WorldWideScience

Sample records for state level remote

  1. Remote unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent symmetric d-level quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libing; Liu Yuhua; Tan Peng; Lu Hong

    2009-01-01

    A set of linearly independent nonorthogonal symmetric d-level quantum states can be discriminated remotely and unambiguously with the aid of two-level Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states. We present a scheme for such a kind of remote unambiguous quantum state discrimination (UD). The probability of discrimination is in agreement with the optimal probability for local unambiguous discrimination among d symmetric states (Chefles and Barnettt 1998 Phys. Lett. A 250 223). This scheme consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM). This remote POVM can be realized by performing a nonlocal 2d x 2d unitary operation on two spatially separated systems, one is the qudit which is encoded by one of the d symmetric nonorthogonal states to be distinguished and the other is an ancillary qubit, and a conventional local von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. By decomposing the evolution process from the initial state to the final state, we construct a quantum network for realizing the remote POVM with a set of two-level nonlocal controlled-rotation gates, and thus provide a feasible physical means to realize the remote UD. A two-level nonlocal controlled-rotation gate can be implemented by using a two-level EPR pair in addition to local operations and classical communications (LOCCs)

  2. Remote state preparation through hyperentangled atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mehwish; ul-Islam, Rameez-; Ikram, Manzoor

    2018-04-01

    Hyperentangled states have enhanced channel capacity in quantum processing and have yielded` evident increased communication speed in quantum informatics as a consequence of excessively high information content coded over each quantum entity. In the present article, we intend to demonstrate this fact by utilizing atomic states simultaneously entangled both in internal as well as external degrees of freedom, i.e. the de Broglie motion for remote state preparation (RSP). The results clearly demonstrate that we can efficiently communicate two bit information while manipulating only a single quantum subsystem. The states are prepared and manipulated using atomic Bragg diffraction as well as Ramsey interferometry, both of which are now considered as standard, state of the art tools based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. Since atomic Bragg diffraction is a large interaction time regime and produces spatially well separated, decoherence resistant outputs, the schematics presented here for the RSP offer important perspectives on efficient detection as well as unambiguous information coding and readout. The article summarizes the experimental feasibility of the proposal, culminating with a brief discussion.

  3. Remote Working Level Monitor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Remote Working Level Monitor (RWLM) is an instrument used to remotely monitor the RN-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor based instrument which multiplexes two independent detector units to a single central processor unit (CPU). The CPU controls the actuation of the detector units and processes and outputs the data received from these remote detector units. The remote detector units are fully automated and require no manual operation once they are set up. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU for processing. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the program enables the RWLM to run and output a calibration procedure on command. The data resulting from this request can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. The calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies

  4. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846

  5. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  6. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  7. Influence of Noises on Remote State Preparation Using GHZ State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Huaqiu; Liu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Using a quantum channel consisting of a GHZ state exposed to noisy environment, we investigate how to remotely prepare an entangled state and a qubit state, respectively. By solving the master equation in the Lindblad form, the influence of the various types of noises on the GHZ state is first discussed. Then we use the fidelity to describe how close the remotely prepared state and the initial state are. Our results show that the fidelity is a function of the decoherence rates and the angles of the initial state. It is found that for each of the two RSP schemes, the influence of the noise acting simultaneously in x, y, and z directions on the average fidelity is the strongest while the influence of the noise acting in x or z direction on the average fidelity is relatively weaker

  8. Joint Remote State Preparation of a Single-Atom Qubit State via a GHZ Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Yao, Fengwei; Lin, Xiaochen; Gong, Lihua

    2018-04-01

    We proposed a physical protocol for the joint remote preparation of a single-atom qubit state via a three-atom entangled GHZ-type state previously shared by the two senders and one receiver. Only rotation operations of single-atom, which can be achieved though the resonant interaction between the two-level atom and the classical field, are required in the scheme. It shows that the splitting way of the classical information of the secret qubit not only determines the success of reconstruction of the secret qubit, but also influences the operations of the senders.

  9. Remote state preparation without oblivious conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.

    2003-01-01

    In quantum teleportation, neither Alice nor Bob acquires any classical knowledge on teleported states. The teleportation protocol is said to be oblivious to both parties. In remote state preparation (RSP), it is assumed that Alice is given complete classical knowledge on the state that is to be prepared by Bob. Recently, Leung and Shor [e-print quant-ph/0201008] showed that the same amount of classical information as that in teleportation needs to be transmitted in any exact and deterministic RSP protocol that is oblivious to Bob. Assuming that the dimension of subsystems in the prior-entangled state is the same as the dimension of the input space, we study similar RSP protocols, but not necessarily oblivious to Bob. We show that in this case Bob's quantum operation can be safely assumed to be a unitary transformation. We then derive an equation that is a necessary and sufficient condition for such a protocol to exist. By studying this equation, we show that one-qubit RSP requires two classical bits of communication, which is the same amount as in teleportation, even if the protocol is not assumed oblivious to Bob. For higher dimensions, it is still an open question whether the amount of classical communication can be reduced by abandoning oblivious conditions

  10. Cyclic joint remote state preparation in noisy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-yue; Bai, Ming-qiang; Zhou, Si-qi

    2018-06-01

    We propose a scheme of cyclic joint remote state preparation for three sides, which takes advantage of three GHZ states to compose product state as quantum channel. Suppose there are six legitimate participants, says Alice, Bob, Charlie, David, Emma and Fred in the scheme. It can be shown that Alice and David can remotely prepare a single-qubit state on Bob's side; meanwhile, Bob and Emma can remotely prepare a desired quantum state on Charlie's side, and Charlie and Fred can also remotely prepare a single-qubit state on Alice's side at the same time. Further, it can be achieved in the opposite direction of the cycle by changing the quantum channel. Based on it, we generalize this protocol to N (N≥3) sides utilizing three multi-qubit GHZ-type states as quantum channel. Therefore, the scheme can achieve cyclic joint remote state preparation, which remotely prepares N states in quantum network with N-party, simultaneously. In addition, we consider that the effect of amplitude-damping noise of the initial states is prepared in four different laboratory. Clearly, we use fidelity to describe how much information has been lost in the cyclic process. Our investigation about the effect of noise shows that the preparing of the initial state in different laboratories will affect the loss of information.

  11. Use of a microprocessor in a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    A remote working level monitor was designed to measure short-lived radon-daughter concentrations in sealed chambers having potentially high radiation levels (up to 2000 WL). The system is comprised of surface barrier detectors, multiplexer and buffers, microprocessor and teletype

  12. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Remote information concentration by a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and by a bound entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yafei; Zhan, Mingsheng; Feng, Jian

    2003-01-01

    We compare remote quantum information concentration by a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with an unlockable bound entangled state. We find that in view of communication security the bound entangled state works better than the GHZ state

  14. Remote state preparation using positive operator-valued measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Siendong, E-mail: sdhuang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-04

    We consider the process of remote state preparation using a pure state |ψ〉 with the maximal Schmidt number n. For any given state σ, pure or mixed, a construction of a positive operator-valued measure {M_j}{sub j=0}{sup n} is provided. The classical outcome j=0 indicates the failure of a remote preparation of σ. All other classical outcomes j>0 correspond to unitary transformations of the receiver system such that σ can be prepared. The total probability of successful remote preparation depends on the state σ. Our protocol is a variation of conclusive teleportation and the classical bits required for this protocol are given by log{sub 2}(n+1), which is nearly half that of conclusive teleportation.

  15. Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: State-operator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, Benni; Groisman, Berry; Aharonov, Yakir

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic simple method for constructing deterministic remote operations on single and multiple systems of arbitrary discrete dimensionality. These operations include remote rotations, remote interactions, and measurements. The resources needed for an operation on a two-level system are one ebit and a bidirectional communication of two cbits, and for an n-level system, a pair of entangled n-level particles and two classical 'nits'. In the latter case, there are n-1 possible distinct operations per n-level entangled pair. Similar results apply for generating interaction between a pair of remote systems, while for remote measurements only one-directional classical communication is needed. We further consider remote operations on N spatially distributed systems, and show that the number of possible distinct operations increases here exponentially, with the available number of entangled pairs that are initially distributed between the systems. Our results follow from the properties of a hybrid state-operator object (stator), which describes quantum correlations between states and operations

  16. Unidirectional Quantum Remote Control: Teleportation of Control-State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYi-Zhuang; GUYong-Jian; WUGui-Chu; GUOGuang-Can

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of teleportation of unitary operations by unidirectional control-state telepor-ration and propose a scheme called unidirectional quantum remote control. The scheme is based on the isomorphism between operation and state. It allows us to store a unitary operation in a control state, thereby teleportatSon of the unitary operation can be implemented by unidirectional teleportation of the control-state. We find that the probability of success for implementing an arbitrary unitary operation on arbitrary A~-qubit state by unidirectional control-state teleportation is 4-M, and 2M ebits and 4M cbits are consumed in each teleportation.

  17. Unidirectional Quantum Remote Control:Teleportation of Control-State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-Zhuang; GU Yong-Jian; WU Gui-Chu; GUO Guang-Can

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of teleportation of unitary operations by unidirectional control-state telepor-tation and propose a scheme called unidirectional quantum remote control. The scheme is based on the isomorphismbetween operation and state. It allows us to store a unitary operation in a control state, thereby teleportation of theunitary operation can be implemented by unidirectional teleportation of the control-state. We find that the probabilityof success for implementing an arbitrary unitary operation on arbitrary M-qubit state by unidirectional control-stateteleportation is 4-M, and 2M ebits and 4M cbits are consumed in each teleportation.

  18. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  19. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  20. Controlled Remote State Preparation via General Pure Three-Qubit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebo Zha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protocols for controlled remote state preparation of a single qubit and a general two-qubit state are presented in this paper. The general pure three-qubit states are chosen as shared quantum channel, which are not Local operations and classical communication (LOCC equivalent to the mostly used GHz state. This is the first time that general pure three-qubit states have been introduced to complete remote state preparation. The probability of successful preparation is presented. Moreover, in some special cases, the successful probability could reach a unit value.

  1. Faithful remote state preparation using finite classical bits and a nonmaximally entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mingyong; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2004-01-01

    We present many ensembles of states that can be remotely prepared by using minimum classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared entangled state and prove that we have found all the ensembles in two-dimensional case. Furthermore we show that any pure quantum state can be remotely and faithfully prepared by using finite classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared nonmaximally entangled state though no faithful quantum teleportation protocols can be achieved by using a nonmaximally entangled state

  2. Hierarchical Controlled Remote State Preparation by Using a Four-Qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-06-01

    We propose a scheme for hierarchical controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. In this process of remote state preparation, the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to reconstruct sender's original state.

  3. Hierarchical Controlled Remote State Preparation by Using a Four-Qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a scheme for hierarchical controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. In this process of remote state preparation, the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to reconstruct sender's original state.

  4. Remote State Preparation of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Class State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Youbang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for the remote preparation of a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger class state by a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state. It is shown that, by this scheme, only two classical bits and one two-particle projective measurement are enough for such preparation.

  5. Developing State Level Approaches under the State Level Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong Sylvester, K.; Murphy, C.L.; Boyer, B.; Pilat, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the pursuit of the State-Level Concept (SLC), the IAEA has sought to further evolve the international safeguards system in a manner which maintains (or improves) the effectiveness of the system in an environment of expanding demands and limited resources. The IAEA must not remain static and should continuously examine its practices to ensure it can capture opportunities for cost reductions while adapting to, and staying ahead of, emerging proliferation challenges. Contemporary safeguards have been focused on assessing the nuclear programme of the State as a whole, rather than on the basis of individual facilities. Since the IAEA's integrated safeguards program, State-level Approaches (SLAs) have been developed that seek to optimally combine the measures provided for by the Additional Protocol with those of traditional safeguards. This process resulted in facility specific approaches that, while making use of a State's broader conclusion, were nonetheless prescriptive. Designing SLAs on a State-by-State basis would avoid the shortcomings of a one-size-fits-all system. It would also enable the effective use of the Agency's information analysis and State evaluation efforts by linking this analysis to safeguards planning efforts. Acquisition Path Analysis (APA), along with the State Evaluation process, can be used to prioritize paths in a State in terms of their attractiveness for proliferation. While taking advantage of all safeguards relevant information, and tailoring safeguards to individual characteristics of the State, paths of the highest priority in all States will necessarily meet the same standard of coverage. Similarly, lower priority paths will have lower performance targets, thereby promoting nondiscrimination. Such an approach would improve understanding of safeguards implementation under the SLC and the rational for safeguards resource allocation. The potential roles for APA and performance targets in SLA development will be reviewed

  6. Remote mixed oxide fabrication facility development. Volume 2. State-of-the-art review of remote maintenance system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horgos, R.M.; Masch, M.L.

    1979-06-01

    This report provides a state-of-the-art review of remote systems technology, which includes manipulators, process connectors, vision systems and specialized process systems. A proposed mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility was reviewed and evaluated for identification of major remote maintenance and repair tasks. The technological areas were evaluated on the basis of their suitability or applicability for remote maintenance and repair of a proposed fully remote operating mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. A technological base exists from which the design criteria for a reliable, remote operating facility can be established. Commercially available systems and components, along with those remote technologies now in development, will require modifications to adapt them to specific plant designs and requirements

  7. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory's recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy's ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho

  8. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  9. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  10. Adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack on remote state estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Dong, Jiuxiang

    2017-10-01

    Security issues of cyber-physical systems have received increasing attentions in recent years. In this paper, deception attacks on the remote state estimator equipped with the chi-squared failure detector are considered, and it is assumed that the attacker can monitor and modify all the sensor data. A novel adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack strategy is proposed, where using the current and previous sensor data, the attack can yield the largest estimation error covariance while ensuring to be undetected by the chi-squared monitor. From the attacker's perspective, the attack is better than the existing linear deception attacks to degrade the system performance. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate theoretical results.

  11. Methods of training the graduate level and professional geologist in remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for a basic course in remote sensing to accommodate the needs of the graduate level and professional geologist are described. The course should stress the general topics of basic remote sensing theory, the theory and data types relating to different remote sensing systems, an introduction to the basic concepts of computer image processing and analysis, the characteristics of different data types, the development of methods for geological interpretations, the integration of all scales and data types of remote sensing in a given study, the integration of other data bases (geophysical and geochemical) into a remote sensing study, and geological remote sensing applications. The laboratories should stress hands on experience to reinforce the concepts and procedures presented in the lecture. The geologist should then be encouraged to pursue a second course in computer image processing and analysis of remotely sensed data.

  12. Deterministic quantum state transfer and remote entanglement using microwave photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpiers, P; Magnard, P; Walter, T; Royer, B; Pechal, M; Heinsoo, J; Salathé, Y; Akin, A; Storz, S; Besse, J-C; Gasparinetti, S; Blais, A; Wallraff, A

    2018-06-01

    Sharing information coherently between nodes of a quantum network is fundamental to distributed quantum information processing. In this scheme, the computation is divided into subroutines and performed on several smaller quantum registers that are connected by classical and quantum channels 1 . A direct quantum channel, which connects nodes deterministically rather than probabilistically, achieves larger entanglement rates between nodes and is advantageous for distributed fault-tolerant quantum computation 2 . Here we implement deterministic state-transfer and entanglement protocols between two superconducting qubits fabricated on separate chips. Superconducting circuits 3 constitute a universal quantum node 4 that is capable of sending, receiving, storing and processing quantum information 5-8 . Our implementation is based on an all-microwave cavity-assisted Raman process 9 , which entangles or transfers the qubit state of a transmon-type artificial atom 10 with a time-symmetric itinerant single photon. We transfer qubit states by absorbing these itinerant photons at the receiving node, with a probability of 98.1 ± 0.1 per cent, achieving a transfer-process fidelity of 80.02 ± 0.07 per cent for a protocol duration of only 180 nanoseconds. We also prepare remote entanglement on demand with a fidelity as high as 78.9 ± 0.1 per cent at a rate of 50 kilohertz. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a master-equation description of the system. This deterministic protocol has the potential to be used for quantum computing distributed across different nodes of a cryogenic network.

  13. Bell-state generation on remote superconducting qubits with dark photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-06-01

    We present a scheme to generate the Bell state deterministically on remote transmon qubits coupled to different 1D superconducting resonators connected by a long superconducting transmission line. Using the coherent evolution of the entire system in the all-resonance regime, the transmission line need not to be populated with microwave photons which can robust against the long transmission line loss. This lets the scheme more applicable to the distributed quantum computing on superconducting quantum circuit. Besides, the influence from the small anharmonicity of the energy levels of the transmon qubits can be ignored safely.

  14. A Student-Friendly Graphical User Interface to Extract Data from Remote Sensing Level-2 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardello, R.

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing era has provided an unprecedented amount of publicly available data. The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has achieved remarkable results in the distribution of these data to the scientific community through the OceanColor web page (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/). However, the access to these data, is not straightforward and needs a certain investment of time in learning the use of existing software. Satellite sensors acquire raw data that are processed through several steps towards a format usable by the scientific community. These products are distributed in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) which often represents the first obstacle for students, teachers and scientists not used to deal with extensive matrices. We present here SATellite data PROcessing (SATPRO) a newly developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB environment to provide an easy, immediate yet reliable way to select and extract Level-2 data from NASA SeaWIFS and MODIS-Aqua databases for oceanic surface temperature and chlorophyll. Since no previous experience with MATLAB is required, SATPRO allows the user to explore the available dataset without investing any software-learning time. SATPRO is an ideal tool to introduce undergraduate students to the use of remote sensing data in oceanography and can also be useful for research projects at the graduate level.

  15. Solar Energy Prospecting in Remote Alaska: An Economic Analysis of Solar Photovoltaics in the Last Frontier State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    This report provides a high-level examination of the potential economics of solar energy in rural Alaska across a geographically diverse sample of remote Alaska Native villages throughout the state. It analyzes at a high level what combination of diesel fuel prices, solar resource quality, and photovoltaic (PV) system costs could lead to an economically competitive moderate-scale PV installation at a remote village. The goal of this analysis is to provide a baseline economic assessment to highlight the possible economic opportunities for solar PV in rural Alaska for both the public and private sectors.

  16. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  17. Remote sensing procurement package: A management report for state and local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the remote sensing procurement process is presented for chief executives, senior administrators, and other local and state officials responsible for purchasing remote sensing products, services, or equipment. Guidelines are provided for planning, organizing, staffing, and implementing such a procurement project. Other sections of the four-volume package are described and their benefits examined.

  18. Design and implementation of a wireless sensor network-based remote water-level monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Cheng, Xiao; Gong, Peng; Yan, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The proposed remote water-level monitoring system (RWMS) consists of a field sensor module, a base station module, a data center module and a WEB releasing module. It has advantages in real time and synchronized remote control, expandability, and anti-jamming capabilities. The RWMS can realize real-time remote monitoring, providing early warning of events and protection of the safety of monitoring personnel under certain dangerous circumstances. This system has been successfully applied in Poyanghu Lake. The cost of the whole system is approximately 1,500 yuan (RMB).

  19. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Remote Water-Level Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Cheng, Xiao; Gong, Peng; Yan, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The proposed remote water-level monitoring system (RWMS) consists of a field sensor module, a base station module, adata center module and aWEB releasing module. It has advantages in real time and synchronized remote control, expandability, and anti-jamming capabilities. The RWMS can realize real-time remote monitoring, providing early warning of events and protection of the safety of monitoring personnel under certain dangerous circumstances. This system has been successfully applied in Poyanghu Lake. The cost of the whole system is approximately 1,500 yuan (RMB). PMID:22319377

  20. Subpixel level mapping of remotely sensed image using colorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suresh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of extracting proportion of classes present within a pixel has been a challenge for researchers for which already numerous methodologies have been developed but still saturation is far ahead, since still the methods accounting these mixed classes are not perfect and they would never be perfect until one can talk about one to one correspondence for each pixel and ground data, which is practically impossible. In this paper a step towards generation of new method for finding out mixed class proportions in a pixel on the basis of the mixing property of colors as per colorimetry. The methodology involves locating the class color of a mixed pixel on chromaticity diagram and then using contextual information mainly the location of neighboring pixels on chromaticity diagram to estimate the proportion of classes in the mixed pixel.Also the resampling method would be more accurate when accounting for sharp and exact boundaries. With the usage of contextual information can generate the resampled image containing only the colors which really exist. The process is simply accounting the fraction and then the number of pixels by multiplying the fraction by total number of pixels into which one pixel is splitted to get number of pixels of each color based on contextual information. Keywords: Subpixel classification, Remote sensing imagery, Colorimetric color space, Sampling and subpixel mapping

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  2. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2014-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  3. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, S. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Guillen, L. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKnight, C. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ferguson, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  4. Remote interactions on two distributed quantum systems: nonlocal unambiguous quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libing; Jin Ruibo; Lu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Remote quantum-state discrimination is a critical step for the implementation of quantum communication network and distributed quantum computation. We present a protocol for remotely implementing the unambiguous discrimination between nonorthogonal states using quantum entanglements, local operations, and classical communications. This protocol consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM). We explicitly construct the required remote POVM. The remote POVM can be realized by performing a nonlocal controlled-rotation operation on two spatially separated qubits, one is an ancillary qubit and the other is the qubit which is encoded by two nonorthogonal states to be distinguished, and a conventional local Von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. The particular pair of states that can be remotely and unambiguously distinguished is specified by the state of the ancilla. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all admissible pairs. However, for some subset it can be very close to an optimal value in an ordinary local POVM

  5. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  7. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  8. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  9. Finite State Machine Analysis of Remote Sensor Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbson, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of unattended monitoring systems for monitoring the status of high value assets and processes has proven to be less costly and less intrusive than the on-site inspections which they are intended to replace. However, these systems present a classic information overload problem to anyone trying to analyze the resulting sensor data. These data are typically so voluminous and contain information at such a low level that the significance of any single reading (e.g., a door open event) is not obvious. Sophisticated, automated techniques are needed to extract expected patterns in the data and isolate and characterize the remaining patterns that are due to undeclared activities. This paper describes a data analysis engine that runs a state machine model of each facility and its sensor suite. It analyzes the raw sensor data, converting and combining the inputs from many sensors into operator domain level information. It compares the resulting activities against a set of activities declared by an inspector or operator, and then presents the differences in a form comprehensible to an inspector. Although the current analysis engine was written with international nuclear material safeguards, nonproliferation, and transparency in mind, since there is no information about any particular facility in the software, there is no reason why it cannot be applied anywhere it is important to verify processes are occurring as expected, to detect intrusion into a secured area, or to detect the diversion of valuable assets

  10. Use of a microprocessor in a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    The instrument described measures the short-lived 222 Rn-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL) in sealed ''hot chambers'' located in uranium mines. Radiation-induced pulses from two separate sensors are transmitted through 500 ft. cables to a microprocessor, which processes the pulses and controls the operation of the system. A read-only memory stores a fixed program which is used to calculate the desired concentrations. The results are printed as pCi/l (Rn-daughter concentrations) and WL

  11. State level operations and interaction with facility level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials at the State level, particularly the role of the National Authority, in ensuring that both national and international safeguards objectives are met is discussed. The legislative basis for the National Authority is examined. The activities of Australia's National Authority - the Australian Safeguards Office - are described

  12. Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.

