could be achieved by improving prescribing practice, drug quality, and patient compliance. Objective: To determine the antimalarial prescribing pattern and to assess rational prescribing of chloroquine by prescribers in government hospitals and parastatals in Lagos State. Methods: ...

  18. What interventions can improve the mental health nursing practice environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redknap, Robina; Twigg, Di; Towell, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    The nursing practice environment is an important factor for services to consider in the attraction and retention of a skilled workforce during future nursing shortages. Despite the significant number of international studies undertaken to understand the influence of the practice environment on nurse satisfaction and retention, few have been undertaken within the mental health setting. This paper reports on results from a survey conducted in a large Australian public mental health hospital to examine nurses' perceptions of their practice environment, and identifies interventions that could be implemented to improve the practice environment. The hospital is the only remaining, standalone public mental health hospital in Western Australia. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. [Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Mental Health Management System to Support Faculty at a University That Contains a Medical School and University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate

  20. Children’s Psychiatric Hospital Dr. Juan N. Navarro: 50 years of attention to the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Márquez-Caraveo; Eduardo Arroyo-García; Armida Granados-Rojas; Angélica Ángeles-Llerenas

    2017-01-01

    The activities concerning mental health care of psychiatric disorders during more than 50 years of service (1966-2016) at the Children’s Psychiatric Hospital “Dr. Juan N. Navarro”(HPI), as well as the progressive development of teaching and research, have contributed to its positioning as a leading institution in medical care of high specialization. This has been possible through the training of human resources that focus the quality of care to the children and their families. The hospital ha...

  1. Mini-Exame do Estado Mental: características psicométricas em idosos ambulatoriais Mini-Mental State Examination: psychometric characteristics in elderly outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A Lourenço

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características de medida do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental em idosos atendidos em um ambulatório geral. MÉTODOS: O total de 303 indivíduos (>65 anos foi submetido à avaliação geriátrica com vários instrumentos, inclusive o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental. Foram calculadas a sensibilidade, a especificidade, os valores preditivos positivo e negativo e a curva ROC. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade, a especificidade, os valores preditivos positivo e negativo e a área sob a curva ROC foram 80,8%, 65,3%, 44,7%, 90,7% e 0,807, respectivamente (ponto de corte 23/24. O melhor ponto de corte para indivíduos analfabetos foi 18/19 (sensibilidade =73,5%; especificidade =73,9%, e para aqueles com instrução escolar foi 24/25 (sensibilidade =75%; especificidade =69,7%. CONCLUSÕES: Para o rastreamento cognitivo de idosos atendidos em ambulatórios gerais pelo Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, a escolaridade deverá ser considerada para a adoção do ponto de corte mais adequado.OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Mini-Mental State Examination in elderly outpatients who seek primary health care. METHODS: A total of 303 subjects (>65 years underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment with functional tools, including Mini-Mental State Examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and ROC curve were calculated. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and area under ROC curve were 80.8%, 65.3%, 44.7%, 90.7% and 0.807 respectively (cutoff point =23/24. The best cutoff point for illiterate was 18/19 (sensitivity =73.5%; specificity =73.9%; and for literate was 24/25 (sensitivity =75%; specificity =69.7%. CONCLUSIONS: While screening elderly outpatients for dementia, schooling must be considered in the choice of the best cutoff point in the Mini-Mental State Examination.

  2. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  3. Directory of Facilities for Mentally Ill Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Mental Health, New York, NY.

    Facilities for mentally ill children are listed by states in this directory for parents and professional people. Each entry includes information on diagnostic considerations, capacity, admission criteria, whether the facility is residential or day care, geographic eligibility, and fees. Separate indexes list residential and day care facilities and…

  4. Prevalence of Cannabis Residues in Psychiatric Patients: A Case Study of Two Mental Health Referral Hospitals in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epaenetus A. Awuzu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ 9 -THC, a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ 9 -THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics®, South Korea. Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ 9 -THC residues in their urine. There was strong association ( p < 0.05 between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ 9 -THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy.

  5. [Mini-Mental State Examination: Screening and Diagnosis of Cognitive Decline, Using New Normative Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Isabel; Duro, Diana; Lemos, Raquel; Costa, Vanessa; Pereira, Miguel; Simões, Mário R; Freitas, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most commonly used cognitive screening test. In Portugal, the cut-off scores are defined according to literacy groups, but different proposals have been recommended by more representative studies. We therefore propose to confirm the influence of demographical variables, such as age and education, in the subjectâs performance; evaluating the discriminant ability of the new normative data; and to further examine the diagnostic acuity of the validated cut-off scoring for mild cognitive impairment and for the most prevalent types of dementia. Our study includes 1 441 educated subjects, divided into seven subgroups: Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, community-controls and memory clinic-controls. Altogether age and education explain 10.4% of the Mini-Mental State Examination results variance, with both variables contributing significantly to the resultsâ prediction. The diagnostic acuity based on the most recent normative data was always higher than the one obtained through the validation cut-off scoring, revealing an overall excellent specificity (superior to 90%) and different sensitivity values: excellent for mild Alzheimer's disease (91%), good for dementia with Lewy Bodies (78%) and low for mild cognitive impairment (65%), frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia (55%). The performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination is influenced by age and education, supporting the use of normative data that consider those variables. With this approach, the Mini-Mental State Examination could be a sensitive and specific instrument for the Alzheimer's disease screening among all healthcare levels. Nevertheless, its diagnostic acuity is limited in other conditions frequently seen in memory clinics, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment and other types of dementia.

  6. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  7. Drug overdose surveillance using hospital discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Bunn, Terry L; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000-2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison.

  8. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Terry L.; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000–2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Results Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. Conclusion The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison. PMID:25177055

  9. Neurotization indicators and state of mental desadaptation in personnel of internal affairs organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnichenko S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data of psychological testing of personnel of internal affairs organs, using LNP test: levels of neuroticism and psychopathsation, prevalence of levels of neuroticism among the personnel, the relationship between neuroticism level and clinical groups (mentally healthy, with burnout syndrome and with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism reflects both dynamic and static (states and properties personality characteristics, i.e. neuroticism is elective personality variable. The clinical picture is characterized by manifestations of asthenonevurotic and psycho-vegetative syndromes. More often among those with non-psychotic mental disorders a high (100% level of neuroticism, increased (87.5% and in the zone of uncertain diagnosis (50% occur, than among those with burnout syndrome, and lower than normal (36.36% and low (19.08% neuroticism level – more often among with burnout syndrome, than in those with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism on the verge of normal and pathological conditions occurs mostly in people with burnout syndrome (50% and non-psychotic mental disorders (50%.

  10. The Perinatal Mental Health and Wellness Project: Improving perinatal mental health outcomes by working together across sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Herde, Emily Louise

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the Perinatal Mental Health and Wellness Project which aimed to develop and evaluate a collaborative model for mental health promotion, illness prevention and early intervention in the perinatal period. The project took on a place-based action research approach, developing and trialling the model with expectant parents (n=537) engaged with Redcliffe Hospital Maternity Services in the Metro North Hospital and Health Service in Queensland, Australia, from 2015 – 2017.In Au...

  11. Neural imaging to track mental states while using an intelligent tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2010-04-13

    Hemodynamic measures of brain activity can be used to interpret a student's mental state when they are interacting with an intelligent tutoring system. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while students worked with a tutoring system that taught an algebra isomorph. A cognitive model predicted the distribution of solution times from measures of problem complexity. Separately, a linear discriminant analysis used fMRI data to predict whether or not students were engaged in problem solving. A hidden Markov algorithm merged these two sources of information to predict the mental states of students during problem-solving episodes. The algorithm was trained on data from 1 day of interaction and tested with data from a later day. In terms of predicting what state a student was in during a 2-s period, the algorithm achieved 87% accuracy on the training data and 83% accuracy on the test data. The results illustrate the importance of integrating the bottom-up information from imaging data with the top-down information from a cognitive model.

  12. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  13. The Impact of Healthcare Workers Job Environment on Their Mental-emotional Health. Coping Strategies: The Case of a Local General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis, Aristotelis; Giannou, Vasiliki; Drantaki, Vasiliki; Angelaina, Sophia; Stratou, Elpida; Saridi, Maria

    2015-04-13

    Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals' physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers' mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%). Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital's review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events, evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach's α=0.862). Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals' emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001) and quitting (t=-2.564, P=0.011) are predisposing factors. For the 'mental health and spirituality' regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000) and seeking social support (t=-1.991, P=0.048) are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0.000) is a predisposing factor

  14. Mental well-being of patients from ethnic minority groups during critical care: a qualitative ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Rose Lima; Deschepper, Reginald; Huyghens, Luc; Bilsen, Johan

    2017-09-27

    To investigate the state of the mental well-being of patients from ethnic minority groups and possible related risk factors for the development of mental health problems among these patients during critical medical situations in hospital. Qualitative ethnographic design. Oneintensive care unit (ICU) of a multiethnic urban hospital in Belgium. 84 ICU staff members, 10 patients from ethnic-minority groups and their visiting family members. Patients had several human basic needs for which they could not sufficiently turn to anybody, neither to their healthcare professionals, nor to their relatives nor to other patients. These needs included the need for social contact, the need to increase comfort and alleviate pain, the need to express desperation and participate in end-of-life decision making. Three interrelated risk factors for the development of mental health problems among the patients included were identified: First, healthcare professionals' mainly biomedical care approach (eg, focus on curing the patient, limited psychosocial support), second, the ICU context (eg, time pressure, uncertainty, regulatory frameworks) and third, patients' different ethnocultural background (eg, religious and phenotypical differences). The mental state of patients from ethnic minority groups during critical care is characterised by extreme emotional loneliness. It is important that staff should identify and meet patients' unique basic needs in good time with regard to their mental well-being, taking into account important threats related to their own mainly biomedical approach to care, the ICU's structural context as well as the patients' different ethnocultural background. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massari, Daniele; Pacheco, Daniel; Malekshahi, Rahim; Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.

  16. Atypical frontal-posterior synchronization of Theory of Mind regions in autism during mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Keller, Timothy A; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the functioning of the Theory of Mind (ToM) cortical network in autism during the viewing of animations that in some conditions entailed the attribution of a mental state to animated geometric figures. At the cortical level, mentalizing (attribution of metal states) is underpinned by the coordination and integration of the components of the ToM network, which include the medial frontal gyrus, the anterior paracingulate, and the right temporoparietal junction. The pivotal new finding was a functional underconnectivity (a lower degree of synchronization) in autism, especially in the connections between frontal and posterior areas during the attribution of mental states. In addition, the frontal ToM regions activated less in participants with autism relative to control participants. In the autism group, an independent psychometric assessment of ToM ability and the activation in the right temporoparietal junction were reliably correlated. The results together provide new evidence for the biological basis of atypical processing of ToM in autism, implicating the underconnectivity between frontal regions and more posterior areas.

  17. Inside the nation’s largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Al-Rousan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. Results The average inmate (N = 8574 age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91% and white (65%.Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%, of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males, and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%. The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition of a substance abuse history was 11 months. Conclusions There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  18. Right to mental health in prison system: reflections on the process of deinstitutionalization of the HCTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to discuss the close relationship between mental health, the criminal justice system and the prison system, whose specific interfaces are the HCTP (Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiátrico, or Judicial Psychiatric Hospital) conflict and the person with mental disorder in conflict with the law. There will be presented extensive discussions on the Penal Execution Law and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law, as well as cross-sector actions taken by the judiciary and the federal government (Brazilian National Health System - SUS and National Social Assistance System - SUAS) to bring the criminal justice system and the prison system to the anti-asylum combat. Two successful experiences in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás will also be presented for they reflect the emergence of a new strategy on public health policy: The Evaluation Service and Monitoring Therapeutic Measures for the Person with Mental Disorder in Conflict with the Law, device connector between systems, willing to operate in the process of deinstitutionalization of people with mental disorders of HCPT.

  19. Child responsible personnel in adult mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child

  20. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  1. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  2. 42 CFR 403.321 - State systems for hospital outpatient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State systems for hospital outpatient services. 403.321 Section 403.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... application for approval of an outpatient system if the following conditions are met: (a) The State's...

  3. Social functioning as a predictor of the use of mental health resources in patients with severe mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Impact of frailty over the functional state of hospitalized elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, Juan Carlos; García-Peña, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Frailty in elderly results from impaired physiological reserve in multiple systems. Establishing if frail elderly inpatients develop more functional impairment at discharge, will allow the development of strategies for preventing or limiting the deterioration in this vulnerable group. Prospective cohort in 133 elderly inpatients. At admission, frailty, functional status, comorbidity and comprehensive geriatric evaluation were determined. The main outcome was functional state at hospital discharge. 64 patients presented frailty (48.1%) and 69 did not present that state (51.9%), with a mean age of 73 and 68 years, respectively. Mean decrement in functional state at discharge was -8.06 % (IC 95 % -10.38 to -5.74), from 97.97 % to 89.91 % (p model, frailty (beta -14.73, IC 95 % -19.39 to -10.07, p decrement. Frailty independently predicts functional impairment at hospital discharge.

  5. Home/Hospital Instruction: Instructional Approach to Working with Students with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cara

    2012-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States provide in-home schooling for students whose health problems, both physical and mental, prevent them from attending regular classes. This service is an outgrowth of the federal legislation which addressed the provision of education to all children with special needs. Home/Hospital teachers who serve…

  6. Cost Analysis of a High Support Housing Initiative for Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Long-Term Psychiatric Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, David; de Oliveira, Claire; Jacob, Binu; Hopkins, Melonie; Kurdyak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this article was to conduct a cost analysis comparing the costs of a supportive housing intervention to inpatient care for clients with severe mental illness who were designated alternative-level care while inpatient at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. The intervention, called the High Support Housing Initiative, was implemented in 2013 through a collaboration between 15 agencies in the Toronto area. The perspective of this cost analysis was that of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. We compared the cost of inpatient mental health care to high-support housing. Cost data were derived from a variety of sources, including health administrative data, expenditures reported by housing providers, and document analysis. The High Support Housing Initiative was cost saving relative to inpatient care. The average cost savings per diem were between $140 and $160. This amounts to an annual cost savings of approximately $51,000 to $58,000. When tested through sensitivity analysis, the intervention remained cost saving in most scenarios; however, the result was highly sensitive to health system costs for clients of the High Support Housing Initiative program. This study suggests the High Support Housing Initiative is potentially cost saving relative to inpatient hospitalization at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

  7. Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.

