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Sample records for state involving f-rg-m

  1. Biotransformation of ginsenosides F4 and Rg6 in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 (GF 4 and GRg 6 ), two main active components of steamed notoginseng or red ginseng, are dehydrated disaccharide saponins. In this work, biotransformation of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 in zebrafish was investigated by qualitatively identifying their metabolites and then proposing their possible metabolic pathways. The prediction of possible metabolism of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 using zebrafish model which can effectively simulate existing mammals model was early and quickly performed. Metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. A total of 8 and 6 metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 were identified in zebrafish, respectively. Of these, 7 and 5, including M1, M3-M5, M7-M9 and N1 (N5), N2, N4 (N9), N7-N8 were reported for the first time as far as we know. The mechanisms of their biotransformation involved were further deduced to be desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, loss of C-17 and/or C-23 residue pathways. It was concluded that loss of rhamnose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic and metabolic processes of ginsenosides F 4 and ginsenosides Rg 6 , respectively.

  2. HM{sup +}–RG complexes (M = group 2 metal; RG = rare gas): Physical vs. chemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Joe P.; Dodson, Hannah; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Breckenridge, W. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Previous work on the HM{sup +}–He complexes (M = Be–Ra) has been extended to the cases of the heavier rare gas atoms, HM{sup +}–RG (RG = Ne–Rn). Optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been calculated using MP2 theory and quadruple-ζ quality basis sets. Dissociation energies for the loss of the rare gas atom have been calculated at these optimized geometries using coupled cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples, CCSD(T)theory, extrapolating interaction energies to the basis set limit. Comparisons are made between the present data and the previously obtained helium results, as well as to those of the bare HM{sup +} molecules; furthermore, comparisons are made to the related M{sup +}–RG and M{sup 2+}–RG complexes. Partial atomic charge analyses have also been undertaken, and these used to test a simple charge-induced dipole model. Molecular orbital diagrams are presented together with contour plots of the natural orbitals from the quadratic configuration with single and double excitations (QCISD) density. The conclusion is that the majority of these complexes are physically bound, with very little sharing of electron density; however, for M = Be, and to a lesser extent M = Mg, some evidence for chemical effects is seen in HM{sup +}–RG complexes involving RG atoms with the higher atomic numbers.

  3. Per Nørgårds “nordiske" periode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie B.; Bonde, Anders

    1997-01-01

    s. 491-653 + bilag  Per Nørgård (f. 1932) er en af de nulevende danske komponister, hvis musik har givet anledning til flest skriverier. Det være sig i bøger, aviser, tidsskrifter m.m. Samtidigt foreligger fra komponisten selv et væld af artikler og manuskripter, omhandlende musikteori, analyser......, kulturkritik m.m. I en lang række af disse skrifter fra især 1980'erne og 1990'erne dukker ordet "interferens" til stadighed op i såvel Per Nørgårds egne som andres udtalelser og kommentarer, knyttet til hans kompositoriske virke. Interferensfænomenet har med tiden vist sig at have en helt central placering i...... forbindelse med hans musik, dog uden at der på noget tidspunkt er opstillet fyldestgørende definitioner af begrebet. Samtidig har Per Nørgård flere gange fremhævet, hvorledes interferensen synes at stå som en overordnet fællesnævner for hele hans produktion trods store stilistiske forskelle. Som følge deraf...

  4. O custo que envolve a retirada de múltiplos órgãos Cost that involves the retriet of multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÍCERA IZABEL C. DE OLIVEIRA GUERRA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo que envolve a doação e retirada de órgãos é complexo e tem um custo elevado para os hospitais que o realizam. Neste artigo é estimado o custo médio total envolvido nesse processo, comparando-o com a remuneração paga pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. OBJETIVO: Levantar os gastos com captação, manutenção do doador e retirada de órgãos para transplante. MÉTODOS: É um estudo retrospectivo, baseado no levantamento dos prontuários de 32 doadores admitidos na Organização de Procura de Órgãos do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1999. Os gastos levantados foram em relação aos seguinte itens: recursos humanos, material de consumo, utilidade pública, exames complementares, depreciação de equipamentos, material permanente e transporte. RESULTADOS: O estudo realizado encontrou o custo médio de R$ 2.883,34 para o processo de doação, captação e retirada de órgãos, desde a avaliação até a entrega do corpo a família. O valor pago pelo SUS é de R$ 1. 853,71. Este custo cobre 65% do custo médio real. CONCLUSÃO: O artigo demonstra a importância da realização de estudos de custos, de procedimentos, com o objetivo de orientar a definição/atualização das tabelas de remuneração de serviços.The process of organ donation and retreat is complex and involves a high cost for hospitals that do it.PURPOSE: to survey the expenses with the process of donation and retreat of organs.METHODS: retrospective study based on medical records of 32 donors, admitted in the Search Organs Organisation do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, during the period from January to December of 1999.RESULTS: the process is complex and involves a special structure as well as 24 hours of activities, making it costly. Expenses were related with the following items: human resources, permanent material, public utilities, complementary examinations, depreciation of equipment and

  5. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including; (1) white "read noise", (2) residual bias drifts, (3) pink 1/f noise, (4) alternating column noise, and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4.

  6. Penrose limits and RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimon, Eric G.; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.

    2002-01-01

    The Penrose-Gueven limit simplifies a given supergravity solution into a pp-wave background. Aiming at clarifying its relation to renormalization group flow we study the Penrose-Guven limit of supergravity backgrounds that are dual to non-conformal gauge theories. The resulting backgrounds fall in a class simple enough that the quantum particle is exactly solvable. We propose a map between the effective time-dependent quantum mechanical problem and the RG flow in the gauge theory. As a testing ground we consider explicitly two Penrose limits of the infrared fixed point of the Pilch-Warner solution. We analyze the corresponding gauge theory picture and write down the operators which are the duals of the low lying string states. We also address RG flows of a different nature by considering the Penrose-Gueven limit of a stack of N D p branes. We note that in the far IR (for p<3)the limit generically has negative mass-squared. This phenomenon signals, in the world sheet picture, the necessity to transform to another description. In this regard, we consider explicitly the cases of M2 from D2 and F1 from D1. (author)

  7. Theoretical Study of Group 14 M^{+}(^{2}P_{J})-RG Complexes (M^{+} = C^{+}, Si^{+}; RG = he - Ar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Thorington, Rebecca L.; Wright, Timothy G.; Viehland, Larry A.