  13. Real-time imaging of spin-to-orbital angular momentum hybrid remote state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Manuel; Qassim, Hammam; Mand, Harjaspreet; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-08-01

    There exists two prominent methods to transfer information between two spatially separated parties, namely Alice (A) and Bob (B): quantum teleportation and remote state preparation. However, the difference between these methods is, in the teleportation scheme, the state to be transferred is completely unknown, whereas in state preparation it should be known to the sender. In addition, photonic state teleportation is probabilistic due to the impossibility of performing a two-particle complete Bell-state analysis with linear optics, while remote state preparation can be performed deterministically. Here we report the first realization of photonic hybrid remote state preparation from spin to orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom. In our scheme, the polarization state of photon A is transferred to orbital angular momentum of photon B. The prepared states are visualized in real time by means of an intensified CCD camera. The quality of the prepared states is verified by performing quantum state tomography, which confirms an average fidelity higher than 99.4%. We believe that this experiment paves the way towards a novel means of quantum communication in which encryption and decryption are carried out in naturally different Hilbert spaces, and therefore may provide a means for enhancing security.

  14. Robotics and remote handling concepts for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffee, Douglas; Raczka, Norman; Schwartztrauber, Keith

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary remote handling and robotic concepts being developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project. The DOE is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain Nevada site for suitability as a possible underground geologic repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The current advanced conceptual design calls for the disposal of more than 12,000 high level nuclear waste packages within a 225 km underground network of tunnels and emplacement drifts. Many of the waste packages may weigh as much as 66 tonnes and measure 1.8 m in diameter and 5.6 m long. The waste packages will emit significant levels of radiation and heat. Therefore, remote handling is a cornerstone of the repository design and operating concepts. This paper discusses potential applications areas for robotics and remote handling technologies within the subsurface repository. It also summarizes the findings of a preliminary technology survey which reviewed available robotic and remote handling technologies developed within the nuclear, mining, rail and industrial robotics and automation industries, and at national laboratories, universities, and related research institutions and government agencies

  15. Remote Patient Monitoring in IBD: Current State and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreja, Ashish; Otobo, Emamuzo; Ramireddy, Karthik; Deorocki, Allyssa

    2018-03-07

    Mobile apps are now increasingly used in conjunction with telemedicine and wearable devices to support remote patient monitoring (RPM). The goal of this paper is to review the available evidence and assess the scope of RPM integration into standard practices for care and management of chronic disease in general and, more specifically, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RPM has been associated with improvements in health outcomes and indicators across a broad range of chronic diseases. However, there is limited data on the effectiveness of RPM in IBD care. From the emerging literature and body of research, we found promising results about the feasibility of integrating RPM in IBD care and RPM's capacity to support IBD improvement in key process and outcome metrics. Concerns regarding privacy and provider acceptability have limited the mass integration of RPM to date. However, with the healthcare industry's move toward value-based population care and the advent of novel payment models for RPM reimbursement, the adoption of RPM into standard IBD care practices will likely increase as the technology continues to improve and become a mainstream tool for healthcare delivery in the near future.

  16. Competition among states: Case studies in the political role of remote sensing capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Audrey Ann

    International politics is a competitive realm. One of the most powerful modern advantages in this competitive world is the ownership of independent and autonomous remote sensing satellites. Few have this venue for competition and those that do belong to a very exclusive groups of states. Kenneth Waltz, author of Theory of International Politics, theorized that states emulate the innovations, strategies and practices of those countries with the greatest capability and ingenuity. As Waltz explains, states will emulate the leader in an anarchic realm to attain the same capabilities that helped the hegemon attain or maintain its status. Waltz referred to this as a tendency toward sameness of the competitors. Modern-day states that pursue global preeminence often exhibit exceptional risk-taking and significant technological innovation. They also challenge the recognized hegemon in an area of expertise and leadership. Realists would say that these states are emulating the behavior of the states they view as successful in order to maintain or improve their position in the world order. Realists also point out that strategic interests lead states to try to gain or at least neutralize those areas that, if controlled by an adversary, could menace them. Realist writers suggest that states will be reluctant to cede control of an important new technology to another state, even a friendly one, lest they find themselves permanently disadvantaged in an on-going contest for wealth, influence and even preeminence. The purpose of this research is to investigate if remote sensing capabilities are a venue of competition among modern states and one that they view as a potential path to global preeminence. Why do some states expend scarce resources to develop and maintain an indigenous remote sensing capability when it appears that they can acquire much of the end product from other sources at a reasonable cost? If this is true, it should be possible to confirm that states acquire end

  17. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea-viewing...... Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) is analysed. The presentation results include the computed principal components (PC) and the maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF). Both methods are expected to be incorporated into future analyses of the state of the ocean....

  18. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  19. Remote sensing of sea state through a Polaroid

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Saran, A.K.

    resolution of sea states. The proposed instrument can be mounted on an observation tower, aircraft or a satellite. The range of wind speeds that can be sensed by the proposed instrument is 0-60 knots....

  20. Hierarchically controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state by using a four-qubit |χ > entangled state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a scheme for Hierarchically controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit |χ > state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. It is shown that the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to recover sender's original state.

  1. Scaling Up: Kilolumen Solid-State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waqidi Falicoff

    2008-09-15

    This thirty-month project was successful in attaining its ambitious objectives of demonstrating a radically novel 'remote-phosphor' LED light source that can out-perform conventional conformal coated phosphor LED sources. Numerous technical challenges were met with innovative techniques and optical configurations. This product development program for a new generation of solid-state light sources has attained unprecedented luminosity (over 1 kilo-lumen) and efficacy (based on the criterion lumens per 100mw radiant blue). LPI has successfully demonstrated its proprietary technology for optical synthesis of large uniform sources out of the light output of an array of separated LEDs. Numerous multiple blue LEDs illuminate single a phosphor patch. By separating the LEDs from the phosphor, the phosphor and LEDs operate cooler and with higher efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions (from startup to steady state). Other benefits of the system include: better source uniformity, more types of phosphor can be used (chemical interaction and high temperatures are no longer an issue), and the phosphor can be made up from a pre-manufactured sheet (thereby lowering cost and complexity of phosphor deposition). Several laboratory prototypes were built and operated at the expected high performance level. The project fully explored two types of remote phosphor system: transmissive and reflective. The first was found to be well suited for a replacement for A19 type incandescent bulbs, as it was able to replicate the beam pattern of a traditional filament bulb. The second type has the advantages that it is pre-collimate source that has an adjustable color temperature. The project was divided in two phases: Phase I explored a transmissive design and Phase II of the project developed reflective architectures. Additionally, in Phase II the design of a spherical emitting transmissive remote phosphor bulb was developed that is suitable for replacement of A19 and

  2. Deterministic quantum state transfer between remote qubits in cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogell, B.; Vermersch, B.; Northup, T. E.; Lanyon, B. P.; Muschik, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Performing a faithful transfer of an unknown quantum state is a key challenge for enabling quantum networks. The realization of networks with a small number of quantum links is now actively pursued, which calls for an assessment of different state transfer methods to guide future design decisions. Here, we theoretically investigate quantum state transfer between two distant qubits, each in a cavity, connected by a waveguide, e.g., an optical fiber. We evaluate the achievable success probabilities of state transfer for two different protocols: standard wave packet shaping and adiabatic passage. The main loss sources are transmission losses in the waveguide and absorption losses in the cavities. While special cases studied in the literature indicate that adiabatic passages may be beneficial in this context, it remained an open question under which conditions this is the case and whether their use will be advantageous in practice. We answer these questions by providing a full analysis, showing that state transfer by adiabatic passage—in contrast to wave packet shaping—can mitigate the effects of undesired cavity losses, far beyond the regime of coupling to a single waveguide mode and the regime of lossless waveguides, as was proposed so far. Furthermore, we show that the photon arrival probability is in fact bounded in a trade-off between losses due to non-adiabaticity and due to coupling to off-resonant waveguide modes. We clarify that neither protocol can avoid transmission losses and discuss how the cavity parameters should be chosen to achieve an optimal state transfer.

  3. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  4. Human-factors-based implementation of the remote characterization system high-level control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.; Richardson, B.S.; Rowe, J.C.; Draper, J.V.; Sandness, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of the numerous US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Defense waste disposal sites. DOE, through its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics and Technology Development Program, has developed the Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurfacecharacterization. The RCS consists of a low-metal-content (low-metallic-signature) remotely piloted vehicle, a high-level control station (HLCS) where operators can remotely control the vehicle and analyze real-time data from sensors, and an array of sensors that can be chosen to meet the survey task at hand. Communication between the vehicle and the base station is handled by a radio link. Site mapping is made possible through the use of geopositioning satellite data. The primary mode of vehicle operation is teleoperation, but provision has been made for semiautonomous or supervisory control that allows for automated sitesurvey on simple sites. Data analysis and display is supported for both real-time observation and postprocessing of data. The particular emphasis of this paper documents the human-factors-based design influences on the HLCS and describes the design in detail

  5. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  6. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  7. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  8. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  9. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  10. Remote optimal state estimation over communication channels with random delays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.

    2014-01-22

    This paper considers the optimal estimation of linear systems over unreliable communication channels with random delays. In this work, it is assumed that the system to be estimated is far away from the filter. The observations of the system are capsulized without time stamp and then transmitted to the network node at which the filter is located. The probabilities of time delays are assumed to be known. The event-driven estimation scheme is applied in this paper and the estimate of the states is updated only at each time instant when any measurement arrives. To capture the feature of communication, the system considered is augmented, and the arrived measurements are regarded as the uncertain observations of the augmented system. The corresponding optimal estimation algorithm is proposed and additionally, a numerical simulation represents the performance of this work. © 2014 The authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  11. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  12. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  13. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  14. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2012-01-01

    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  15. Remote wind stress influence on mean sea level in a subtropical coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Calim Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of remote wind stress on mean sea level (MSL variations in the coastal region of Cananeia (Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil during the period from 1/1/1955 to 12/31/1993. An optimized low-pass Thompson filter for the study area, and spectral analysis (cross spectrum, coherence and phase lag of the relationship between the MSL and both parallel (T// and perpendicular (T| wind stress components were applied. These were extracted from four grid points of the NCEP/NCAR global model. The predominance of annual oscillations as those of greatest coherence and energy, of periods of approximately 341 days (frequency of 0.00293 cpd and 410 days (frequency of 0.00244 cpd, respectively, were observed. Offshore NCEP/NCAR grid points were those with the highest coherence and energy throughout the study in relation to the observed MSL. This may be linked to the restriction of the NCEP/NCAR model as regards the inland limit. It is also concluded that remote wind stress may play an important role in several MSL time scales, including the annual ones. Based on criteria such as coherence and energy peaks, the wind stress component of greatest effect on MSL was the parallel one.O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência relativa de tensão do vento remoto na variação do nível médio do mar (NMM para a região costeira de Cananéia (SP durante o período de 1/1/1955 a 31/12/1993. Foram aplicados um filtro de passa-baixa de Thompson (1983, otimizado para a região de Cananéia, além de análise espectral (espectro cruzado, coerência e defasagem entre o NMM e as componentes paralela (T// e perpendicular (T| da tensão do vento. Estas foram extraídas de quatro pontos de grade do modelo global NCEP/NCAR. Observou-se a predominância das oscilações anuais como aquelas de maior coerência e energia, destacando-se os períodos de aproximadamente 341 dias (frequência de 0,00293 cpd e 410

  16. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, David

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  17. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  18. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  19. Research on Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Zhu, G.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing image classification, as an important direction of remote sensing image processing and application, has been widely studied. However, in the process of existing classification algorithms, there still exists the phenomenon of misclassification and missing points, which leads to the final classification accuracy is not high. In this paper, we selected Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI images as data sources, and propose a classification method based on feature level fusion. Compare three kind of feature level fusion algorithms (i.e., Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, Principal Component Analysis transform and Brovey transform), and then select the best fused image for the classification experimental. In the classification process, we choose four kinds of image classification algorithms (i.e. Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, Support Vector Machine and ISODATA) to do contrast experiment. We use overall classification precision and Kappa coefficient as the classification accuracy evaluation criteria, and the four classification results of fused image are analysed. The experimental results show that the fusion effect of Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening is better than other methods. In four kinds of classification algorithms, the fused image has the best applicability to Support Vector Machine classification, the overall classification precision is 94.01 % and the Kappa coefficients is 0.91. The fused image with Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI is not only have more spatial information and spectral texture characteristics, but also enhances the distinguishing features of the images. The proposed method is beneficial to improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification.

  20. Generalized Remote Preparation of Arbitrary m-qubit Entangled States via Genuine Entanglements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a feasible, general protocol for quantum communication within a network via generalized remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qubit entangled state designed with genuine tripartite Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type entangled resources. During the implementations, we construct novel collective unitary operations; these operations are tasked with performing the necessary phase transfers during remote state preparations. We have distilled our implementation methods into a five-step procedure, which can be used to faithfully recover the desired state during transfer. Compared to previous existing schemes, our methodology features a greatly increased success probability. After the consumption of auxiliary qubits and the performance of collective unitary operations, the probability of successful state transfer is increased four-fold and eight-fold for arbitrary two- and three-qubit entanglements when compared to other methods within the literature, respectively. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the presented scheme for state preparation, including: success probabilities, reducibility and generalizability.

  1. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Emoto, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imazu, S.; Iwata, C.; Kogi, Y.; Kojima, M.; Komada, S.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Mase, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Mutoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nonomura, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room

  2. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: sudo@nifs.ac.jp; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Emoto, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakanishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Chikaraishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Imazu, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Iwata, C. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kojima, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazawa, J. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mutoh, T. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nonomura, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohsuna, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Saito, K. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room.

  3. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  4. Remote estimation of nitrogen and chlorophyll contents in maize at leaf and canopy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, M.; Gitelson, A.; Schepers, J.; Ferguson, R.; Peng, Y.; Shanahan, J.; Rundquist, D.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf and canopy nitrogen (N) status relates strongly to leaf and canopy chlorophyll (Chl) content. Remote sensing is a tool that has the potential to assess N content at leaf, plant, field, regional and global scales. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied to estimate N and Chl contents of irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) fertilized at five N rates. Leaf N and Chl contents were determined using the red-edge chlorophyll index with R2 of 0.74 and 0.94, respectively. Results showed that at the canopy level, Chl and N contents can be accurately retrieved using green and red-edge Chl indices using near infrared (780-800 nm) and either green (540-560 nm) or red-edge (730-750 nm) spectral bands. Spectral bands that were found optimal for Chl and N estimations coincide well with the red-edge band of the MSI sensor onboard the near future Sentinel-2 satellite. The coefficient of determination for the relationships between the red-edge chlorophyll index, simulated in Sentinel-2 bands, and Chl and N content was 0.90 and 0.87, respectively.

  5. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  6. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  8. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation of three atoms trapped in two remote cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanling; Fang Maofa; Xiao Xing; Zeng Ke; Wu Chao

    2010-01-01

    We consider a system composed of a single-atom-trapped cavity (A) and a remote two-atom-trapped cavity (B) which are connected by an optical fibre. It is shown that a shared Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of the three atoms can be deterministically generated by controlling the time of interaction or via the adiabatic passage based on this system. The influence of various decoherence processes such as spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity is also investigated. It is found that our schemes can be realized with high fidelity even when these decoherence processes are considered.

  9. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation of three atoms trapped in two remote cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yanling; Fang Maofa; Xiao Xing; Zeng Ke; Wu Chao, E-mail: mffang@hunnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, and College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-04-28

    We consider a system composed of a single-atom-trapped cavity (A) and a remote two-atom-trapped cavity (B) which are connected by an optical fibre. It is shown that a shared Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of the three atoms can be deterministically generated by controlling the time of interaction or via the adiabatic passage based on this system. The influence of various decoherence processes such as spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity is also investigated. It is found that our schemes can be realized with high fidelity even when these decoherence processes are considered.

  10. Quantum correlations responsible for remote state creation: strong and weak control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, S. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    We study the quantum correlations between the two remote qubits (sender and receiver) connected by the transmission line (homogeneous spin-1/2 chain) depending on the parameters of the sender's and receiver's initial states (control parameters). We consider two different measures of quantum correlations: the entanglement (a traditional measure) and the informational correlation (based on the parameter exchange between the sender and receiver). We find the domain in the control parameter space yielding (i) zero entanglement between the sender and receiver during the whole evolution period and (ii) non-vanishing informational correlation between the sender and receiver, thus showing that the informational correlation is responsible for the remote state creation. Among the control parameters, there are the strong parameters (which strongly effect the values of studied measures) and the weak ones (whose effect is negligible), therewith the eigenvalues of the initial state are given a privileged role. We also show that the problem of small entanglement (concurrence) in quantum information processing is similar (in certain sense) to the problem of small determinants in linear algebra. A particular model of 40-node spin-1/2 communication line is presented.

  11. Perfect controlled joint remote state preparation independent of entanglement degree of the quantum channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Nguyen Ba; Bich, Cao Thi

    2014-01-01

    We construct a quantum circuit to produce a task-oriented partially entangled state and use it as the quantum channel for controlled joint remote state preparation. Unlike most previous works, where the parameters of the quantum channel are given to the receiver who can accomplish the task only probabilistically by consuming auxiliary resource, operation and measurement, here we give them to the supervisor. Thanks to the knowledge of the task-oriented quantum channel parameters, the supervisor can carry out proper complete projective measurement, which, combined with the feed-forward technique adapted by the preparers, not only much economizes (simplifies) the receiver's resource (operation) but also yields unit total success probability. Notably, such apparent perfection does not depend on the entanglement degree of the shared quantum channel. Our protocol is within the reach of current quantum technologies. - Highlights: • Controlled joint remote state preparation is considered. • Quantum circuit is proposed to produce task-oriented partially entangled channel. • The quantum channel parameter is given to the supervisor (not to the receiver). • Unit success probability without additional resource/operations/measurement. • Perfection is achieved regardless of the shared entanglement degree

  12. An Alternative Approach of Coastal Sea-Level Observation from Remote Sensing Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. Y.; Tseng, K. H.; Chung-Yen, K.; Lin, T. H.; Liao, W. H.; Chen, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal sea level can be observed as waterline changes along a coastal digital elevation model (DEM). However, most global DEMs, such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM with 30 m resolution, provide limited coverage over coastal area due to the impermeability of radar signal over water and the lack of low-tide coincidence. Therefore, we aim to extend to coverage of SRTM DEM for the determination of intertidal zone and to monitor sea-level changes along the entire coastline of Taiwan (>1200km). We firstly collect historical cloud-free images since the 1980s, including Landsat series, SPOT series and Sentinel-2, and then calculate the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) to identify water pixels. After computing water appearance probability of each pixel, it is converted into actual elevation by introducing the DTU10 tide model for high tide and low tide boundaries. A coastal DEM of intertidal zone is reconstructed and the accuracy is at 50 cm level as compared with in situ DEM built by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Finally, we use this product to define the up-to-date intertidal zone and estimate sea-level changes by using remote sensing snapshots.

  13. State of the art of technologies for remote detection of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    , there is a need for cost-efficient operative methods that define the advantages and limitations of the remote gas detection techniques developed for specific gas applications. R and D to produce accurate, operative and cost-efficient remote gas detection technologies and methods are complicated and costly, and motivate international co-operation. In December 1997 an extended group of international researchers and gas producers and distributors were gathered at the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in the US to discuss and plan for mutual research activities within remote gas detection technologies. An agreement was made t o establish an international R and D group of scientists and end users with the aim to form a base of mutual exchange of experiences, provide information for research priorities,and to create mutual criteria for testing and evaluation of gas detection technologies. An international reference group and working group were formed, gas detection problems are defined, and project goals was established. A charter outline was written, and the working group was given the task to survey state-of-the-art of remote gas detection technologies for evaluation and prioritisation for future development of remote sensing of natural gas. According to project goal the survey is concentrated on methane gas, but the technologies and methods developed are expected to be useful for other gases as well, for instance biogas, with a lower methane content than natural gas, and petroleum-related hydrocarbons, etc. In 1998 a world-wide survey of state-of-the-art of remote gas detection technologies as performed by the international working group consisting of researchers and representatives from gas production and distribution companies. The survey is mainly limited to civilian research, but includes also military research. In this report is presented the outline and performance of the survey, the end users requests and performance criteria, results from the evaluation of technologies

  14. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  15. Remote maintenance demonstration tests at a pilot plant for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M.

    1984-01-01

    The remote maintenance and replacement technique designed for a radioactive vitrification plant have been developed and tested in a full scale handling mockup and in an inactive pilot plants by the Central Engineering Department of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. As a result of the development work and the tests it has been proved that the remote maintenance technique and remote handling equipment can be used without any technical problems and are suited for application in a radioactive waste vitrification plant

  16. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  17. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  18. Multiparty-controlled Joint Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary m-qudit State with d-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shu-Xin; Zhao, Zheng-Wei; Zhou, Ping

    2018-01-01

    We present a scheme for multiparty-controlled joint remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qudit state by using d-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states as the quantum channel. An arbitrary m-qudit state can be transmitted from two senders to a remote receiver in a quantum communication network under the controller's control. The senders perform m-qudit measurements according to their information of prepared state, the controllers only need perform single-particle projective measurements. The receiver can prepare the original state on his quantum system by performing corresponding unitary operation according the measurement results of the senders and controllers. It is shown that an arbitrary m-qudit state in general form can be controlled joint remote prepared if and only if the receiver cooperates with all the senders and controllers.

  19. Remote sensing based crop type mapping and evapotranspiration estimates at the farm level in arid regions of the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, M.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing scarcity of freshwater resources, there is dearth of spatially explicit information on irrigation water consumption through evapotranspiration, particularly in semi-arid and arid geographies. Remote sensing, either alone or in combination with ground surveys, is increasingly being used for irrigation water management by quantifying evaporative losses at the farm level. Increased availability of observations, sophisticated algorithms, and access to cloud-based computing is also helping this effort. This presentation will focus on crop-specific evapotranspiration estimates at the farm level derived from remote sensing in a number of water-scarce regions of the world. The work is part of a larger effort to quantify irrigation water use and improve use efficiencies associated with several World Bank projects. Examples will be drawn from India, where groundwater based irrigation withdrawals are monitored with the help of crop type mapping and evapotranspiration estimates from remote sensing. Another example will be provided from a northern irrigation district in Mexico, where remote sensing is used for detailed water accounting at the farm level. These locations exemplify the success stories in irrigation water management with the help of remote sensing with the hope that spatially disaggregated information on evapotranspiration can be used as inputs for various water management decisions as well as for better water allocation strategies in many other water scarce regions.

  20. Emerging solid-state laser technology by lidar/DIAL remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of new, solid-state laser sources. This talk will present an overview of some of the new developments in solid-state lasers, and their application toward lidar/DIAL measurements of the atmosphere. Newly emerging lasers such as Ho:YAG, Tm:YAG, OPO, and Ti:Sapphire will be covered, along with the spectroscopic parameters required for differential operational modes of atmospheric remote sensing including Doppler-Windshear lidar, Tunable laser detection of water/CO2, and broad linewidth OPO's for open path detection of pollutant hydrocarbon gases. Additional considerations of emerging laser technology for lidar/DIAL will also be covered.