  8. A study to assess the domestic violence in mental illness & normal married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today. According to UNiTE to End Violence against Women (2009 by UN Women, In the United States, one-third of women murdered each year are killed by intimate partners. In South Africa, a woman is killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner. The Objective: To assess the magnitude and causes of domestic violence with mental illness & normal women. Material & Methods: The sample of study comprised of 50 women with mental illness and 50 normal women. Mental illness patients diagnosed according to with Axis one psychiatric Disorder DSM IV-TR, who were selected from the Psychiatry OPD and ward of the S.S. Hospital, BHU and normal women were be selected from the accompany with patients of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital. The patients were assessed on the structured questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Results – The domestic violence present in married women with mental illness was 72% and normal women were 36%. Perceived causes of domestic violence in married women with mental illness were more compared to those with normal women. The health care personnel should be given an opportunity to update their knowledge regarding domestic violence and there is need education for domestic violence and cessation, so that they can help the women to protect/prevent domestic violence.

  9. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  10. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Nok Lam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3

  11. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  12. Correlates of Level and Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to determine (a) the cognitive abilities assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, & P. R. McHugh, 1975), (b) whether the same abilities are associated with MMSE performance among people of different ages, and (c) whether the same abilities are involved in changes…

  13. Rethinking School Safety in the Age of Empire: Militarization, Mental Health, and State Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jordan Jaffee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calls for stricter gun control and mental health screening often come on the heels of school shootings, which have raised national concerns about school safety. The implication is that people with psychiatric disabilities are dangerous or threatening, and that preventing them from owning guns will make schools safer. This paper challenges this assumption by considering dominant discourses about school safety and mental health alongside the increasing militarization of U.S. schools. Advocating reducing violence by identifying individuals with psychiatric disabilities—or those labelled with mental illnesses presumed to render them dangerous—erases the profound state violence schools engender in the service of empire while perpetuating ableist assumptions about people with psychiatric disabilities. In the age of empire and endless imperialist war, we need to challenge prevailing conceptions of both school safety and mental health.

  14. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748

  15. State of the art in marketing hospital foodservice departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C W; Shanklin, C W

    1985-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the state of the art relative to the utilization of marketing techniques within hospital foodservice departments throughout the United States and to determine whether any relationships existed between the degree of utilization of marketing techniques and selected demographic characteristics of the foodservice administrators and/or operations. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 600 randomly selected hospital foodservice administrators requesting information related to marketing in their facilities. Forty-five percent of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed for frequency of response and significant relationship between variables. Chi-square was used for nominal data and Spearman rho for ranked data. Approximately 73% of the foodservice administrators stated that marketing was extremely important in the success of a hospital foodservice department. Respondents (79%) further indicated that marketing had become more important in their departments in the past 2 years. Departmental records, professional journals, foodservice suppliers, observation, and surveys were the sources most often used to obtain marketing data, a responsibility generally assumed by the foodservice director (86.2%). Merchandising, public relations, and word-of-mouth reputation were regarded as the most important aspects of marketing. Increased sales, participation, good will, departmental recognition, and employee satisfaction were used most frequently to evaluate the success of implemented marketing techniques. Marketing audits as a means of evaluating the success of marketing were used to a limited extent by the respondents.

  16. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  17. State-Level Community Benefit Regulation and Nonprofit Hospitals' Provision of Community Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J; Loomer, Lacey; Madison, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    Do nonprofit hospitals provide enough community benefits to justify their tax exemptions? States have sought to enhance nonprofit hospitals' accountability and oversight through regulation, including requirements to report community benefits, conduct community health needs assessments, provide minimum levels of community benefits, and adhere to minimum income eligibility standards for charity care. However, little research has assessed these regulations' impact on community benefits. Using 2009-11 Internal Revenue Service data on community benefit spending for more than eighteen hundred hospitals and the Hilltop Institute's data on community benefit regulation, we investigated the relationship between these four types of regulation and the level and types of hospital-provided community benefits. Our multivariate regression analyses showed that only community health needs assessments were consistently associated with greater community benefit spending. The results for reporting and minimum spending requirements were mixed, while minimum income eligibility standards for charity care were unrelated to community benefit spending. State adoption of multiple types of regulation was consistently associated with higher levels of hospital-provided community benefits, possibly because regulatory intensity conveys a strong signal to the hospital community that more spending is expected. This study can inform efforts to design regulations that will encourage hospitals to provide community benefits consistent with policy makers' goals. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.

  18. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections of rCBF analysis on the forgetfulness of patients using Mini-Mental State Examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Matsubara, Ichirou; Ohtani, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study was to determine the abnormality of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), using a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP), in 18 patients referred to the hospital due to forgetfulness. An intergroup comparison, by 3D-SSP analysis, was conducted based on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results of the total score, time orientation, place orientation, recall, serial sevens and figure copy. In each abnormal group, rCBF was partially decreased in the temporo-parietal cortex, medial temporal structure and posterior cingulate gyrus; these areas with decreased rCBF are similar to the pattern found in Alzheimer's disease. In the abnormal group, at the time of orientation and figure copy, rCBF was decreased in the right parieto-occipital area. (author)

  19. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  20. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  1. All-Cause, 30-Day Readmissions Among Persons With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Robert; Lin, Elizabeth; Dobranowski, Kristin; Selick, Avra; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2018-03-01

    Early hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge are common and costly. This research describes predictors of all-cause, 30-day hospital readmissions among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), a group known to experience high rates of hospitalization. A cohort of 66,484 adults with IDD from Ontario, Canada, was used to create two subgroups: individuals with IDD only and those with IDD and mental illness. The rates of hospital readmission were determined and contrasted with a comparison subgroup of people without IDD who have mental illness. Compared with those with mental illness only, individuals with IDD and mental illness were 1.7 times more likely to experience a hospital readmission within 30 days. Predictors of their readmission rates included being a young adult and having high morbidity levels. The high rate of hospital readmission suggests that individuals with IDD and mental illness need attention regarding discharge planning and outpatient follow-up.

  2. Caregivers' Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Dhakal, Sarmila; Thapa, Sabita; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual's and their caregiver's physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers' attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out. Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18-90) and perceived stigma (score range: 12-60) were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (pattitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver's relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma.

  3. Hospitalization for esophageal achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molena, Daniela; Mungo, Benedetto; Stem, Miloslawa; Lidor, Anne O

    2015-09-25

    To assess the outcome of different treatments in patients admitted for esophageal achalasia in the United States. This is a retrospective analysis using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample over an 8-year period (2003-2010). Patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of achalasia were divided into 3 groups based on their treatment: (1) Group 1: patients who underwent Heller myotomy during their hospital stay; (2) Group 2: patients who underwent esophagectomy; and (3) Group 3: patients not undergoing surgical treatment. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS), discharge destination and total hospital charges. Among 27141 patients admitted with achalasia, nearly half (48.5%) underwent Heller myotomy, 2.5% underwent esophagectomy and 49.0% had endoscopic or other treatment. Patients in group 1 were younger, healthier, and had the lowest mortality when compared with the other two groups. Group 2 had the highest LOS and hospital charges among all groups. Group 3 had the highest mortality (1.2%, P achalasia carries exceedingly low mortality in the modern era; however, in complicated patients, even less invasive treatments are burdened by significant mortality and morbidity.

  4. An integrated web-based mental health intervention of assessment-referral-care to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression in hospitalized pregnant women with medically high-risk pregnancies: a feasibility study protocol of hospital-based implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-16

    At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) 72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care

  5. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  6. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  7. First-time first-trimester induced abortion and risk of readmission to a psychiatric hospital in women with a history of treated mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2012-02-01

    Mental health problems are associated with women's reproductive decisions and predict poor mental health outcomes after abortion and childbirth. To study whether having a first-trimester induced abortion influenced the risk of psychiatric readmission and compare findings with readmission risk in women with mental disorders giving birth. Survival analyses were performed in a population-based cohort study merging data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register from January 1,1994, to December 31, 2007. Denmark. All women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1992 with a record of 1 or more psychiatric admissions at least 9 months before a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Main Outcome Measure  Readmission at a psychiatric hospital with any type of mental disorder from 9 months before to 12 months after a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Relative risk (RR) for readmission risk 9 to 0 months before a first-trimester induced abortion was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.73-1.23) compared with the first year after the abortion. This contrasts with a reduced risk of readmission before childbirth (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with the first year post partum. Proximity to previous psychiatric admission in particular predicted rehospitalization risks in both the abortion and the childbirth group. Risk of readmission is similar before and after first-time first-trimester abortion, contrasting with a marked increased in risk of readmission post partum. We speculate that recent psychiatric episodes may influence women's decisions to have an induced abortion; however, this decision does not appear to influence the illness course in women with a history of treated mental disorders.

  8. Mental health, participation and social identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril

    2017-01-01

    pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....

  9. Risk of central nervous system defects in offspring of women with and without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-22

    We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.

  10. A humanização na assistência à saúde mental no hospital geral: uma das alternativas terapêuticas da reforma psiquiátrica garantida pelos direitos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, Tânia Maria Nava

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objeto a assistência à saúde mental nos hospitais gerais como forma de alternativa ao hospital psiquiátrico e à inserção social. Através do levantamento documental, bibliográfico e teórico, e com base na observação da experiência de assistência na unidade psiquiátrica do Hospital São Paulo da Escola de Medicina da Unifesp, buscou-se delinear o paradigma introduzido pela reforma psiquiátrica brasileira e seus desdobramentos nas políticas públicas de saúde mental no Brasi...

  11. Compulsory Community Care in New Zealand Mental Health Legislation 1846-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John O’Brien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Community treatment orders are considered a new development in mental health care and are consistent with current New Zealand mental health policy of care in the community. However, since its first adoption in 1846, New Zealand mental health legislation has always made provision for compulsory mental health care out of hospital. Analysis of the text of each of the five iterations of mental health legislation shows that an initial (1846 provision for a friend or relative to take a committed patient into his or her care, as an alternative to committal to hospital, continued though various revisions until its current expression as a community treatment order. Using Rochefort’s model of change in mental health policy, we argue that a long static period until 1911 was followed by progressive change throughout the 20th century, although provision for compulsory out-of-hospital care has been continuous over the life of New Zealand’s legislation. In the late-20th century, compulsory mental health care is tied to medical treatment and mental health service surveillance of the patient’s social circumstances. We conclude with recommendations for how reformed legislation may contribute to future mental health policy by giving effect to agendas of positive rights and social inclusion.

  12. [Genesis of hospital nursing in Goiás State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Celma Martins; de Andrade, Ilidiana Miranda

    2005-01-01

    The Hospital de Caridade São Pedro de Alcântara was created in the City of Goiás, being the first hospital institution implanted in the state. The work purposes to understand the historical-social context in which the "São Pedro" was implanted, looking for information about the structure and operation, especially what concerns to the nursing. The used approach was the dialectics. The results demonstrated the existence of ten nursing workers and that those were separate to patients' attendance according to gender. The work delivered by the male workers was better remunerated than the one delivered by female workers. The hospital and their servants, gradually, were assuming the responsibility for the ordering and cleanliness of the physical spaces, workers, prisioners, burials, etc. The work was arduous and badly paid.

  13. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  14. Factors Affecting Health Related Quality of Life in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Audi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identified factors affecting health related quality of life (HRQOL in 300 hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF. Data were collected by the completion of a questionnaire which included patients’ characteristics and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ. Analysis of data showed that the median of the total score of MLHFQ was 46 and the median of the physical and mental state was 22 and 6, respectively. Also, participants who were householders or had “other” professions had lower score of 17 points and therefore better quality of life compared to patients who were civil/private employees (p<0.001 and p<0.001, resp.. Patients not receiving anxiolytics and antidepressants had lower quality of life scores of 6 and 15.5 points, respectively, compared to patients who received (p=0.003 and p<0.001, resp.. Patients with no prior hospitalization had lower score of 7 points compared to those with prior hospitalization (p=0.002, whereas patients not retired due to the disease had higher score of 7 points (p=0.034. Similar results were observed for the physical and mental state. Improvement of HF patients’ quality of life should come to the forefront of clinical practice.

  15. Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Amelia Seraphia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. Methods A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Results Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Conclusions Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation. PMID:26695493

  16. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  17. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis R. Santos-Lozada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS, binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%. Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%. After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]. No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.

  18. 76 FR 42169 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...) 786-4533, and Jana Lindquist, (410) 786-4533, Partial hospitalization and community mental health... Laboratory Fee Schedule CMHC Community Mental Health Center CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services CPT... community mental health centers (CMHCs)) and hospital outpatient services that are furnished to inpatients...

  19. Description of physiotherapy services in a mental health institution in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Gbiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy  has  long  been  recognised  as  adjunct  to  drug therapy in the management of individuals with mental illness. however, little evidence existed on the utilization of physiotherapy in mental health especially in developing worlds.This study reviewed the utilization of physiotherapy in a Mental health  Institution in lagos, nigeria and determined its contribution to quality of  patient-care in the hospital.This study involved review of clients’ activity profile and patients’ record in a federal neuro-psychiatric hospital in lagos, nigeria between 2002 and 2006. The hospital records were used as source of information for socio- demographic details. Information on the physical diagnosis was extracted from the patients’ records in the departmental records. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics.Six thousand, four hundred and seventy-three (3.3% out of the 195,686  patients of the hospital within the study period enjoyed physiotherapy ser vices. only 766 (14% of the hospital in-patients enjoyed physiotherapy services. In addition, 808 clients enjoyed the health promotion services. low back pain (85; 21.7%, osteo-arthritis (82; 20.9%, stroke (64; 16.3% and shoulder pain  (29; 7.4% were the most common co-existing health problems referred for physiotherapy.The importance of physiotherapy in mental health is evidenced in the number of patients/clients who benefited from its services. Therefore, physiotherapy is an integral and indispensible member of the mental health team. however, physiotherapy  is  still  under-utilized  in  the  hospital.  This  points  to  the  need  for  proper  integration  of  physiotherapy  into mental health team in the hospital and other similar health institutions.