    2017-06-01

    The light group 14 cations are found in a wide variety of environments, with, for example, C^{+} ions thought to play a key role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium, while Si^{+} ions are an important component of the upper atmosphere of the Earth due to their presence in meteoroids. We calculate accurate interatomic potentials for a singly charged carbon cation and a singly charged silicon cation interacting with the rare gas atoms helium, neon and argon. The RCCSD(T) method is employed, with basis sets of quadruple-ζ and quintuple-ζ quality, and the energies counterpoise corrected and extrapolated to the basis set limit at each point. In all cases, we consider the lowest electronic states of the M^{+} atom, (^{2}P_{J}), interacting with the ground electronic state of the RG atom, (^{1}S_{0}), and compute potentials corresponding to the molecular terms, ^{2}Π and ^{2}Σ^{+}, as well as the spin-orbit levels which arise: ^{2}Π_{3/2}, ^{2}Π_{1/2} and ^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+}. The potentials are employed to calculated spectroscopic constants and ion transport properties. S. Petrie and D. K. Bohme, Mass Spec. Rev., 26, 258 (2007). J. M. C. Plane, J. C. Gómez-Martin, W. Feng, and D. Janches, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 3718 (2016). W. D. Tuttle, R. L. Thorington, L. A. Viehland and T. G. Wright, Mol. Phys. 113, 3767 (2015). W. D. Tuttle, R. L. Thorington, L. A. Viehland and T. G. Wright (in preparation). W. D. Tuttle, R. L. Thorington, L. A. Viehland and T. G. Wright, Mol. Phys. 115, 437 (2017).

  8. Relativity-Induced Bonding Pattern Change in Coinage Metal Dimers M2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au, Rg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Lu, Jun-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun

    2018-05-07

    The periodic table provides a fundamental protocol for qualitatively classifying and predicting chemical properties based on periodicity. While the periodic law of chemical elements had already been rationalized within the framework of the nonrelativistic description of chemistry with quantum mechanics, this law was later known to be affected significantly by relativity. We here report a systematic theoretical study on the chemical bonding pattern change in the coinage metal dimers (Cu 2 , Ag 2 , Au 2 , Rg 2 ) due to the relativistic effect on the superheavy elements. Unlike the lighter congeners basically demonstrating ns- ns bonding character and a 0 g + ground state, Rg 2 shows unique 6d-6d bonding induced by strong relativity. Because of relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling effect in Rg 2 , two nearly degenerate SO states, 0 g + and 2 u , exist as candidate of the ground state. This relativity-induced change of bonding mechanism gives rise to various unique alteration of chemical properties compared with the lighter dimers, including higher intrinsic bond energy, force constant, and nuclear shielding. Our work thus provides a rather simple but clear-cut example, where the chemical bonding picture is significantly changed by relativistic effect, demonstrating the modified periodic law in heavy-element chemistry.

  9. Boomerang RG flows in M-theory with intermediate scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Rosen, Christopher; Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar

    2017-07-01

    We construct novel RG flows of D=11 supergravity that asymptotically approach AdS 4 × S 7 in the UV with deformations that break spatial translations in the dual field theory. In the IR the solutions return to exactly the same AdS 4 × S 7 vacuum, with a renormalisation of relative length scales, and hence we refer to the flows as `boomerang RG flows'. For sufficiently large deformations, on the way to the IR the solutions also approach two distinct intermediate scaling regimes, each with hyperscaling violation. The first regime is Lorentz invariant with dynamical exponent z = 1 while the second has z = 5/2. Neither ofthe two intermediatescaling regimesare associatedwith exact hyperscaling violation solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The RG flow solutions are constructed using the four dimensional N = 2 STU gauged supergravity theory with vanishing gauge fields, but non-vanishing scalar and pseudoscalar fields. In the ABJM dual field theory the flows are driven by spatially modulated deformation parameters for scalar and fermion bilinear operators.

  10. Rg1 inhibits high glucose-induced mesenchymal activation and fibrosis via regulating miR-2113/RP11-982M15.8/Zeb1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Li-Ping; Fu, Xiao-Lin; Hu, Min; Zhang, Li-Wei; Li, Ya-Di; Peng, Ya-Li; Ding, Peng

    2018-07-02

    Recent study has showed that Ginsenoside Rg1, the mian active compound of Panax ginseng, could ameliorate oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in diabetes mellitus. However, the roles and mechanisms of Rg1 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Rg1 on mesenchymal activation of high-glucose (HG) cultured müller cells. High glucose conditions up-regulate MMP-2, MMP-9 and down-regulate TIMP-2, and promote mesenchymal activation in Müller cells. And Rg1 inhibits the HG-induced mesenchymal activation and HG-increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 and HG-decreased TIMP-2 in Müller cells. HG up-regulates Zeb1 and lncRNA RP11-982M15.8, and down-regulates miR-2113, and Rg1 inhibits these effects of HG. Both inhibition of miR-2113 and over-expression of RP11-982M15.8 significantly restored the HG induced mesenchymal activasion. Taken together, our findings suggested that Rg1 inhibited HG-induced mesenchymal activation and fibrosis via regulating miR-2113/RP11-982M15.8/Zeb1 pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dose- and time-dependent effects of phenobarbital on gene expression profiling in human hepatoma HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carine B.; Spire, Catherine; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) induces or represses a wide spectrum of genes in rodent liver. Much less is known about its effects in human liver. We used pangenomic cDNA microarrays to analyze concentration- and time-dependent gene expression profile changes induced by PB in the well-differentiated human HepaRG cell line. Changes in gene expression profiles clustered at specific concentration ranges and treatment times. The number of correctly annotated genes significantly modulated by at least three different PB concentration ranges (spanning 0.5 to 3.2 mM) at 20 h exposure amounted to 77 and 128 genes (p ≤ 0.01) at 2- and 1.8-fold filter changes, respectively. At low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM), PB-responsive genes included the well-recognized CAR- and PXR-dependent responsive cytochromes P450 (CYP2B6, CYP3A4), sulfotransferase 2A1 and plasma transporters (ABCB1, ABCC2), as well as a number of genes critically involved in various metabolic pathways, including lipid (CYP4A11, CYP4F3), vitamin D (CYP24A1) and bile (CYP7A1 and CYP8B1) metabolism. At concentrations of 3.2 mM or higher after 20 h, and especially 48 h, increased cytotoxic effects were associated with disregulation of numerous genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair and apoptosis. Primary human hepatocyte cultures were also exposed to 1 and 3.2 mM PB for 20 h and the changes were comparable to those found in HepaRG cells treated under the same conditions. Taken altogether, our data provide further evidence that HepaRG cells closely resemble primary human hepatocytes and provide new information on the effects of PB in human liver. These data also emphasize the importance of investigating dose- and time-dependent effects of chemicals when using toxicogenomic approaches