  1. Proposal for a remote sensing trophic state index based upon Thematic Mapper/Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Márcia Leão de Moraes Novo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a trophic state index based on the remote sensing retrieval of chlorophyll-α concentration. For that, in situ Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF data acquired in the Ibitinga reservoir were resampled to match Landsat/TM spectral simulated bands (TM_sim bands and used to run linear correlation with concurrent measurements of chlorophyll-α concentration. Monte Carlo simulation was then applied to select the most suitable model relating chlorophyll-α concentration and simulated TM/Landsat reflectance. TM4_sim/TM3_sim ratio provided the best model with a R2 value of 0.78. The model was then inverted to create a look-up-table (LUT relating TM4_sim/TM3_sim ratio intervals to chlorophyll-α concentration trophic state classes covering the entire range measured in the reservoir. Atmospheric corrected Landsat TM images converted to surface reflectance were then used to generate a TM4/TM3 ratio image. The ratio image frequency distribution encompassed the range of TM4_sim/TM3_sim ratio indicating agreement between in situ and satellite data and supporting the use of satellite data to map chlorophyll- concentration trophic state distribution in the reservoir. Based on that, the LUT was applied to a Landsat/TM ratio image to map the spatial distribution of chlorophyll- trophic state classes in Ibitinga reservoir. Despite the stochastic selection of TM4_sim/TM3_sim ratio as the best input variable for modeling the chlorophyll-α concentration, it has a physical basis: high concentration of phytoplankton increases the reflectance in the near-infrared (TM4 and decreases the reflectance in the red (TM3. The band ratio, therefore, enhances the relationship between chlorophyll- concentration and remotely sensed reflectance.

  2. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  3. Mapping Entomological Dengue Risk Levels in Martinique Using High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Environmental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Machault

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling dengue virus transmission mainly involves integrated vector management. Risk maps at appropriate scales can provide valuable information for assessing entomological risk levels. Here, results from a spatio-temporal model of dwellings potentially harboring Aedes aegypti larvae from 2009 to 2011 in Tartane (Martinique, French Antilles using high spatial resolution remote-sensing environmental data and field entomological and meteorological information are presented. This tele-epidemiology methodology allows monitoring the dynamics of diseases closely related to weather/climate and environment variability. A Geoeye-1 image was processed to extract landscape elements that could surrogate societal or biological information related to the life cycle of Aedes vectors. These elements were subsequently included into statistical models with random effect. Various environmental and meteorological conditions have indeed been identified as risk/protective factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti immature stages in dwellings at a given date. These conditions were used to produce dynamic high spatio-temporal resolution maps from the presence of most containers harboring larvae. The produced risk maps are examples of modeled entomological maps at the housing level with daily temporal resolution. This finding is an important contribution to the development of targeted operational control systems for dengue and other vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, which is also present in Martinique.

  4. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjiao; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wu, Ling

    2018-03-14

    Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT), which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST) model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  5. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Liping; Zheng, Gene J.; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W.; Yan, Xulin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wong, Ming H.

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes

  6. Remote maintenance techniques in the furnace cell of a high level waste vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M.

    1983-01-01

    Remote controlled maintenance and changing techniques for the furnace of a vitrification plant for radioactive waste was developed and tested on a 1:1 model. The model was fitted out with imitation main components, remote control equipment, lead-ins and the complete tubing so that the trials could be carried out in a manner replicating as closely as possible the situation found under operating conditions. The development of remote-handled tube cable connectors, tube cable jumpers and plugs and sockets was an important aspect of the developmental programme. (orig.) [de

  7. Remote monitoring of implantable cardiac devices: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Raj; Enriquez, Alan D; Freeman, James V

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated substantial benefits associated with remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), and treatment guidelines have endorsed the use of remote monitoring. Familiarity with the features of remote monitoring systems and the data supporting its use are vital for physicians' care for patients with CEIDs. Remote monitoring remains underutilized, but its use is expanding including in new practice settings including emergency departments. Patient experience and outcomes are positive, with earlier detection of clinical events such as atrial fibrillation, reductions in inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and potentially a decrease in mortality with frequent remote monitoring utilizaiton. Rates of hospitalization are reduced among remote monitoring users, and the replacement of outpatient follow-up visits with remote monitoring transmissions has been shown to be well tolerated. In addition, health resource utilization is lower and remote monitoring has been associated with considerable cost savings. A dose relationship exists between use of remote monitoring and patient outcomes, and those with early and high transmission rates have superior outcomes. Remote monitoring provides clinicians with the ability to provide comprehensive follow-up care for patients with CIEDs. Patient outcomes are improved, and resource utilization is decreased with appropriate use of remote monitoring. Future efforts must focus on improving the utilization and efficiency of remote monitoring.

  8. The Application of Remote Sensing Data to GIS Studies of Land Use, Land Cover, and Vegetation Mapping in the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    A land cover-vegetation map with a base classification system for remote sensing use in a tropical island environment was produced of the island of Hawaii for the State of Hawaii to evaluate whether or not useful land cover information can be derived from Landsat TM data. In addition, an island-wide change detection mosaic combining a previously created 1977 MSS land classification with the TM-based classification was produced. In order to reach the goal of transferring remote sensing technology to State of Hawaii personnel, a pilot project was conducted while training State of Hawaii personnel in remote sensing technology and classification systems. Spectral characteristics of young island land cover types were compared to determine if there are differences in vegetation types on lava, vegetation types on soils, and barren lava from soils, and if they can be detected remotely, based on differences in pigments detecting plant physiognomic type, health, stress at senescence, heat, moisture level, and biomass. Geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assist in image rectification and classification. GIS was also used to produce large-format color output maps. An interactive GIS program was written to provide on-line access to scanned photos taken at field sites. The pilot project found Landsat TM to be a credible source of land cover information for geologically young islands, and TM data bands are effective in detecting spectral characteristics of different land cover types through remote sensing. Large agriculture field patterns were resolved and mapped successfully from wildland vegetation, but small agriculture field patterns were not. Additional processing was required to work with the four TM scenes from two separate orbits which span three years, including El Nino and drought dates. Results of the project emphasized the need for further land cover and land use processing and research. Change in vegetation

  9. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  10. Remote sensing-based characterization of rainfall during atmospheric rivers over the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Munir A.; Villarini, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a central role in the hydrology and hydroclimatology of the central United States. More than 25% of the annual rainfall is associated with ARs over much of this region, with many large flood events tied to their occurrence. Despite the relevance of these storms for flood hydrology and water budget, the characteristics of rainfall associated with ARs over the central United has not been investigated thus far. This study fills this major scientific gap by describing the rainfall during ARs over the central United States using five remote sensing-based precipitation products over a 12-year study period. The products we consider are: Stage IV, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, both real-time and research version); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN); the CPC MORPHing Technique (CMORPH). As part of the study, we evaluate these products against a rain gauge-based dataset using both graphical- and metrics-based diagnostics. Based on our analyses, Stage IV is found to better reproduce the reference data. Hence, we use it for the characterization of rainfall in ARs. Most of the AR-rainfall is located in a narrow region within ∼150 km on both sides of the AR major axis. In this region, rainfall has a pronounced positive relationship with the magnitude of the water vapor transport. Moreover, we have also identified a consistent increase in rainfall intensity with duration (or persistence) of AR conditions. However, there is not a strong indication of diurnal variability in AR rainfall. These results can be directly used in developing flood protection strategies during ARs. Further, weather prediction agencies can benefit from the results of this study to achieve higher skill of resolving precipitation processes in their models.

  11. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Remote Sensing Reflectance at 671 nm, 8 Day, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Remote sensing reflectance (671 nm) data from the NPP-suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  12. The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.

  13. CROWN-LEVEL TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION USING INTEGRATED AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL AND LIDAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1 A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM derived from LiDAR data; 2 The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3 Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4 The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90 performed better than Li

  14. Crown-Level Tree Species Classification Using Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and LIDAR Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Bao, H.; Ni, Y.; Ma, L.; Jin, J.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1) A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM) derived from LiDAR data; 2) The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3) Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4) The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90) performed better than LiDAR-metrics method (OA = 79

  15. State Level Intelligence Doctrine: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Reporting (UCR) data and field groups to reduce gun violence and other similar case studies on UCR data and response to that information to shift police...examples like the Massachusetts state police using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) data and field groups to reduce gun violence and other similar case...implementation. Using additional genres and fields of study in academia to conduct comparative analysis would also give practitioners as well as

  16. State and outlooks of remote handling and automation techniques use for industrial radioactive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, R.; Le Guennec, R.; Dumond, S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling in reactors mainly concerns charging and discharging operations and inspection. Specific means are being developed for each operation, with an increasing degree of automation. This serves to reduce exposure of personnel. However, the development of these means conflicts in certain cases with the original plant design, which did not provide for remote maintenance. With regard to fuel reprocessing, handling at the processing level is becoming increasingly automated. The difficulties lie principally in maintenance and waste conditioning operations. These involve less specialized means than is the case with reactors and can only be automated to a limited extent, save in exceptional cases. The greatest progress will be achieved by laying down stringent maintenance principles and taking them into consideration at the design stage

  17. 77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2012-N-13] State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal... guarantee fee pricing by state. FHFA's proposal described here would adjust the upfront fees that the... final state-level guarantee fee pricing method, FHFA expects to direct the Enterprises to implement the...

  18. Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR = 1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

  19. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  20. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  1. Use of remote video auditing to validate Ebola level II personal protective equipment competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Peter J; Frank-Cooper, Madalyn

    2015-06-01

    Faced with an Ebola-related mandate to regularly train frontline hospital staff with the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment, a community hospital's emergency department implemented remote video auditing (RVA) to assist in the training and remediation of its nursing staff. RVA was found to be useful in assessing performance and facilitating remediation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Remote sensing procurement package: A technical guide for state and local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The guide provides the tools and techniques for procuring remote sensing products and services. It is written for administrators, procurement officials and line agency staff who are directly involved in identifying information needs; defining remote sensing project requirements; soliciting and evaluating contract responses and negotiating, awarding, and administering contracts.

  3. Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states

  4. Progress in evolving the state-level concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency has launched an important and ambitious project to further develop and implement the State-level concept. It means the development of State-level approaches that are customized for an individual State, meeting State-specific objectives. Further development of the State-level concept requires: 1) expanded use of State-specific factors and implementation of a structured acquisition path analysis to establish State-specific technical objectives and then prioritize them; 2) development of State-level approaches that specify and provide options for safeguards measures, both at Headquarters and in the field, for meeting these technical objectives; 3) identification of activities to be conducted over the course of a year in an annual implementation plan (AIP); and 4) ensuring the linkage between the State-evaluation process and the development and implementation of State-level approaches and AIPs. This project for evolving the State-level concept will result in safeguards implementation that is more objectives-based and information-driven. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  5. A Changing Number of Alternative States in the Boreal Biome: Reproducibility Risks of Replacing Remote Sensing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Hirota, Marina; Chapin, F Stuart; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-01-01

    Publicly available remote sensing products have boosted science in many ways. The openness of these data sources suggests high reproducibility. However, as we show here, results may be specific to versions of the data products that can become unavailable as new versions are posted. We focus on remotely-sensed tree cover. Recent studies have used this public resource to detect multi-modality in tree cover in the tropical and boreal biomes. Such patterns suggest alternative stable states separated by critical tipping points. This has important implications for the potential response of these ecosystems to global climate change. For the boreal region, four distinct ecosystem states (i.e., treeless, sparse and dense woodland, and boreal forest) were previously identified by using the Collection 3 data of MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF). Since then, the MODIS VCF product has been updated to Collection 5; and a Landsat VCF product of global tree cover at a fine spatial resolution of 30 meters has been developed. Here we compare these different remote-sensing products of tree cover to show that identification of alternative stable states in the boreal biome partly depends on the data source used. The updated MODIS data and the newer Landsat data consistently demonstrate three distinct modes around similar tree-cover values. Our analysis suggests that the boreal region has three modes: one sparsely vegetated state (treeless), one distinct 'savanna-like' state and one forest state, which could be alternative stable states. Our analysis illustrates that qualitative outcomes of studies may change fundamentally as new versions of remote sensing products are used. Scientific reproducibility thus requires that old versions remain publicly available.

  6. REMOTE DIAGNOSTICS OF TURNOUTS STATE ON TIMING AND SPECTRAL COMPOSITION IN CURRENT CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and implementation the points system diagnostics that would allow determining remotely the current state of turnout with all possible faults, gradual and sudden failures, damages, and in real time to report about their appearance. Methodology. State diagnostics on the values analysis of turnout main parameters is proposed to carry out with the help of a computer and analog-to-digital converter (ADC. Connecting measurements performance is advisable to produce to a shunt ammeter, installed in the working circuit of the point feed panel. ADC converts the analog signal of lost volts at the shunt into digital form and transmits it to a computer which stores the received data on its own recording medium for their further processing and storage. There is special software that is capable to reconnect signal and construct its temporal characteristic as well as decompose it on the spectral components. Using it one can analyze the obtained data, which allows diagnosing state of points upon change the nature, values and composition of the current curve. Findings. The computer diagnosis method was confirmed in practice for possible indications of problems that are associated with both the mechanical part of the turnout and the electrical part of it, while controlling parameters such as the amount of current normal transition, when working on frictions, the duration of the transition, properly adjusted headset and attachment points, the state of the motor. Originality. The use of computer technology in the diagnosis of the state of turnouts during their operation to monitor the current values of technical indicators, analysis and storage for all types of electric switches with different types of engines both DC and AC occurs through digitization and recording signal from measuring shunt of point feeder panel. Practical value. The proposed method enables timely, still in the early stages of defect parts, damages or failures of nodes

  7. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  8. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  9. Research on maximum level noise contaminated of remote reference magnetotelluric measurements using synthesized data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Zhang; Fansong, Meng; Jianzhong, Wang; Mingtao, Ding

    2018-02-01

    Determining magnetotelluric impedance precisely and accurately is fundamental to valid inversion and geological interpretation. This study aims to determine the minimum value of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which maintains the effectiveness of remote reference technique. Results of standard time series simulation, addition of different Gaussian noises to obtain the different SNR time series, and analysis of the intermediate data, such as polarization direction, correlation coefficient, and impedance tensor, show that when the SNR value is larger than 23.5743, the polarization direction disorder at morphology and a smooth and accurate sounding carve value can be obtained. At this condition, the correlation coefficient value of nearly complete segments between the base and remote station is larger than 0.9, and impedance tensor Zxy presents only one aggregation, which meet the natural magnetotelluric signal characteristic.

  10. Combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Anmin

    2007-01-01

    We propose and prove protocols of combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations belonging to the restricted sets [A. M. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)] using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We present the protocols in detail in the cases of one qubit, with two senders and with one controller, respectively. Then we study the variations of protocols with many senders, or with many controllers, or with both many senders and controllers using a multipartite GHZ state. Furthermore, we extend these protocols to the cases of multiqubits. Because our protocols have to request that the senders work together and transfer the information in turn or receive the repertoire of extra supercontrollers, or/and the controller(s) open the quantum channel and distribute the passwords in different ways, they definitely have the strong security in remote quantum information processing and communications. Moreover, the combined protocol with many senders is helpful to arrive at the power of remote implementations of quantum operations to the utmost extent in theory, since the different senders may have different operational resources and different operational rights in practice, and the controlled protocol with many controllers is able to enhance security and increase applications of remote implementations of quantum operations in engineering, since it has some common features in a controlled process

  11. Defeating the Islamic State at Three Levels of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defeating the Islamic State at Three Levels of War 5a...ABSTRACT The Islamic State (IS) continues to be weakened at the operational level in Syria and Iraq. To remain legitimate, the insurgency is shifting...paper concludes with recommendations to aid planners in developing a concept to achieve the President’s desired end state. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Islamic

  12. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities

  13. Theme issue ;State-of-the-art in photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipke, Christian; Madden, Marguerite; Li, Zhilin; Dowman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Over the past few years, photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science have witnessed great changes in virtually every stage of information from imagery. Indeed, we have seen, for example, a sharply increased interest in unmanned aerial vehicles,

  14. From Remotely Sensed Vegetation Onset to Sowing Dates: Aggregating Pixel-Level Detections into Village-Level Sowing Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marinho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the start of the crop season in Sahel provides decision makers with valuable information for an early assessment of potential production and food security threats. Presently, the most common method for the estimation of sowing dates in West African countries consists of applying given thresholds on rainfall estimations. However, the coarse spatial resolution and the possible inaccuracy of these estimations are limiting factors. In this context, the remote sensing approach, which consists of deriving green-up onset dates from satellite remote sensing data, appears as an interesting alternative. It builds upon a novel statistic model that translates vegetation onset detections derived from MODIS time series into sowing probabilities at the village level. Results for Niger show that this approach outperforms the standard method adopted in the region based on rainfall thresholds.

  15. Remote sensing of forest insect disturbances: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senf, Cornelius; Seidl, Rupert; Hostert, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Insect disturbance are important agents of change in forest ecosystems around the globe, yet their spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics are not well understood. Remote sensing has gained much attention in mapping and understanding insect outbreak dynamics. Consequently, we here review the current literature on the remote sensing of insect disturbances. We suggest to group studies into three insect types: bark beetles, broadleaved defoliators, and coniferous defoliators. By so doing, we systematically compare the sensors and methods used for mapping insect disturbances within and across insect types. Results suggest that there are substantial differences between methods used for mapping bark beetles and defoliators, and between methods used for mapping broadleaved and coniferous defoliators. Following from this, we highlight approaches that are particularly suited for each insect type. Finally, we conclude by highlighting future research directions for remote sensing of insect disturbances. In particular, we suggest to: 1) Separate insect disturbances from other agents; 2) Extend the spatial and temporal domain of analysis; 3) Make use of dense time series; 4) Operationalize near-real time monitoring of insect disturbances; 5) Identify insect disturbances in the context of coupled human-natural systems; and 6) Improve reference data for assessing insect disturbances. Since the remote sensing of insect disturbances has gained much interest beyond the remote sensing community recently, the future developments identified here will help integrating remote sensing products into operational forest management. Furthermore, an improved spatiotemporal quantification of insect disturbances will support an inclusion of these processes into regional to global ecosystem models.

  16. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  17. State-level emergency preparedness and response capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharon M; Perrotta, Dennis M; Stanbury, Martha; Heumann, Michael; Anderson, Henry; Simms, Erin; Huang, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Prior assessments of public health readiness had identified gaps in radiation preparedness. In recent years, preparedness planning has involved an "all-hazards" approach. Current assessment of the national status related to radiation public health emergency preparedness capabilities at the state and local health department levels was needed. A survey of state health departments related to radiation readiness was undertaken in 2010 by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). States with nuclear power plants were instructed to consider their responses exclusive of capabilities and resources related to the plants given that the emergency response plans for nuclear power plants are specific and unique. Thirty-eight (76%) state health departments responded to the survey, including 26 of the 31 states with nuclear power plants. Specific strengths noted at the state level included that the majority of states had a written radiation response plan and most plans include a detailed section for communications issues during a radiation emergency. In addition, more than half of the states indicated that their relationship with federal partners is sufficient to provide resources for radiation emergencies, indicating the importance states placed on federal resources and expertise. Specific weaknesses are discussed and include that most states had completed little to no planning for public health surveillance to assess potential human health impacts of a radiation event; less than half had written plans to address exposure assessment, environmental sampling, human specimen collection and analysis, and human health assessment. Few reported having sufficient resources to do public health surveillance, radiation exposure assessment, laboratory functions and other capabilities. Levels of planning, resources and partnerships varied among states, those with nuclear power plants were better prepared. Gaps were evident in all states; however and additional training and

  18. Mapping land water and energy balance relations through conditional sampling of remote sensing estimates of atmospheric forcing and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Leila; Entekhabi, Dara; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop and apply a mapping estimation capability for key unknown parameters that link the surface water and energy balance equations. The method is applied to the Gourma region in West Africa. The accuracy of the estimation method at point scale was previously examined using flux tower data. In this study, the capability is scaled to be applicable with remotely sensed data products and hence allow mapping. Parameters of the system are estimated through a process that links atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface states, and unknown parameters. Based on conditional averaging of land surface temperature and moisture states, respectively, a single objective function is posed that measures moisture and temperature-dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings and surface states. This objective function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify evapotranspiration and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function, which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. This calibration-free method is applied to the mesoscale region of Gourma in West Africa using multiplatform remote sensing data. The retrievals are verified against tower-flux field site data and physiographic characteristics of the region. The focus is to find the functional form of the evaporative fraction dependence on soil moisture, a key closure function for surface and subsurface heat and moisture dynamics, using remote sensing data.

  19. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  20. Natural dose level determination at Johor State with thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Yusof Jasman

    1995-01-01

    This paperwork presented the results of using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method in measuring background dose level, which is done at State of Johor, South Malaysia. The problems faced also discussed

  1. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level..., language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with Part C of the Act to children with disabilities who are...

  2. Effect of quantum noise on deterministic remote state preparation of an arbitrary two-particle state via various quantum entangled channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Wu, Shengyao; Wang, Mingming; Sun, Le; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-12-01

    As one of important research branches of quantum communication, deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) plays a significant role in quantum network. Quantum noises are prevalent in quantum communication, and it can seriously affect the safety and reliability of quantum communication system. In this paper, we study the effect of quantum noise on deterministic remote state preparation of an arbitrary two-particle state via different quantum channels including the χ state, Brown state and GHZ state. Firstly, the output states and fidelities of three DRSP algorithms via different quantum entangled channels in four noisy environments, including amplitude-damping, phase-damping, bit-flip and depolarizing noise, are presented, respectively. And then, the effects of noises on three kinds of preparation algorithms in the same noisy environment are discussed. In final, the theoretical analysis proves that the effect of noise in the process of quantum state preparation is only related to the noise type and the size of noise factor and independent of the different entangled quantum channels. Furthermore, another important conclusion is given that the effect of noise is also independent of how to distribute intermediate particles for implementing DRSP through quantum measurement during the concrete preparation process. These conclusions will be very helpful for improving the efficiency and safety of quantum communication in a noisy environment.

  3. Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.

  4. Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna

    2016-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States.

  5. Effect of vibrational states on nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2007-01-01

    Simple methods to calculate a vibrational enhancement factor of a nuclear level density with allowance for damping of collective state are considered. The results of the phenomenological approach and the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model are compared. The practical method of calculation of a vibrational enhancement factor and level density parameters is recommended

  6. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  7. Advances in regional crop yield estimation over the United States using satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. M.; Dorn, M. F.; Crawford, C.