  20. [State of food and nutritional care in public hospitals of Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-10-03

    The ELAN Ecuadorian Study of Hospital Malnutrition returned a malnutrition rate of 37.1% in public hospitals of Ecuador [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. Hospital malnutrition could be the result of institutional cultural practices affecting the patient's nutritional status. To present the current state of food and nutritional care provided to patients assisted in public hospitals of Ecuador. The state of food and nutritional care provided to 5,355 patients assisted in 36 hospitals of 23 provinces of the country was documented by means of the Hospital Nutrition Survey (HNS), conducted as part of the ELAN Study. HNS recorded the completion of nutritional assessment exercises, the use of food-bymouth, fasting, use of oral nutritional supplements, and implementation and conduction of Artificial nutritional schemes (Enteral/Parenteral); respectively. Less than 0.1% of clinical charts had a diagnosis of malnutrition included in the list of the patient's health problems. Less than half of the patients had been measured and weighted on admission. Serum Albumin values and Total Lymphocytes Counts were annotated on admission in only 13.5% and 59.2% of the instances, respectively. Current weight value was registered in only 59.4% of the patients with length of stay ³ 15 days. An oral nutritional supplement was prescribed in just 3.5% of non-malnourished patients in which significant metabolic stress and/or reduced food intakes concurred. Although up to 10 different indications for use of Artificial nutrition were identified in the sample study, any of these techniques was administered to just 2.5% (median of observed percentages; range: 1.3 - 11.9%) of surveyed patients. Currently, nutritional status of hospitalized patient is not included within therapeutic goals, nutritional assessment

  1. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waja T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods: An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60% were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69], not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39], availability of house (AOR

  3. Hospitalization of nursing home residents: the effects of states' Medicaid payment and bed-hold policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Orna; Grabowski, David C; Zinn, Jacqueline; Schleinitz, Mark; Feng, Zhanlian; Miller, Susan; Mor, Vince

    2007-08-01

    Hospitalizations of nursing home residents are costly and expose residents to iatrogenic disease and social and psychological harm. Economic constraints imposed by payers of care, predominantly Medicaid policies, are hypothesized to impact hospitalizations. Federally mandated resident assessments were merged with Medicare claims and eligibility files to determine hospitalizations and death within 150 days of baseline assessment. Nursing home and market characteristics were obtained from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting, and the Area Resource File, respectively. States' average daily Medicaid nursing home payments and bed-hold policies were obtained independently. Prospective cohort study of 570,614 older (> or =65-year-old), non-MCO (Medicare Managed Care), long-stay (> or =90 days) residents in 8,997 urban, freestanding nursing homes assessed between April and June 2000, using multilevel models to test the impact of state policies on hospitalizations controlling for resident, nursing home, and market characteristics. Overall, 99,379 (17.4 percent) residents were hospitalized with rates varying from 8.4 percent in Utah to 24.9 percent in Louisiana. Higher Medicaid per diem was associated with lower odds of hospitalizations (5 percent lower for each $10 above average $103.5, confidence intervals [CI] 0.91-0.99). Hospitalization odds were higher by 36 percent in states with bed-hold policies (CI: 1.12-1.63). State Medicaid bed-hold policy and per-diem payment have important implications for nursing home hospitalizations, which are predominantly financed by Medicare. This study emphasizes the importance of properly aligning state Medicaid and federal Medicare policies in regards to the subsidy of acute, maintenance, and preventive care in the nursing home setting.

  4. A constructivist grounded theory of generalist health professionals and their mental health work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel

    2018-05-30

    Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. One-minute mental status examination for category fluency is more useful than mini-mental state examination to evaluate the reliability of insulin self-injection in elderly diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ken; Matsushita, Takaya; Sumitomo, Hidetaka; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Katayama, Takashi; Kanno, Kazuo; Sakai, Masashi; Shigeta, Masayuki; Shirabe, Shinichiro; Nakano, Tadasumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ueki, Akio; Kitaoka, Masafumi

    2014-05-04

    We investigated the factors associated with the reliability of insulin self-injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy. We enrolled diabetic patients aged ≥65 years and receiving insulin therapy, and assessed their cognitive function by the mini-mental state examination and 1-min mental status examination for category fluency. We also observed their technique of insulin self-injection, and evaluated whether or not patients were able to inject insulin by themselves according to nine defined details in terms of insulin self-injection. The predictive factors for the reliability of insulin self-injection were determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 278 participants (135 males, 143 females) enrolled in the present study. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the 1-min mental status examination score was found to be a significant independent predictor of the reliability of insulin self-injection (odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.90; P = 0.002). The 1-min mental status examination for category fluency can be considered more useful than mini-mental state examination to evaluate the reliability of insulin self-injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy.

  6. Maternal Mortality At The State Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyse and document our experiences with maternal mortality with the view of finding the trends over the last seven years, common causes and attributing socio-demographic factors. Design: A prospective analysis of maternal mortality. Setting: State Specialists Hospital Bauchi, Bauchi Northeastern Nigeria.

  7. The reliability of assigning individuals to cognitive states using the Mini Mental-State Examination: a population-based prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Marioni, Riccardo E.; Chatfield, Mark; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E.; Med Res Council

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous investigations of test re-test reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have used correlations and statistics such as Cronbach's α to assess consistency. In practice, the MMSE is usually used to group individuals into cognitive states. The reliability of this grouping (state based approach) has not been fully explored. Methods MMSE data were collected on a subset of 2,275 older participants (≥ 65 years) from the population-based Medical Research Cou...

  8. School-Based Mental Health Programs in the United States: Present Status and a Blueprint for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Reddy, Linda A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides overview of sociocultural and political factors in the United States that have influenced recent interest in school-based health and mental health programs. Describes four well-known programs and presents a new framework, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate thinking on future programs. Addresses…

  9. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.

    1996-01-01

    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  10. Hospitalized poisonings after renal transplantation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Rebecca A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized poisonings in renal transplant recipients has not been reported. Methods Historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. Associations with time to hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of poisonings (ICD-9 codes 960.x-989.x within three years after renal transplant were assessed by Cox Regression. Results The incidence of hospitalized poisonings was 2.3 patients per 1000 person years. The most frequent causes of poisonings were immunosuppressive agents (25.3%, analgesics/antipyretics (14.1%, psychotropic agents (10.0%, and insulin/antidiabetic agents (7.1%. In Cox Regression analysis, low body mass index (BMI, 28.3 kg/m2, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR, 3.02, 95% CI, 1.45–6.28, and allograft rejection, AHR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.15–2.89, were the only factors independently associated with hospitalized poisonings. Hospitalized poisonings were independently associated with increased mortality (AHR, 1.54, 95% CI 1.22–1.92, p = 0.002. Conclusions Hospitalized poisonings were associated with increased mortality after renal transplantation. However, almost all reported poisonings in renal transplant recipients were due to the use of prescribed medications. Allograft rejection and low BMI were the only independent risk factors for poisonings identified in this population.

  11. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter

    2017-08-18

    Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness and knowledge of the determinants of behavioural change is lacking. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and quality of life, and explore modifiable psychological determinants of change in physical activity in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness. In 184 inpatients, physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (ActiGraph GTX+). Quality of life was assessed by EuroQol-5D and WHOQol-Bref. Attitude and perceived self-efficacy towards physical activity were collected using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and the Multidimensional Self Efficacy Questionnaire, respectively. Patient and disease characteristics were derived retrospectively from electronic patient records. Associations and potential predictors were analysed using hierarchical regression. Physical activity was positively related with and a predictor of all quality of life outcomes except on the environmental domain, independent of patient and disease characteristics. However, non-linear relationships showed that most improvement in quality of life lies in the change from sedentary to light activity. Attitude and self-efficacy were not related to physical activity. Physical activity is positively associated with quality of life, especially for patients in the lower spectrum of physical activity. An association between attitude and self-efficacy and physical activity was absent. Therefore, results suggest the need of alternative, more integrated and (peer-)supported interventions to structurally improve physical activity in this inpatient population. Slight changes from sedentary

  12. AFRONTAMIENTO FAMILIAR ANTE LA PRIMERA CRISIS DEL PACIENTE PSIQUIATRICO DEL HOSPITAL MENTAL RUDESINDO SOTO EN EL SEGUNDO SEMESTRE DE 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Paola Morales-Contreras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de determinar el grado de afrontamiento de la familia del paciente psiquiátrico ante el padecimiento de sus primeras crisis que asisten al Hospital Mental Rudesindo Soto de Cúcuta Norte de Santander, se desarrollo el presente estudio de tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo y de corte transversal. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 40 cuidadores primarios de los pacientes con primera crisis que ingresaron al Hospital Mental Rudesindo Soto durante el periodo comprendido entre Julio y Octubre de 2004 residentes en Ia ciudad de acutal y su área metropolitana, caracterizados de acuerdo al sexo, edad, parentesco, ocupación y escolaridad, a quienes se aplico el instrumento F-COPES "Escala de Evaluación personal del funcionamiento familiar en situación de crisis", para determinar Ia utilización de los mecanismos de afrontamiento y mecanismo de defensa así como la Búsqueda de redes de apoyo social. De acuerdo al afrontamiento familiar el cuidador primario algunas veces busca redes de apoyo, casi nunca utiliza los mecanismos de defensa y los mecanismos de afrontamiento son utilizados algunas veces. Se concluye principalmente que el grado de afrontamiento de Ia familia del paciente psiquiátrico en su primera crisis es desfavorable.

  13. Caregivers' Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Neupane

    Full Text Available Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual's and their caregiver's physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers' attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma.We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out.Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18-90 and perceived stigma (score range: 12-60 were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (p<0.05, educational status of caregiver (p<0.001, sex of patient (p<0.05 and type of mental illness (p<0.05. Perceived stigma score varied significantly by caregiver's sex (p<0.05, marital status (p<0.001, educational status (p<0.001, occupation (p<0.05, relation with the patient (p<0.005 and use of alternative treatment modalities (p<0.05.Sex of participant, educational status, sex of patient and type of mental illness were the correlates of attitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver's relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma.

  14. Maternal discussions of mental states and behaviors: relations to emotion situation knowledge in European American and immigrant Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the United States. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children's ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers' use of mental states language predicted children's ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children's ESK. Finally, mothers' emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children's ESK. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Caregivers’ Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Dhakal, Sarmila; Thapa, Sabita; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual’s and their caregiver’s physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers’ attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out. Results Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18–90) and perceived stigma (score range: 12–60) were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (pattitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver’s relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma. PMID:27336391

  16. Investigating the relationship between organizational factors and mental health of the staff in state organizations of Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, despite the fact that a variety of factors contributing to the progress in technology has made people get things done faster the speed and accuracy in accomplishing affairs, as a result of which, this progress has brought about mankind obtain new achievements, has caused some diseases and mental disorders and undermined relations and human values. Thus, the target of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational factors and mental health of the staffs in governmental organizations. Materials and Methods: The method of this descriptive and correlation study was carried out on 379 staff of state organizations of Lorestan province who selected using stratified proportional sampling. For data collecting, General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ, Metzkas and Bardnez’s management style questionnaire, role ambiguity and role conflict scale of Jamshidinezhad, Deep and Sosman’s organizational climate, and a researcher-made questionnaire for measuring employees, attitudes and organizational factors associated with stress were used. For analyzing the data, SPSS software (version 19, descriptive indicators, Pearson correlation, stepwise regression, independent t-test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: The results showed that for predicting mental health of the staff of state organizations, working conditions, organizational climate, task-oriented style of manager and role ambiguity were significant. The results of independent t-test and multivariate analysis showed that there is no significant difference between male and female in general mental health scale and its components. Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate the role of organizational variables in predicting mental health of the staff in state organizations of Lorestan state.

  17. Comparing Strategies for Providing Child and Youth Mental Health Care Services in Canada, the United States, and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Scott T; Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Malcom, Kathryn E

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews how child and youth mental health care services in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands are organized and financed in order to identify systems and individual-level factors that may inhibit or discourage access to treatment for youth with mental health problems, such as public or private health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and referral requirements for specialized mental health care services. Pathways to care for treatment of mental health problems among children and youth are conceptualized and discussed in reference to health insurance coverage and access to specialty services. We outline reforms to the organization of health care that have been introduced in recent years, and the basket of services covered by public and private insurance schemes. We conclude with a discussion of country-level opportunities to enhance access to child and youth mental health services using existing health policy levers in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands.

  18. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  19. Digital mental health and intellectual disabilities: state of the evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-11-01

    The use of digital technologies in the management of mental illness, and more generally in the promotion of well-being and mental health, has received much recent attention and is a focus of current health policy. We conducted a narrative review to explore the opportunities and risks of digital technologies in mental healthcare specifically for people with intellectual disability, a sometimes marginalised and socially excluded group. The scope of digital mental health is vast and the promise of cheaper and more effective interventions delivered digitally is attractive. People with intellectual disability experience high rates of mental illness and could benefit from the development of novel therapies, yet seem to have been relatively neglected in the discourse around digital mental health and are often excluded from the development and implementation of new interventions. People with intellectual disability encounter several barriers to fully embracing digital technology, which may be overcome with appropriate support and adaptations. A small, but growing, literature attests to the value of incorporating digital technologies into the lives of people with intellectual disability, not only for promoting health but also for enhancing educational, vocational and leisure opportunities. Clearly further evidence is needed to establish the safety and clinical efficacy of digital mental health interventions for people with and without intellectual disability. A digital inclusion strategy that explicitly addresses the needs of people with intellectual disability would ensure that all can share the benefits of the digital world. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Forensic state patients at Sterkfontein Hospital: A 3-year follow-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... state patients admitted to Sterkfontein Hospital in 2004 and 2005 was conducted, and their profile and 3-year outcomes were determined. Results. The majority of state patients were male, single, unemployed, had a past psychiatric history (59%), and substance abuse history (71%). A third reported a past criminal history.

  1. Effect of Mental State on the Rate of Identifying the Relevancy of Documents Retrieved in a Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Farhoudi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the link between various users’ mental state while searching information systems with the outcome of the resulting documents retrieved. Various factors such as user knowledge, search skills, motivation and aims influence the decisions and evaluation of users regarding documents retrieved. MMPI instrument was used to identify users’ mental states. The sample was drawn from female senior students of librarianship, using systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that anxiety and depression have significant inverse relationship to the rate of relevancy identification of the documents retrieved by the users.

  2. PREVALENCE OF ALCOHOLISM IN HOSPITALIZATIONS OF PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robsmeire Calvo Melo Zurita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric emergency is used to treat people with mental disordersworking 24 hours followed the new model of mental health care recommended by theMinistry of Health, creating care options, with a focus centered on reintegration of the patientto their social and family. The study aimed to characterize the hospitalizations of patients inthe Psychiatric Emergency Municipal Hospital of Maringa in the period January 2009 to June2010. Were selected and included a total of 1548 hospitalizations, behavioral disorder due toalcohol use. Predominance in male admissions with 88.6%, the predominant age group inboth sexes was 41-51 years with 59.75%, with the majority of hospitalizations of patientsliving in Maringá. Referred to the Psychiatric Hospital were46.18% of hospitalizations,diagnosed mostly in mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use,CID-10 F10, with720 (46.51% of admissions. The legal framework of the Psychiatric Reform, ratified,guaranteeing the universal right to access and assistance as well as to its completeness;decentralization of the service model, configuring networks care more attentive toinequalities, setting fair and democratic way of their actions to needs of the population

  3. User violence towards nursing professionals in mental health services and emergency units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Llor-Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is present in many work sectors, but in the area of mental health, nurses have a higher risk due to the close relationship they have with users. This study analyzed hostile user statements against nursing professionals of Mental Health Services and Emergency Units in Health Service (MHS hospitals in Murcia, Spain, and determined the frequency of exposure to the different violent user behaviors. The study was carried out with a sample of 518 nursing professionals from four hospital services: Mental Health, Emergency Units, Medical Hospitalization, and Maternal-and-Child. The nursing staff of Mental Health and Emergency Units was the most exposed to violence. Non-physical violence was more frequent in Emergency Units, whereas physical violence was more frequent in Mental Health. Among the consequences of exposure to non-physical violence are workers’ emotional exhaustion and the presence of psychological distress.