  12. Morfologia de órgãos genitais femininos de quelônio semi-aquático Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria F. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Testudines: Chelidae é um quelônio de água doce cuja ocorrência é descrita nas bacias dos rios Amazonas, Tocantins, Paraguai, Paraná e Uruguai. Consta na lista vermelha de espécies ameaçadas da International Union for Conservation of Nature, como espécie de baixo risco, mas que poderá se tornar ameaçada, sendo necessário a atualização de seus dados ecológicos e biológicos. Considerando que planos de manejo e conservação de espécies dependem também de vasto conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva, apresentamos a primeira descrição macroscópica dos órgãos genitais de fêmeas jovens e adultas de M. vanderhaegei correlacionando esses achados ao tamanho do espécime e ao período do ano. Exemplares de M. vanderhaegei foram coletados no município de Chapada dos Guimarães, área de ampla ocorrência natural da espécie. A descrição dos órgãos genitais foi realizada a partir de 17 fêmeas fixadas em formol a 10% e dissecadas para evidenciação de particularidades relacionadas à anatomia externa e interna. Os órgãos genitais M. vanderhaegei jovens e adultas são constituídos por pares de ovários e ovidutos que desembocam dorsolateralmente na cloaca, formando junto com o ureter a papila urogenital. Os ovários são órgãos alongados, com a extremidade cranial mais larga e caudal afunilada, já os ovidutos são longos e localizados lateralmente aos ovários, sendo em adultas, muito diferenciado na sua forma e tamanho em relação ao das jovens. Em ambas faixas etárias, os órgãos genitais são sustentados por pregas de membrana celomática que emergem do teto da cavidade, constituindo os mesovário e mesoviduto. De acordo com a forma e o padrão de mucosa do oviduto em fêmeas adultas, o segmento cranial corresponde as regiões do infundíbulo e magnum, o segmento médio, ao istmo e no caudal identificam-se as regiões útero e vagina. No assoalho do urodeum aloja-se o clit

  13. Intracellular Trafficking Modulation by Ginsenoside Rg3 Inhibits Brucella abortus Uptake and Intracellular Survival within RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, has various pharmacological and biological activities; however, its effects against Brucella infection are still unclear. Herein, the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 against intracellular parasitic Brucella infection were evaluated through bacterial infection, adherence assays, and LAMP-1 colocalization, as well as immunoblotting and FACS for detecting MAPK signaling proteins and F-actin polymerization, respectively. The internalization, intracellular growth, and adherence of Brucella abortus in Rg3-treated RAW 264.7 cells were significantly decreased compared with the Rg3-untreated control. Furthermore, an apparent reduction of F-actin content and intensity of F-actin fluorescence in Rg3-treated cells was observed compared with B. abortus -infected cells without treatment by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy, respectively. In addition, treating cells with Rg3 decreased the phosphorylation of MAPK signaling proteins such as ERK 1/2 and p38 compared with untreated cells. Moreover, the colocalization of B. abortus -containing phagosomes with LAMP-1 was markedly increased in Rg3-treated cells. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits B. abortus infection in mammalian cells and can be used as an alternative approach in the treatment of brucellosis.

  14. Static electric polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of molecular ions RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Janusz; Antušek, Andrej; Holka, Filip; Sadlej, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations of static electric properties of molecular ions of general formula RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) involving the finite field method and coupled cluster CCSD(T) approach have been done. The relativistic effects were taken into account by Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The numerical stability and reliability of calculated values have been tested using the systematic sequence of Dunning's cc-pVXZ-DK and ANO-RCC-VQZP basis sets. The influence of ZPE and pure vibrational contribution has been discussed. The component αzz has increasing trend in RgH + while the relativistic effect on αzz leads to a small increase of this molecular parameter.

  15. Keterkaitan Rg-aljabar Dan Struktur Grup

    OpenAIRE

    Yudi, Irwan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is discussed an algebraic structure which is called RG-algebra. The RG-algebra is a subclass of BCI-algebra and a sub subclass of K-algebra. Therefore, everyRG-algebra is a BCI-algebra, but conversly is not true. The RG-algebra andGroup Structure have a relation. Its relation is RG-algebra can be constructed by acommutativegroup and conversly commutativegroup can be constructed by a RG-algebra. The RG-algebra is a K-algebra with commutativegroupas generator group.

  16. Uus tootedisain = New product design / Monika Järg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järg, Monika, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    Tutvustatakse: mööblisari Smart (Tarmo Luisk, 2011) ja Slice (Tarmo Luisk, 2008), rattahoidja Typo (Tarmo Luisk) ja Tulip Fan Fan (Margus Triibmann, 2011), iste Seat (Monika Järg), mööbliseeria Maast: tool CHO1 ja laud TBO1 (Tõnis Kalve, Aap Piho, 2011), padjad KO! (Kärt Ojavee, 2011), vaibakollektsioon Unlimited (Kaidi Ploomipuu, Monika Järg, 2011), vann Aquator CLAUDE 170 (2011), büroomööbli seeria Metod (Iseasi, 2012), rippvalgusti Aero (Tõnis Vellama, 2011), tool Must ja nagi Z (Toivo Raidmets, 2008-2012)

  17. Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates corticosterone-induced dysfunction of gap junctions in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cong-Yuan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Yan; Ren, Qian; Lou, Yu-Xia; Luo, Piao; Tian, Man-Tong; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Du, Guo-Hua; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2017-08-17

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC. Primary rat prefrontal cortical and hippocampal astrocytes cultures were treated with 50μM CORT for 24h to induce gap junction damage. Rg1 (0.1, 1, or 10μM) or fluoxetine (1μM) was added 1h prior to CORT treatment. A scrape loading and dye transfer assay was performed to identify the functional capacity of gap junctions. Western blot was used to detect the expression and phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43), the major component of gap junctions. Treatment of primary astrocytes with CORT for 24h inhibited GJIC, decreased total Cx43 expression, and increased the phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine368 in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with 1μM and 10μM Rg1 significantly improved GJIC in CORT-treated astrocytes from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively, and this was accompanied by upregulation of Cx43 expression and downregulation of Cx43 phosphorylation. These findings provide the first evidence indicating that Rg1 can alleviate CORT-induced gap junction dysfunction, which may have clinical significance in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Amelioration of N-Acetyl-p-Benzoquinone Imine Toxicity by Ginsenoside Rg3: The Role of Nrf2-Mediated Detoxification and Mrp1/Mrp3 Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Il Gum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that Korean red ginseng suppressed acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via alteration of its metabolic profile involving GSTA2 induction and that ginsenoside Rg3 was a major component of this gene induction. In the present study, therefore, we assessed the protective effect of Rg3 against N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI, a toxic metabolic intermediate of APAP. Excess NAPQI resulted in GSH depletion with increases in the ALT and AST activities in H4IIE cells. Rg3 pretreatment reversed GSH depletion by NAPQI. Rg3 resulted in increased mRNA levels of the catalytic and modulatory subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, the rate-limiting steps in GSH synthesis and subsequently increased GSH content. Rg3 increased levels of nuclear Nrf2, an essential transcriptional factor of these genes. The knockdown or knockout of the Nrf2 gene abrogated the inductions of mRNA and protein by Rg3. Abolishment of the reversal of GSH depletion by Rg3 against NAPQI was observed in Nrf2-deficient cells. Rg3 induced multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp 1 and Mrp3 mRNA levels, but not in Nrf2-deficient cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rg3 is efficacious in protecting hepatocytes against NAPQI insult, due to GSH repletion and coordinated gene regulations of GSH synthesis and Mrp family genes by Nrf2.