    2015-12-01

    Since the dawn of earth observation imagery, particularly from systems like Landsat and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, there has been an overarching desire to regionally estimate crop production remotely. Research efforts integrating space-based imagery into yield models to achieve this need have indeed paralleled these systems through the years, yet development of a truly useful crop production monitoring system has been arguably mediocre in coming. As a result, relatively few organizations have yet to operationalize the concept, and this is most acute in regions of the globe where there are not even alternative sources of crop production data being collected. However, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has continued to push for this type of data source as a means to complement its long-standing, traditional crop production survey efforts which are financially costly to the government and create undue respondent burden on farmers. Corn and soybeans, the two largest field crops in the United States, have been the focus of satellite-based production monitoring by NASS for the past decade. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been seen as the most pragmatic input source for modeling yields primarily based on its daily revisit capabilities and reasonable ground sample resolution. The research methods presented here will be broad but provides a summary of what is useful and adoptable with satellite imagery in terms of crop yield estimation. Corn and soybeans will be of particular focus but other major staple crops like wheat and rice will also be presented. NASS will demonstrate that while MODIS provides a slew of vegetation related products, the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is still ideal. Results using land surface temperature products, also generated from MODIS, will also be shown. Beyond the MODIS data itself, NASS research has also focused efforts on understanding a

  8. Public Health Applications of Remotely-sensed Environmental Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Marice Jr; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina

    2013-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision-making using NASA remotely-sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Incoming Solar Radiation (Insolation) and heat-related products using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and the results of the public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision-making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer-reviewed publications respectively. The linkage of these data with the CDC WONDER system substantially expands public access to NASA data, making their use by a wide range of decision makers feasible. By successful

  9. State-level Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Finkelstein, Eric A; Fiebelkorn, Ian C

    2009-07-01

    Medicaid recipients are disproportionately affected by tobacco-related disease because their smoking prevalence is approximately 53% greater than that of the overall US adult population. This study estimates state-level smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures. We used state-level and national data and a 4-part econometric model to estimate the fraction of each state's Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking. These fractions were multiplied by state-level Medicaid expenditure estimates obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to estimate smoking-attributable expenditures. The smoking-attributable fraction for all states was 11.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-17.0%). Medicaid smoking-attributable expenditures ranged from $40 million (Wyoming) to $3.3 billion (New York) in 2004 and totaled $22 billion nationwide. Cigarette smoking accounts for a sizeable share of annual state Medicaid expenditures. To reduce smoking prevalence among recipients and the growth rate in smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures, state health departments and state health plans such as Medicaid are encouraged to provide free or low-cost access to smoking cessation counseling and medication.

  10. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Chantell L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pilat, Joseph F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  11. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation.

  12. Combining remote sensing and water-balance evapotranspiration estimates for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Senay, Gabriel; Sanford, Ward E.

    2017-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, accounting for ~70% of precipitation in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), but it has been a challenge to predict accurately across different spatio-temporal scales. The increasing availability of remotely sensed data has led to significant advances in the frequency and spatial resolution of ET estimates, derived from energy balance principles with variables such as temperature used to estimate surface latent heat flux. Although remote sensing methods excel at depicting spatial and temporal variability, estimation of ET independently of other water budget components can lead to inconsistency with other budget terms. Methods that rely on ground-based data better constrain long-term ET, but are unable to provide the same temporal resolution. Here we combine long-term ET estimates from a water-balance approach with the SSEBop (operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance) remote sensing-based ET product for 2000–2015. We test the new combined method, the original SSEBop product, and another remote sensing ET product (MOD16) against monthly measurements from 119 flux towers. The new product showed advantages especially in non-irrigated areas where the new method showed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.44, compared to 0.41 for SSEBop or 0.35 for MOD16. The resulting monthly data set will be a useful, unique contribution to ET estimation, due to its combination of remote sensing-based variability and ground-based long-term water balance constraints.

  13. Evolution of superpositions of quantum states through a level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) model is widely used for estimating transition probabilities in the presence of crossing energy levels in quantum physics. This model, however, makes the unphysical assumption of an infinitely long constant interaction, which introduces a divergent phase in the propagator. This divergence remains hidden when estimating output probabilities for a single input state insofar as the divergent phase cancels out. In this paper we show that, because of this divergent phase, the LZSM model is inadequate to describe the evolution of pure or mixed superposition states across a level crossing. The LZSM model can be used only if the system is initially in a single state or in a completely mixed superposition state. To this end, we show that the more realistic Demkov-Kunike model, which assumes a hyperbolic-tangent level crossing and a hyperbolic-secant interaction envelope, is free of divergences and is a much more adequate tool for describing the evolution through a level crossing for an arbitrary input state. For multiple crossing energies which are reducible to one or more effective two-state systems (e.g., by the Majorana and Morris-Shore decompositions), similar conclusions apply: the LZSM model does not produce definite values of the populations and the coherences, and one should use the Demkov-Kunike model instead.

  14. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free, Christopher M.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Mason, Sherri A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Williamson, Nicholas J.; Boldgiv, Bazartseren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantified pelagic microplastic pollution in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. • Lake Hovsgol is more polluted with microplastics than Lakes Huron and Superior. • Microplastics came from consumer goods; no microbeads/few pellets were observed. • Microplastics were sourced from population centers and distributed by the winds. • Without waste management, even small populations can heavily pollute large lakes. - Abstract: Despite the large and growing literature on microplastics in the ocean, little information exists on microplastics in freshwater systems. This study is the first to evaluate the abundance, distribution, and composition of pelagic microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. We quantified pelagic microplastics and shoreline anthropogenic debris in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. With an average microplastic density of 20,264 particles km −2 , Lake Hovsgol is more heavily polluted with microplastics than the more developed Lakes Huron and Superior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fragments and films were the most abundant microplastic types; no plastic microbeads and few pellets were observed. Household plastics dominated the shoreline debris and were comprised largely of plastic bottles, fishing gear, and bags. Microplastic density decreased with distance from the southwestern shore, the most populated and accessible section of the park, and was distributed by the prevailing winds. These results demonstrate that without proper waste management, low-density populations can heavily pollute freshwater systems with consumer plastics

  15. Localized-to-extended-states transition below the Fermi level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, M. A.; Pusep, Yu. A.

    2018-05-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence is employed to examine a transition from localized to extended electron states below the Fermi level in multiple narrow quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, where disorder was generated by interface roughness. Such a transition resembles the metal-insulator transition profoundly investigated by electric transport measurements. An important distinction distinguishes the localized-to-extended-states transition studied here: it takes place below the Fermi level in an electron system with a constant concentration, which implies unchanging Coulomb correlations. Moreover, for such a localized-to-extended-states transition the temperature is shown to be irrelevant. In the insulating regime the magnetic field was found to cause an additional momentum relaxation which considerably enhanced the recombination rate. Thus, we propose a method to explore the evolution of the localized electron states in a system with a fixed disorder and Coulomb interaction.

  16. Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit C, Dr Brijesh

    2007-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing economic and policy factors impinging upon population stabilization measures at the district (sub-state level) in India. It reflects upon popularly debated notions, namely, that development is the best contraceptive or whether contraceptive is the best development. In order to reflect upon this notion, we hypothesize that the factors determining the success of population stabilization measures are likely to be different across rich and poor states. It is more likel...

  17. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  18. Using multi-level remote sensing and ground data to estimate forest biomass resources in remote regions: a case study in the boreal forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Strunk Jacob; Hailemariam Temesgen; Donald Atwood; Ken Winterberger

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of a new generation of remote sensing and geopositioning technologies, as well as increased capabilities in image processing, computing, and inferential techniques, have enabled the development and implementation of increasingly efficient and cost-effective multilevel sampling designs for forest inventory. In this paper, we (i) describe the conceptual...

  19. Global Operational Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration System for Water Resources Management: Case Study for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Magnuson, M.; John, L.

    2017-12-01

    An operational system to produce and disseminate remotely sensed evapotranspiration using the PT-JPL model and support its analysis and use in water resources decision making is being integrated into the New Mexico state government. A partnership between the NASA Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE) has enabled collaboration with a variety of state agencies to inform decision making processes for agriculture, rangeland, and forest management. This system improves drought understanding and mobilization, litigation support, and economic, municipal, and ground-water planning through interactive mapping of daily rates of evapotranspiration at 1 km spatial resolution with near real-time latency. This is facilitated by daily remote sensing acquisitions of land-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature and humidity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the Terra satellite as well as the short-term composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and albedo provided by MODIS. Incorporating evapotranspiration data into agricultural water management better characterizes imbalances between water requirements and supplies. Monitoring evapotranspiration over rangeland areas improves remediation and prevention of aridification. Monitoring forest evapotranspiration improves wildlife management and response to wildfire risk. Continued implementation of this decision support system should enhance water and food security.

  20. State and level densities for 23<=A<=40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.

    1975-01-01

    State and level density parameters are deduced for nuclei in the mass range 23<=A<=40 by combining low energy experimental data with high energy numerical calculations. Low energy experimental information is obtained from direct level counting, s and p-wave neutron resonance measurements, charged particle resonance measurements and stripping and pickup reaction data. Numerical calculations are performed for excitation energies of from 45 to 50 MeV using realistic single particle energies deduced from experimental data. (author)

  1. Remote and continuous gamma spectrometry for environmental radiation protection: state of the art technology and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Put, Ph.; Lellis, C.; Debauche, A.; Lacroix, J-P.

    2004-01-01

    The instruments technologies for radiological protection of the environment have been considerably enhanced since the last 20 years. From very simple warning bells in the early 80s, the instruments have been sophisticated nowadays to a degree where their performances can be compared to the performances achieved in low level laboratories. This presentation will briefly overview the evolution of these instruments by comparing their technology, their methodology and their performances. Next, it will present the concepts of the state of the art technology in the field of continuous monitoring of the environment. A discussion will follow on the performances and the limitations of this technology. Finally, the presentation will highlight the future perspective of developments by taking into account recent progress in the field of radiation detectors, telecommunication and computer sciences among others. (authors)

  2. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  3. Remote Sensing of Wildland Fire-Induced Risk Assessment at the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M Razu; Rahaman, Khan Rubayet; Hassan, Quazi K

    2018-05-15

    Wildland fires are some of the critical natural hazards that pose a significant threat to the communities located in the vicinity of forested/vegetated areas. In this paper, our overall objective was to study the structural damages due to the 2016 Horse River Fire (HRF) that happened in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) by employing primarily very high spatial resolution optical satellite data, i.e., WorldView-2. Thus, our activities included the: (i) estimation of the structural damages; and (ii) delineation of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and its associated buffers at certain intervals, and their utilization in assessing potential risks. Our proposed method of remote sensing-based estimates of the number of structural damages was compared with the ground-based information available from the Planning and Development Recovery Committee Task Force of Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB); and found a strong linear relationship (i.e., r² value of 0.97 with a slope of 0.97). Upon delineating the WUI and its associated buffer zones at 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, 70 m and 100 m distances; we found existence of vegetation within the 30 m buffers from the WUI for all of the damaged structures. In addition, we noticed that the relevant authorities had removed vegetation in some areas between 30 m and 70 m buffers from the WUI, which was proven to be effective in order to protect the structures in the adjacent communities. Furthermore, we mapped the wildland fire-induced vulnerable areas upon considering the WUI and its associated buffers. Our analysis revealed that approximately 30% of the areas within the buffer zones of 10 m and 30 m were vulnerable due to the presence of vegetation; in which, approximately 7% were burned during the 2016 HRF event that led the structural damages. Consequently, we suggest to remove the existing vegetation within these critical zones and also monitor the region at a regular interval in order to reduce the wildland fire-induced risk.

  4. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  5. State-Level Workshops on Ethanol for Transportation: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding four state-level workshops (Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, California) to facilitate development of ethanol production facilities in those states. In 2002/2003, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BBI International conducted state-level workshops ethanol in Hawaii, Nevada, Kentucky and California. These four workshops followed over 30 other workshops previous held under the Ethanol Workshop Series program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two other workshops were conducted by BBI International during 2003, Oklahoma and Kansas, under contract to the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources. In addition, the EWS was to provide a promotional and educational forum for policy makers, community leaders, media and potential stakeholders. It was recognized that to eventually achieve biomass-ethanol production, it was necessary to support grain-ethanol production as a bridge. The long-term goal of the Workshops was to facilitate the development of biomass ethanol plants at a state-level. The near-term goal was to provide correct and positive information for education, promotion, production and use of fuel ethanol. The EWS drew from 65 to over 200 attendees and were deemed by the local organizers to have served the objectives set out by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  7. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  8. Establishing a national safeguards system at the State level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides an opportunity to address the requirements for the organization that has to carry out the system functions at the State level in a country having a research reactor and ancillary laboratories

  9. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  10. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  11. Radiation levels from computer monitor screens within Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of possible presence of soft X-ray levels from Computer Screens at distances of 0.5m and 1.0m was carried out within Benue State University, Makurdi, using ten different monitor models. Radiation measurement was carried out using a portable digital radiation meter, INSPECTOR 06250 (SE international Inc.

  12. City-Level Adult Stroke Prevalence in Relation to Remote Sensing Derived PM2.5 Adjusting for Unhealthy Behaviors and Medical Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC "500 Cities Project" which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the "The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), V1 (1998-2012)" datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  13. CITY-LEVEL ADULT STROKE PREVALENCE IN RELATION TO REMOTE SENSING DERIVED PM2.5 ADJUSTING FOR UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS AND MEDICAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC “500 Cities Project” which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the “The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, V1 (1998–2012” datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  14. Prospects for regional safeguards systems - State-level Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, O.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The increased co-operation with Regional Safeguard's System (RSAC) is a relevant tool for strengthening effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the international safeguard. The new safeguards system that emerges from the application of the Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540) and the full use of State-level Concept is a challenge and an opportunity for effectively incorporate RSAC into the international safeguards scheme. The challenge is to determine how the co-operation and coordination will be implemented on this new safeguards scheme. This paper presents some discussions and prospects on the issues to be faced by RSAC and IAEA during the implementation of State-level Approach (SLA) using all information available. It is also discussed how different levels of co-operation could be achieved when SLA is applied by IAEA safeguards. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  15. State of dog's metabolism in the remote period after the oxide tritium influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalistratova, V.S.; Tishchenko, G.S.; Bortnik, L.A.; Nisimov, P.G.; Romanova, I.B.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of tritium oxide on the metabolism by some indices of lipid metabolism (common lipids, β-lipoproteins, cholesterin), protein metabolism (cholinesterase) and carbohydrate metabolism (blood sugar) was studied. It was established that the introduction into organism of tritium oxide in the quantities, which could form lethal and sublethal doses of internal radiation, provoked the main changes of values of mentioned indices of metabolism. The character of metabolism changes in the remote period allows to judge about the development of sclerosis processes which can be the result of radiation-stipulated acceleration of organism aging [ru

  16. Water level monitoring using radar remote sensing data: Application to Lake Kivu, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, Omar; Wali, Umaru G.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Maskey, Shreedhar; Mlotha, McArd J.

    Satellite radar altimetry measures the time required for a pulse to travel from the satellite antenna to the earth’s surface and back to the satellite receiver. Altimetry on inland lakes generally shows some deviation from in situ level measurements. The deviation is attributed to the geographically varying corrections applied to account for atmospheric effects on radar waves. This study was focused on verification of altimetry data for Lake Kivu (2400 km 2), a large inland lake between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and estimating the lake water levels using bathymetric data combined with satellite images. Altimetry data obtained from ENVISAT and ERS-2 satellite missions were compared with water level data from gauging stations for Lake Kivu. Gauge data for Lake Kivu were collected from the stations ELECTROGAZ and Rusizi. ENVISAT and ERS-2 data sets for Lake Kivu are in good agreement with gauge data having R2 of 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. A combination of the two data sets improved the coefficient of determination to 95% due to the improved temporal resolution of the data sets. The calculated standard deviation for Lake Kivu water levels was 0.642 m and 0.701 m, for ENVISAT and ERS-2 measurements, respectively. The elevation-surface area characteristics derived from bathymetric data in combination with satellite images were used to estimate the lake level gauge. Consequently, the water level of Lake Kivu could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.294 m and an accuracy of ±0.58 m. In situations where gauges become malfunctioning or inaccessible due to damage or extreme meteorological events, the method can be used to ensure data continuity.

  17. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip

    2016-01-01

    With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  18. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru; Jin Yuanxin; Liu Yuemiao; Hou Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  19. American State Gun Law Strength and State Resident Differences in Neuroticism Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart J. H. McCann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Relations between state gun law strength and state-aggregated levels of Republican leaning, gun ownership, and resident Big Five neuroticism (based on 619,397 residents nationally were determined in a state-level analysis of the 50 American states using multiple regression strategies with state socioeconomic status, white population percent, and urban population percent statistically controlled. In a standard hierarchical model with state gun law strength as the criterion, the three demographic variables accounted for 44.4% of the variance and the Big Five accounted for another 21.9%. When the Big Five entered stepwise after the demographics, neuroticism was the sole significant personality predictor, accounting for another 13.4% of the variance. Greater state gun law strength was associated with higher state resident neuroticism. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that state Republican leaning and gun ownership could account separately and jointly for significant variance in state gun law strength but not with state resident neuroticism controlled.

  20. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  1. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  2. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  3. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Michael L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, Kimberly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hergesheimer, Linda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, Maxine [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parker, Doug [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Staten, Rick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  5. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  6. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly

  7. Examination of State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kim; Yim, Man-Sung

    2015-01-01

    An effective global system for nuclear materials security needs to cover all materials, employing international standards and best practices, to reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to perform state-level evaluation of nuclear security based on an integrative framework of risk assessment. Such evaluation provides a basis of measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. sensitivity test by differentiating weight factors of each of the indicators and categories will be performed in the future as well

  8. Simulated Local and Remote Biophysical Effects of Afforestation over the Southeast United States in Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Shan Chen; Michael Notaro; Zhengyu Liu; Yongqiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy by sequestrating atmospheric carbon dioxide. With the goal of increasing carbon sequestration, a Congressional project has been planned to afforest about 18 million acres by 2020 in the Southeast United States (SEUS), the Great Lake states, and the Corn Belt states. However, biophysical feedbacks...

  9. Transitional millisecond pulsars in the low-level accretion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodard, Amruta D.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Archibald, Anne; Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Hernandez Santisteban, Juan; Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline; Bassa, Cees; Amruta Jaodand

    2018-01-01

    In the canonical pulsar recycling scenario, a slowly spinning neutron star can be rejuvenated to rapid spin rates by the transfer of angular momentum and mass from a binary companion star. Over the last decade, the discovery of three transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) has allowed us to study recycling in detail. These systems transition between accretion-powered (X-ray) and rotation-powered (radio) pulsar states within just a few days, raising questions such as: what triggers the state transition, when does the recycling process truly end, and what will the radio pulsar’s final spin rate be? Systematic multi-wavelength campaigns over the last decade have provided critical insights: multi-year-long, low-level accretion states showing coherent X-ray pulsations; extremely stable, bi-modal X-ray light curves; outflows probed by radio continuum emission; a surprising gamma-ray brightening during accretion, etc. In my thesis I am trying to bring these clues together to understand the low-level accretion process that recycles a pulsar. For example, recently we timed PSR J1023+0038 in the accretion state and found it to be spinning down ~26% faster compared to the non-accreting radio pulsar state. We are currently conducting simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns (XMM, HST, Kepler and VLA) to understand the global variability of the accretion flow, as well as high-energy Fermi-LAT observations to probe the gamma-ray emission mechanism. I will highlight these recent developments, while also presenting a broad overview of tMSPs as exciting new laboratories to test low-level accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  10. Remote Sensing by Satellite for Environmental Education: A Survey and a Proposal for Teaching at Upper Secondary and University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, Ulrich

    Knowledge of the environment has grown to such an extent that information technology (IT) is essential to make sense of the available data. An example of this is remote sensing by satellite. In recent years this field has grown in importance and remote sensing is used for a range of uses including the automatic survey of wheat yields in North…

  11. Geophysical Remote Sensing of North Carolina's Historic Cultural Landscapes: Studies at House in the Horseshoe State Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jacob R.

    This dissertation is written in accordance with the three article option offered by the Geography Department at UNC Greensboro. It contains three manuscripts to be submitted for publication. The articles address specific research issues within the remote sensing process described by Jensen (2016) as they apply to subsurface geophysical remote sensing of historic cultural landscapes, using the buried architectural features of House in the Horseshoe State Historic Site in Moore County, North Carolina. The first article compares instrument detection capabilities by examining subsurface structure remnants as they appear in single band ground-penetrating radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity images, and also demonstrates how excavation strengthens geophysical image interpretation. The second article examines the ability of GPR to estimate volumetric soil moisture (VSM) in order to improve the timing of data collection, and also examines the visible effect of variable moisture conditions on the interpretation of a large historic pit feature, while including the relative soil moisture continuum concepts common to geography/geomorphology into a discussion of GPR survey hydrologic conditions. The third article examines the roles of scientific visualization and cartography in the production of knowledge and the presentation of maps using geophysical data to depict historic landscapes. This study explores visualization techniques pertaining to the private data exploration view of the expert, and to the simplified public facing view.

  12. Plot - level stem volume estimation and tree species discrimination with CASI remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Johan; Wallerman, J.; Olsson, Haakan

    1999-10-01

    Spectral data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with four bands (460-495 nm, 550-580 nm, 660-682 nm, 740-762 nm) acquired from a forest test area (Lat. 60 deg 00` N, Long. 17 deg 18` E), the Kaettboele estate near Uppsala, was analysed together with forest data from a number of field plots. Data from two flight lines, one towards and the other perpendicular to the sun was used. Information about stem volume and species composition from plots with 10-m radius, 138 in the first and 120 in the second flight line, was available. There was a positive correlation (R{sup 2} 0.51-0.53) between stem volume and the inverted radiance for all four bands on plot level. The strong correlation between stem volume and a shadow density measure indicates that shadows explain much of the correlation. For the flight line perpendicular to the sun, the correlation was stronger for the side towards the sun compared to the side away from the sun. In the first flight line, plots with a stem volume > 120 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1} were classified according to the tree species composition (pine, spruce, deciduous trees). Groups were formed based on the classification, and the hypothesis that there was no difference in spectral radiance between these groups was tested. It was possible to separate pine dominated plots from spruce dominated plots. It was also possible to separate spruce dominated plots from spruce dominated plots with a minor portion of pine, but not pine dominated plots from pine dominated plots with a minor portion of spruce. The near-infrared band was the best band for discrimination of tree species 16 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  14. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  15. A dynamic state-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Travis

    2013-01-01

    As climate change and the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions play an increasingly important role in the global policy debate, careful consideration of the state-level determinants driving emissions must be considered. The importance of state-level determinants in the transmission of carbon dioxide matters especially for a country that differs from coast to coast in energy use and industry makeup like the United States. To add to the policy debate this paper estimates two models that account for the dynamic nature of emissions of carbon dioxide emissions at the state-level from 1980–2010 while taking account of scale, technique, and composition effects. When stochastic trends are taken account of, an environmental Kuznets curve relationship with a feasible turning point is found for carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: • State-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions. • Dynamic panel estimation to account for time series properties. • Feasible environmental Kuznets curve for carbon dioxide emissions. • Implications for state environmental policy discussed

  16. Modeling per capita state health expenditure variation: state-level characteristics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuckler, Gigi; Sisko, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the methods underlying the econometric model developed by the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to explain differences in per capita total personal health care spending by state, as described in Cuckler, et al. (2011). Additionally, we discuss many alternative model specifications to provide additional insights for valid interpretation of the model. We study per capita personal health care spending as measured by the State Health Expenditures, by State of Residence for 1991-2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. State-level demographic, health status, economic, and health economy characteristics were gathered from a variety of U.S. government sources, such as the Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Centers for Disease Control, the American Hospital Association, and HealthLeaders-InterStudy. State-specific factors, such as income, health care capacity, and the share of elderly residents, are important factors in explaining the level of per capita personal health care spending variation among states over time. However, the slow-moving nature of health spending per capita and close relationships among state-level factors create inefficiencies in modeling this variation, likely resulting in incorrectly estimated standard errors. In addition, we find that both pooled and fixed effects models primarily capture cross-sectional variation rather than period-specific variation.