  4. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...... from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  5. Hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, K; Routasalo, P; Helminen, M; Suominen, T

    2014-09-01

    This study looks to describe the relationships between hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and their work motivation. Connections between hospital nurses' work-related needs, values and work motivation are essential for providing safe and high quality health care. However, there is insufficient empirical knowledge concerning these connections for the practice development. A cross-sectional empirical research study was undertaken. A total of 201 registered nurses from all types of Estonian hospitals filled out an electronic self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. In individual priorities, higher order needs strength were negatively correlated with age and duration of service. Regarding nurses' internal psychological states, central hospital nurses had less sense of meaningfulness of work. Nurses' individual priorities (i.e. their higher order needs strength and shared values with the organization) correlated with their work motivation. Their internal psychological states (i.e. their experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes and their knowledge of results) correlated with intrinsic work motivation. Nurses who prioritize their higher order needs are more motivated to work. The more their own values are compatible with those of the organization, the more intrinsically motivated they are likely to be. Nurses' individual achievements, autonomy and training are key factors which influence their motivation to work. The small sample size and low response rate of the study limit the direct transferability of the findings to the wider nurse population, so further research is needed. This study highlights the need and importance to support nurses' professional development and self-determination, in order to develop and retain motivated nurses. It also indicates a need to value both nurses and nursing in

  6. Causation, constitution and context. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahavi, Dan

    2018-03-01

    In their new article [1], Becchio and her colleagues argue that recent claims concerning the possibility of directly perceiving other people's mental states will remain speculative as long as one has failed to demonstrate the availability of mentalistic information in observable behavior [p. 4]. The ambitious goal of the authors is then to outline an experimental setup that will permit one to determine whether and to what extent a mental state is observable. Drawing on Becchio's previous work on how regularities in the kinematic patterns specify the mental states of the agent, the authors suggest that a similar approach can be adopted to probe the observability of any mental state instantiated in behavioral patterns [p. 19].

  7. Choice, deliberation, violence: Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorder is associated with self-harm and suicide, as well as criminal offending and violence towards others. These behaviours overlap when the means chosen to self-harm or attempt suicide put others at risk. In such circumstances, an individual's mental state at one and the same time may be deemed to meet the conditions for criminal responsibility, and to warrant involuntary hospital admission. I explore this tension in how people with personality disorder are treated at the hands of the criminal and civil law respectively in England and Wales: they may be deemed sufficiently mentally well to be punished for their crimes, but not deemed sufficiently mentally well to retain the right to make their own decisions about matters of serious importance to their own lives, including whether or not to continue them. The article divides into four sections. After introducing this tension, Section 2 sketches the nature of personality disorder and the psychology underlying self-directed and other-directed violence. Section 3 addresses the questions of whether people with personality disorder who are violent, whether towards self or others, typically meet the conditions for criminal responsibility and mental capacity respectively, considering in particular whether their underlying desires and values, or their emotional distress, affect their mental capacity to make treatment decisions. Section 4 then considers what we might do to address the tension, within the confines of current legislation. Drawing on The Review of the Mental Health Act 1983, I argue that we are ethically justified in involuntarily admitting to hospital people with personality disorder who pose a serious risk to themselves only if we simultaneously undertake to offer genuine help for their future, in the form of appropriate treatment, social support, and better life opportunities — a provision which, as things stand in England and Wales, is sorely lacking. PMID:25997380

  8. Choice, deliberation, violence: Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorder is associated with self-harm and suicide, as well as criminal offending and violence towards others. These behaviours overlap when the means chosen to self-harm or attempt suicide put others at risk. In such circumstances, an individual's mental state at one and the same time may be deemed to meet the conditions for criminal responsibility, and to warrant involuntary hospital admission. I explore this tension in how people with personality disorder are treated at the hands of the criminal and civil law respectively in England and Wales: they may be deemed sufficiently mentally well to be punished for their crimes, but not deemed sufficiently mentally well to retain the right to make their own decisions about matters of serious importance to their own lives, including whether or not to continue them. The article divides into four sections. After introducing this tension, Section 2 sketches the nature of personality disorder and the psychology underlying self-directed and other-directed violence. Section 3 addresses the questions of whether people with personality disorder who are violent, whether towards self or others, typically meet the conditions for criminal responsibility and mental capacity respectively, considering in particular whether their underlying desires and values, or their emotional distress, affect their mental capacity to make treatment decisions. Section 4 then considers what we might do to address the tension, within the confines of current legislation. Drawing on The Review of the Mental Health Act 1983, I argue that we are ethically justified in involuntarily admitting to hospital people with personality disorder who pose a serious risk to themselves only if we simultaneously undertake to offer genuine help for their future, in the form of appropriate treatment, social support, and better life opportunities - a provision which, as things stand in England and Wales, is sorely lacking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier

  9. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  10. Mental illness in Bwindi, Uganda: Understanding stakeholder perceptions of benefits and barriers to developing a community-based mental health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Kristen L; Wheeler, Lydia; Shah, Arya; Farrell, Deenah; Agaba, Edwin; Kuule, Yusufu; Merry, Stephen P

    2017-11-30

    Mental illness has been increasingly recognised as a source of morbidity in low- and middle-income countries and significant treatment gaps exist worldwide. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of task sharing through community-based treatment models for addressing international mental health issues. This paper aims to evaluate the perceptions of a wide range of mental health stakeholders in a Ugandan community regarding the benefits and barriers to developing a community-based mental health programme. Bwindi Community Hospital (BCH) in south-west Uganda provides services through a team of community health workers to people in the Kanungu District. Thematic analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions involving 54 community members and 13 mental health stakeholders within the BCH catchment area. Stakeholders perceived benefits to a community-based compared to a hospital-based programme, including improved patient care, lower costs to patients and improved community understanding of mental illness. They also cited barriers including cost, insufficient workforce and a lack of community readiness. Stakeholders express interest in developing community-based mental health programmes, as they feel that it will address mental health needs in the community and improve community awareness of mental illness. However, they also report that cost is a significant barrier to programme development that will have to be addressed prior to being able to successfully establish such programming. Additionally, many community members expressed unique sociocultural beliefs regarding the nature of mental illness and those suffering from a psychiatric disease.

  11. Reliability and validity of the telephone version of the Cantonese Mini-mental State Examination (T-CMMSE) when used with elderly patients with and without dementia in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Sang; Fong, Kenneth Nai Kuen

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the reliability and validity of a 26-point telephone version of the Cantonese Mini-mental State Examination (T-CMMSE) for a sample of 65 elderly patients, comprising 31 patients without dementia and 34 patients with dementia, in an acute regional hospital in Hong Kong, and to identify an optimal cut-off score to discriminate between those patients with dementia and those without. Participants were rated by using the face-to-face Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) before inpatient discharge and the T-CMMSE after inpatient discharge, and were rated separately by two raters in two telephone follow-up sessions using the T-CMMSE. The results of the study indicated that the scale had excellent inter-and intra-rater reliabilities. There was substantial agreement between the two versions of the examination (kappa > 0.6-0.8 < or =) for orientation, registration, and recall items. An optimal cut-off score of < or = 16 was suggested for the T-CMMSE to discriminate between those with and without dementia. The T-CMMSE can be used in telephone follow-ups as an alternative to the conventional face-to-face version.

  12. Conversion of the Mini-Mental State Examination to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health terminology and scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vriendt, P; Gorus, E; Bautmans, I; Mets, T

    2012-01-01

    In older patients, evaluation of the cognitive status is crucial. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used for screening of cognition, providing fairly high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Recently, a consensus emerged on the necessity of an international and transparent language, as provided by the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most assessment tools however are not in accordance with the ICF. To reformulate the MMSE according to the ICF, both for the individual items and for the scoring system. MMSE data (scores varying from 3 to 30/30) of (1) 217 cognitively healthy elderly, (2) 60 persons with mild cognitive impairment, (3) 60 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and (4) 60 patients with moderate/severe AD were obtained from studies at a university hospital setting. Subjects were aged 65 years or more and recruited either through advertisement (group 1), from the geriatric day hospital (groups 2 and 3), or the geriatric ward (group 4). The allocation to the groups was done after multidisciplinary evaluation. The conversion of the MMSE to ICF-MMSE was done by content comparison and by subsequent translation of the scoring system using automatic algorithms. All MMSE items were converted to the corresponding ICF categories. Three ICF domains were addressed: global and specific mental functions, general tasks and demands, divided over 6 ICF categories (orientation time/place, sustaining attention, memory functions, mental functions of language, undertaking a simple task). Scores on individual items were transformed according to their relative weight on the original MMSE scale, and a total ICF-MMSE score from 0 (no problem) to 100 (complete problem) was generated. Translation was satisfying, as illustrated by a good correlation between MMSE and ICF-MMSE. The diagnostic groups were distributed over the ICF-MMSE scores as expected. For each ICF domain, ICF-MMSE subscores were higher

  13. Exercise for mental illness: a systematic review of inpatient studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the role of exercise interventions for people with a mental illness. However, much of this literature is conducted using outpatient and community-based populations. We undertook a systematic review examining the effect of exercise interventions on the health of people hospitalized with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Several studies show positive health outcomes from short-term and long-term interventions for people hospitalized due to depression. Although positive, the evidence for inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders is substantially less. There is an urgent need to address the paucity of literature in this area, in particular the optimal dose and delivery of exercise for people hospitalized as a result of mental illness. Standardization of reporting exercise programme variables, the assessment of mental illness, and the reporting of adverse events must accompany future studies. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Primary prevention in psychiatry in general hospitals in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The focus of primary prevention is on reducing the disease incidence. Primary prevention in mental health has been given minimal priority in low-resource settings with no significant investments. General hospitals are one of the main providers of mental health services in South Asia. This paper focuses on primary prevention activities, which can be undertaken in a general hospital in South Asia with abysmally low-mental health resources. For implementing primary prevention in psychiatry, a general hospital may be conceptualized as a population unit, located in a well-populated area with easy accessibility where different kinds of communities, for example, students and resident doctors, consultants, patients and their caregivers, and paramedical, nursing, administrative and other supportive staff, coexist and have varied functions. All the functional components of the general hospital psychiatric units (GHPUs) offer scope for introducing primary preventive psychiatry services. Psychiatrists in GHPUs can lead efforts for primary prevention in mental health in the hospital by employing strategies in the framework of universal, selective, and indicated prevention. The preventive strategies could be targeted at the patients visiting the hospital for various health services and their caregivers, employees, and the trainees. Similar principles can be employed in teaching and training. PMID:29497199

  15. No Child Overlooked: Mental Health Triage in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…

  16. Mental health care in Nepal: current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H

    2015-01-01

    Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of specialist mental health workers (psychiatrists and psychologists) from only service delivery to also designing and managing mental health services; building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers, and providing supervision and quality assurance of mental health services may help in scaling up mental health services in LMICs. Little is known however, about the mental health policy and services context for these strategies in fragile-state settings, such as Nepal. A standard situation analysis tool was developed by the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME) consortium to systematically analyze and describe the current gaps in mental health care in Nepal, in order to inform the development of a district level mental health care plan (MHCP). It comprised six sections; general information (e.g. population, socio-economic conditions); mental health policies and plans; mental health treatment coverage; district health services; and community services. Data was obtained from secondary sources, including scientific publications, reports, project documents and hospital records. Mental health policy exists in Nepal, having been adopted in 1997, but implementation of the policy framework has yet to begin. In common with other LMICs, the budget allocated for mental health is minimal. Mental health services are concentrated in the big cities, with 0.22 psychiatrists and 0.06 psychologists per 100,000 population. The key challenges experienced in developing a district level MHCP included, overburdened health workers, lack of psychotropic medicines in the PHC, lack of mental health supervision in the existing system, and lack of a coordinating body in the Ministry

  17. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  18. [Children's Psychiatric Hospital Dr. Juan N. Navarro: 50 years of attention to the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Caraveo, Maria Elena; Arroyo-García, Eduardo; Granados-Rojas, Armida; Ángeles-Llerenas, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The activities concerning mental health care of psychiatric disorders during more than 50 years of service (1966-2016) at the Children's Psychiatric Hospital "Dr. Juan N. Navarro" (HPI), as well as the progressive development of teaching and research, have contributed to its positioning as a leading institution in medical care of high specialization. This has been possible through the training of human resources that focus the quality of care to the children and their families. The hospital has progressed towards diagnostic and therapeutic care of outpatients through the creation of specialized clinics (emotions, behavior, development, adolescence, among others) and the development of more actualized and integral therapeutic programs (behavioral psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic; individual, group, family, etc.). In the field of education, the hospital has been the most important institution in the training of child psychiatrists in Mexico and its recognition as a research interdisciplinary center has grown.

  19. A comparison of hospital- and community-based mental health nurses: perceptions of their work environment and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J; Weaver, S M

    1994-06-01

    This study compares hospital- (n = 67) and community-based (n = 55) mental health nurses in relation to their perceptions of the work environment and also their psychological health. Measures include: the General Health Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Work Environment Scale. The data, obtained from self-returned questionnaires, show that community nurses rated their work environments higher for the dimensions of Involvement, Supervisor Support, Autonomy, Innovation and Work Pressure. Hospital nurses saw their environments as being higher in (managerial) Control. There were no differences between the groups for the dimensions of Peer Cohesion, Task Orientation, Clarity or (physical) Comfort. Furthermore, there were no overall differences between the two groups in relation to psychological health, although the pattern of factors associated with emotional well-being differed. Finally, analyses of the community data revealed that those nurses with 'flexitime' arrangements evaluated their work environments less positively and showed higher levels of psychological strain than did those working 'fixed-time' schedules. The findings suggest that the hospital and community environments make different demands on nursing staff, and that this should be considered when organizing nursing services if stress is to be avoided.