  19. Relative entropy and the RG flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo [Centro Atómico Bariloche and CONICET,S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro, R8402AGP (Argentina)

    2017-03-16

    We consider the relative entropy between vacuum states of two different theories: a conformal field theory (CFT), and the CFT perturbed by a relevant operator. By restricting both states to the null Cauchy surface in the causal domain of a sphere, we make the relative entropy equal to the difference of entanglement entropies. As a result, this difference has the positivity and monotonicity properties of relative entropy. From this it follows a simple alternative proof of the c-theorem in d=2 space-time dimensions and, for d>2, the proof that the coefficient of the area term in the entanglement entropy decreases along the renormalization group (RG) flow between fixed points. We comment on the regimes of convergence of relative entropy, depending on the space-time dimensions and the conformal dimension Δ of the perturbation that triggers the RG flow.

  20. Eu/RG absorption and excitation spectroscopy in the solid rare gases: state dependence of crystal field splitting and Jahn-Teller coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Owen; McCaffrey, John G

    2011-03-28

    Absorption spectroscopy recorded for annealed samples of matrix-isolated atomic europium reveals a pair of thermally stable sites in Ar and Kr while a single site exists in Xe. Plots of the matrix shifts of the visible s → p bands versus host polarizability, allowed the association of the single site in Xe and the blue sites in Ar and Kr. On the basis of the similar ground state bond lengths expected for the Eu-rare gas (RG) diatomics and the known Na-RG molecules, the blue sites are attributed to Eu occupancy in the smaller tetra-vacancy while the red sites are proposed to arise from hexa-vacancy sites. Both sites are of cubic symmetry, consistent with the pronounced Jahn-Teller structure present on the y(8)P ← a(8)S(7/2) transition for these bands in the three hosts studied. Site-selective excitation spectroscopy has been used to reanalyze complex absorption spectra previously published by Jakob et al. [Phys. Lett. A 57, 67 (1976)] for the near-UV f → d transitions. On the basis that a pair of thermally stable sites exist in solid argon, the occurrence of crystal field splitting has been identified to occur for the J ≥ 5/2 level of the (8)P state when isolated in these two sites with cubic symmetry. From a detailed lineshape analysis, the magnitude of the crystal field splittings on the J = 5/2 level in Ar is found to be 105 and 123 cm(-1) for the red and blue sites, respectively.

  1. Örgütsel Bağlılık ile Örgütsel Sinizm ve Örgütsel Muhalefet Arasındaki İlişki The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Cynicism and Organizational Dissent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya YILDIZ

    2013-07-01

    örülmektedir. Örgütsel sinizm ve örgütsel muhalefet bu değişkenlerden biridir. Son yıllarda örgütsel sinizm ve örgütsel muhalefet örgütsel davranış disiplininin ilgilendiği yeni konular içerisinde yer almaktadır. Öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılık düzeylerini etkileyen sinizm ve muhalefet algılarının bilinmesi önemli görülmüştür. Bu araştırmanın amacı; İlkokullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılık ile örgütsel sinizm ve örgütsel muhalefet algıları arasındaki ilişkiyi saptamaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma evrenini, 2012-2013 öğretim yılında Bolu ili merkez ilçe sınırlarında bulunan ilkokullarda görev yapan 219 sınıf öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma verileri, ölçeklerle toplanmıştır. Araştırma verileri öğretmenlerden Meyer ve Allen (1984 tarafından geliştirilen ve Boylu, Pelit ve Güçer (2007 tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlanan “Örgütsel Bağlılık Ölçeği”, Brandes, Dharwadkar ve Dean (1999 tarafından geliştirilen Kalağan (2009 tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan “Örgütsel Sinizm Ölçeği” ve Özdemir (2010 tarafından geliştirilen Örgütsel Muhalefet ölçeğinin “Muhalif Davranışlar Alt Ölçeği” ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmada veriler; SPSS 16.0 paket programında frekans, yüzde, aritmetik ortalama, standart sapma ve korelasyon gibi betimsel istatistiksel işlemlerle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmada İlkokullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılık ile örgütsel sinizm ve örgütsel muhalefet algıları arasında bir ilişki olduğu sonucuna ulaşımıştır. Öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılık ile örgütsel sinizm algıları arasında yüksek düzeyde negatif, örgütsel muhalefet algıları ile ise orta düzeyde negatif bir ilişki olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengwei [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Huang, Chenglin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  3. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mengwei; Huang, Chenglin; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu; Chen, Hong; Shen, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria

  4. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is the major pharmacologically active component of ginseng, and is reported to have various therapeutic actions. To determine whether it induces the differentiation of neural stem cells, and whether neural stem cell transplantation after induction has therapeutic effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we cultured neural stem cells in 10-80 µM ginsenoside Rg1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that of the concentrations tested, 20 mM ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest differentiation-inducing effect and was the concentration used for subsequent experiments. Whole-cell patch clamp showed that neural stem cells induced by 20 µM ginsenoside Rg1 were more mature than non-induced cells. We then established neonatal rat models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy using the suture method, and ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells were transplanted via intracerebroventricular injection. These tests confirmed that neural stem cells induced by ginsenoside had fewer pathological lesions and had a significantly better behavioral capacity than model rats that received saline. Transplanted neural stem cells expressed neuron-specific enolase, and were mainly distributed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells can promote the partial recovery of complicated brain functions in models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  5. Estudos sôbre os órgãos odoríferos de alguns Hesperidae Brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. São descritas áreas de escamas nas asas do macho e da fêmea de várias espécies de Hesperidae brasilienses. 2. É considerada a corelação destas áreas as articulações entre as asas anteriores e posteriores. 3. Verificou-se que as áreas das escamas odoríferas da asa posterior têm origem nas áreas das escamas de ligação. Esta mudança de função é demonstrada pela forma das escamas em comparação com escamas de ligação em função. 4. É apresentada uma descrição detalhada da estrutura mais fina das escamas de ligação e das escamas odoríferas. 5. As borboletas de sexo masculino das espécies examinadas podem ser divididas de acôrdo com a ausência ou presença de órgãos odoríferos diferentes (v. tabela 1: 1. grupo: borboletas sem glândulas odoríferas especiais (tipo de Vehilius. 2. grupo: borboletas com sulco odorífero na asa anterior (tipo de Augiades 3. grupo: borboletas com dobra costal da asa anterior (tipo de Thanaos. 4. grupo: borboletas com órgão odorífero no metatórax (tipo de Achlyodes. 6. A fêmea de H 31 possui na memebrana intersegmental VII./VIII. escamas odoríferas de uma notável estrutura mais fina. 7. As escamas odoríferas são estudadas com respeito à sua estrutura fina e dada uma possível derivação da cerda da escama. 8. O estudo dos órgãos odoríferos é feito com respeito ao aumento da superfície destinada á evaporação pelas escamas e ainda á função protetora das escamas de cobertura e dobras cuticulares. 9. A evolução de órgãos odoríferos diferentes em diferentes partes do corpo indica uma evolução polifilética dos órgãos, o que tem valor sistemático na família bem limitada das Hesperidae. 10. Os machos de h 16 e H 130 possuem dois tipos de órgãos odoríferos especiais, a dobra costal e o órgão odorífero do metatórax com pincel-distribuidor na tíbia posterior. Nas espécies citadas e que têm parentesco, toma lugar uma evolução polifilética de órg