  17. Archiving and Managing Remote Sensing Data using State of the Art Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B.; Chandrasekhara Reddy, C.; Kishore, S. V. S. R. K.

    2014-11-01

    processing at Data Processing servers and help to generate data products at a rate of about 1000 products per day. It also archives all the acquired data on tape storage for long-term retention and utilization. Data sizes per satellite pass range from hundreds of megabytes to tens of gigabytes The images acquired from remote sensing satellites are valuable assets of NRSC and are used as input for further generation of different types of user data products through multiple Data Processing systems. Hence, it is required to collect and store the data within a shared, high speed repository concurrently accessible by multiple systems. After the raw imagery is stored on a high-speed repository, the images must be processed in order for them to be useful for value-added processing or for imagery analysts. The raw image file has to be copied on to data processing servers for further processing. Given the large file sizes, it is impractical to transfer these files to processing servers via a local area network. Even at gigabit Ethernet rates (up to 60 MB/s), a 5 GB file will take at least 83 seconds. For this reason, it is useful to employ a shared file system which allows every processing system to directly access the same pool where raw images were stored. Concurrent access by multiple systems is ensured for processing and generation of data products. With the above reasons, it was chosen to have high speed disk arrays for acquisition and processing purposes and tape based storage systems for long-term huge data (Peta Bytes) archival in a virtualized multitier storage architecture. This paper explains the architecture involved in a virtualized tiered storage environment being used for acquisition, processing and archiving the remote sensing data. It also explains the data management aspects involved in ensuring data availability and archiving Peta bytes sized, remote sensing data acquired over the past 40 years.

  18. Estimation of urban surface water at subpixel level from neighborhood pixels using multispectral remote sensing image (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huan; Luo, Xin; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Chen; Pan, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohua; Liu, Shijie

    2016-10-01

    Water body is a fundamental element in urban ecosystems and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. As remote sensing has increasingly been used for water mapping in rural areas, this spatially explicit approach applied in urban area is also a challenging work due to the water bodies mainly distributed in a small size and the spectral confusion widely exists between water and complex features in the urban environment. Water index is the most common method for water extraction at pixel level, and spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has been widely employed in analyzing urban environment at subpixel level recently. In this paper, we introduce an automatic subpixel water mapping method in urban areas using multispectral remote sensing data. The objectives of this research consist of: (1) developing an automatic land-water mixed pixels extraction technique by water index; (2) deriving the most representative endmembers of water and land by utilizing neighboring water pixels and adaptive iterative optimal neighboring land pixel for respectively; (3) applying a linear unmixing model for subpixel water fraction estimation. Specifically, to automatically extract land-water pixels, the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing is firstly used to the original histogram curve of WI image . And then the Ostu threshold is derived as the start point to select land-water pixels based on histogram of the WI image with the land threshold and water threshold determination through the slopes of histogram curve . Based on the previous process at pixel level, the image is divided into three parts: water pixels, land pixels, and mixed land-water pixels. Then the spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is applied to land-water mixed pixels for water fraction estimation at subpixel level. With the assumption that the endmember signature of a target pixel should be more similar to adjacent pixels due to spatial dependence, the endmember of water and land are determined

  19. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  20. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  1. Ship Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images Based on Wavelet Transform and Multi-Level False Alarm Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection by Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs and satellites plays an important role in a spectrum of related military and civil applications. To improve the detection efficiency, accuracy, and speed, a novel ship detection method from coarse to fine is presented. Ship targets are viewed as uncommon regions in the sea background caused by the differences in colors, textures, shapes, or other factors. Inspired by this fact, a global saliency model is constructed based on high-frequency coefficients of the multi-scale and multi-direction wavelet decomposition, which can characterize different feature information from edge to texture of the input image. To further reduce the false alarms, a new and effective multi-level discrimination method is designed based on the improved entropy and pixel distribution, which is robust against the interferences introduced by islands, coastlines, clouds, and shadows. The experimental results on optical remote sensing images validate that the presented saliency model outperforms the comparative models in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves core and the accuracy in the images with different sizes. After the target identification, the locations and the number of the ships in various sizes and colors can be detected accurately and fast with high robustness.

  2. Quantum state preparation using multi-level-atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Th; Deasy, K; Chormaic, S Nic

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics for controlling processes on the quantum scale is the fidelity or robustness of the techniques being used. In the case of single atoms localized in micro-traps, it was recently shown that the use of time-dependent tunnelling interactions in a multi-trap setup can be viewed as analogous to the area of multi-level optics. The atom's centre-of-mass can then be controlled with a high fidelity, using a STIRAP-type process. Here, we review previous work that led to the development of multi-level atom optics and present two examples of our most recent work on quantum state preparation

  3. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  4. Serum Levels of Fetal Antigen 1 in Extreme Nutritional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K.; Abdallah, Basem M.; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hørder, Kirsten; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum concentrations were assessed in a cross-sectional study design at defined time points after gastric restrictive surgery for 25 MO patients and 15 women with AN. Results. Absolute FA1 serum levels were within the assay normal range and were not different between the groups at baseline. However, the ratio of FA1/BMI was significantly higher in AN. FA1 was inversely correlated with BMI before and after weight change in AN, but not in MO patients. In addition, MO patients displayed a significant concomitant decrease of FA1 and insulin with the first 25% of EWL, while in AN patients a significant increase of FA1 was observed in association with weight gain. Conclusion. FA1 is a sensitive indicator of metabolic adaptation during weight change. While FA1 serum levels in humans generally do not correlate with BMI, our results suggest that changes in FA1 serum levels reflect changes in adipose tissue turnover. PMID:22844611

  5. Real-Time and Seamless Monitoring of Ground-Level PM2.5 Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Zhang, Chengyue; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been reported to be a promising approach for the monitoring of atmospheric PM2.5. However, the satellite-based monitoring of ground-level PM2.5 is still challenging. First, the previously used polar-orbiting satellite observations, which can be usually acquired only once per day, are hard to monitor PM2.5 in real time. Second, many data gaps exist in satellitederived PM2.5 due to the cloud contamination. In this paper, the hourly geostationary satellite (i.e., Harawari-8) observations were adopted for the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 in a deep learning architecture. On this basis, the satellite-derived PM2.5 in conjunction with ground PM2.5 measurements are incorporated into a spatio-temporal fusion model to fill the data gaps. Using Wuhan Urban Agglomeration as an example, we have successfully derived the real-time and seamless PM2.5 distributions. The results demonstrate that Harawari-8 satellite-based deep learning model achieves a satisfactory performance (out-of-sample cross-validation R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 17.49 μg/m3) for the estimation of PM2.5. The missing data in satellite-derive PM2.5 are accurately recovered, with R2 between recoveries and ground measurements of 0.75. Overall, this study has inherently provided an effective strategy for the realtime and seamless monitoring of ground-level PM2.5.

  6. State-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening by disability status: United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Thierry, JoAnn M; Wolf, Lesley A

    2009-01-01

    Despite reported disparities in the use of preventive services by disability status, there has been no national surveillance of breast and cervical cancer screening among women with disabilities in the United States. To address this, we used state-level surveillance data to identify disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate disability prevalence and state-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Overall, modest differences in breast cancer screening were found; women with a disability were less likely than those without to report receiving a mammogram during the past 2 years (72.2% vs. 77.8%; p < .001). However, disparities in breast cancer screening were more pronounced at the state level. Furthermore, women with a disability were less likely than those without a disability to report receiving a Pap test during the past 3 years (78.9% vs. 83.4%; p < .001). This epidemiologic evidence identifies an opportunity for federal and state programs, as well as other stakeholders, to form partnerships to align disability and women's health policies. Furthermore, it identifies the need for increased public awareness and resource allocation to reduce barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening experienced by women with disabilities.

  7. The pump-probe coupling of matter wave packets to remote lattice states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, Jacob F; Park, Sung Jong; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    containing a Bose–Einstein condensate. The evolution of these wave packets is monitored in situ and their six-photon reflection at a band gap is observed. In direct analogy with pump–probe spectroscopy, a probe pulse allows for the resonant de-excitation of the wave packet into states localized around...... selected lattice sites at a long, controllable distance of more than 100 lattice sites from the main component. This precise control mechanism for ultra-cold atoms thus enables controlled quantum state preparation and splitting for quantum dynamics, metrology and simulation....

  8. Background PM2.5 source apportionment in the remote Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Odelle L.

    2017-10-01

    This study used the Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization model (EPA PMF5.0) to identify five primary source factors contributing to the ambient PM2.5 concentrations at Cheeka Peak Atmospheric Observatory (CPO), Neah Bay WA between January 2011 and December 2014. CPO is home to both an IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring for Protected Visual Environments) and a NCore multi-pollutant monitoring site. Chemically resolved particulate data from the IMPROVE site was the input data to EPA PMF5.0 and the resulting source factors were derived solely from these data. Solutions from the model were analyzed in context with trace gas and meteorological data collected at the NCore site located roughly 10 m away. Seasonal and long-term trends were analyzed for all five factors and provide the first complete source apportionment analysis of PM2.5 at this remote location. The first factor, identified as marine-traffic residual fuel oil (RFO), was the highest contributor to PM2.5 during late summer. Over the 4-year analysis, the RFO percent contribution to total PM2.5 declined. This is consistent with previous studies and may be attributed to regulations restricting the sulfur content of ship fuel. Biomass combustion emissions (BMC) and sea salt were the largest PM2.5 sources observed at CPO in winter, accounting for over 80% of the fine particulate. BMC accounted for a large percent of the fine particulate pollution when winds were easterly, or continental. Sea salt was the dominant winter factor when winds blew from the west. Measured trace carbon monoxide (CO) and reactive nitrogen species (NOy) were most strongly correlated with the BMC factor and continental winds. The fourth factor was identified as aged crustal material, or dust. In all three years, dust peaked in the spring and was associated exclusively with north-easterly winds. The last factor was identified as aged sea salt mixed with nitrate, sulfate, and other components common to RFO and BMC

  9. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Forest Inventory and Analysis in the United States: Remote sensing and geospatial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Gretchen Moisen; Mark Finco

    2007-01-01

    Our Nation's forests provide a wealth of ecological, social, and economic resources. These forest lands cover over 300 million hectares of the United States, or about one third of the total land area. Accurate and timely information about them is essential to their wise management and use. The mission of the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA...

  11. Monitoring Agricultural Drought Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shomrany, Adel

    The study aims to evaluate various remote sensing drought indices to assess those most fitting for monitoring agricultural drought. The objectives are (1) to assess and study the impact of drought effect on (corn and soybean) crop production by crop mapping information and GIS technology; (2) to use Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) as a technical approach to evaluate the spatial relationships between precipitation vs. irrigated and non-irrigated corn and soybean yield, using a Nebraska county-level case study; (3) to assess agricultural drought indices derived from remote sensing (NDVI, NMDI, NDWI, and NDII6); (4) to develop an optimal approach for agricultural drought detection based on remote sensing measurements to determine the relationship between US county-level yields versus relatively common variables collected. Extreme drought creates low corn and soybean production where irrigation systems are not implemented. This results in a lack of moisture in soil leading to dry land and stale crop yields. When precipitation and moisture is found across all states, corn and soybean production flourishes. For Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, irrigation management methods assist in strong crop yields throughout SPI monthly averages. The data gathered on irrigation consisted of using drought indices gathered by the national agricultural statistics service website. For the SPI levels ranging between one-month and nine-months, Kansas and Nebraska performed the best out of all 12-states contained in the Midwestern primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The reasoning behind Kansas and Nebraska's results was due to a more efficient and sustainable irrigation system, where upon South Dakota lacked. South Dakota was leveled by strong correlations throughout all SPI periods for corn only. Kansas showed its strongest correlations for the two-month and three-month averages, for both corn and soybean. Precipitation regression with irrigated and non-irrigated maize (corn) and

  12. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    overcast collection advantages and were collected as well as MODIS thermal data. However, interpretation challenges and a lack of Rapid Response Products prevented significant use. Rapid Response Products were key to response utilization—data needs are time critical; thus, a high technological readiness level is critical to operational use of remote sensing products. DWH's experience demonstrated that development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill.

  13. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Characteristics of the Remote Sensing Data Used in the Proposed Unfccc REDD+ Forest Reference Emission Levels (frels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. A.; Scheyvens, H.; Samejima, H.; Onoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    Developing countries must submit forest reference emission levels (FRELs) to the UNFCCC to receive incentives for REDD+ activities (e.g. reducing emissions from deforestation/forest degradation, sustainable management of forests, forest carbon stock conservation/enhancement). These FRELs are generated based on historical CO2 emissions in the land use, land use change, and forestry sector, and are derived using remote sensing (RS) data and in-situ forest carbon measurements. Since the quality of the historical emissions estimates is affected by the quality and quantity of the RS data used, in this study we calculated five metrics (i-v below) to assess the quality and quantity of the data that has been used thus far. Countries could focus on improving on one or more of these metrics for the submission of future FRELs. Some of our main findings were: (i) the median percentage of each country mapped was 100%, (ii) the median historical timeframe for which RS data was used was 11.5 years, (iii) the median interval of forest map updates was 4.5 years, (iv) the median spatial resolution of the RS data was 30m, and (v) the median number of REDD+ activities that RS data was used for operational monitoring of was 1 (typically deforestation). Many new sources of RS data have become available in recent years, so complementary or alternative RS data sets for generating future FRELs can potentially be identified based on our findings; e.g. alternative RS data sets could be considered if they have similar or higher quality/quantity than the currently-used data sets.

  15. Effects of land use/cover change and harvests on forest carbon dynamics in northern states of the United States from remote sensing and inventory data: 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    We examined spatial patterns of changes in forest area and nonsoil carbon (C) dynamics affected by land use/cover change (LUC) and harvests in 24 northern states of the United States using an integrated methodology combining remote sensing and ground inventory data between 1992 and 2001. We used the Retrofit Change Product from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics...

  16. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  17. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  18. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  19. Can state-level safeguards be applied in nuclear weapon states?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Listner, Clemens; Canty, Morton J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany); Stein, Gotthard

    2013-07-01

    Acquisition Path Analysis (APA) is a key element of IAEA's State-level concept. Currently, this process is mainly based on expert judgment. However, the requirements from the IAEA state that the process must be objective, reproducible, transparent, standardized, documented and as a result non-discriminatory. A formal approach fulfilling these requirements has been set up by the authors in the past. In this paper, the refined methodology is presented. Improvements have been made in the interface definition between the three stages, the general network model has been updated, and the automatic visualization of acquisition paths has been accomplished. Furthermore, a prototype implementation will be shown. Based on this methodology, a test case example is presented which models a hypothetic nuclear weapon State not having signed the NPT. For this case, it will be shown how APA can be implemented using the proposed methodology.

  20. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  1. Remote Sensing the Thermosphere's State Using Emissions From Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Doornbos, E.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of emissions from nitric oxide and carbon dioxide in the thermosphere have strong correlations with properties that are very useful to the determination of thermospheric densities. We have compared emissions measured with the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite with neutral density measurements from the Challenging Mini-satellite Payload (CHAMP), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), and the three Swarm satellites, spanning a time period of over 15 years. It has been found that nitric oxide emissions match changes in the exospheric temperatures that have been derived from the densities through use of the Naval Reasearch Laboratory Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) thermosphere model. Similarly, our results indicate that the carbon dioxide emissions have annual and semiannual oscillations that correlate with changes in the amount of oxygen in the thermosphere, also determined by use of the NRLMSISE-00 model. These annual and semi-annual variations are found to have irregular amplitudes and phases, which make them very difficult to accurately predict. Prediction of exospheric temperatures through the use of geomagnetic indices also tends to be inexact. Therefore, it would be possible and very useful to use measurements of the thermosphere's infrared emissions for real-time tracking of the thermosphere's state, so that more accurate calculations of the density may be obtained.

  2. Analysis of the state of vegetation in the municipality of Jagodina (Serbia through remote sensing and suggestions for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Miško M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental control and appropriate measurement results present basis for the quality protection of geospatial elements. Providing environmental monitoring activities and creating control network is the obligation of each state, whereas local communities provide observation and control of air quality, water quality, waste quality, soil quality, vegetation and land cover control, etc. This has been the reason for the analysis of vegetation of the municipality of Jagodina in Serbia. By processing satellite images, data on the sources of pollution and polluting materials of the vegetation have been discovered. These include spot (stationary, linear (mobile and stationary and surface (stationary and mobile sources. While processing satellite images by the Idrisi software, we have acquired results that indicate certain vegetation modifications (images obtained through infrared spectral imaging. Results obtained through remote sensing indicate the necessity to define adequate vegetation monitoring, to complete a register of pollutants, to set up information system and define ways of data presentation in order to manage a single, complete register of environmental pollutants in the municipality of Jagodina.

  3. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  4. A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ballanti, Laurel; Thomas, Nathan; Nguyen, Dung; Holmquist, James R.; Simard, Marc; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2018-05-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%-44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had the highest C density of all

  5. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  6. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  7. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  8. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  9. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

  10. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.

    1993-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  11. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  12. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Angela [BBI International, Cotopaxi, CO (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  13. A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ballanti, Laurel; Thomas, Nathan; Nguyen, Dung; Holmquist, James R.; Simard, Marc; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%–44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had

  14. Smart multi-level tool for remote patient monitoring based on a wireless sensor network and mobile augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fernando Cornelio Jiménez; Villegas, Osslan Osiris Vergara; Ramírez, Dulce Esperanza Torres; Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe Cruz; Domínguez, Humberto Ochoa

    2014-09-16

    Technological innovations in the field of disease prevention and maintenance of patient health have enabled the evolution of fields such as monitoring systems. One of the main advances is the development of real-time monitors that use intelligent and wireless communication technology. In this paper, a system is presented for the remote monitoring of the body temperature and heart rate of a patient by means of a wireless sensor network (WSN) and mobile augmented reality (MAR). The combination of a WSN and MAR provides a novel alternative to remotely measure body temperature and heart rate in real time during patient care. The system is composed of (1) hardware such as Arduino microcontrollers (in the patient nodes), personal computers (for the nurse server), smartphones (for the mobile nurse monitor and the virtual patient file) and sensors (to measure body temperature and heart rate), (2) a network layer using WiFly technology, and (3) software such as LabView, Android SDK, and DroidAR. The results obtained from tests show that the system can perform effectively within a range of 20 m and requires ten minutes to stabilize the temperature sensor to detect hyperthermia, hypothermia or normal body temperature conditions. Additionally, the heart rate sensor can detect conditions of tachycardia and bradycardia.

  15. State-level medical and absenteeism cost of asthma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek; Khavjou, Olga; Murphy, Louise; Orenstein, Diane

    2017-05-01

    For medically treated asthma, we estimated prevalence, medical and absenteeism costs, and projected medical costs from 2015 to 2020 for the entire population and separately for children in the 50 US states and District of Columbia (DC) using the most recently available data. We used multiple data sources, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Kaiser Family Foundation, Medical Statistical Information System, and Current Population Survey. We used a two-part regression model to estimate annual medical costs of asthma and a negative binomial model to estimate annual school and work days missed due to asthma. Per capita medical costs of asthma ranged from $1,860 (Mississippi) to $2,514 (Michigan). Total medical costs of asthma ranged from $60.7 million (Wyoming) to $3.4 billion (California). Medicaid costs ranged from $4.1 million (Wyoming) to $566.8 million (California), Medicare from $5.9 million (DC) to $446.6 million (California), and costs paid by private insurers ranged from $27.2 million (DC) to $1.4 billion (California). Total annual school and work days lost due to asthma ranged from 22.4 thousand (Wyoming) to 1.5 million days (California) and absenteeism costs ranged from $4.4 million (Wyoming) to $345 million (California). Projected increase in medical costs from 2015 to 2020 ranged from 9% (DC) to 34% (Arizona). Medical and absenteeism costs of asthma represent a significant economic burden for states and these costs are expected to rise. Our study results emphasize the urgency for strategies to strengthen state level efforts to prevent and control asthma attacks.

  16. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Producing remote sensing-based emission estimates of prescribed burning in the contiguous United States for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Pouliot, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Miller, M. E.; Rao, T.

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed fires in agricultural landscapes generally produce smaller burned areas than wildland fires but are important contributors to emissions impacting air quality and human health. Currently, there are a variety of available satellite-based estimates of crop residue burning, including the NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS) the Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation (SMARTFIRE 2), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Official Burned Area Product (MCD45A1)), the MODIS Direct Broadcast Burned Area Product (MCD64A1) the MODIS Active Fire Product (MCD14ML), and a regionally-tuned 8-day cropland differenced Normalized Burn Ratio product for the contiguous U.S. The purpose of this NASA-funded research was to refine the regionally-tuned product utilizing higher spatial resolution crop type data from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer and burned area training data from field work and high resolution commercial satellite data to improve the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The final product delivered to the EPA included a detailed database of 25 different atmospheric emissions at the county level, emission distributions by crop type and seasonality, and GIS data. The resulting emission databases were shared with the U.S. EPA and regional offices, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWGC) Smoke Committee, and all 48 states in the contiguous U.S., with detailed error estimations for Wyoming and Indiana and detailed analyses of results for Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Oregon. This work also provided opportunities in discovering the different needs of federal and state partners, including the various geospatial abilities and platforms across the many users and how to incorporate expert air quality, policy, and land management knowledge into quantitative earth observation-based estimations of prescribed fire emissions. Finally, this work

  18. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  19. Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.

  20. State Level Review of Doctoral Programs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Nil

    Review of doctoral degree programs in Texas public colleges and universities is discussed. Attention is directed to review procedures and strengths and weaknesses in the state's doctoral programs in educational psychology, counseling and guidance, and student personnel services. Doctoral programs were reviewed because of their high cost and a…

  1. Grade Level: Tracking Online Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This report is the twelfth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group, with data collection conducted in partnership with the College Board and additional data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Integrated…

  2. 1989 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1990-12-01

    The National Low-Level Waste Management Program has published eleven annual state-by-state assessment reports. These reports provide both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1989 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1985 through 1989; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1989. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that handled by an intermediary. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  3. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  4. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  5. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  6. Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

    2003-01-01

    We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

  7. Resource Sharing Networks for Higher Education at State Level

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1990-01-01

    The project proposal on Development of an Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) became a public document by 1990. The aim of INFLIBNET as provided in the report was modernizing college and university libraries in India and connecting them through a nation-wide high speed data network using the state-of-art technologies for the optimum utilization of information. INFLIBNET was envisaged to be a major player in promoting scholarly communication among academicians and researchers in India....

  8. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  9. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  10. Estimating urban forest carbon sequestration potential in the southern United States using current remote sensing imagery sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Merry; Pete Bettinger; Jacek Siry; J. Michael Bowker

    2015-01-01

    With an increased interest in reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, tree planting and maintenance in urban areas has become a viable option for increasing carbon sequestration. Methods for assessing the potential for planting trees within an urban area should allow for quick, inexpensive, and accurate estimations of available land using current remote sensing...