  20. Does state budget pressure matter for uncompensated care spending in hospitals? Findings from Texas and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jongwha; Patel, Isha; Suh, Won S; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Kim, Sunjung; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state budget cuts on uncompensated care at general acute care hospital organizations. This study capitalized on the variations in the states of Texas and California to form a natural experiment testing the joint impact of budget cut status on uncompensated care costs, as well as specific charity care costs and bad debt expenses from indigent patients. Budget cuts in the state of Texas occurred in the year 2004. Information was obtained from the Texas Department of Health and the California Department of Health Services regarding financial characteristics of hospitals and from the American Hospital Directory annual survey regarding organizational characteristics of hospitals. We created three dependent variables: R(UC) (the ratio of total uncompensated care costs to gross patient revenue), R(CC) (the ratio of charity care to total patient revenue) and R(BD) (the ratio of bad debt expenses to gross patient revenue). Using a two-period panel data set and individual hospital fixed effects, we captured hospital uncompensated care spending that could also have influenced budget cut status. Additionally, the impact of the state budget cut status on hospitals' uncompensated care spending, charity care spending and bad debt expenses was also estimated using the similar methodology. In this study, we included 416 (in Texas) and 352 (in California) public, not-for-profit (NFP) and for-profit (FP) hospitals that completed the annual survey during the study period 2002-2005. For the state of Texas, results from the fixed effect model confirmed that the year 2005 was directly related to increased R(UC) and R(CC) . The coefficients of 2005 were significantly and positively associated with R(UC) (0.43, p budget cut pressure on uncompensated care provided in Texas general acute care hospitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mental state attribution and the temporoparietal junction: an fMRI study comparing belief, emotion, and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2010-07-01

    By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural substrate? To address this question with a high degree of anatomic specificity, we partitioned the TPJ, a broad area often found to be recruited in theory of mind tasks, into 2 neuroanatomically specific regions of interest: Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) and Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). To maximize behavioral specificity, we designed a tightly controlled verbal task comprised of sets of single sentences--sentences identical except for the type of mental state specified in the verb (belief, emotion, perception, syntax control). Results indicated that attribution of beliefs more strongly recruited both regions of interest than did emotions or perceptions. This is especially surprising with respect to STS, since it is widely reported in the literature to mediate the detection of referential states--among them emotions and perceptions--rather than the inference of beliefs. An explanation is offered that focuses on the differences between verbal stimuli and visual stimuli, and between a process of sentence comprehension and a process of visual detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-knowledge and attribution of mental states in Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidelsky, Liza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers consider that self-knowledge reflects the particularity that we can know what we think, believe, desire, in a different way in which we know the mental states of other people. This is the claim of an asymmetry between first and third person. Several approaches han been offered in the epistemological literature in order to account for this asymmetry. Nonetheless, unlike the expected compatibility between adjacent fields, the literature related to the attribution and self-attribution of mental states or, in general, what is called Theory of Mind, does not seem either to preserve this asymmetry or the attempt to preserve it undermines the fundamental role of the different Theory of Mind proposals. This paper will show this in two parts. Firstly, it addresses how the asymmetry thesis han been defended in the epistemological literature. The aim of this section is to offer a geography of the different approaches. Secondly, two proposals in Theory of Mind, the theory theory and simulation theory, will be evaluated in order to show why they do not account for the asymmetry thesis, and some of the consequences that would be gather from the attempt to conciliate these Theory of Mind proposals with the epistemological approaches that defend the asymmetry thesis will be analized.

  3. [Work in mental health: a job satisfaction and work impact study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Denise; Abelha, Lúcia; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2008-03-01

    Knowledge of job satisfaction and work impact among psychiatric staff is highly useful for policymakers and mental health professionals. Since there are few studies on this issue in Brazil, a cross-sectional study was carried out among mental health professionals. Data were collected for 133 professionals from 4 mental health services in Rio de Janeiro, using SATIS-BR and IMPACTO-BR scales and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Statistical associations were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests and multiple linear regression. SPSS 10.1 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Mean satisfaction was 3.30 and mean work impact was 2.08 (on a scale from 1 to 5). 62.4% of subjects reported moderate satisfaction. Mental health workers with less schooling showed higher satisfaction. Work impact was not associated with any explanatory variable. The results for job satisfaction were similar to those of other studies. Work impact was very low. Unlike studies from the United States and Europe, there were no differences between the community-based and in-hospital staff.

  4. Let Me Relax: Toward Automated Sedentary State Recognition and Ubiquitous Mental Wellness Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajanna

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in ubiquitous computing technology improve workplace productivity, reduce physical exertion, but ultimately result in a sedentary work style. Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of stress, obesity, and other health complications. Let Me Relax is a fully automated sedentary-state recognition framework using a smartwatch and smartphone, which encourages mental wellness through interventions in the form of simple relaxation techniques. The system was evaluated through a comparative user study of 22 participants split into a test and a control group. An analysis of NASA Task Load Index pre- and post- study survey revealed that test subjects who followed relaxation methods, showed a trend of both increased activity as well as reduced mental stress. Reduced mental stress was found even in those test subjects that had increased inactivity. These results suggest that repeated interventions, driven by an intelligent activity recognition system, is an effective strategy for promoting healthy habits, which reduce stress, anxiety, and other health risks associated with sedentary workplaces.

  5. Does gender matter? Exploring mental health recovery court legal and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-12-05

    Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from successful program completion in

  6. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  7. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Mental Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzelman, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…

  8. A study on the relationship between employee mental health and agility strategic readiness: A case study of Esfahan hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether enhancing organizational agility and mental health of staff could increase strategic readiness for crises or not. In this study, descriptive statistics is used to present demographic data of the research, and P-Test is employed for analyzing the data. In addition, to examine research hypotheses, correlation coefficients and descriptive statistics are implemented. Finally, to rank the variables and indicators of the research, Friedman test and for comparison of indicators and components of the research, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test are used. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and The questionnaire and distributes it among some nurses in obstetrics and anesthesiology department and among supervisors. Cronbach's alpha is also employed for determining the reliability in this study. The results indicate that working conditions as well as employees’ mental health are in good conditions, the employees with higher levels of mental health have higher readiness to deal with potential crises, and the relationship between agility of hospitals and their strategic readiness for dealing with crises is confirmed.

  9. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Dynamics of Mental State Talk in Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Turrell, Sheri L.; Kogushi, Yuiko; Lollis, Susan; Ross, Hildy S.

    2003-01-01

    Observed home interaction between parents and 2- and 4-year-olds at Time 1 and 2 years later. Found that parent mental state talk to children varied by child's age, context of talk, and parent gender. Four-year-olds with older siblings produced and heard more cognitive talk and less desire talk than children without older siblings. Time 1 family…

  10. Psychosis prediction in secondary mental health services. A broad, comprehensive approach to the "at risk mental state" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, M; Minichino, A; Carrión, R E; Delle Chiaie, R; Bevilacqua, A; Parisi, M; Rullo, S; Bersani, F Saverio; Biondi, M; Cadenhead, K

    2017-02-01

    Accuracy of risk algorithms for psychosis prediction in "at risk mental state" (ARMS) samples may differ according to the recruitment setting. Standardized criteria used to detect ARMS individuals may lack specificity if the recruitment setting is a secondary mental health service. The authors tested a modified strategy to predict psychosis conversion in this setting by using a systematic selection of trait-markers of the psychosis prodrome in a sample with a heterogeneous ARMS status. 138 non-psychotic outpatients (aged 17-31) were consecutively recruited in secondary mental health services and followed-up for up to 3 years (mean follow-up time, 2.2 years; SD=0.9). Baseline ARMS status, clinical, demographic, cognitive, and neurological soft signs measures were collected. Cox regression was used to derive a risk index. 48% individuals met ARMS criteria (ARMS-Positive, ARMS+). Conversion rate to psychosis was 21% for the overall sample, 34% for ARMS+, and 9% for ARMS-Negative (ARMS-). The final predictor model with a positive predictive validity of 80% consisted of four variables: Disorder of Thought Content, visuospatial/constructional deficits, sensory-integration, and theory-of-mind abnormalities. Removing Disorder of Thought Content from the model only slightly modified the predictive accuracy (-6.2%), but increased the sensitivity (+9.5%). These results suggest that in a secondary mental health setting the use of trait-markers of the psychosis prodrome may predict psychosis conversion with great accuracy despite the heterogeneity of the ARMS status. The use of the proposed predictive algorithm may enable a selective recruitment, potentially reducing duration of untreated psychosis and improving prognostic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Instituições psiquiátricas e comunidades: um estudo de demanda em saúde mental no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Psychiatric institutions and communities: a study of the demand for mental health care in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lancman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os hospitais psiquiátricos têm sido freqüentemente denunciados como espaços ineficazes e são apontados como um dos principais responsáveis pela cronificação dos doentes mentais. Faltam, porém, estudos que verifiquem a influência destes asilos sobre as comunidades que os abrigam e sobre os serviços extra-hospitalares próximos a eles, podendo ser sua presença mais um fator gerador de demanda psiquiátrica. Esta pesquisa pretende verificar a associação entre a existência destes hospitais em dadas comunidades e o aumento de internações e de demanda aos serviços de atenção primária em saúde. Para tanto, procuramos verificar se a existência destes hospitais poderia estar modificando o perfil da clientela atendida, comparando a demanda que procurava os serviços extramanicomiais em cidades semelhantes que tivessem e que não tivessem hospitais psiquiátricos. Foram encontradas algumas evidências de que, nas cidades com hospitais, houve um aumento expressivo não somente das internações, mas também do número de consultas em saúde mental.Psychiatric hospitals have been accused of being both ineffective institutions and the main parties responsible for the chronic status of the mentally ill. However, there is a lack of research on the influence of mental health care facilities on either the communities in which they are located or the nearby out-patient services. Their presence may be a cause for increased psychiatric demand. This study investigates a possible association between the existence of such hospitals in given communities and an increase in hospitalization and demand for primary care services. The author compares the demand and client profile of out-patient services in similar communities, both with and without psychiatric hospitals Some evidence was found that in communities with such hospitals there is an increase in both hospital admittance and consultations in mental health care.

  12. Young Children's Persuasion in Everyday Conversation: Tactics and Attunement to Others' Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David

    2010-01-01

    Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…

  13. Infection control resources in New York State hospitals, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricof, Rachel L; Schabses, Karolina A; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg

    2008-12-01

    In July 2005, New York State legislation requiring the mandatory reporting of specific hospital-associated infections (HAIs) was passed by the legislature and signed by the governor. In an effort to measure the impact of this legislation on infection control resources, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) conducted a baseline survey in March 2007. This report presents an overview of the methods and results of this survey. An electronic survey of infection control resources and responsibilities was conducted by the NYSDOH on their secure data network. The survey contained questions regarding the number and percent time for infection prevention and control professional (ICP) and hospital epidemiologist (HE) staff members, ICP/HE educational background and certification, infection control program support services, activities and responsibilities of infection prevention and control program staff, and estimates of time dedicated to various activities, including surveillance. Practitioners in 222 of 224 acute care hospitals (99%) responded. The average number of ICPs per facility depended on the average daily census of acute care beds and ranged from a mean of 0.64 full-time equivalent (FTE) ICP in facilities with an average daily census of or = 900 beds. Averaging the ICP resources over the health care settings for which they were responsible revealed that the "average full-time ICP" was responsible for 151 acute care facility beds, 1.3 intensive care units (ICUs) (average, 16 ICU beds), 21 long-term care facility beds, 0.6 dialysis centers, 0.5 ambulatory surgery centers, 4.8 ambulatory/outpatient clinics, and 1.1 private practice offices. The ICPs reported that 45% of their time is dedicated to surveillance. Other activities for which ICPs reported at least partial responsibility include staff education, quality assurance, occupational health, emergency preparedness, construction, central supply/processing, and risk management. This survey was designed to

  14. Mental states as part of countertransference responses in psychotherapists facing reports of traumatic events of mourning and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Patricia; Terra, Luciana; Abuchaim, Claudio; Sordi, Anne; Wiethaeuper, Daniela; Bouchard, Marc-Andrè; Mardini, Victor; Baumgardt, Rosana; Lauerman, Marta; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena

    2008-09-01

    The study aims to compare the mental states and countertransference responses of 92 psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, male and female, experienced and inexperienced, facing written reports of real patients who experienced traumatic events. Two vignettes were presented: one of a sexual violence, the other the sudden death of a significant person. The Mental States Rating System (MSRS; Bouchard, Picard, Audet, Brisson, & Carrier, 1998), the MSRS Self-Report (Goldfeld & Bouchard, 2004), and the Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB; Friedman & Gelso, 2000) were used. Results showed that the mourning vignette led to more reflective responses (MSRS) and the rape case was associated with more negative countertransference reactions (ICB). Female participants were more reflective (MSRS); male therapists used less mentalized states (MSRS Self-Report) and expressed more negative reactions (ICB) for both scenarios. Experienced therapists showed more positive reactions on the ICB. The construct validity of the instruments is discussed in relation to the findings.

  15. Absolute risk of suicide after first hospital contact in mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.......Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up....

  16. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  17. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes. PMID:22726759

  18. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  19. Diagnosing Job Satisfaction in Mental Health Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, William E.; Konick, Andrew

    Job satisfaction in mental health organizations has been a neglected research topic, in spite of the fact that mental health organizations themselves are concerned with quality of life issues. To study job satisfaction at three long-term public psychiatric hospitals, the Job Satisfaction Index was administered to 44 direct service employees. In…

  20. Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital : a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyus Yosep

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of nurses and declining interest in becoming a mental health nurse are often attributed to workplace distress and violence. These have become global issues and believed that shortage of nurses decreases the quality of health care services. It leads distress among nurses, which is exposure to violence and traumatic experiences. In addition, nurses are also accused of seizing the rights of patients and committing violence against a patient. This paper focuses on the violence that occurred in mental health nurses during working in unpredictable situation. A literature search of systematic review through the CINAHL, Medline, Google scholars and PsycInfo databases, the empirical report using a nursing sample includes data on rates of violence exposure including violence, aggressive behavior, bullying, and sexual harassment. The result, a total of 400 articles provide data on 2742 publications indicates near all of nurses in mental health experienced verbal abuse in the past month, furthermore, most of respondents’ ever experienced psychological abuse, and less of respondents experienced physical violence and sexual harassment. Rates of exposure vary by world region (Developed countries, Asia, Europe and Middle East, with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the USA, Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand region, and the highest rates of psychological violence and bullying in the Middle East. The presence of violence signals an "alarm" that violence against nurses calls for special attention in many countries. Essentially, the world must give a "priority" to handling violence against nurses.