  6. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy.

  7. Low-dose respiratory-gated PET/CT: based on 30 mA tube current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Li Sijin; Zhang Yanlan; Hao Xinzhong; Qin Zhixing; Yan Min; Cheng Pengliang; Wu Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish a low-dose but image-comparable respiratory-gated PET/CT (RG PET/CT) protocol based on 30 mA tube current plus other improved scanning parameters, such as the tube current, the number of respiratory phase and length of breathing cycle. Methods: Twenty-six patients with 18 F-FDG-intaking lung nodules underwent one-bed standard-dose PET/CT (120 mA, 2 min/bed) and low dose RG PET/CT (30 mA, 6 respiratory phases, 1 min/phase). The radiation dose and image quality were analyzed subsequently with signal to noise ratio (SNR) for PET and the homogeneity, noise level for CT in the water phantom respectively. Otherwise the CT images were both visual evaluated by two experienced doctors. In addition, different respiratory cycle was simulated to observe its relation with radiation dose. Results: The effective dose of low-dose RG PET/CT was 4.88∼7.69 mSv [mean (5.68±0.83) mSv]. The PET SNR showed no significance between groups. The homogeneity of 30 mA is good (< 5 HU), although noise level was high, the visual character like lobulation, speculation of lung nodule was superior in some respiratory phases. The radiation dose was positively correlated with respiratory cycle. Conclusions: The performance of low-dose RG PET/CT was comparable to those of standard-dose PET/CT based on a protocol with 30 mA tube current, 6 respiratory phases and breathing state of eupnoea. It produced a much lower radiation exposure and the image quality was enough for clinical use such as delineation of tumor active target, characterization and staging of lung nodules, etc. (authors)

  8. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal..., Wheeling Office, a division of RG Steel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W-81,880) and Mountain State Carbon, LLC, including...

  9. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wei; He, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is believed to be one of the main active principles in ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine extensively used to enhance stamina and deal with fatigue as well as physical stress. It has been reported that Rg1 performs multiple biological activities, including neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia-reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells and also probed its possible mechanisms. To establish a model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfusion, cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to OGD for 2.5 hours, followed by a 24-hour reoxygenation. Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into control group, model group (vehicle), and ginsenoside Rg1 treatment groups (5μM, 20μM, 60μM). At 24 hours post-OGD, the intracellular free calcium concentration was detected using Furo-3/AM-loaded hippocampal neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was measured by chemical colorimetry. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining, and the neuron viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Excitotoxic neuronal injury of OGD was demonstrated by the increase of intracellular free calcium concentrations and elevated nNOS activity in the model group compared with the control group. The intracellular free calcium concentrations and the nNOS activity in the groups receiving intermediate and high dose of ginsenoside Rg1 were significantly lower than those of the control group (p cell viability loss (p cell apoptosis induced by OGD. Ginsenoside Rg1 has neuroprotective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells mediated by blocking calcium over-influx into neuronal cells and decreasing the nNOS activity after OGD exposure. We infer that ginsenoside Rg1 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for cerebral ischemia injury. Copyright © 2014

  10. Kamu personelinde algılanan örgütsel desteğin örgütsel bağlılık ve örgütsel özdeşleşme düzeyleri ile ilişkisini belirlemeye yönelik bir araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Barutcu, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    Algılanan örgütsel destek (AÖD) bireylerin örgüte olan katkılarının ne derece önemsendiği, refahlarının ne derece dikkate alındığı ve üyesi oldukları örgütlerinin kedilerini ne derece destekleyip güvende hissetmelerini sağladıklarına olan inançlarıdır. Bireylerin örgütsel destek algılarının olumlu olduğu ortamlarda bireylerin karşılık olarak bir takım olumlu tepkilerde bulunacakları literatürde yer alan birçok araştırmada ifade edilmiştir. Bu kapsamda değerlendirildiğinde örgüt...

  11. Toward Rotational State-Selective Photoionization of ThF+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ng, Kia Boon; Gresh, Dan; Cairncross, William; Grau, Matt; Ni, Yiqi; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun

    2016-06-01

    ThF+ has been chosen to replace HfF+ for a second-generation measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Compared to the currently running HfF+ eEDM experiment, ThF+ has several advantages: (i) the eEDM-sensitive state (3Δ1) is the ground state, which facilitates a long coherence time [1]; (ii) its effective electric field (35 GV/cm) is 50% larger than that of HfF+, which promises a direct increase of the eEDM sensitivity [2]; and (iii) the ionization energy of neutral ThF is lower than its dissociation energy, which introduces greater flexibility in rotational state-selective photoionization via core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states [3]. In this talk, we first present our strategy of preparing and utilizing core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states for rotational state-selective ionization. Then, we report spectroscopic data of laser-induced fluorescence of neutral ThF, which provides critical information for multi-photon ionization spectroscopy. [1] D. N. Gresh, K. C. Cossel, Y. Zhou, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 319 (2016), 1-9 [2] M. Denis, M. S. Nørby, H. J. A. Jensen, A. S. P. Gomes, M. K. Nayak, S. Knecht, T. Fleig, New Journal of Physics, 17 (2015) 043005. [3] Z. J. Jakubek, R. W. Field, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 205 (2001) 197-220.