  11. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  12. Absence of level-repulsion in a two-state Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2007-01-01

    But for the inclusion of scattering states, we point out that the two-state method (the so called perturbation method of nearly degenerate levels) for a perturbed two-state Hamiltonian is exact , yet the prediction of the level-repulsion by this method could be contradicted by the exact quantal eigenvalues. (author)

  13. AP600 level of automation: United States utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkerman, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Design of the AP600 advanced nuclear plant man-machine interface system (M-MIS) is guided by the applicable requirements from the Utility Requirements Document (URD). However, the URD has left certain aspects of the M-MIS to be determined by the designer working together with utilities sponsoring the work. This is particularly true in the case of the level of automation to be designed into the M-MIS. Based on experience from currently operating plants, utilities have specified the identity and roles of personnel in the control room, which has led to establishing a number of level of automation issues for the AP600. The key role of automated computerized procedures in the AP600 automation has been determined and resolved. 5 refs

  14. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  15. Deterministic joint remote preparation of an equatorial hybrid state via high-dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs: active versus passive receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Cao Thi; Dat, Le Thanh; Van Hop, Nguyen; An, Nguyen Ba

    2018-04-01

    Entanglement plays a vital and in many cases non-replaceable role in the quantum network communication. Here, we propose two new protocols to jointly and remotely prepare a special so-called bipartite equatorial state which is hybrid in the sense that it entangles two Hilbert spaces with arbitrary different dimensions D and N (i.e., a type of entanglement between a quDit and a quNit). The quantum channels required to do that are however not necessarily hybrid. In fact, we utilize four high-dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, two of which are quDit-quDit entanglements, while the other two are quNit-quNit ones. In the first protocol the receiver has to be involved actively in the process of remote state preparation, while in the second protocol the receiver is passive as he/she needs to participate only in the final step for reconstructing the target hybrid state. Each protocol meets a specific circumstance that may be encountered in practice and both can be performed with unit success probability. Moreover, the concerned equatorial hybrid entangled state can also be jointly prepared for two receivers at two separated locations by slightly modifying the initial particles' distribution, thereby establishing between them an entangled channel ready for a later use.

  16. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  17. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Detailed description of a state system for accounting for and control of nuclear material at the state level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the technical elements of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material at the State Authority level which can be used by a state in the establishment of a national system for nuclear material accounting and control. It is expected that a state system designed along the lines described also will assist the IAEA in carrying out its safeguards responsibilities. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the technical elements of a state level system concerned with Laws and Regulations, the Information System, and the Establishment of Requirements for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control. The discussion shows the relationship of these technical elements at the state level to the principal elements of an SSAC at the facility levels

  19. The 1988 state-by-state assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator categories, waste classes, volumes, and activities. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1988 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1984 through 1988; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1988. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that which was handled by an intermediary. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Landscape-Level Associations of Wintering Waterbird Diversity and Abundance from Remotely Sensed Wetland Characteristics of Poyang Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater wetland in China, provides critical habitat for wintering waterbirds from the East Asian Flyway; however, landscape drivers of non-uniform bird diversity and abundance are not yet well understood. Using a winter 2006 waterbird survey, we examined the relationships among metrics of bird community diversity and abundance and landscape characteristics of 51 wetland sub-lakes derived by an object-based classification of Landsat satellite data. Relative importance of predictors and their sets was assessed using information-theoretic model selection and the Akaike Information Criterion. Ordinary least squares regression models were diagnosed and corrected for spatial autocorrelation using spatial autoregressive lag and error models. The strongest and most consistent landscape predictors included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for mudflat (negative effect and emergent grassland (positive effect, total sub-lake area (positive effect, and proportion of submerged vegetation (negative effect. Significant spatial autocorrelation in linear regression was associated with local clustering of response and predictor variables, and should be further explored for selection of wetland sampling units and management of protected areas. Overall, results corroborate the utility of remote sensing to elucidate potential indicators of waterbird diversity that complement logistically challenging ground observations and offer new hypotheses on factors underlying community distributions.

  1. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  2. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  3. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [University of California (United States); Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg [US Geology Survey (United States); Jones, Cathleen [California Institute of Technology (United States); Svejkovsky, Jan [Ocean Imaging Corporation (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  4. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg; Jones, Cathleen; Svejkovsky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  5. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  6. Impacts of the Solar Investment Tax Credit On State-Level Solar Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kolachalam, Sriman

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the U.S. federally implemented Solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC) on states’ solar energy installation and utilization. In particular, I compare relative trends in solar installation and utilization between states with initially higher levels of solar and states with initially lower levels of solar, before and after the implementation of the Solar ITC. My findings demonstrate that states with initially higher level...

  7. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  8. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  9. Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other: Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level measures indicated that the state-level measures may be generalizable to everyday situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  11. Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Three-Level Two-Particle State and Classical Communication Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAIHong-Yi; KUANGLe-Man; LICheng-Zu

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown arbitrary three-level two-particle state by using two partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel. The classical communication cost required in the ideal probabilistic teleportation process is also calculated. This scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown and arbitrary three-level K-particle state by using K partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel.

  12. Semantic risk estimation of suspected minefields based on spatial relationships analysis of minefield indicators from multi-level remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jonathan Cheung-Wai; Sahli, Hichem; Wang, Yuhang

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents semantic risk estimation of suspected minefields using spatial relationships of minefield indicators extracted from multi-level remote sensing. Both satellite image and pyramidal airborne acquisitions from 900m to 30m flying heights with resolutions from 1m to 2cm resolutions are used for identification of minefield indicators. R-Histogram [1] is a quantitative representation of spatial relationship between two objects in an image. Eight spatial relationships can be generated: 1) LEFT OF, 2) RIGHT OF, 3) ABOVE, 4) BELOW, 5) NEAR, 6) FAR, 7) INSIDE, 8) OUTSIDE. R-Histogram semantics are first generated from selected indicators and metrics such as topological proximity and directional relationships are trained for soft classification of risk index (normalized as 0-1). We presented a framework of how semantic metadata generated from remote sensing images are used in risk estimation. The resultant risk index identified seven out of twelve mine accidents occurred at high risk region. More importantly, comparison with ground truth obtained after mine clearance show that three out of the four identified pattern minefields falls into the area estimated at very high risk. A parcel-based per-field risk estimation can also be easily generated to show the usefulness of the risk index.

  13. STATE LEVEL MECHANISMS FOR LEARNING FROM WHISTLEBLOWING CASES AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State level mechanisms for soliciting, validating, and learning from whistleblower claims of fraud, theft, or misconduct against public colleges and universities are explored in four US states: California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Ohio. Sequential public information requests were used to understand the methods that were used in each state, the types of claims that each state experienced, and to understand their processes for learning from such claims. The types of claims, breadth of scope that the claims span, and disposition of the claims is used to characterize each state’s approach and compare and contrast results with other states in the sample. There was a wide variation in responses and approaches used in each state. Varying from no information solicited or maintained (Michigan to full histories that include case level detail (Ohio, excellent multi-year case tracking and reporting (California to the voluminous tracking of every property loss or damage in every institution (Massachusetts. An organic rubric is developed and used to compare and contrast the responses and service level provided by each of the states. Although anonymous whistleblower claims are essential to the governance and administration of higher education, state level mechanisms vary widely in their approaches to administering this process and ensuring better future outcomes. Establishing a standard based upon best practices would ensure that institutions are making the best use of all information available to them to improve their immunity from employee fraud and theft and misconduct.

  14. Remote systems and automation in radioactive waste package handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneiting, B.C.; Hayward, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test was conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to demonstrate the feasibility of performing cask receiving and unloading operations in a remote and partially automated manner. This development testing showed feasibility of performing critical cask receipt, preparation, and unloading operations from a single control station using remote controls and indirect viewing. Using robotics and remote automation in a cask handling system can result in lower personnel exposure levels and cask turnaround times while maintaining operational flexibility. An automated cask handling system presents a flexible state-of-the-art, cost effective alternative solution to hands-on methods that have been used in the past

  15. The association between C-reactive protein levels and the risk for chronic kidney disease hospitalizations in adults of a remote Indigenous Australian community - A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Luke W; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly burdened by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular incidence in previous studies. Elevated CRP has been associated with albuminuria and reduced eGFR in cross-sectional studies. This study investigated the long-term predictive association between CRP measured at a baseline exam and the incidence of a CKD-related hospitalization. Health screening examinations were conducted in individuals of a remote indigenous Australian community between 1992 and 1998. The risk of subsequent CKD hospitalisations, documented through Northern Territory hospital records up to 2010, was estimated with Cox proportional hazard models in people aged over 18 years at the baseline screen and who had albumin-creatinine ratios (ACRs) less than 34g/mol. 546 participants were eligible for our study. Individuals in the highest CRP tertile at baseline had increased levels of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. They also had almost 4 times the risk of a CKD-related hospitalisation compared with participants in the lowest CRP tertile (HR=3.91, 95%CI 1.01-15.20, P=0.049) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants with CRP concentrations greater than 3mg/L had almost 3 times the risk of CKD hospitalisations than those ≤3mg/L (HR=2.84, 95%CI 1.00-8.00, P=0.049). Furthermore, risk of CKD hospitalisations increased 34% per doubling of baseline CRP (HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.74, P=0.024). In individuals in this remote indigenous community without overt albuminuria at baseline the risk for incident CKD related hospitalisations was predicted by elevated C-reactive protein levels almost a decade earlier. Further research is needed to understand the roles that CRP and systemic inflammation play in CKD risk. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Efficiency of Health Care Sector at Sub-State Level in India: A Case of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, WHO and other individual researchers have advocated estimation of health system performance through stochastic frontier models. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate economic performance of health system. So far attempts in India have remained focused at state level analysis. This paper attempts a sub-state level analysis for an affluent Indian state, namely Punjab, by using stochastic frontier technique. Our results provide pertinent insight into state health system and facilitate health facility planning at the sub-state level. Carried out in two stages of estimation, our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing the sub-state level health system efficiency. A higher budgetary allocation for health manpower is recommended by us to improve efficiency in poorly performing districts. This may be supported by policy initiatives outside the health system by empowering women through better education and work participation.

  17. EXAMINING HOW WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND MOTIVATION LEVELS IMPACT ON THEIR STATE AND TRAIT ANXIETY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kolayis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.

  18. Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Soler, L.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon depends on the spatial variability of political, socioeconomic and biophysical factors, as well as on the land use history and its actors. A regional scale analysis was made in Rondônia State to identify possible differences in land cover change connected to

  19. Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho-Young; Mueller, Steffen; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Wander, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ► We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ► We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ► Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ► Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ► This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

  20. The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Farrell; Monica J DeLateur; Colleen Owens; Stephanie Fahy

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how h...

  1. State-Level Guidance and District-Level Policies and Practices for Food Marketing in US School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi

    2018-06-07

    State agencies play a critical role in providing school districts with guidance and technical assistance on school nutrition issues, including food and beverage marketing practices. We examined associations between state-level guidance and the policies and practices in school districts regarding food and beverage marketing and promotion. State policy guidance was positively associated with districts prohibiting advertisements for junk food or fast food restaurants on school property. Technical assistance from states was negatively associated with 2 district practices to restrict marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages, but positively associated with 1 practice to promote healthy options. These findings may help inform the guidance that states provide to school districts and help identify which districts may need additional assistance to address marketing and promotion practices.

  2. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  3. The Purpose of State Level Textbook Adoption: What Does the Legislation Reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley, Michael A.; Farr, Roger

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of textbook adoption statutes of 22 states was undertaken to gain insight into the reasons behind state textbook adoption. Findings indicate the intent of state-level textbook adoption may be to control marketing practices of the publishing industry. (DF)

  4. Assessment and statistical modeling of the relationship between remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Liu, Yang

    2012-05-01

    Research in scientific, public health, and policy disciplines relating to the environment increasingly makes use of high-dimensional remote sensing and the output of numerical models in conjunction with traditional observations. Given the public health and resultant public policy implications of the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM*) air pollution, specifically fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter work has been rare, in part because discrepancies necessarily exist between satellite-retrieved estimates of AOD, which is an atmospheric-column average, and ground-level PM2.5. In this report, we summarize the results of a number of empirical analyses and of the development of statistical models for the use of proxy information, in particular satellite AOD, in predicting PM2.5 concentrations in the eastern United States. We analyzed the spatiotemporal structure of the relationship between PM2.5 and AOD, first using simple correlations both before and after calibration based on meteorology, as well as large-scale spatial and temporal calibration to account for discrepancies between AOD and PM2.5. We then used both raw and calibrated AOD retrievals in statistical models to predict PM2.5 concentrations, accounting for AOD in two ways: primarily as a separate data source contributing a second likelihood to a Bayesian statistical model, as well as a data source on which we could directly regress. Previous consideration of satellite AOD has largely focused on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) instruments. One contribution of our work is more extensive consideration of AOD derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite East Aerosol/Smoke Product (GOES GASP) AOD and its relationship with PM2.5. In addition to empirically assessing the spatiotemporal relationship between GASP AOD and PM2.5, we considered new statistical

  5. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  6. Role of the state in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, F.N.; Salomon, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    This document describes the role of the State in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste in the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), which recognizes that the States are responsible for disposal of the waste and as such may develop interstate compacts. The perspective is the present national regulatory framework for the waste system, including generation, transport, treatment, storage and disposal. Although not a definitive legal statement of the area in which States may properly act, the regulatory authority of all Compact States as Agreement States, States with a limited Agreement, and as non-Agreement States is described. The analysis is based on the assumption that the disposal site is State land

  7. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  8. State-of-the-art for liquid-level measurements applied to in-vessel coolant level for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident indicated that a direct indication of the liquid level in the reactor vessel would have told the operators that the core was being uncovered. This state-of-the-cost survey covered the following methods: heated thermocouple, differential pressure, ultrasonic, capacitance, microwave, time-domain reflectometry, and externally mounted radiation detectors

  9. State-level public policy as a predictor of individual and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, S L

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between state-level public policy and individual and family well-being and factors that affect it. The inquiry, based on exchange and choice theories, assumes that state-level public policy reflects states' awareness of the needs of individuals and families, their ability to predict the future in failing to meet them, and the extent to which the norm of reciprocity prevails in the 50 states. Measures of states' collective choices were states' per capita expenditures for public welfare, education, and health, and per capita taxes in 1980; measures of states' individual and well- or ill-being, or social malaise, were states' teenage birthrates, infant death rates, and suicide rates. Taken into account as antecedent and intervening variables were age, gender, and racial composition, income distribution, marital, socioeconomic, and employment status of states' populations, and attitudes toward public spending. The findings show that higher state expenditures for public welfare and for education indeed contribute to individual and family well-being as measured by lower state rates of suicide and teenage births. States per capita spending for education, which together with state per capita spending for public welfare was a positive predictor of school completion rates and positively associated with states' income level, accounted for almost all of the variance in states' per capita taxes. State spending for public welfare was not a predictor of state per capita taxes. These findings are cause for considerable concern given the reduced role of the federal government in human affairs, particularly in states whose choices violate the assumptions underlying exchange and choice theories and the norm of reciprocity which says that people should help, not hurt, others.

  10. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  11. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal.

  12. Effect of atomic-state coherence and spontaneous emission on three-level dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardimona, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    For a three-level atom in the ssV configuration (i.e., having two excited states each dipole-coupled to a common ground state), we have found a particular linear combination of bare-atom states in which Rabi oscillations and their associated collapses and revivals do not occur. Moving to a dressed-state picture, we discover that this particular linear combination state is just that dressed state which is decoupled from all the field modes. It is a dressed state for which the transition dipole moments with the other dressed states are zero. The existence of this decoupled dressed state depends on the tuning of the dressing laser field, which in turn depends on the bare-atom excited-state dipole moments and energy-level separation. When we include spontaneous emission, the population decays from the other dressed states into this decoupled state and remains coherently trapped there, producing a system that experiences no dynamical behavior. This is exact for δ-function photon statistics (i.e., if there is no intensity uncertainty). The trapping becomes less perfect as the photon statistics are allowed to have a greater bandwidth. Also, if the applied field is tuned incorrectly, the spontaneous realignment of the atomic state amplitudes does not result in a totally decoupled dressed state, and the dynamics proceed normally

  13. Spectroscopic remote sensing of plant stress at leaf and canopy levels using the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature with continuum removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Ieda Del´Arco; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de; Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of spectral feature analysis to detect plant stress in visible/near infrared wavelengths. A time series of close range leaf and canopy reflectance data of two plant species grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was acquired with a portable spectrometer. The ProSpecTIR-VS airborne imaging spectrometer was used to obtain far range hyperspectral remote sensing data over the field experiment. Parameters describing the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature (depth, width, and area) were derived using continuum removal applied to the spectra. A new index, the Plant Stress Detection Index (PSDI), was calculated using continuum-removed values near the chlorophyll feature centre (680 nm) and on the green-edge (560 and 575 nm). Chlorophyll feature’s depth, width and area, the PSDI and a narrow-band normalised difference vegetation index were evaluated for their ability to detect stressed plants. The objective was to analyse how the parameters/indices were affected by increasing degrees of plant stress and to examine their utility as plant stress indicators at the remote sensing level (e.g. airborne sensor). For leaf data, PSDI and the chlorophyll feature area revealed the highest percentage (67–70%) of stressed plants. The PSDI also proved to be the best constraint for detecting the stress in hydrocarbon-impacted plants with field canopy spectra and airborne imaging spectroscopy data. This was particularly true using thresholds based on the ASD canopy data and considering the combination of higher percentage of stressed plants detected (across the thresholds) and fewer false-positives.

  14. Detection of wine grape nutrient levels using visible and near infrared 1nm spectral resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; van Aardt, Jan; Bajorski, Peter; Vanden Heuvel, Justine

    2016-05-01

    The grape industry relies on regular crop assessment to aid in the day-to-day and seasonal management of their crop. More specifically, there are six key nutrients of interest to viticulturists in the growing of wine grapes, namely nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and boron. Traditional methods of determining the levels of these nutrients are through collection and chemical analysis of petiole samples from the grape vines themselves. We collected ground-level observations of the spectra of the grape vines, using a hyperspectral spectrometer (0.4-2.5um), at the same time that petioles samples were harvested. We then interpolated the data into a consistent 1 nm spectral resolution before comparing it to the nutrient data collected. This nutrient data came from both the industry standard petiole analysis, as well as an additional leaf-level analysis. The data were collected for two different grape cultivars, both during bloom and veraison periods to provide variability, while also considering the impact of temporal/seasonal change. A narrow-band NDI (Normalized Difference Index) approach, as well as a simple ratio index, was used to determine the correlation of the reflectance data to the nutrient data. This analysis was limited to the silicon photodiode range to increase the utility of our approach for wavelength-specific cameras (via spectral filters) in a low cost drone platform. The NDI generated correlation coefficients were as high as 0.80 and 0.88 for bloom and veraison, respectively. The ratio index produced correlation coefficient results that are the same at two decimal places with 0.80 and 0.88. These results bode well for eventual non-destructive, accurate and precise assessment of vineyard nutrient status.

  15. State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Crews, John E; Malarcher, Ann; Maurice, Emmanuel; Richard, Roland A

    2007-10-01

    To our knowledge, no study has determined whether smoking prevalence is higher among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities across all U.S. states. Neither do we know whether people with disabilities and people without disabilities receive the same quality of advice about tobacco-cessation treatment from medical providers. We analyzed data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate differences between people with and people without disabilities in smoking prevalence and the receipt of tobacco-cessation treatment advice from medical providers. We found that smoking prevalence for people with disabilities was approximately 50% higher than for people without disabilities. Smokers with disabilities were more likely than smokers without disabilities to have visited a medical provider at least once in the previous 12 months and to have received medical advice to quit. More than 40% of smokers with disabilities who were advised to quit, however, reported not being told about the types of tobacco-cessation treatment available. Ensuring that people with disabilities are included in state-based smoking cessation programs gives states an opportunity to eliminate health disparities and to improve the health and wellness of this group. Ways to reduce unmet preventive health care needs of people with disabilities include provider adoption of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and the provision of smoking cessation services that include counseling and effective pharmaceutical treatment.

  16. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  17. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  18. Entanglement of Grassmannian Coherent States for Multi-Partite n-Level Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Najarbashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the entanglement of multi-partite Grassmannian coherent states (GCSs described by Grassmann numbers for n>2 degree of nilpotency. Choosing an appropriate weight function, we show that it is possible to construct some well-known entangled pure states, consisting of GHZ, W, Bell, cluster type and bi-separable states, which are obtained by integrating over tensor product of GCSs. It is shown that for three level systems, the Grassmann creation and annihilation operators b and b^† together with bz form a closed deformed algebra, i.e., SU_q(2 with q=e^{2πi/3}, which is useful to construct entangled qutrit-states. The same argument holds for three level squeezed states. Moreover combining the Grassmann and bosonic coherent states we construct maximal entangled super coherent states.

  19. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management in New York State: Meeting the milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 made the states responsible for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated within their borders. After extensive hearings and public participation, New York State enacted a Radioactive Waste Management Act (State LLRWMA) in July 1986. This paper describes New York's program and reviews the State's progress in complying with the milestone established by Public Law 99-240. A number of concerns about LLRW disposal and the schedule calling for a facility to be operational by January 1, 1993, are also discussed

  1. Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise of Bolinao, Pangasinan Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S. R. C.; Blanco, A. C.

    2012-07-01

    A number of studies assessing the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to climate change have classified the Philippines as one of the vulnerable countries in the region. Bolinao, Pangasinan is a municipality located in northwestern Luzon, situated in the western part of the Lingayen Gulf and is bounded on the north and west by the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea). Recent studies have verified the varying trends in sea level across the South China Sea, which is considered as one of the largest, semi-enclosed marginal seas in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Three barangays (villages) were included in the study: (1) Luciente 1.0, (2) Concordia and (3) Germinal. The Socioeconomic Vulnerability Index (SVI) was computed based on population, age, gender, employment, source of income and household size, which were gathered through a qualitative survey in the selected barangays. The Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) described the physical vulnerability of these coastal communities based on recorded sea level anomalies and significant wave heights of multiple satellite altimetry missions, coastal topography derived from the 25-m SRTM digital elevation model (DEM), bathymetry from WorldView-2 and additional elevation data from terrestrial laser scanning surveys. The research utilized merged satellite altimetry data downloaded from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS), which covered the period from 1991-2010. The SVI and CVI were calculated and evaluated in ArcGIS. The SVI and CVI were integrated to determine the Total Vulnerability Index (TVI), which characterized the vulnerability of the three barangays in five classes, from very low to very high vulnerability.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL VULNERABILITY TO SEA LEVEL RISE OF BOLINAO, PANGASINAN USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. C. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies assessing the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to climate change have classified the Philippines as one of the vulnerable countries in the region. Bolinao, Pangasinan is a municipality located in northwestern Luzon, situated in the western part of the Lingayen Gulf and is bounded on the north and west by the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea. Recent studies have verified the varying trends in sea level across the South China Sea, which is considered as one of the largest, semi-enclosed marginal seas in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Three barangays (villages were included in the study: (1 Luciente 1.0, (2 Concordia and (3 Germinal. The Socioeconomic Vulnerability Index (SVI was computed based on population, age, gender, employment, source of income and household size, which were gathered through a qualitative survey in the selected barangays. The Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI described the physical vulnerability of these coastal communities based on recorded sea level anomalies and significant wave heights of multiple satellite altimetry missions, coastal topography derived from the 25-m SRTM digital elevation model (DEM, bathymetry from WorldView-2 and additional elevation data from terrestrial laser scanning surveys. The research utilized merged satellite altimetry data downloaded from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS, which covered the period from 1991–2010. The SVI and CVI were calculated and evaluated in ArcGIS. The SVI and CVI were integrated to determine the Total Vulnerability Index (TVI, which characterized the vulnerability of the three barangays in five classes, from very low to very high vulnerability.