  1. Depression and anxiety disorder among epileptic people at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare

    2015-09-02

    Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among epileptic people were 33.5 and 32.8%, respectively. Monthly income, frequency of seizure and side effects of anti convulsants were found to be significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. Being divorced/widowed was associated with anxiety while using poly-therapy of anti convulsants, perceived stigma, and inability to read or write were associated with depression. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression was found to be high among people with epilepsy. Early identification of co-morbid depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy and managing epilepsy to become seizure free should be of great concern for health care providers.

  2. Survey of safety practices among hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-10-01

    Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State were studied from Oct 2011- Feb 2012. Self-administered structured questionnaire and observation checklists were used for data collection. The respondents were heads of the laboratories, senior technicians, and safety officers. The questionnaire addressed biosafety label, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, physical/mechanical hazards, personal protective equipment, first aid kits and waste disposal system. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis with SPSS version16 statistical software. All of the respondents reported none of the hospital laboratories were labeled with the appropriate safety label and safety symbols. These respondents also reported they may contain organisms grouped under risk group IV in the absence of microbiological safety cabinets. Overall, the respondents reported that there were poor safety regulations or standards in their laboratories. There were higher risks of microbial, chemical and physical/mechanical hazards. Laboratory safety in public hospitals of Oromia Regional State is below the standard. The laboratory workers are at high risk of combined physical, chemical and microbial hazards. Prompt recognition of the problem and immediate action is mandatory to ensure safe working environment in health laboratories.

  3. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.

  4. Average Rate of Heat-Related Hospitalizations in 23 States, 2001-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the 2001–2010 average rate of hospitalizations classified as “heat-related” by medical professionals in 23 states that participate in CDC’s...

  5. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  6. Estimation of Subjective Mental Work Load Level with Heart Rate Variability by Tolerance to Driver's Mental Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Michimasa; Oguri, Koji

    Most of the traffic accidents have been caused by inappropriate driver's mental state. Therefore, driver monitoring is one of the most important challenges to prevent traffic accidents. Some studies for evaluating the driver's mental state while driving have been reported; however driver's mental state should be estimated in real-time in the future. This paper proposes a way to estimate quantitatively driver's mental workload using heart rate variability. It is assumed that the tolerance to driver's mental workload is different depending on the individual. Therefore, we classify people based on their individual tolerance to mental workload. Our estimation method is multiple linear regression analysis, and we compare it to NASA-TLX which is used as the evaluation method of subjective mental workload. As a result, the coefficient of correlation improved from 0.83 to 0.91, and the standard deviation of error also improved. Therefore, our proposed method demonstrated the possibility to estimate mental workload.

  7. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  8. Lean Transformation of the Eye Clinic at The Hospital for Sick Children: Challenging an Implicit Mental Model and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes M F; During, David; Hartman, Michael; Lappan-Gracon, Stephanie; Hicks, Melody; Bajwa, Shiraz

    2016-01-01

    Long patient dwell time (i.e., the time between patients arriving and leaving the clinic) has been a long-standing issue in the eye clinic at The Hospital for Sick Children. By applying the Lean principles of eliminating waste and enhancing flow, we achieved a 26% reduction in the mean patient dwell time over an eight-month period. Importantly, the average time a patient spent with healthcare providers (value-added time) increased from 21% to 31%. In this paper, we summarized our experience by illustrating how an implicit mental model (conscious or unconscious conceptual framework from which we understand the world) pervades in the healthcare system based on deeply held but unexamined assumptions that arise from heuristics (general rules of thumb) and biases; how these assumptions can be tested by objective data; and how we can build a new mental model based on objective findings to improve the healthcare system.

  9. Substance use in adolescents with mental illness in Durban, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 ...

  10. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 46169 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and CY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... hospitalization and community mental health center issues. James Poyer, (410) 786-2261, Reporting of quality data... Community mental health center CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services CoP Conditions of Participation... (which includes partial hospitalization services furnished by community mental health centers (CMHCs...

  12. Program for suicidal prevention, mental disorder treatment, and mental health development for resident doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Jiménez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment of mental disorders and mental health promotion. Unlike the reports of other countries, we get participation of more than 95%, we provide appropriate treatment and follow-up to residents with mental disorder, and there has not been a consummate suicide. We assume that the use of different strategies (scrutiny, adapting models of prevention of suicide as a peer and gatekeeper training, informative sessions of mental health promotion and stigma, interventions targeted at individuals and groups with conflicts has been useful against barriers that do not allow doctors to identify the risk of suicide warning signs, seek help for mental disorder, and seek to improve their mental health.

  13. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  14. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eGergelyfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental fatigue (MF is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement.Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, skin conductance responses, questionnaires and performance in a working memory task in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 minutes. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  15. Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With a Diagnosis of Malnutrition: United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Ruba A; Bouma, Sandra; Bairdain, Sigrid; Wolff, Jodi; Legro, Amanda; Plogsted, Steve; Guenter, Peggi; Resnick, Helaine; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Corkins, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients in the United States. In 2010, 80,710 of 6,280,710 hospitalized children malnutrition (CDM). This report summarizes nationally representative, person-level characteristics of hospitalized children with a CDM. Data are from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, which contains patient-level data on hospital inpatient stays. When weighted appropriately, estimates from the project represent all U.S. hospitalizations. The data set contains up to 25 ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for each patient. Children with a CDM listed during hospitalization were identified. In 2010, 1.3% of hospitalized patients malnutrition's true prevalence may be underrepresented. Length of stay among children with a CDM was almost 2.5 times longer than those without a CDM. Hospital costs for children with a CDM were >3 times higher than those without a CDM. Hospitalized children with a CDM were less likely to have routine discharge and almost 3.5 times more likely to require postdischarge home care. Children with a CDM were more likely to have multiple comorbidities. Hospitalized children with a CDM are associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs than those without this diagnosis. These undernourished children may utilize more healthcare resources in the hospital and community. Clinicians and policymakers should factor this into healthcare resource utilization planning. Recognizing and accurately coding malnutrition in hospitalized children may reveal the true prevalence of malnutrition. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  17. Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No research data exists on forensic psychiatric service provision in the Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa. The objective of this research was to assess current forensic psychiatric service provision and utilisation rates at Fort England Hospital. This is important in improving and strengthening the service. A related objective was to develop a model for a provincial prison mental health service. Methodology: This study is a situational analysis of an existing forensic psychiatric service in the Eastern Cape. The design of the study was cross sectional. An audit questionnaire was utilised to collate quantitative data, which was submitted to Fort England Hospital, Grahamstown. A proposed prison mental health service was developed utilising prevalence rates of mental illness among prisoners to calculate bed and staff requirements for an ambulatory and in-patient service. Results: During the study period a total of 403 remand detainees were admitted to the forensic psychiatry division of Fort England Hospital. The average length of stay was 494 days and the bed utilisation rate was determined at 203.54%. We estimate that to provide a provincial prison mental health service to treat psychotic illnesses and major depression the province requires a 52 bedded facility and a total staff complement of approximately 31. Conclusions: Forensic psychiatric services include the assessment, management and treatment of mentally disordered persons in conflict with the law and prisoners requiring psychiatric assessments. The Eastern Cape Province does not have plans or policies to assess and manage mentally ill offenders, resulting in an increased load on available services. We recommend that an inter-departmental task team, which includes Health, Justice and Constitutional Development and Correctional Services, should be established in the province, to develop a strategy to assist in the development of an effective and efficient forensic

  18. Migration, mental health and costs consequences in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclutia, Ioana; Junjan, Veronica; Popescu, Codruta Alina; Tigan, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Legal and illegal circulatory migration from Romania reached huge proportions after 2000, following the lifting of the visa requirements for EU Shengen countries. So far, the impact of migration on health has received scarce attention from Romanian authorities. To describe the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the migrants who have developed mental illness, estimate their services use in terms of hospitalization and to analyze the cost impact on the Romanian health system and on the migrants' co-payments, to discuss the possible relationships between migration and mental health. A semi-structured interview, designed by the authors, has been administered to 50 migrants admitted to the Second Psychiatric Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Romania, to investigate the following areas: immigration status, working conditions, income, housing, insurance and social bonds. The clinical symptomatology of these patients was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The average cost of hospitalization per day per patient, the total costs of hospitalization and the migrants' co-payment through personal contribution to the insurance system were estimated. Most of the patients were young, single, with no previous experience abroad and with few social ties in the host country, with unqualified and insecure jobs. In this group, 45 out of 50 had schizophrenia spectrum disorders diagnoses. The hospitalization length of these patients was slightly shorter than the hospitalization of non-migrant patients with the same diagnosis. Individuals from rural areas had longer hospitalisation than those coming from urban areas. Those who left the country illegally and those who worked illegally had shorter hospitalisations. The average costs of hospitalization per day per patient were Euro 15.56; and the total costs were Euro 14,054.92. In order to cover the costs of hospitalization in the native country due to an illness with the onset abroad, a patient should work and contribute 4

  19. Resilience of the health team in caring for people with mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolese, Débora Felippe; Lessa, Greice; Santos, José Luís Guedes Dos; Mendes, Jucimara da Silva; Cunha, Kamylla Santos da; Rodrigues, Jeferson

    2017-08-17

    Evaluating and understanding the resilience process of the health team in caring for people with mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital. A mixed-method study with concomitant triangulation of data from a cross-sectional study, with health professionals, and Grounded Theory in the data. Quantitative data were collected using the Resilience Scale and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and analyzed using initial and focused coding. 40 health professionals participated in the study. Mean responses of the participants in the resilience scale were 99.80 ± 12.86 points, with a minimum of 35 and a maximum of 114 points. From the qualitative data, we can highlight the professionals' commitment in developing competencies in caring for people with mental disorders; valorization of teamwork and positive impact on work for the re-signification of the meaning of life. Understanding this process of resilience enables developing strategies to improve the quality of life of workers in psychiatric hospitals. Avaliar e compreender o processo de resiliência da equipe de saúde no cuidado a pessoas com transtornos mentais em um hospital psiquiátrico. Estudo de método misto com triangulação concomitante de dados de um estudo transversal, com profissionais de saúde, e uma Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Os dados quantitativos foram coletados a partir da Escala de Resiliência e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Os dados qualitativos foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas e analisados mediante codificação inicial e focalizada. Participaram da pesquisa 40 profissionais de saúde. Na escala de resiliência, a média das respostas dos participantes foi 99,80±12,86 pontos, o mínimo foi de 35 e o máximo de 114 pontos. Nos dados qualitativos, destacaram-se o empenho dos profissionais para o desenvolvimento de competências para o cuidado de pessoas com transtornos mentais, a valoriza

  20. Hospital compliance with a state unfunded mandate: the case of California's Earthquake Safety Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, community hospitals have experienced heightened regulation with many unfunded mandates. The authors assessed the market, organizational, operational, and financial characteristics of general acute care hospitals in California that have a main acute care hospital building that is noncompliant with state requirements and at risk of major structural collapse from earthquakes. Using California hospital data from 2007 to 2009, and employing logistic regression analysis, the authors found that hospitals having buildings that are at the highest risk of collapse are located in larger population markets, possess smaller market share, have a higher percentage of Medicaid patients, and have less liquidity.

  1. It isn't something to yodel about, but it exists! Faeces, nurses, social relations and status within a mental hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, E

    2001-08-01

    In medical settings, emotion-provoking work creates a hierarchy among health care professionals. "Lower" emotions like disgust, contempt or aversion that are evoked by "body work" with elderly patients often remain invisible, but they play an important role in morality and shape the social relations between the patients and the professionals. With the help of ethnographic data from the nursing wards of a mental hospital, the author shows how feelings about excrement are determined not only by their nature, but also by the nature of the relationships among the nurses and the relationships between the nurses and the elderly patients. Body care and the emotions that are evoked are connected to morality and moral care. Dealing with bodily and moral "dirt" gives nurses a special position within the hospital as a whole, which will have effects on the care for elderly.

  2. [Mental illnesses in childhood and adolescence: A bioethical view of the stigma they entail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Mónica E; Vilarrodona, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Literature suggests that general beliefs towards mental illnesses are strongly correlated to the social behavior towards people who suffer them. to explore beliefs and attitudes towards mental illnesses in children and adolescents and associate them to bioethics. exploratory, prospective and quantitative study. A questionnaire was administered to parents-tutors of children-adolescents with mental disorders, and to healthcare professionals of the Hospital de Niños de la Santísima Trinidad Córdoba (Argentina). Data processing was performed by means of frequency analysis. 68.5% of parents-tutors and 51.8% of healthcare professionals answered that mental illnesses are never considered like any other illness. Diagnose and treatment is perceived as a stigma by 25.9% of healthcare professionals. For 88.1% of parents-tutors and 9.8% of healthcare professionals, children and adolescents with mental illnesses are never dangerous. 77.1% of parents and 18.4% of professionals stated that people are never afraid of children-adolescents with MI. 42.8% of children-adolescents were excluded from school and 28.5% from family activities. mental illness during childhood entails a stigma that compromises development, equal opportunity and human rights.

  3. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  4. A study of tobacco and substance abuse among mentally ill outpatients in a tertiary care general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comorbidity of substance abuse and mental disorder is known to exist and may cause many diagnostic, prognostic, and management difficulties. Indian data are sparse in this area. Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and pattern of substance abuse in psychiatric outpatients and to examine the relation between demographic variables and drug abuse pattern. Materials and Methods: Medical records of the patients attending psychiatry outpatient clinic at a tertiary care general hospital over a 3-month period were reviewed. Information was obtained from medical chart and Drug Abuse Monitoring Scale pro forma about substance abuse. Psychiatric diagnosis made by a qualified psychiatrist according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria, as recorded in the case record form, was used. Observation: The results revealed that 50.8% (half of all psychiatry outpatients were using one or more substances including tobacco in the last month prior to registration (1 month prevalence and 28.35% were using substances at any time in their life prior to the last month (lifetime prevalence. Male patients had 6 to 8 times higher substance abuse than female patients. Tobacco and alcohol were found to be the most common substances of abuse, followed by cannabis. Part-time and full-time employed male patients consumed more alcohol and tobacco than unemployed patients. Conclusions: Substance abuse was common among mentally ill outpatients and could be the cause of various health hazards and hence requires due attention.