  12. Effect of enzyme on extraction of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 from Panax notoginseng roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tran Xuan; Thy, Lu Thi Mong; Khang, Nguyen Luu Vinh; My, Huynh Thi Kieu; Tam, Nguyen Le Phuong; Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng is distributed throughout the north and northwest of Vietnam, especially Ha Giang, Lao Cai, and Cao Bang provinces. The root of this plant contains ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rd, Rg3), flavonoids, polyacetylene, polysaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and peptides. In this study, the ratios of enzyme (Viscozyme, Termamyl, Cellulase), solvent of components, and time extraction were investigated. The results showed that the highest contents of Rb1 and Rg3 were achieved in the sample extracted with the ratio of enzymes V:C:T = 1:0:0, ethanol:water (60:40, v/v) as extracting solvent in 45 minutes. Then, conditions of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector method to determine the content of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3 in the roots of Panax notoginseng were studied, including wavelength, mobile phase, and flow rate. The separation was subjected on a reversed-phase C18 column using acetonitrile (A) and water (B) as mobile phase. The gradient elution was set as follow: 0-10 min, 15-25% A; 10-20 min, 25-30% A; 20-40 min, 30-60% A; 40-60 min, 60-80% A; and 60-65 min back to 15% A before the next injection, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and the wavelength was set at 202 nm. The linear range was from 298.59 to 696.72 µg/mL for Rb1 and from 8.19 to 19.10 µg/L for Rg3. The limits of detection for Rb1 and Rg3 obtained were 0.31 µg/mL and 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification were 0.95 µg/mL and 1.01 µg/mL for Rb1 and Rg3, respectively. Consequently, the high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the highly sensitive and accurate method for determination of Rb1 and Rg3 in Panax notoginseng.

  13. Empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation: an fMRI study of internal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Völlm, Birgit A; Elliott, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2014-02-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of empathy, Theory of Mind (ToM), and self-other differentiation involved in the adaptive understanding of people's internal states. Three conditions were distinguished in both sad and neutral (no obvious emotion) contexts. The empathy condition involved imagining what another person is feeling while the more cognitively loaded ToM condition involved imagining what would make another person feel better. The self-reference condition required participants to imagine how they would feel in someone else's situation. Areas previously implicated in empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation were identified within the different conditions, regardless of emotional context. Specifically, the frontal and temporal poles responded more strongly for ToM than for empathy. The self-reference condition was associated with stronger dorsolateral prefrontal response than the empathy condition, while the reverse comparison revealed a stronger role for right frontal pole. Activations in frontal pole and orbitofrontal cortex were shared between the three conditions. Contrasts of parameter estimates demonstrated modulation by emotional context. The findings of common and differential patterns of responding observed in prefrontal and temporal regions suggest that within the social cognition network empathy, ToM and self-other differentiation have distinct roles that are responsive to context.

  14. [The bonding characteristic of titanium and RG experiment porcelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-hong; Guo, Tian-wen; Tian, Jie-mo; Zhang, Yun-long

    2003-07-01

    To study the bonding characteristic of Titanium and RG experiment porcelain. 5 specimens with a size of 10 mm x 5 mm x 1.4 mm were cast from pure titanium. Then 1 mm of RG experiment opaque and body porcelain were fused on the surface of the titanium specimens. The interface of titanium and porcelain was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope with energy-despersive spectrometry; 6 metal specimens with the size of 25 mm x 3 mm x 0.5 mm were cast from Ni-Cr alloy and a uniform thickness of 1 mm of VMK 99 porcelain was veneered on the central area of 8 mm x 3 mm 18 metal specimens as the same size were cast from pure titanium. The uniform thickness of 1 mm of VITA TITANKERAMIK porcelain, of Noritake super porcelain Ti-22 and of RG experiment porcelain were veneered on every 6 specimens respectively in the central area of 8 mm x 3 mm. The specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a load-test machine with a span of 20 mm, then the failure loads were recorded and statistically analysised. The RG porcelain/titanium crown was fabricated by fusing RG opaque porcelain and body porcelain to cast titanium substrate crown. The SEM results show no porosity and crackle were found in the interface. The energy-dispersive spectrometry show that there are Si, Ti and O in the 1 micro m layer between porcelain and titanium, which suggesting titanium and experiment porcelain bonding well. The three point test showed the fracture force for the combinations of titanium/VITA TITANKERAMIK porcelain, titanium/Noritake super porcelain Ti-22 and titanium/RG experiment porcelain were (7.233 +/- 2.539) N, (5.533 +/- 1.199) N and (6.316 +/- 1.433) N respectively. There were not statistically significant differences among them (t test, P porcelain combination (12.733 +/- 3.297) N was significantly greater than those of the cast titanium/porcelain (t test, P > 0.05). The crown was translucent with no crack. RG porcelain is well compatible with titanium.

  15. Electric conductivity of double fluorides in the systems M1F-Th(U)F4(M1=K, Tl) and M2F2-ThF4(M2=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, I.V.; Andreev, A.M.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electric conductivity of some double fluorides formed in the systems M 1 F-Th(U)F 4 (M 1 =K, Tl) and M 2 F 2 -ThF 4 (M 2 =Ca, Sr, Ba) as well as UF 3 in a wide temperature range is studied. It is shown that the values of electric conductivity and activation energy of these fluorides depend on the compound structure and cation nature. The temperature electric conductivity dependence for double fluorides with the tysonite structure is close to the lanthanum fluoride dependence. Taking into account low electron electric conductivity component the conclusion is drawn that the investigated compounds can be used as solid electrolytes

  16. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 Stimulate Melanogenesis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes via PKA/CREB/MITF Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced or defective melanin skin pigmentation may cause many hypopigmentation disorders and increase the risk of damage to the skin triggered by UV irradiation. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 have many molecular targets including the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB, which is involved in melanogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on melanogenesis in human melanocytes and their related mechanisms. The effects of Rb1 and Rg1 on cell viability, tyrosinase activity, cellular melanin content and protein levels of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, and activation of CREB in melanocytes were assessed. Results showed that Rb1 or Rg1 significantly increased cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, the cell viability of melanocytes remained unchanged. After exposure to Rb1 or Rg1, the protein levels of tyrosinase, MITF, and phosphorylated CREB were significantly increased. Furthermore, pretreatment with the selective PKA inhibitor H-89 significantly blocked the Rb1- or Rg1-induced increase of melanin content. These findings indicated that Rb1 and Rg1 increased melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes, which was associated with activation of PKA/CREB/MITF signaling. The effects and mechanisms of Rb1 or Rg1 on skin pigmentation deserve further study.