  3. Schemes for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown Three-Particle Three-Level Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two schemes for teleporting an unknown three-particle three-level entangled state are proposed. In the first scheme, two partial three-particle three-level entangled states are used as the quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three two-particle three-level non-maximally entangled states are employed as quantum channels.It is shown that the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both two schemes, if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is shown also that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.

  4. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  5. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  7. On the predictability of high water level along the US East Coast: can the Florida Current measurement be an indicator for flooding caused by remote forcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.

    2017-06-01

    landfall can cause a weakening of the FCT and unexpected high water level and flooding along the US East Coast. A regression-prediction model based on the MDWL-FCT correlation shows some skill in estimating high water levels during past storms; the water level prediction is more accurate for slow-moving and offshore storms than it is for fast-moving storms. The study can help to improve water level prediction since current storm surge models rely on local wind but may ignore remote forcing.

  8. State-level changes in US racial and ethnic diversity, 1980 to 2015: A universal trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined long-term changes in ethnoracial diversity for US states despite the potential social, economic, and political ramifications of such changes at the state level. Objective: We describe shifts in diversity magnitude and structure from 1980 through 2015 to determine if states are following identical, parallel, divergent, or convergent paths. Methods: Decennial census data for 1980‒2010 and American Community Survey data for 2015 are used to compute entropy index (E and Simpson index (S measures of diversity magnitude based on five panethnic populations. A typology characterizes the racial/ethnic structure of states. Results: While initial diversity level and subsequent pace of change vary widely, every state has increased in diversity magnitude since 1980. A dramatic decline in the number of predominantly white states has been accompanied by the rise of states with multigroup structures that include Hispanics. These diverse states are concentrated along the coasts and across the southern tier of the country. Differences in panethnic population growth (especially rapid Hispanic and Asian growth coupled with white stability drive the diversification trend. Conclusions: The diversity hierarchy among states has remained relatively stable over the past 35 years in the face of universal gains in diversity magnitude and the increasing heterogeneity of racial/ethnic structures. Contribution: We document ethnoracial diversity patterns at an understudied geographic scale, the state level, where diversity may have important consequences across a range of institutional domains.

  9. Experimental philosophy leading to a small scale digital data base of the conterminous United States for designing experiments with remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.; Broderick, P. W.; Garman, T. R.; Ludwig, R. W.; Beltran, G. N.; Heyman, P. J.; Hooker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    Research using satellite remotely sensed data, even within any single scientific discipline, often lacked a unifying principle or strategy with which to plan or integrate studies conducted over an area so large that exhaustive examination is infeasible, e.g., the U.S.A. However, such a series of studies would seem to be at the heart of what makes satellite remote sensing unique, that is the ability to select for study from among remotely sensed data sets distributed widely over the U.S., over time, where the resources do not exist to examine all of them. Using this philosophical underpinning and the concept of a unifying principle, an operational procedure for developing a sampling strategy and formal testable hypotheses was constructed. The procedure is applicable across disciplines, when the investigator restates the research question in symbolic form, i.e., quantifies it. The procedure is set within the statistical framework of general linear models. The dependent variable is any arbitrary function of remotely sensed data and the independent variables are values or levels of factors which represent regional climatic conditions and/or properties of the Earth's surface. These factors are operationally defined as maps from the U.S. National Atlas (U.S.G.S., 1970). Eighty-five maps from the National Atlas, representing climatic and surface attributes, were automated by point counting at an effective resolution of one observation every 17.6 km (11 miles) yielding 22,505 observations per map. The maps were registered to one another in a two step procedure producing a coarse, then fine scale registration. After registration, the maps were iteratively checked for errors using manual and automated procedures. The error free maps were annotated with identification and legend information and then stored as card images, one map to a file. A sampling design will be accomplished through a regionalization analysis of the National Atlas data base (presently being conducted

  10. Can we measure daily tobacco consumption in remote indigenous communities? Comparing self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in an Arnhem Land study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; MacLaren, David J; Robertson, Jan A; Ivers, Rowena G; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2011-03-01

    In remote Indigenous Australian communities measuring individual tobacco use can be confounded by cultural expectations, including sharing. We compared self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). In a cross-sectional survey in three communities (population 2319 Indigenous residents, aged ≥16 years), 400 Indigenous residents were interviewed (206 men, 194 women). Eight community stores provided information about tobacco sold during the survey. To gauge the impact of 255 non-Indigenous residents on tobacco turnover, 10 were interviewed (five men, five women). Breath carbon monoxide levels confirmed self-reported smoking. Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day was compared with daily tobacco consumption per user estimated using amounts of tobacco sold during 12 months before the survey (2007-2008). 'Lighter smokers' (Indigenous study participants, 305 (76%) used tobacco; four chewed tobacco. Of 301 Indigenous smokers, 177 (58%) provided self-reported consumption information; a median of 11-11.5 cigarettes per day in men and 5.5-10 cigarettes per day in women. Men were three times (odds ratio=2.9) more likely to be 'heavier smokers'. Store turnover data indicated that Indigenous tobacco users consumed the equivalent of 9.2-13.1 cigarettes per day; very similar to self-reported levels. Sixty per cent (=6/10) of non-Indigenous residents interviewed were smokers, but with little impact on tobacco turnover overall (2-6%). Smoking levels reported by Indigenous Australians in this study, when sharing tobacco was considered, closely reflected quantities of tobacco sold in community stores. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  12. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  13. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  14. The Impact of State Medical Malpractice Reform on Individual-Level Health Care Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Greenberg, Michael; Haviland, Amelia

    2017-12-01

    Past studies of the impact of state-level medical malpractice reforms on health spending produced mixed findings. Particularly salient is the evidence gap concerning the effect of different types of malpractice reform. This study aims to fill the gap. It extends the literature by examining the general population, not a subgroup or a specific health condition, and controlling for individual-level sociodemographic and health status. We merged the Database of State Tort Law Reforms with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey between 1996 and 2012. We took a difference-in-differences approach to specify a two-part model for analyzing individual-level health spending. We applied the recycled prediction method and the bootstrapping technique to examining the difference in health spending growth between states with and without a reform. All expenditures were converted to 2010 U.S. dollars. Only two of the 10 major state-level malpractice reforms had significant impacts on the growth of individual-level health expenditures. The average annual expenditures in states with caps on attorney contingency fees increased less than that in states without the reform (p negligence rule, the average annual expenditures increased more in both states with a pure comparative fault reform (p < .05) and states with a comparative fault reform that barred recovery if the plaintiff's fault was equal to or greater than the defendant's (p < .05). A few state-level malpractice reforms had significantly affected the growth of individual-level health spending, and the direction and magnitude of the effects differed by type of reform. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Science informed water resources decision-making: Examples using remote sensing observations in East Africa, the Lower Mekong Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.

  16. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in economic profiles and numbers, origins, and expenditure of medical tourists. We applied input–output (I–O) analysis, based on state-specific I–O data and disaggregated foreign patient data. The an...

  17. State-level electricity demand forecasting model. [For 1980, 1985, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    This note briefly describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) state-level electricity demand (SLED) forecasting model developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Specifically, the note presents (1) the special features of the model, (2) the methodology used to forecast electricity demand, and (3) forecasts of electricity demand and average price by sector for 15 states for 1980, 1985, 1990.

  18. 76 FR 63190 - Michigan State Plan; Change in Level of Federal Enforcement: Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... issues covered by the state's OSHA-approved occupational safety and health plan. Federal OSHA retained... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 Michigan State Plan; Change in Level of Federal Enforcement: Indian Tribes AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

  19. Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

  20. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  1. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  2. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 1 : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization System (IRSV) is being designed to accommodate the needs of todays Bridge : Engineers at the state and local level from the following aspects: : Better understanding and enforcement of a complex ...

  3. IAEA's Implementation of the State-Level Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.; Ballenger, J.; Levis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has taken several steps over the years to strengthen its safeguards program, including successfully encouraging more countries to bring an Additional Protocol into force, increasing the number of countries that are subject to a broader range of safeguards measures, and upgrading its safeguards analytical laboratories. IAEA's latest strategy to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards programme is to expand implementation of the 'state-level concept' to all countries with safeguards agreements. The state-level concept is an approach in which IAEA considers a broad range of information about a country's nuclear capabilities and tailors its safeguards activities in each country accordingly. IAEA officials have stated that broader implementation of this approach will allow the agency to better allocate resources by reducing safeguards activities where there is no indication of undeclared nuclear activities and to focus its efforts on any issues of safeguards concern. Several member countries, including the United States, support IAEA's plans to broaden implementation of the state- level concept, but other member countries - including some countries with significant nuclear activities - have raised concerns that the agency has not clearly defined and communicated how the state-level concept will be implemented or how it will stay within bounds of the agency's existing legal authorities. In September 2012, the General Conference passed a resolution that included a request for IAEA's Secretariat to report to the Board of Governors on the conceptualization and development of the state-level concept. In August 2013, IAEA released that report to the Board of Governors and started briefing member states on its content. Our paper will discuss (1) IAEA's efforts to clearly define and communicate how IAEA will implement the state-level concept and (2) the status of its

  4. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  5. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  6. Transfer of d-level quantum states through spin chains by random swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, A.; Karimipour, V.

    2007-01-01

    We generalize an already proposed protocol for quantum state transfer to spin chains of arbitrary spin. An arbitrary unknown d-level state is transferred through a chain with rather good fidelity by the natural dynamics of the chain. We compare the performance of this protocol for various values of d. A by-product of our study is a much simpler method for picking up the state at the destination as compared with the one proposed previously. We also discuss entanglement distribution through such chains and show that the quality of entanglement transition increases with the number of levels d

  7. 49 CFR 350.301 - What level of effort must a State maintain to qualify for MCSAP funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What level of effort must a State maintain to... What level of effort must a State maintain to qualify for MCSAP funding? (a) The State must maintain... funds and State matching funds, for CMV safety programs eligible for funding under this part at a level...

  8. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  9. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  10. Investigation of the Motivation Level of Teachers Working at State Schools in Relation to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In order to give the best and accurate orientation to teachers working in school organizations, it seems to be necessary to determine their motivation level. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to determine the motivation level of teachers working in state elementary and secondary schools. Moreover, the study also looks at the relationships…

  11. Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Brijesh C

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state.

  12. 1983 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The 1983 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 76,702 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 505,340 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1983. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is tabulated. Typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector are given. Predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector are tabulated. Sometimes the amount of waste reported by power facilities is equal to or exceeds the state volume reported from commercial disposal site operators. Discrepancies may be a result of waste volumes being credited to the home state of the waste broker instead of the actual state location of the generator. Additionally, waste volumes may have been in transit from the generator to the disposal site at year's end. The Low-Level Waste Management Program felt a responsibility to report information accurately from the various sources, so did not alter the figures to make them balance

  13. Women's status and child well-being: a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison

    2006-12-01

    We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (peconomic and social autonomy for women was associated with better child outcomes on all measures (ppolitical, economic, and social status. Women's status is an important aspect of children's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  15. Energy level broadening effect on the equation of state of hot dense Al and Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yong; Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    In the hot dense matter regime, the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au is calculated using an average-atom (AA) model in which the broadening of energy levels of atoms and ions are accounted for by using with a Gaussian distribution of the density of states. The distribution of bound electrons in the energy bands is determined by the continuum Fermi-Dirac distribution. With a self-consistent field average atoms scheme, it is shown that the energy-level broadening has a significant effect on the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au in the hot dense matter regime. The jumps in the equation of state (EOS) induced by pressure ionization of the one-electron orbital with the increase in density, which often occur in the normal average-atom model and have been avoided by generally introducing the pseudo-shape resonance states, disappear naturally

  16. Relationship of serum adipocytokine levels with glucolipid metabolism and micro-inflammatory state in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship of serum adipocytokine levels with glucolipid metabolism and micro-inflammatory state in obese children. Methods: A total of 299 obese children and 264 normal children were included in the study, fasting peripheral venous blood was extracted to determine serum levels of adipocytokines, glucolipid metabolism and microinflammation-related indexes, and the correlation between the levels of adipocytokines and the levels of glucolipid metabolism and micro-inflammation-related indexes was further analyzed. Results: Serum leptin and Vaspin levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, and APN level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; serum FINS, C-P, Cor, TG and LDL-C levels were higher than those of control group, and HDL-C level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; serum hs-CRP, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum Leptin, APN and Vaspin levels were directly correlated with the levels of above glucolipid metabolism and micro-micro-inflammatory state indexes. Conclusions: There are high expression levels of inflammatory factors and glucolipid metabolism disorder in obese children, and excessively expressed adipocytokines may be the important factors of persist and worsened obesity.

  17. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  18. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  19. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  20. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont

  1. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  2. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  3. West Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The West Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in West Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in West Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in West Virginia

  4. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  5. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  6. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  7. New York State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The New York State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New York. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New York. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New York

  8. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  9. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  10. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  11. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  12. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  13. Louisiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Louisiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Louisiana. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Louisiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Louisiana

  14. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  15. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  16. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  17. California State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The California State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in California. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in California. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in California

  18. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts

  19. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  20. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  1. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  2. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  3. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  4. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  5. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  6. Idaho State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Idaho State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Idaho. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Idaho. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Idaho

  7. Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Virginia

  8. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  9. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon

  10. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  11. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  12. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  13. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  14. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  15. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  16. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  17. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  18. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  19. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  20. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  1. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  2. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  3. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  4. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  5. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey

  6. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  7. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  8. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  9. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  10. Alabama State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alabama State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Alabama. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alabama. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alabama

  11. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  12. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  13. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi

  14. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  15. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  16. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  17. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  18. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  19. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  20. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  1. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas

  2. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  3. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  4. Minnesota State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota

  5. Combining forest inventory, satellite remote sensing, and geospatial data for mapping forest attributes of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Greg Liknes; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and display of forest composition, structure, and pattern provides information for a variety of assessments and management decision support. The objective of this study was to produce geospatial datasets and maps of conterminous United States forest land ownership, forest site productivity, timberland, and reserved forest land. Satellite image-based maps of...

  6. State-level women's status and psychiatric disorders among US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2011-11-01

    Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women's status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women's status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women's status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93-0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women's status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. State-level women's status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research.

  7. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondrup, A. Jeff; Schafter, Annette L.; Rood, Arthur S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  8. Correlating sea level rise still-stands to marine terraces and undiscovered submerged shoreline features in the Channel Islands (USA) using autonomous and remotely operated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Ballard, R. D.; Fahy, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Heffron, E.; Krasnosky, K.; Roman, C.; Schmidt, V. E.; McLeod, A.; Bursek, J.; Broad, K.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, the Ocean Exploration Trust aggregated onboard and autonomous mapping technologies to identify and explore paleo shorelines and discover previously undocumented submerged shoreline features in and around the Channel Islands offshore of California. Broad area mapping was conducted with the hull mounted multibeam echosounder aboard the E/V Nautilus. This Kongsberg EM302 provided maps at 2-10 m resolution, at depths generally greater than 50 m. From this data marine terraces were identified for higher resolution mapping via an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV). The precision data from the ASV's Kongsberg EM2040p echosounder allowed identification of the knickpoints associated with cliffs on the landward extent of each terrace. Sub-sea cave targets were identified using backscatter and slope maps from a combination of both the broad area and high resolution multibeam data. To ground-truth the targets identified through mapping, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and a highly specialized team of cave divers explored these targets. The results from the visual inspection were then fed back into the analysis fostering the rapid iteration of the onboard identification criteria and resulted in locating submerged shorelines containing numerous large caves, arches, and concretions. Caves were found at still-stands at 8, 33, 66, and 103 m depth at Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara Island platform, and Osborn Bank, along the vertical escarpment at the cliff-face and aligned with the strike of fractures in the volcanic rock. These terraces correspond to different sea level still-stands. ROV grab samples of fossiliferous marine terraces will provide ages and aid in reconstructions of sea level change and tectonic history for each location. Finally, caves were mapped in sub-cm resolution using a Kongsberg M3 sonar mounted vertically on the front of the ROV to test the capabilities of the system to provide accurate information about exterior dimensions and morphology.

  9. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  10. A 10-Year Assessment of Hemlock Decline in the Catskill Mountain Region of New York State Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Pontius, Jennifer; Hallett, Richard

    2015-02-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid is a serious pest of Eastern and Carolina hemlock in the eastern United States. Successfully managing the hemlock resource in the region depends on careful monitoring of the spread of this invasive pest and the targeted application of management options such as biological control, chemical, or silvicultural treatments. To inform these management activities and test the applicability of a landscape-scale remote sensing effort to monitor hemlock condition, hyperspectral collections, and concurrent ground-truthing in 2001 and 2012 of hemlock condition were compared with field metrics spanning a 10-yr survey in the Catskills region of New York. Fine twig dieback significantly increased from 9 to 15% and live crown ratio significantly decreased from 67 to 56% in 2001 and 2012, respectively. We found a significant shift from 59% "healthy" hemlock in 2001 to only 16% in 2012. However, this shift from healthy to declining classifications was mostly a shift to decline class 2 "early decline". These results indicate that while there has been significant increase in decline symptoms as measured in both field and remote sensing assessments, a majority of the declining areas identified in the resulting spatial coverages remain in the "early decline" category and widespread mortality has not yet occurred. While this slow decline across the region stands in contrast to many reports of mortality within 10 yr, the results from this work are in line with other long-term monitoring studies and indicate that armed with the spatial information provided here, continued management strategies can be focused on particular areas to help control the further decline of hemlock in the region. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Low-level waste management: a report on the states - the laws, the legislature, the administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This document presents a state-by-state review of existing legislation on low-level radioactive waste disposal. As noted in the introduction, exploration of regional waste management has begun in many parts of the country. To aid readers wishing to obtain legislative information quickly, this document has been organized according to those general geographical areas currently engaged in regional discussion. The first section includes those states who have yet to enter into formal compact negotiations or who have indicated their intention to manage waste as a single state. At this writing only three states have enacted a regional compact. It should also be noted that the membership of the Midwest and Southcentral areas particularly are in considerable flux. The grouping of state profiles in this document is thus for the purpose of quick reference to the changing national picture and is not presented as recommended regions

  12. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  13. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  14. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  15. Remote connector development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90 degree bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90 degree bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators

  16. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  17. State-level marriage equality and the health of same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Acosta, Katie L; Wright, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states' legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples.

  18. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  19. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  20. Alaska State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alaska State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in Alaska. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alaska. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alaska

  1. New Hampshire State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The New Hampshire State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books based on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in New Hampshire. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Hampshire. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Hampshire

  2. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies

  3. Relationship between atomically related core levels and ground state properties of solids: first-principles calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, Jiří; Šipr, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 045112/1-045112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100514; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : core levels * ab-initio calculations * electronic states * ground state properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  4. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  5. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management: federal-state cooperation or confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legislative history of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and discusses major issues and problems resulting from the implementation of the Act. Five specific issues addressed in this paper are: what radioactive waste constitutes ''low-level radioactive waste'' within the meaning of the Act; what responsibilities, if any, do the states have to dispose of federal radioactive waste; what liabilities and protections govern the disposal of waste not generated in a disposal-site state (hereafter, the ''host state''); to what standards of care should generators of low-level radioactive waste be held, and by what authority should such generators be licensed and inspected; which disposal-site activities should be considered ''disposal,'' and which activities should be considered ''management,'' within the meaning of the Act, and what authority do the states have, under the Act, to engage in each activity, respectively. The federal government and state governments must solve these problems in order to implement the Act, and thus, to establish equity among the 50 states, and the interstate regional compacts

  7. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  8. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  9. Remote automatic plasma arc-closure welding of a dry-storage canister for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecace, R.P.; Blankenship, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    A carbon steel storage canister has been designed for the dry encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies or of logs of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The canister design is in conformance with the requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 1 for a Class 3 vessel. The canisters will be loaded and sealed as part of a completely remote process sequence to be performed in the hot bay of an experimental encapsulation facility at the Nevada Test Site. The final closure to be made is a full penetration butt weld between the canister body, a 12.75-in O.D. x 0.25-in wall pipe, and a mating semiellipsoidal closure lid. Due to a combination of design, application and facility constraints, the closure weld must be made in the 2G position (canister vertical). The plasma arc welding system is described, and the final welding procedure is described and discussed in detail. Several aspects and results of the procedure development activity, which are of both specific and general interest, are highlighted; these include: The critical welding torch features which must be exactly controlled to permit reproducible energy input to, and gas stream interaction with, the weld puddle. A comparison of results using automatic arc voltage control with those obtained using a mechanically fixed initial arc gap. The optimization of a keyhole initiation procedure. A comparison of results using an autogenous keyhole closure procedure with those obtained using a filler metal addition. The sensitivity of the welding process and procedure to variations in joint configuration and dimensions and to variations in base metal chemistry. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma arc process for this application are summarized from the current viewpoint, and the applicability of this process to other similar applications is briefly indicated

  10. Teleporting the one-qubit state via two-level atoms with spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Mingliang, E-mail: mingliang0301@xupt.edu.cn, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com [School of Science, Xi' an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2011-05-14

    We study quantum teleportation via two two-level atoms coupled collectively to a multimode vacuum field and prepared initially in different atomic states. We concentrated on the influence of the spontaneous emission, collective damping and dipole-dipole interaction of the atoms on fidelity dynamics of quantum teleportation and obtained the region of spatial distance between the two atoms over which the state can be teleported nonclassically. Moreover, we showed through concrete examples that entanglement of the channel state is the prerequisite but not the only essential quantity for predicting the teleportation fidelity.

  11. Six-state, three-level, six-fold ferromagnetic wire system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Six stable states at remanence were identified in iron wire samples of 6-fold spatial symmetry using micromagnetic simulations and the finite element method. Onion and domain-wall magnetic states were tailored by sample shape and guided by an applied magnetic field with a fixed in-plane direction. Different directions of externally applied magnetic fields revealed a tendency for stability or nonstability of the considered states. -- Highlights: ► In a ferromagnetic wire sample six stable states at remanence were discovered. ► Presented wires provide new effects not met in classical thin-layered solutions. ► The mechanism of working results from competing demagnetizing and exchange fields. ► For different physical conditions onion and domain-wall states were observed. ► Wire samples of 6-fold symmetry can lead to many-level information storage devices

  12. Six-state, three-level, six-fold ferromagnetic wire system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blachowicz, T., E-mail: tomasz.blachowicz@polsl.pl [Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Ehrmann, A. [Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Six stable states at remanence were identified in iron wire samples of 6-fold spatial symmetry using micromagnetic simulations and the finite element method. Onion and domain-wall magnetic states were tailored by sample shape and guided by an applied magnetic field with a fixed in-plane direction. Different directions of externally applied magnetic fields revealed a tendency for stability or nonstability of the considered states. -- Highlights: ► In a ferromagnetic wire sample six stable states at remanence were discovered. ► Presented wires provide new effects not met in classical thin-layered solutions. ► The mechanism of working results from competing demagnetizing and exchange fields. ► For different physical conditions onion and domain-wall states were observed. ► Wire samples of 6-fold symmetry can lead to many-level information storage devices.