  5. National and Regional Representativeness of Hospital Emergency Department Visit Data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ralph J.; Pérez, Alejandro; Baer, Atar; Zhou, Hong; English, Roseanne; Coletta, Michael; Dey, Achintya

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the representativeness of the nonfederal hospital emergency department (ED) visit data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). Methods We used the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, other databases, and information from state and local health departments participating in the NSSP about which hospitals submitted data to the NSSP in October 2014. We compared ED visits for hospitals submitting 15 data with all ED visits in all 50 states and Washington, DC. Results Approximately 60.4 million of 134.6 million ED visits nationwide (~45%) were reported to have been submitted to the NSSP. ED visits in 5 of 10 regions and the majority of the states were substantially underrepresented in the NSSP. The NSSP ED visits were similar to national ED visits in terms of many of the characteristics of hospitals and their service areas. However, visits in hospitals with the fewest annual ED visits, in rural trauma centers, and in hospitals serving populations with high percentages of Hispanics and Asians were underrepresented. Conclusions NSSP nonfederal hospital ED visit data were representative for many hospital characteristics and in some geographic areas but were not very representative nationally and in many locations. Representativeness could be improved by increasing participation in more states and among specific types of hospitals. PMID:26883318

  6. Welfare State Replacements: Deinstitutionalization, Privatization and the Outsourcing to Immigrant Women Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The U.S. government has a long tradition of providing direct care services to many of its most vulnerable citizens through market-based solutions and subsidized private entities. The privatized welfare state has led to the continued displacement of some of our most disenfranchised groups in need of long-term care. Situated after the U.S. deinstitutionalization era, this is the first study to examine how immigrant Filipino women emerged as owners of de facto mental health care facilities that cater to the displaced, impoverished, severely mentally ill population. These immigrant women-owned businesses serve as welfare state replacements, overseeing the health and illness of these individuals by providing housing, custodial care, and medical services after the massive closure of state mental hospitals that occurred between 1955 and 1980. This study explains the onset of these businesses and the challenges that one immigrant group faces as owners, the meanings of care associated with their de facto mental health care enterprises, and the conditions under which they have operated for more than 40 years.

  7. [Comparison of sexual murderers in forensic psychiatric hospitals and in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujeyl, M; Habermann, N; Briken, P; Berner, W; Hill, A

    2008-05-01

    Empirical data are lacking that answer the question of how sexual murderers detained in forensic mental hospitals can be differentiated from those sentenced to prison. Psychiatric court reports and national criminal records on sexual murderers detained in a forensic mental hospital (n=45) were compared with those of prisoners (n=89) regarding diagnostic, criminologic, and prognostic characteristics and criminal recidivism rates after detention. Sexual murderers detained in forensic mental hospitals were characterized by higher psychiatric morbidity and slightly higher risk of future sexual and nonsexual violence. They were released from incarceration less often than the prison inmates but did not show higher sexual or nonsexual violence recidivism rates than those from the prison group.

  8. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not

  9. Strategic planning in hospitals in two Australian states: an exploratory study of its practice using planning documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, R; Sim, A B

    1998-01-01

    Hospitals are under pressure to respond to new challenges and competition. Many hospitals have used strategic planning to respond to these environmental changes. This exploratory study examines the extent of strategic planning in hospitals in two Australian States, New South Wales and Victoria, using a sample survey. Based on planning documentation, the study indicated that 47% of the hospitals surveyed did not have a strategic or business plan. A significant difference was found in the comprehensiveness of the plans between the two States. Plans from Victorian hospitals had more documented evidence of external/internal analysis, competitor orientation and customer orientation compared with plans from New South Wales hospitals. The paper discusses the limitations of the study and directions for future research.

  10. [Assessing deinstitutionalization of the nursing home area of a large state mental hospital from the point of view of patients and staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallert, T W; Stoll, A; Leisse, M; Winiecki, P

    2004-08-01

    Within the deinstitutionalization process of a large psychiatric hospital, the development of two cohorts of patients with chronic schizophrenia is compared over a two-year period: patients living in the hospital's nursing-home area (n = 50) vs. patients already released to two social therapeutic hostels (n = 51). Results of the cohort study were compared with assessments of nurses working in the nursing home (n = 55), focusing on their subjective views of the deinstitutionalization process and its impact on their working conditions. Patients are assessed through yearly home-visits in their place of residence. The instruments used measure several outcome parameters: psychopathology, social disabilities, subjective quality of life, and normative needs for care. Concurrent staff assessments were conducted using standardized survey instruments focusing on current working conditions and quality of teamwork. Nineteen nurses participated in qualitative interviews evaluating the deinstitutionalization process. For all measures, patients living in the nursing home show significantly worse outcomes. Furthermore, during the study period 34 % experienced a change in their living situation with which they were dissatisfied. Needs for care and the number of areas of "unmet" need increased significantly for this subgroup. Patients living in social therapeutic hostels demonstrate stable levels of psychopathological symptoms, social disabilities, and needs for care. Assessments indicating a deterioration in patients' subjective quality of life focus mainly on areas important for social contacts. Regarding "personal concerns" and "insecurity at work", ratings from nursing home staff were significantly worse than those of a reference group from several other health care institutions (n = 224). Staff showed a tendency to give higher ratings for their opportunities to participate in decisions, in contrast with the low ratings for chances to improve their knowledge in the workplace, a

  11. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. [Assessment of compliance for oral medicines with MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination, in hospitalized elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masatomo; Kakei, Masafumi; Iwasawa, Saaya; Morii, Tsukasa; Miura, Takeshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Satoh, Takehiro; Fujita, Hiroki; Narita, Takuma; Shirakawa, Hideko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Toshio

    2007-10-01

    The minimental state examination (MMSE) is a widely used, standardized method to assess cognitive function including movement-related disorders with high reliability. We studied the relationship between MMSE scores and the ability to take oral medications correctly (ingestion compliance) in 70 elderly inpatients (mean age 71.3+/-7.0 years). Patients with abnormal glucose tolerance as determined by an HbA(1c) level of 5.8% or greater including diabetes showed a trend of lower MMSE scores compared with patients with normal glucose tolerance, and the scores were negatively correlated with HbA1c, age, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Self-management in taking oral medications was very difficult in 4 patients whose MMSE scores were 21 points or less. Thus ingestion supervisions by nurses were required in these patients. Furthermore, 9 of 12 noncompliant patients had MMSE scores ranging from 22 to 26 points. We instructed these patients to take medications in a one-dose package as a useful tool to improve compliance. The MMSE score was 27 or higher in 44 of 54 compliant patients, and 10 patients had scores ranging from 21 to 26. The sensitivity and specificity for noncompliance at an MMSE score cut-off point of 26 were 75.0% and 81.5%, respectively. In conclusion, it is necessary to coordinate ingestion methods matched to each patient according to their abilities to comply with medication schedules. They should be preevaluated with the MMSE to improve ingestion compliance. The MMSE is a recommended test in hospitalized elderly patients for the assessment of the ability to take medications safely.

  13. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  14. Nurse-directed care model in a psychiatric hospital: a model for clinical accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Morris, Marlene; Caldwell, Barbara; Mencher, Kathleen J; Grogan, Kimberly; Judge-Gorny, Margaret; Patterson, Zelda; Christopher, Terrian; Smith, Russell C; McQuaide, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The focus on recovery for persons with severe and persistent mental illness is leading state psychiatric hospitals to transform their method of care delivery. This article describes a quality improvement project involving a hospital's administration and multidisciplinary state-university affiliation that collaborated in the development and implementation of a nursing care delivery model in a state psychiatric hospital. The quality improvement project team instituted a new model to promote the hospital's vision of wellness and recovery through utilization of the therapeutic relationship and greater clinical accountability. Implementation of the model was accomplished in 2 phases: first, the establishment of a structure to lay the groundwork for accountability and, second, the development of a mechanism to provide a clinical supervision process for staff in their work with clients. Effectiveness of the model was assessed by surveys conducted at baseline and after implementation. Results indicated improvement in clinical practices and client living environment. As a secondary outcome, these improvements appeared to be associated with increased safety on the units evidenced by reduction in incidents of seclusion and restraint. Restructuring of the service delivery system of care so that clients are the center of clinical focus improves safety and can enhance the staff's attention to work with clients on their recovery. The role of the advanced practice nurse can influence the recovery of clients in state psychiatric hospitals. Future research should consider the impact on clients and their perceptions of the new service models.

  15. Children’s Psychiatric Hospital Dr. Juan N. Navarro: 50 years of attention to the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Márquez-Caraveo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities concerning mental health care of psychiatric disorders during more than 50 years of service (1966-2016 at the Children’s Psychiatric Hospital “Dr. Juan N. Navarro”(HPI, as well as the progressive development of teaching and research, have contributed to its positioning as a leading institution in medical care of high specialization. This has been possible through the training of human resources that focus the quality of care to the children and their families. The hospital has progressed towards diagnostic and therapeutic care of outpatients through the creation of specialized clinics (emotions, behavior, development, adolescence, among others and the development of more actualized and integral therapeutic programs (behavioral psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic; individual, group, family, etc.. In the field of education, the hospital has been the most important institution in the training of child psychiatrists in Mexico and its recognition as a research interdisciplinary center has grown.

  16. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient

  17. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Gallegos Espinosa; Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes; Sergio Santana Porbén

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Hospital malnutrition is a global health problem affecting 30-50% of hospitalized patients. There are no estimates of the size of this problem in Ecuadorian hospitals. Hospital malnutrition might influence the quality of medical assistance provided to hospitalized populations. Objectives: To estimate the current frequency of malnutrition among patients admitted to Ecuadorian public hospitals. Materials and methods: The Ecuadorian Hospital Malnutrition Study was conducted between No...

  18. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  19. One‐minute mental status examination for category fluency is more useful than mini‐mental state examination to evaluate the reliability of insulin self‐injection in elderly diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yajima, Ken; Matsushita, Takaya; Sumitomo, Hidetaka; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Katayama, Takashi; Kanno, Kazuo; Sakai, Masashi; Shigeta, Masayuki; Shirabe, Shinichiro; Nakano, Tadasumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ueki, Akio; Kitaoka, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction We investigated the factors associated with the reliability of insulin self‐injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy. Materials and Methods We enrolled diabetic patients aged ≥65 years and receiving insulin therapy, and assessed their cognitive function by the mini‐mental state examination and 1‐min mental status examination for category fluency. We also observed their technique of insulin self‐injection, and evaluated whether or not patients...

  20. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  1. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  2. Preventing falls in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-27

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 a day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). But research shows that when nurses, doctors and therapists work together, falls can be reduced by 20-30%.

  3. Relationship between sleep quality and mental health according to demographics of 850 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Alireza; Safa, Mitra; Ghassem Boroujerdi, Fatemeh; Hajizadeh, Farzaneh; Pashm Foroush, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to study sleep problems in hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and assess the relationship of sleep quality with mental health and demographics of patients. Our study sample consisted of 850 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients hospitalized in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. Demographic data were collected and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and mental health questionnaires were filled out for patients. The results showed that 5.9 percent were suffering from severe sleep problems, while 4.7 percent had severe mental problems. A strong positive correlation was found between the total scores of mental health and sleep quality ( p mental health problems was higher in females compared to males. Mental health and sleep quality play important roles in quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  4. Are Facebook user ratings associated with hospital cost, quality and patient satisfaction? A cross-sectional analysis of hospitals in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauren; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Hospital care costs are high while quality varies across hospitals. Patient satisfaction may be associated with better clinical quality, and social media ratings may offer another opportunity to measure patient satisfaction with care. To test if Facebook user ratings of hospitals are associated with existing measures of patient satisfaction, cost and quality. Data were obtained from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare, the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System impact files and the Area Health Resource File for 2015. Information from hospitals' Facebook pages was collected in July 2016. Multivariate linear regression was used to test if there is an association between Facebook user ratings (star rating and adjusted number of 'likes') and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient satisfaction measures, the 30-day all-cause readmission rate, and the Medicare spending per beneficiary (MSPB) ratio. One hundred and thirty-six acute care hospitals in New York State in 2015. An increase in the Facebook star rating is associated with significant increases in 21/23 HCAHPS measures (p≤0.003). An increase in the adjusted number of 'likes' is associated with very small increases in 3/23 HCAHPS measures (pFacebook user ratings are not associated with the 30-day all-cause readmission rate or the Medicare spending per beneficiary ratio. Results demonstrate an association between HCAHPS patient satisfaction measures and Facebook star ratings. Adjusted number of 'likes' may not be a useful measure of patient satisfaction. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Deaf not Daft: The Deaf in Mental Subnormality Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chris

    1982-01-01

    Case studies of deaf or hearing impaired persons in institutions for the mentally retarded illustrate the ways in which the "invisible handicap" can mask cognitive ability, causing unnecessary institutionalization. (CL)

  6. Comparing the Affordable Care Act's Financial Impact on Safety-Net Hospitals in States That Expanded Medicaid and Those That Did Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; Haught, Randy; Phap-Hoa, Luu

    2017-11-01

    Safety-net hospitals play a vital role in delivering health care to Medicaid enrollees, the uninsured, and other vulnerable patients. By reducing the number of uninsured Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was also expected to lower these hospitals’ significant uncompensated care costs and shore up their financial stability. To examine how the ACA’s Medicaid expansion affected the financial status of safety-net hospitals in states that expanded Medicaid and in states that did not. Using Medicare hospital cost reports for federal fiscal years 2012 and 2015, the authors compared changes in Medicaid inpatient days as a percentage of total inpatient days, Medicaid revenues as a percentage of total net patient revenues, uncompensated care costs as a percentage of total operating costs, and hospital operating margins. Medicaid expansion had a significant, favorable financial impact on safety-net hospitals. From 2012 to 2015, safety-net hospitals in expansion states, compared to those in nonexpansion states, experienced larger increases in Medicaid inpatient days and Medicaid revenues as well as reduced uncompensated care costs. These changes improved operating margins for safety-net hospitals in expansion states. Margins for safety-net hospitals in nonexpansion states, meanwhile, declined.

  7. Non-mental health workers' attitudes and social distance towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-mental health workers' attitudes and social distance towards people with mental illness in a. Nigerian teaching hospital. Olatunji F. Ainaa, O. Yewande Oshodia, Adebayo R. Erinfolamia, Joseph D. Adeyemia, and Tajudeen. F Suleimanb a Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, ...

  8. Mini-mental state exam for children (MMC) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ricardo; Andrade, Peterson Marco Oliveira; Fontes, Patrícia Lemos Bueno; Ferreira, Fernanda Oliveira; Salvador, Larissa de Souza; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequent in cerebral palsy (CP) and there is a lack of multiprofessional screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Children (MMC), an adapted version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, in screening for cognitive impairments in children with CP. We assessed 397 Brazilian children, 310 with typical development and 87 with CP (hemiplegic and quadriplegic forms), aged 5-16 years. Association between the MMC and general intelligence was assessed by the Colored Progressive Matrices instrument. Psychometric indexes for the MMC were adequate. ROC analyses revealed effective diagnostic accuracy in all ages assessed. Cut-off values are reported. Major difficulties on the MMC were observed in children with CP, particularly individuals with the quadriplegic form. Moreover, the MMC showed moderate correlation with the intelligence test, and was reliable in discriminating, among clinical cases, those with poorer cognitive abilities. The MMC could be useful as a multiprofessional screening instrument for cognitive impairment in children with hemiplegic CP. Results of the MMC in quadriplegic CP children should be interpreted with caution. Diagnosis should be confirmed by further psychological testing.