  17. Strong disorder RG approach of random systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igloi, Ferenc; Monthus, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    There is a large variety of quantum and classical systems in which the quenched disorder plays a dominant ro-circumflex le over quantum, thermal, or stochastic fluctuations: these systems display strong spatial heterogeneities, and many averaged observables are actually governed by rare regions. A unifying approach to treat the dynamical and/or static singularities of these systems has emerged recently, following the pioneering RG idea by Ma and Dasgupta and the detailed analysis by Fisher who showed that the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yield asymptotic exact results if the broadness of the disorder grows indefinitely at large scales. Here we report these new developments by starting with an introduction of the main ingredients of the strong disorder RG method. We describe the basic properties of infinite disorder fixed points, which are realized at critical points, and of strong disorder fixed points, which control the singular behaviors in the Griffiths-phases. We then review in detail applications of the RG method to various disordered models, either (i) quantum models, such as random spin chains, ladders and higher dimensional spin systems, or (ii) classical models, such as diffusion in a random potential, equilibrium at low temperature and coarsening dynamics of classical random spin chains, trap models, delocalization transition of a random polymer from an interface, driven lattice gases and reaction diffusion models in the presence of quenched disorder. For several one-dimensional systems, the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yields very detailed analytical results, whereas for other, mainly higher dimensional problems, the RG rules have to be implemented numerically. If available, the strong disorder RG results are compared with another, exact or numerical calculations

  18. Exotic RG flows from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Universite Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Nitti, Francesco; Silva Pimenta, Leandro [APC, Universite Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)

    2017-02-15

    Holographic RG flows are studied in an Einstein-dilaton theory with a general potential. The superpotential formalism is utilized in order to characterize and classify all solutions that are associated with asymptotically AdS space-times. Such solutions correspond to holographic RG flows and are characterized by their holographic β-functions. Novel solutions are found that have exotic properties from a RG point-of view. Some have β-functions that are defined patch-wise and lead to flows where the β-function changes sign without the flow stopping. Others describe flows that end in non-neighboring extrema in field space. Finally others describe regular flows between two minima of the potential and correspond holographically to flows driven by the VEV of an irrelevant operator in the UV CFT. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Maksevõimelisuse põhimõte ja füüsilise isiku maksuvabastused kehtivas tulumaksuseaduses / Kaspar Lind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lind, Kaspar, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Maksevõimelisuse põhimõttest, füüsilise isiku maksuvabastusest ja nende maksuvabastuste kooskõlast maksevõimelisuse põhimõttega. Järg. Algus Juridica 2003 nr. 5, lk. 338-348, pealkirjaga Tulu mõiste

  20. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wen Hou

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05. Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05.Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  1. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in silicotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Mao, Lijun; Guan, Li; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted mainly from Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert strong pro-angiogenic activities in vivo. But it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rg1 could promote lung lymphangiogenesis to improve lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica in silicotic rats. Here we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica during experimental silicosis, and found that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment significantly raised the silicon content in tracheobronchial lymph nodes and serum to reduce the silicon level in lung interstitium, meanwhile increased pulmonary lymphatic vessel density by enhancing the protein and mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The stimulative effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica was actively correlated with its pro-lymphangiogenic identity. And VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 blocked these above effects of ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits good protective effect against lung burden of silica during experimental silicosis through improving lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica, which is potentially associated with the activation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rg/sup a/ (Rodgers) and the HLA region: linkage and associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, C.M. (MRC Blood Group Reference Lab., London, Eng.); Gedde-Dahl, T. Jr.; Robson, E.B.; Thorsby, E.; Olaisen, B.; Arnason, A.; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Schreuder, I.

    1976-01-01

    In 19 families with 97 children the segregation of Rg/sup a/ (Rodgers) was found to be compatible with Mendelian inheritance and five backcross and 14 intercross families were found among HLA and BF type families. Close linkage (lods + 17.82) without recombination was found between Rg and the HLA region, with a direct count of 96 nonrecombinant meioses for Rg--HLA--B, Rg/sup -/ was strongly associated with HLA-B8 (29 of 30 haplotypes) and probably associated with Bw40, but did occur on other HLA--B haplotypes. By inference Rg/sup -/ is negatively associated with Ch/sup -/ (Chido). The Rg/sup -/Ch/sup -/ haplotype has not been observed. Rg/sup a/ and Ch/sup a/ may or may not be coded for by different sites of the same cistron closely linked to HLA--B:C and cannot as yet be excluded from being parts of B or C.

  4. Holographic RG flows on curved manifolds and quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, J. K.; Kiritsis, E.; Nitti, F.; Witkowski, L. T.

    2018-05-01

    Holographic RG flows dual to QFTs on maximally symmetric curved manifolds (dS d , AdS d , and S d ) are considered in the framework of Einstein-dilaton gravity in d + 1 dimensions. A general dilaton potential is used and the flows are driven by a scalar relevant operator. The general properties of such flows are analyzed and the UV and IR asymptotics computed. New RG flows can appear at finite curvature which do not have a zero curvature counterpart. The so-called `bouncing' flows, where the β-function has a branch cut at which it changes sign, are found to persist at finite curvature. Novel quantum first-order phase transitions are found, triggered by a variation in the d-dimensional curvature in theories allowing multiple ground states.

  5. Geometry of 6D RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.; Morrison, David R.; Rudelius, Tom; Vafa, Cumrun

    2015-01-01

    We study renormalization group flows between six-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) using their geometric realizations as singular limits of F-theory compactified on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. There are two general types of flows: one corresponds to giving expectation values to scalars in the tensor multiplets (tensor branch flow) realized as resolving the base of the geometry. The other corresponds to giving expectation values to hypermultiplets (Higgs branch flow) realized as complex structure deformations of the geometry. To corroborate this physical picture we calculate the change in the anomaly polynomial for these theories, finding strong evidence for a flow from a UV fixed point to an IR fixed point. Moreover, we find evidence against non-trivial dualities for 6D SCFTs. In addition we find non-trivial RG flows for theories realizing small E 8 instantons on ALE spaces.

  6. The effect of recycled Natural Rubber Glove (rRG) Plasticizers to Deflection and Flexural Strength Properties of PP/MMt/rRG Smart Composites and Its Inflammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Ariesta, N.

    2018-03-01

    Had been synthesized PP/rRG/MMt+ZB smart material composite in solution reactive processes with various rRG concentration. The addition of rRG plasticizers will improve the deflection properties and increase the filler capacity MMt loading to reach the optimum concentration. The addition of 3% rRG is capable of loading filler capacity MMt to 23% as the optimum condition. At the optimum conditions it can increase the deflection (Defl) and flexural strength (FS) up to 16% and 15% respectively compared to that of the composites without rRG. The rRG plasticizer serves as a bio-compatibilizer that can reduce surface tension of the mixture and leads to decrease the Defl., follow by the increase of loading filler capacity and well interaction finally can increase the FS properties. The increase of loading filler MMt up to 23% can also improve the inflammability of the composites. Time to Ignition (TTI) increase by 5% and Burning Rate (BR) decrease by 4.5% compared to that of the composites which is containing MMt 20% without rRG.