  13. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  14. State-level gonorrhea rates and expedited partner therapy laws: insights from time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, K; Cramer, R; Chesson, H W; Gift, T L; Leichliter, J S

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we examined state-level monthly gonorrhea morbidity and assessed the potential impact of existing expedited partner therapy (EPT) laws in relation to the time that the laws were enacted. Longitudinal study. We obtained state-level monthly gonorrhea morbidity (number of cases/100,000 for males, females and total) from the national surveillance data. We used visual examination (of morbidity trends) and an autoregressive time series model in a panel format with intervention (interrupted time series) analysis to assess the impact of state EPT laws based on the months in which the laws were enacted. For over 84% of the states with EPT laws, the monthly morbidity trends did not show any noticeable decreases on or after the laws were enacted. Although we found statistically significant decreases in gonorrhea morbidity within four of the states with EPT laws (Alaska, Illinois, Minnesota, and Vermont), there were no significant decreases when the decreases in the four states were compared contemporaneously with the decreases in states that do not have the laws. We found no impact (decrease in gonorrhea morbidity) attributable exclusively to the EPT law(s). However, these results do not imply that the EPT laws themselves were not effective (or failed to reduce gonorrhea morbidity), because the effectiveness of the EPT law is dependent on necessary intermediate events/outcomes, including sexually transmitted infection service providers' awareness and practice, as well as acceptance by patients and their partners. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The 1986 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The data are grouped and presented by compact regions. The data include activity and volume by waste classes, generator type, and disposal site. The report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 1,804,998 cubic feet (51,113 cubic meters) of radioactive waste containing 233,726 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1986. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc., and US Ecology for each state. Sixty-three percent of low-level waste volumes disposed at commercial sites was assigned to the state of origin. These volumes represent those disposed at Beatty and Barnwell disposal sites. Thirty-seven percent, or 665,066 cubic feet (18,831 cubic meters), of the waste disposed in the US in 1986 went to the Richland site. 8 refs., 75 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  17. Cost of a measles outbreak in a remote island economy: 2014 Federated States of Micronesia measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Tippins, Ashley; Nyaku, Mawuli; Eckert, Maribeth; Helgenberger, Louisa; Underwood, J Michael

    2017-10-13

    After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities. Contributions were also made by United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Total costs incurred as a result of the outbreak were nearly $4,000,000; approximately $10,000 per case. Direct medical costs (≈$141,000) were incurred in the treatment of those individuals infected, as well as lost productivity of the infected and informal caregivers (≈$250,000) and costs to contain the outbreak (≈$3.5 million). We assessed the economic burden of the 2014 measles outbreak to FSM, as well as the economic responsibilities of the US. Although the US paid the majority of total costs of the outbreak (≈67%), examining each country's costs relative to their respective economy illustrates a far greater burden to FSM. We demonstrate that while FSM was heavily assisted by the US in responding to the 2014 Measles Outbreak, the outbreak significantly impacted their economy. FSM's economic burden from the outbreak is approximately equivalent to their entire 2016 Fiscal Year budget dedicated to education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  19. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. 1982 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,891 cubic meters of radioactive waste containing 413,898 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1982. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes estimated volumes by generator categories. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity by disposal site for each state. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1982 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available, reactor information was obtained directly from the utility

  1. Nasa's Land Remote Sensing Plans for the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higg, H. C.; Butera, K. M.; Settle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Research since the launch of LANDSAT-1 has been primarily directed to the development of analysis techniques and to the conduct of applications studies designed to address resource information needs in the United States and in many other countries. The current measurement capabilities represented by MSS, TM, and SIR-A and B, coupled with the present level of remote sensing understanding and the state of knowledge in the discipline earth sciences, form the foundation for NASA's Land Processes Program. Science issues to be systematically addressed include: energy balance, hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, biological productivity, rock cycle, landscape development, geological and botanical associations, and land surface inventory, monitoring, and modeling. A global perspective is required for using remote sensing technology for problem solving or applications context. A successful model for this kind of activity involves joint research with a user entity where the user provides a test site and ground truth and NASA provides the remote sensing techniques to be tested.

  2. 20 CFR 666.130 - Under what conditions may a State or DOL request revisions to the State negotiated levels of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a State or DOL request revisions to the State negotiated levels of performance? (a) The DOL guidelines describe when and under what circumstances a Governor may request revisions to negotiated levels... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may a State or DOL...

  3. Prediction of winter wheat high yield from remote sensing based model: application in United States and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely crop yield forecasts are critical for making informed agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. In Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) and Franch et al. (2015) we developed an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat yield. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season and the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. These methods were applied to MODIS CMG data in Ukraine, the US and China with errors around 10%. However, the NDVI is saturated for yield values higher than 4 MT/ha. As a consequence, the model had to be re-calibrated in each country and the validation of the national yields showed low correlation coefficients. In this study we present a new model based on the extrapolation of the pure wheat signal (100% of wheat within the pixel) from MODIS data at 1km resolution and using the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI). The model has been applied to monitor the national yield of winter wheat in the United States and Ukraine from 2001 to 2016.

  4. Inlfuence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wei; WANG Yan-ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the inlfuence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension. Methods:Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97) and non-depression group (n=82) according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy in 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropic hormone (TSH) by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed. Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P0.05). HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593,P=0.024), a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011), and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137,P=0.334;r=0.058, P=0.576). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  5. 1984 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,429 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 600,909 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1984. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1984. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Non-reactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1984. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. Academic includes university hospitals and medical and nonmedical research facilities. The medical category includes hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and private medical offices. The industrial category includes private entities such as research and development companies, manufacturers, nondestructive testing, mining, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers. Government includes state and federal agencies. Data from previous publications were also used as a comparison. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  7. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff [Idaho National Laboratory, Battelle Energy Alliance, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83401-2107 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute

  8. New York vs. United States: Federalism and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although 97 percent of LLRW is so slightly radioactive that it requires little or no shielding to protect the public, the remaining 3 percent consists of materials that must be shielded for periods ranging from 300 to several thousand years. Some of the material classified as LLRW contains open-quotes open-quote hot spots close-quote, where concentrations of radioactivity may be quite high.close quotes Even aside from such hot spots, LLRW poses a threat to human health. While nuclear power plants generate the bulk of LLRW, a significant quantity of LLRW is generated by industry, and academic and medical institutions. States are allowed to regulate LLRW that is generated by the private sector, as long as the regulations are compatible with, and at least as restrictive as, those of the NRC. However, states may not regulate LLRW generated by NRC-licensed nuclear power plants. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLR-WPAA, or the Act) attempted to solve the problem of insufficient LLRW disposal capacity in the United States by further shifting responsibility for LLRW disposal to the states. The Act required each state to provide an approved disposal site that could be located either within that state or within a region formed by a compact including that state. In June, 1992, the United States Supreme Court struck down a key provision of the Act that would have forced a state to take title to all LLRW generated within its borders if that state failed to meet a 1996 deadline for providing such a disposal site. This note will examine the constitutional basis for, and the consequences of, that decision. In addition, this note will suggest that the Court's new criterion for determining when a federal statute violates principles of federalism be replaced by a more coherent and workable test resting on a theory of political accountability and on the Guarantee Clause of the United States Constitution

  9. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  10. On irreversible evolutions of two-level systems approaching coherent and squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.; Tolar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups and SU(2)-related generalized coherence and squeezing are used to investigate conditions for Markovian evolutions leading to coherent, intelligent, minimum-uncertainty and squeezed asymptotic stationary states in a 2-level system. (author). 10 refs

  11. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  13. National- and State-Level High School Graduation Rates for English Learners. Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topic for this report on English Learners (ELs) are national- and state-level high school graduation rates for English Learners. The following data are presented: (1)…

  14. Levels of Job Satisfaction and Performance of Sports Officers in Lagos State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, Ademola; Keinde, Idou; Kehinde, Eunice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction levels of sports officers and sports performance of secondary schools in Lagos State. Data were collected from 200 subjects across 10 Local Education Districts. Job Descriptive Index was used to determine job satisfaction while performance in the Principals' Soccer…

  15. Predictors of Placement Stability at the State Level: The Use of Logistic Regression to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jon R.; Prophet, Retta

    2011-01-01

    Placement instability is often associated with a number of negative outcomes for children. To gain state level contextual knowledge of factors associated with placement stability/instability, logistic regression was applied to selected variables from the New Mexico Adoption and Foster Care Administrative Reporting System dataset. Predictors…

  16. Probabilistic Teleportation of Multi-particle d-Level Quantum State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Min; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2005-01-01

    The general scheme for teleportation of a multi-particle d-level quantum state is presented when m pairs of partially entangled particles are utilized as quantum channels. The probabilistic teleportation can be achieved with a successful probability of d-1∏N=0(CN0)2/dM,which is determined by the smallest coefficients of each entangled channels.

  17. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  18. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  19. State-level renewable electricity policies and reductions in carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Monica; Munch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of renewable electricity policies has been adopted at the state level in the United States, but to date there has been no large-scale, empirical assessment of the effect of these policies on carbon emissions. Such an assessment is important because scholars have pointed out that increases in renewable electricity will not necessarily lead to declines in carbon emissions. We examine the effects of a range of policies across 39 states. We find significant and robust decreases in carbon emissions associated with the introduction of public benefit funds, a form of “carbon tax” adopted by 19 states to date. Our aim in this paper is not to provide a final judgment on these policies, many of which may not have been in place long enough to show strong effects, but to shift the attention of the research community away from proximate measures such as increases in clean electricity generation and onto measurement of lower carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We ask whether state-level renewable electricity policies in the United States have succeeded in lowering carbon emissions. ► We examine net metering, retail choice, fuel generation disclosure, mandatory green power options, public benefit funds, and renewable portfolio standards. ► The introduction of public benefit funds, a kind of carbon tax, is associated with decreases in carbon emissions.

  20. A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. (paper)

  1. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.

    1989-03-01

    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  2. Seep Detection using E/V Nautilus Integrated Seafloor Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicles on the United States West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L. J.; Raineault, N.; Kane, R.; Saunders, M.; Heffron, E.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus has been mapping the seafloor off the west coast of the United States, from Washington to California, for the past three years with a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar. This system simultaneously collects bathymetry, seafloor and water column backscatter data, allowing an integrated approach to mapping to more completely characterize a region, and has identified over 1,000 seafloor seeps. Hydrographic multibeam sonars like the EM302 were designed for mapping the bathymetry. It is only in the last decade that major mapping projects included an integrated approach that utilizes the seabed and water column backscatter information in addition to the bathymetry. Nautilus mapping in the Eastern Pacific over the past three years has included a number of seep-specific expeditions, and utilized and adapted the preliminary mapping guidelines that have emerged from research. The likelihood of seep detection is affected by many factors: the environment: seabed geomorphology, surficial sediment, seep location/depth, regional oceanography and biology, the nature of the seeps themselves: size variation, varying flux, depth, and transience, the detection system: design of hydrographic multibeam sonars limits use for water column detection, the platform: variations in the vessel and operations such as noise, speed, and swath overlap. Nautilus integrated seafloor mapping provided multiple indicators of seep locations, but it remains difficult to assess the probability of seep detection. Even when seeps were detected, they have not always been located during ROV dives. However, the presence of associated features (methane hydrate and bacterial mats) serve as evidence of potential seep activity and reinforce the transient nature of the seeps. Not detecting a seep in the water column data does not necessarily indicate that there is not a seep at a given location, but with multiple passes over an area and by the use of other contextual data, an area may

  3. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  4. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorum, Martin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  5. State-of-the-art review of quality assurance techniques for vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.L.H.

    1984-07-01

    Quality assurance is required for certain chemical and physical properties of both the molten glass pour and the solidified glass within the stainless steel container. It is also required to monitor the physical condition of the container lid weld. A review is presented of techniques which are used or which might be adapted for use in the quality assurance of vitrified high level waste. For the most part only non-intrusive methods have been considered, however, some techniques which are not strictly non-intrusive have been reviewed where a non-intrusive technique has not been identified or where there are other advantages associated with the particular technique. In order to identify suitable candidate techniques reference has been made to an extensive literature survey and experts in the fields of nuclear waste technology, glass technology, non-destructive testing, chemical analysis and remote analysis have been contacted. The opinions of manufacturers and users of specific techniques have also been sought. A summary is also given of those techniques which can most readily be applied to the problem of quality assurance for vitrified waste as well as recommendations for further research into techniques which might be adapted to suit this application. (author)

  6. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  7. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States -- Progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The US nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW -- industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW -- face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of US low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  8. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  9. State-Level Estimates of Obesity-Attributable Costs of Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide state-level estimates of obesity-attributable costs of absenteeism among working adults in the U.S. Methods Nationally-representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1998–2008 and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2012 are examined. The outcome is obesity-attributable workdays missed in the previous year due to health, and their costs to states. Results Obesity, but not overweight, is associated with a significant increase in workdays absent, from 1.1 to 1.7 extra days missed annually compared to normal weight employees. Obesity-attributable absenteeism among American workers costs the nation an estimated $8.65 billion per year. Conclusion Obesity imposes a considerable financial burden on states, accounting for 6.5%–12.6% of total absenteeism costs in the workplace. State legislature and employers should seek effective ways to reduce these costs. PMID:25376405

  10. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  11. Distinguishing bulk traps and interface states in deep-level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, A V P; Adam, M C; Boudinov, H

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the distinction of discrete bulk deep levels and interface states related peaks in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra is proposed. The measurement of two spectra using different reverse voltages while keeping pulse voltage fixed causes different peak maximum shifts in each case: for a reverse voltage modulus increase, a bulk deep-level related peak maximum will remain unchanged or shift towards lower temperatures while only interface states related peak maximum will be able to shift towards higher temperatures. This method has the advantage of being non-destructive and also works in the case of bulk traps with strong emission rate dependence on the electric field. Silicon MOS capacitors and proton implanted GaAs Schottky diodes were employed to experimentally test the method.

  12. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    successful mapping of oil slick thickness-related patterns. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) can quantify oil thicknesses by Raman scattering line distortions, but saturates for >20-??m thick oil and depends on oil optical characteristics and sea state. Combined with laser bathymetry LIF can provide submerged oil remote sensing.

  13. Optimizing and joining future safeguards efforts by 'remote inspections'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zendel, M.; Khlebnikov, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full-text: Remote inspections have a large potential to save inspection effort in future routine safeguards implementation. Such inspections involve remote activities based on the analysis of data acquired in the field without the physical presence of an inspector, shifting the inspectors' priorities further toward unannounced inspections, complementary access activities and data evaluation. Large, automated and complex facilities require facility resident and specific safeguards equipment systems with features for unattended and remotely controlled operation as well as being integrated in the nuclear process. In many instances the use of such equipment jointly with the SSAC/RSAC and the operator is foreseen to achieve affordable effectiveness with a minimum level of intrusiveness to the facility operation. Where it becomes possible to achieve independent conclusions by this approach, the IAEA would make full use of the SSAC/RSAC, involving State inspectors and/or facility operators to operate inspection systems under remotely controlled IAEA mechanisms. These mechanisms would include documented procedures for routine joint-use, defining arrangements for data sharing, physical security and authentication mechanisms, recalibration and use of standards and software, maintenance, repair, storage and transportation. The level of cooperation and willingness of a State to implement such measures requested and properly justified by the IAEA will demonstrate its commitment to full transparency in its nuclear activities. Examples of existing remote inspection activities, including joint-use activities will be discussed. The future potential of remote inspections will be assessed considering technical developments and increased needs for process monitoring. Enhanced cooperation with SSAC/RSAC within the framework of remote inspections could further optimize the IAEA's inspection efforts while at the same time maintaining effective safeguards implementation. (author)

  14. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Moser, Richard P; Perna, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states' competitive food laws and children's overweight and obesity status (body mass index [BMI]-for-age ≥85th percentile). Children (N = 16,271) between the ages of 11-14 years with a BMI for age ≥5th percentile who attended public school were included. Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  16. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  17. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont

  18. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  19. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  20. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  1. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on state anxiety levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andreia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-08-01

    Increased anxiety levels have been widely recognized as one of the most important consequences of sleep deprivation. However, despite this general consensus, there are still aspects of this relationship, such as the extent of the anxiogenic potential and the specific effects of different types of sleep deprivation, which remain unclear. As no broad review has been undertaken to evaluate this relationship, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on state anxiety. Our search strategy encompassed two databases - Pubmed/Medline and Scopus - through which we were able to identify 756 articles. After the selection process, 18 articles, encompassing 34 experiments, composed our final sample. Our analyses indicate that sleep deprivation, whether total or not, leads to a significant increase in state anxiety levels, but sleep restriction does not. Regarding the effect of the length of the period of sleep deprivation, no significant results were observed, but there was a notable tendency for an increase in anxiety in longer sleep deprivations. With regard to tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) seems to be the best one to measure sleep-induced anxiogenesis, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) presented inconclusive results. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that sleep deprivation induces a state of increased anxiety, with similar results also in the case of total sleep deprivation; however, results in more specific experimental conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 2 : knowledge modeling and database development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization System (IRSV) is being designed to accommodate the needs of todays Bridge Engineers at the : state and local level from several aspects that were documented in Volume One, Summary Report. The followi...

  4. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase two, volume 1 : outreach and commercialization of IRSV prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization System (IRSV) was developed in Phase One of this project in order to : accommodate the needs of todays Bridge Engineers at the state and local level. Overall goals of this project are: : Better u...

  5. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  6. Maryland and District of Columbia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The District of Columbia and Maryland State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in the District of Columbia and Maryland

  7. Numerology, hydrogenic levels, and the ordering of excited states in one-electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lloyd, Jr.

    1982-03-01

    We show that the observed ordering of Rydberg states of one-electron atoms can be understood by assuming that these states are basically hydrogenic in nature. Much of the confusion concerning this point is shown to arise from the failure to differentiate between hydrogenic ordering as the nuclear charge approaches infinity, and hydrogenic ordering for an effective charge of one. The origin of κ ordering of Rydberg levels suggested by Sternheimer is considered within this picture, and the predictions of κ ordering are compared with those obtained by assuming hydrogenic ordering.

  8. Level Of Extension Agents Motivation And Effectiveness In Abia State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiadikwe N. Benjamin Agbarevo Nwogu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is known to affect effectiveness of workers but the level of extension agents motivation and how this has affected their effectiveness in Abia state is apparently unknown. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of motivation on effectiveness of extension agents in Abia State Nigeria. Two blocks were selected from each of the three zones in the state at the first stage giving total of 6 blocks. The second stage involved the selection of two sub-circles from each of the 6 blocks selected giving a total of 12 extension sub-circles. At the third stage 10 extension agents from each of the sub-circles were randomly selected giving a sample size of 120 extension agents. The data for the study was collected with use of a structured questionnaire. The extension agents level of motivation and effectiveness were measured with the aid of a 5 point Likert rating scale. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were the mean frequencies and the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient which was used to determine the coefficient of correlation r . The inferential statistic used was the t-test of significance of relationship. The study found a significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents. Hence the null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted at 95 confidence level and 119 degrees of freedom.

  9. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  10. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  11. Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Petersson, Elin

    2017-01-01

    discursive policy analysis with feminist state and multi-level governance theories. Paying attention to the role of the state, we focus on the framing of policy problems that are important for care chains and on potential tensions between different framings within a state and across the different levels...

  12. Vehicle-Level Reasoning Systems: Integrating System-Wide Data to Estimate the Instantaneous Health State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Mylaraswmay, Dinkar; Mah, Robert W.; Cooper, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    At the aircraft level, a Vehicle-Level Reasoning System (VLRS) can be developed to provide aircraft with at least two significant capabilities: improvement of aircraft safety due to enhanced monitoring and reasoning about the aircrafts health state, and also potential cost savings by enabling Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Along with the benefits of CBM, an important challenge facing aviation safety today is safeguarding against system and component failures and malfunctions. Faults can arise in one or more aircraft subsystem their effects in one system may propagate to other subsystems, and faults may interact.

  13. Geometric manipulation of the quantum states of two-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Fischer, Joe A.; Babbitt, Wm. Randall

    2004-01-01

    Manipulation of the quantum states of two-level atoms has been investigated using laser-controlled geometric phase change, which has the potential to build robust quantum logic gates for quantum computing. For a qubit based on two electronic transition levels of an atom, two basic quantum operations that can make any universal single qubit gate have been designed employing resonant laser pulses. An operation equivalent to a phase gate has been demonstrated using Tm 3+ doped in a yttrium aluminum garnet crystal

  14. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based......) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature...

  15. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  16. Influence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wei WANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the influence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension.Methods: Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97 and non-depression group (n=82 according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy of 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 and thyrotropic hormone (TSH by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed.Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P<0.05, but there was no statistical difference between 2 groups (P>0.05. HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593, P=0.024, a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011, and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137, P=0.334; r=0.058, P=0.576.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  17. Estimates of state-level health-care expenditures associated with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne L; Armour, Brian S; Finkelstein, Eric A; Wiener, Joshua M

    2010-01-01

    We estimated state-level disability-associated health-care expenditures (DAHE) for the U.S. adult population. We used a two-part model to estimate DAHE for the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian adult population using data from the 2002-2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and state-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Administrative data for people in institutions were added to generate estimates for the total adult noninstitutionalized population. Individual-level data on total health-care expenditures along with demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, and payer characteristics were used in the models. The DAHE for all U.S. adults totaled $397.8 billion in 2006, with state expenditures ranging from $598 million in Wyoming to $40.1 billion in New York. Of the national total, the DAHE were $118.9 billion for the Medicare population, $161.1 billion for Medicaid recipients, and $117.8 billion for the privately insured and uninsured populations. For the total U.S. adult population, 26.7% of health-care expenditures were associated with disability, with proportions by state ranging from 16.9% in Hawaii to 32.8% in New York. This proportion varied greatly by payer, with 38.1% for Medicare expenditures, 68.7% for Medicaid expenditures, and 12.5% for nonpublic health-care expenditures associated with disability. DAHE vary greatly by state and are borne largely by the public sector, and particularly by Medicaid. Policy makers need to consider initiatives that will help reduce the prevalence of disabilities and disability-related health disparities, as well as improve the lives of people with disabilities.

  18. Information systems to support low-level waste management: perspective from the State of Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaford, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) is required by state law to develop a comprehensive regulatory system for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management. Reliable, extensive information about LLW in Illinois is needed to plan and implement such a regulatory program. IDNS annually surveys, by mail and follow-up phone calls, approximately 260 LLW generators in Illinois. This information is being supplemented by a more detailed characterization of waste streams. Additional information needed for IDNS's regulatory program includes data on components of a waste disposal facility (e.g., concrete performance), site and performance computer models for various kinds of sites and for alternative waste disposal facility designs. In the future, all states will need more information than has been historically the case, given the changes in management and disposal systems and the increased role of the states

  19. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  20. Cloning of symmetric d-level photonic states in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi; Weihs, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Optimal procedures play an important role in quantum information. It turns out that some naturally occurring processes as emission of light from an atom can realize optimal transformations. Here we study how arbitrary symmetric states of a number of d-level systems can be cloned using a multilevel atomic system. It is shown that optimality is always ensured even though the output number of systems is probabilistic