  9. Recruitment and retention of mental health workers in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jack

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. METHODS: We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. RESULTS: Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1 desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2 positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3 intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4 good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1 lack of resources at the hospital, 2 a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3 lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4 few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work

  10. Trends in state prison admission of offenders with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Engen, Mindy S; Cuddeback, Gary S; Gayman, Mathew D; Morrissey, Joseph P; Mancuso, David

    2010-12-01

    This study examined whether the proportion as well as the number of prisoners with behavioral health disorders have increased in recent years. Among 41,440 persons admitted to Washington State prisons from 1998 through 2006, this study estimated numbers and proportions of behavioral health disorders diagnosed while persons were in the community or in prison. There was a 44% increase in persons admitted with a diagnosed co-occurring substance use disorder between 1998 (N=477) and 2005 (N=686); this increase dropped to 27% by 2006 (N=604). Ratewise, increases in the annual proportion of persons admitted with co-occurring disorders were much smaller, ranging from approximately .2% to 2.6%. The growth in the numbers of prisoners with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders was not due primarily to increases in admission base rates. Nevertheless, more treatment resources will be needed in prisons to meet growing mental health care needs, and more community-based resources will be needed to ensure continuity of treatment and successful community reentry.

  11. Admission to acute care hospitals for adolescent substance abuse: a national descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisolm Deena J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of alcohol and illicit drugs by adolescents remains a problem in the U.S. Case identification and early treatment can occur within a broad variety of healthcare and non-healthcare settings, including acute care hospitals. The objective of this study is to describe the extent and nature of adolescent admissions to the acute inpatient setting for substance abuse (SA. We use the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ 2000 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids Inpatient Database (HCUP-KID which includes over 2.5 million admissions for youth age 20 and under to 2,784 hospitals in 27 states in the year 2000. Specifically, this analysis estimates national number of admissions, mean total charges, and mean lengths of stay for adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 admitted to an acute care hospital for the following diagnostic categories from the AHRQ's Clinical Classifications Software categories: "alcohol-related mental disorders" and "substance-related mental disorders". Frequency and percentage of total admissions were calculated for demographic variables of age, gender and income and for hospital characteristic variables of urban/rural designation and children's hospital designation. Results SA admissions represented 1.25 percent of adolescent admissions to acute care hospitals. Nearly 90 percent of the admission occurred in non-Children's hospitals. Most were for drug dependence (38% or non-dependent use of alcohol or drugs (35%. Costs were highest for drug dependence admissions. Nearly half of admissions had comorbid mental health diagnoses. Higher rates of admission were seen in boys, in older adolescents, and in "self-pay" patients. Alcohol and drug rehabilitation/detoxification, alone or in combination with psychological and psychiatric evaluation and therapy, was documented for 38 percent of admissions. Over 50 percent of cases had no documentation of treatment specific to substance use behavior

  12. Peer interaction does not always improve children's mental state talk production in oral narratives. A study in six- to ten-year-old Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind, thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males. Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned. Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogues were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogues were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative.

  13. Reasons for non-attendance at a day hospital for people with enduring mental illness: the clients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, I M; Gentle, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a research project which aimed to discover the reasons clients give for failing to attend a mental health day hospital. There was concern that this service provision, for people with enduring mental illness, had a high level of non-attendance and therefore might not be meeting the needs of the people for whom it is targeted. Over a period of 6 months 36 people failed to attend, despite assessment and apparent agreement to attend. Of the 36, 14 agreed to talk about their reasons for not attending. An open interview format was used which enabled the clients to talk in depth about their experiences, which they felt led to the decision to stop attending. Content analysis of the interview data resulted in the identification of common themes. Main findings suggest a lack of partnership in decisions on choice of therapy, particularly the emphasis on groupwork, which 86% found unhelpful. Other main factors for non-attendance were a lack of an individual approach to care, not being listened to, and a lack of warmth from the staff. Recommendations for future practice are given, with particular attention to the need to develop a partnership with clients aimed at meeting individual needs.

  14. Crime e doença psiquiátrica: perfil da população de um hospital de custódia no Rio de Janeiro Crime and mental disorders: profile of a group of inmates in a custody hospital in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garbayo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a população internada em um hospital de custódia no Rio de Janeiro quanto a aspectos demográficos, diagnósticos e criminais. MÉTODOS: Todos os internos cumprindo medida de segurança detentiva no Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiá­trico Heitor Carrilho, em dezembro de 2007, (n = 177 foram avaliados pelo censo sociodemográfico aplicado por psiquiatras da instituição e tiveram seus prontuários analisados quanto a diagnóstico, tratamento psiquiátrico prévio e tipo de crime. Foi avaliada a relação entre vítima e perpetrador nos homicídios. RESULTADOS: A população é preferencialmente masculina (80%, solteira (72%, com 30 a 39 anos de idade (34%, baixa escolaridade (69% e inativa (56%. Os diagnósticos mais prevalentes foram transtornos psicóticos (67%, seguidos por retardo mental (15,2%, transtornos em virtude de uso de substâncias psicoativas (7,3%, de personalidade (4,5% e outros (6,2%. A maioria (71% já havia recebido tratamento psiquiátrico prévio. O homicídio foi o crime mais comum (44%, seguido por crimes contra o patrimônio (26%, crimes sexuais (11%, crimes relacionados a entorpecentes (11% e outros. O homicídio intrafamiliar predominou entre os psicóticos e os portadores de retardo mental. Os últimos cometeram proporcionalmente mais crimes sexuais do que os primeiros. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil da população foi compatível com o descrito para outras populações de internos em hospitais de custódia no país.OBJETIVES: To study the hospital population in a custody hospital in Rio de Janeiro with regard to demographical, diagnostic and criminal aspects. METHODOLOGY: Inmates serving detentional security measures in Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Heitor Carrilho Hospital (Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiátrico Heitor Carrilho in december 2007(n=177 were evaluated in a social-demographic questionnaire applied by staff psychiatrists at the Hospital and had their medical records

  15. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  16. Personality traits and mental health states of methamphetamine-dependent and methamphetamine non-using MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Todd M; Kiang, Mathew V; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert W; Pappas, Molly K

    2010-02-01

    This analysis considers the relation between personality traits, mental health states and methamphetamine (MA) use in 60 men who have sex with men (MSM). Thirty MA-dependent and 30 MA non-using MSM were assessed on the Neo Five Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version tests. Our results indicate differences between groups on a variety of measures of personality traits and mental states. Specifically, MA-dependent participants were found to be more Neurotic, less Open, less Agreeable, and less Conscientious. Further, MA-dependent participants were found to have higher levels of Paranoid Ideation and higher levels of Interpersonal Sensitivity. Given the high prevalence of MA use in the MSM community and the association between MA use and sexual risk taking, our findings provided a clearer understanding of how individual personality traits may be a factor in the continued use of this drug among MSM. Further research should seek to incorporate individual personality traits into the development of efficacious MA-specific treatment interventions.

  17. Reducing medical students' stigmatization of people with chronic mental illness: a field intervention at the "living museum" state hospital art studio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Janis L; Harding, Kelli J; Hutner, Lucy A; Cortland, Clarissa; Graham, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    The authors designed an intervention to reduce beginning medical students' stigmatization of people with chronic mental illness (CMI). Pre-clinical medical students visited a state psychiatric facility's "Living Museum," a combination patient art studio/display space, as the intervention. During the visit, students interacted with artist-guides who showed their work and discussed their experiences creating art. Students completed a self-assessment survey developed to measure attitudes and feelings toward people with CMI after half of the class visited the Living Museum, constituting a Visit/No-Visit cross-sectional comparison. Students who visited the Living Museum (N=64), as compared with those who did not visit (N=110), endorsed more positive attitudes toward people with CMI. Among the students who visited, however, those who reported having spoken individually with a patient-artist (N=44), paradoxically, indicated less-positive feelings toward people with CMI. An intervention in which pre-clinical medical students visited patient-artist guides in an art-studio setting generally improved students' attitudes toward people with CMI. Thus, nontraditional psychiatric settings offer a valuable adjunct to more traditional clinical settings to reduce stigma when introducing medical students to the field of psychiatry.

  18. Characteristic differences in the mini-mental state examination used in Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Yong S.; Yang, Dong Won; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2017-01-01

    Background The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adapted by individual countries according to their languages and cultures, though it has not been systematically compared. The objective of this study was to compare the linguistic and cultural variations of the MMSE used in various Asian countries. With this, we can analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the MMSE and consider using a common version in future international clinical studies in Asia. Methods We collected the MMSEs used in...

  19. Anaemia in Pregnancy in Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of incidence of anaemia in pregnancy at Abia state University Teaching Hospital, Aba was conducted over a six-month period spanning from 31st January 2000 to 31st July 2000. The incidence of anaemia in pregnancy was 29%. The vast majority (97.6%) had mild anaemia. The result showed that most ...

  20. 78 FR 28551 - Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 447 [CMS-2367-P] RIN 0938-AR31 Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The statute...

  1. 78 FR 57293 - Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 447 [CMS-2367-F] RIN 0938-AR31 Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The statute, as...

  2. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  3. [The role of the mental health community in an evolving mental health system. State of knowledge and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Guy; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2014-01-01

    ; and 5) rootedness of the organization within the community. MCHO are grouped at the provincial level according to their functions, their ideological affinity, and or their particular mandate, but there is no national classification of community organizations as yet. The financing of community organizations remains a principal source of discontent. The MSSS has indicated that the overall financing of MCHO should correspond to at least 10% of global expenditures for mental health programming, whereas the actual budget is equivalent to only 8.8%. This underfunding obliges community organizations to reduce services despite demands for increased financial assistance, which runs the risk of provoking increased "revolving door" situations, and the utilization of emergency services in cases of service users transferred from hospitals to the Health Social Services Centers, who are in difficulty after losing contact with their service providers who would otherwise have provided follow-up. As well, MCHO fear the loss of their autonomy and of being reduced to the role of secondary services in signing these service agreements. The current reform would represent a step backward for MHCO in terms of recognition of their expertise. The former consultation structures have been dispossessed of any real power, decision making now being in the hands of the regional agency and directors of institutions. Numerous relocations of personnel have also lead to breaks in contact between MCHO and the public system, as these relationships were usually informal. A number of recommendations emanate from these findings that may permit MHCO to respond more adequately to the needs of the population served without calling into question their autonomy: 1) offer more adequate financing, particularly for self-help groups and organizations offering psychosocial rehabilitation, access to education and work reintegration; 2) allocate specific services exclusively to the community-based system in order to

  4. The experience and views of mental health nurses regarding nursing care delivery in an integrated, inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry; Hunt, Glenn

    2005-06-01

    Positive and effective consumer outcomes hinge on having in place optimal models of nursing care delivery. The aim of this study was to ascertain the experience and views of mental health nurses, working in hospitals in an area mental health service, regarding nursing care delivery in those settings. Surveys (n = 250) were sent to all mental health nurses working in inpatient settings and 118 (47%) were returned. Results showed that the quality of nursing care achieved high ratings (by 87%), and that two-thirds of respondents were proud to be a mental health nurse and would choose to be a mental health nurse again. Similarly, the majority (71%) would recommend mental health nursing to others. Concern was, however, expressed about the continuity and consistency of nursing work and information technology resources. Nurses with community experiences rated the importance of the following items, or their confidence, higher than those without previous community placements: the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork; the importance of participating in case review; the importance of collaborating with community staff; confidence in performing mental state examinations; and confidence in collaborating with community staff, suggesting that this placement had positive effects on acute care nursing.

  5. Patient Survey (PCH - HCAHPS) PPS-exempt Cancer Hospital – State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  6. Melding Infant Mental Health and Multisystemic Therapy Approaches to Community-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…

  7. Comorbidity profile and healthcare utilization in elderly patients with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C; Lindgren, Donald; Hay, Donald P; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A; Callahan, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet, there remain few studies that focus on healthcare utilization and its relationship with comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization was taken from an electronic medical record system. Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Patients age 65 years and older-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression, and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 nondemented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency department visits (p = 0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p mentally ill group (p seriously mentally ill. The differences in healthcare utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest that seriously mentally ill older adults remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of healthcare. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: A Multi-national Military Mental Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. Nedegaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available America has been at war for almost 10 years. Because of this, continuing missions in the Middle East require the support and cooperation of our allied North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO forces from around the world. In this paper we provide an overview of the mission at Kandahar Air Field (KAF and the Multi-National Role 3 hospital located at KAF. Next, we explain the mental health capabilities and unique perspectives among our teammates from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States to include a discussion of the relevant cross-cultural differences between us. Within this framework we also provide an overview of the mental health clientele seen at KAF during the period of April 2009 through September 2009. Finally, we discuss the successes, limitations, and lessons learned during our deployment to Kandahar, Afghanistan.

  9. Factors associated with variations in hospital expenditures for acute heart failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Sharma, Puza P; Yu, Tzy-Chyi; Johnson, Katherine Waltman; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-02-01

    Relatively little contemporary data are available that describe differences in acute heart failure (AHF) hospitalization expenditures as a function of patient and hospital characteristics, especially from a population-based investigation. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with variations in hospital expenditures for AHF in the United States. A cross-sectional analysis using discharge data from the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, was conducted. Discharges with primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes for AHF in adults were included. Costs were estimated by converting Nationwide Inpatient Sample charge data using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Cost-to-Charge Ratio File. Discharges with highest (≥80th percentile) versus lowest (≤20th percentile) costs were compared for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, utilization of procedures, and outcomes. Of the estimated 1 million AHF hospital discharges, the mean cost estimates were $10,775 per episode. Younger age, higher percentage of obesity, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary disease, fluid/electrolyte disturbances, renal insufficiency, and greater number of cardiac/noncardiac procedures were observed in stays with highest versus lowest costs. Highest-cost discharges were more likely to be observed in urban and teaching hospitals. Highest-cost AHF discharges also had 5 times longer length of stay, were 9 times more costly, and had higher in-hospital mortality (5.6% vs 3.5%) compared with discharges with lowest costs (all P heart failure hospitalizations are costly. Expenditures vary markedly among AHF hospitalizations in the United States, with substantial differences in patient and hospital characteristics, procedures, and in-hospital outcomes among discharges with highest compared with lowest costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.