  7. Preparation of Ginsenoside Rg3 and Protection against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-SH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the protection of ginsenoside Rg3 against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. 20(R-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R-Rg3 and 20(S-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(S-Rg3 were prepared by the method of chemical degradation and column chromatography, and the structure of the two compounds was characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. MTT assay and LDH leakage assay were used to determine the cell viability and the oxidative stress cellular model was established by means of H2O2 (600 μM for 4 h. We also investigated the changes of intracellular MDA content, SOD activity, and ROS formation after the treatment of ginsenoside Rg3 for 20 h. The results indicated that both 20 (R-Rg3 and 20 (S-Rg3 had obvious protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, 20(R-Rg3 exhibited better antioxidant activity than 20(S-Rg3 in vitro. These findings are expected to provide some implication for further research and application of ginsenoside Rg3 in neuroprotection.

  8. Electrophysiolocal findings in Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome (MTS is an X-liked recessive rare syndrome also known as deafness-dystonia syndrome. The severity of the symptoms may vary, but they progress usually to severe deafness and dystonia and sometimes they are accompanied by cortical deterioration of vision and mental deterioration. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a very interesting case of Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome. A 24-year-old italian man with Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome underwent full field electroretinography (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEPs. Fundus examination showed apparently normal retina with pallor of the optic disc. Pattern reversal VEP and flash VEP responses were non-recordable. ERG showed amplitude reduction of the fotopic, scotopic and 30 Hz flicker responses revealing generalized retinal dysfunction with reduction of cone and rod responses. The progressive neurodegeneration in Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome can be also associated with a retinal degeneration.

  9. Kolm küsimust Rait Pärgile / Rait Pärg ; interv. Katrin Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärg, Rait

    2001-01-01

    Skulptor Rait Pärg Pärnu skulptuurikaardi ja selle põhjal skulptuurikontseptsiooni koostamisest (osalevad ka Omar Volmer ja Mark Soosaar), 2.-11. juunini korraldatavatest skulptuuripäevadest "Pärnu - positiivse märgiga linn"

  10. Advantageous use of HepaRG cells for the screening and mechanistic study of drug-induced steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, Laia [Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Gómez-Lechón, M. José [Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); CIBERehd, FIS, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Jiménez, Nuria [Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Hervás, David [Biostatistics Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Jover, Ramiro [Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); CIBERehd, FIS, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain); Donato, M. Teresa, E-mail: donato_mte@gva.es [Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia 46026 (Spain); CIBERehd, FIS, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Only a few in vitro assays have been proposed to evaluate the steatotic potential of new drugs. The present study examines the utility of HepaRG cells as a cell-based assay system for screening drug-induced liver steatosis. A high-content screening assay was run to evaluate multiple toxicity-related cell parameters in HepaRG cells exposed to 28 compounds, including drugs reported to cause steatosis through different mechanisms and non-steatotic compounds. Lipid content was the most sensitive parameter for all the steatotic drugs, whereas no effects on lipid levels were produced by non-steatotic compounds. Apart from fat accumulation, increased ROS production and altered mitochondrial membrane potential were also found in the cells exposed to steatotic drugs, which indicates that all these cellular events contributed to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. These findings are of clinical relevance as most effects were observed at drug concentrations under 100-fold of the therapeutic peak plasmatic concentration. HepaRG cells showed increased lipid overaccumulation vs. HepG2 cells, which suggests greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis. An altered expression profile of transcription factors and the genes that code key proteins in lipid metabolism was also found in the cells exposed to drugs capable of inducing liver steatosis. Our results generally indicate the value of HepaRG cells for assessing the risk of liver damage associated with steatogenic compounds and for investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced steatosis. - Highlights: • HepaRG cells were explored as an in vitro model to detect steatogenic potential. • Multiple toxicity-related endpoints were analysed by HCS. • HepaRG showed a greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis than HepG2 cells. • Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism were revealed. • HepaRG allow mechanistic understanding of liver damage induced by steatogenic drugs.

  11. Advantageous use of HepaRG cells for the screening and mechanistic study of drug-induced steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, M. José; Jiménez, Nuria; Hervás, David; Jover, Ramiro; Donato, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Only a few in vitro assays have been proposed to evaluate the steatotic potential of new drugs. The present study examines the utility of HepaRG cells as a cell-based assay system for screening drug-induced liver steatosis. A high-content screening assay was run to evaluate multiple toxicity-related cell parameters in HepaRG cells exposed to 28 compounds, including drugs reported to cause steatosis through different mechanisms and non-steatotic compounds. Lipid content was the most sensitive parameter for all the steatotic drugs, whereas no effects on lipid levels were produced by non-steatotic compounds. Apart from fat accumulation, increased ROS production and altered mitochondrial membrane potential were also found in the cells exposed to steatotic drugs, which indicates that all these cellular events contributed to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. These findings are of clinical relevance as most effects were observed at drug concentrations under 100-fold of the therapeutic peak plasmatic concentration. HepaRG cells showed increased lipid overaccumulation vs. HepG2 cells, which suggests greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis. An altered expression profile of transcription factors and the genes that code key proteins in lipid metabolism was also found in the cells exposed to drugs capable of inducing liver steatosis. Our results generally indicate the value of HepaRG cells for assessing the risk of liver damage associated with steatogenic compounds and for investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced steatosis. - Highlights: • HepaRG cells were explored as an in vitro model to detect steatogenic potential. • Multiple toxicity-related endpoints were analysed by HCS. • HepaRG showed a greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis than HepG2 cells. • Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism were revealed. • HepaRG allow mechanistic understanding of liver damage induced by steatogenic drugs.

  12. Atenção médica, transplante de órgão e tecidos e políticas de focalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carlos Dimas Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa à reflexão sobre a legitimidade moral de implementar políticas públicas de focalização na área da atenção médica avançada; em particular, no caso de transplantes de órgãos e tecidos. Para tanto, foi feita referência a duas abordagens teóricas: a teoria das capacidades (capabilities, elaborada por Nussbaum e Sen, e à bioética de proteção desenvolvida por Schramm e Kottow, por considerá-las abordagens complementares. Num primeiro momento, caracteriza-se, por um lado, o problema da escassez de recursos na área dos transplantes e, por outro, as estratégias para tentar superá-lo. Em seguida, apresenta-se, brevemente, a abordagem das capacidades e a bioética de proteção. Finalmente, sustenta-se que, do ponto de vista das abordagens éticas consideradas, em situações de escassez dos recursos sanitários, como o brasileiro, seria moralmente justificado adotar políticas de focalização na área da atenção médica avançada, incluindo o transplante de órgãos.

  13. 5-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacko, Ann-Marie [Institute for Environmental Medicine, Targeted Therapeutics Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Blankemeyer, Eric; Lieberman, Brian P.; Qu, Wenchao [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: kunghf@gmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: The preliminary in vivo evaluation of novel 5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines ([{sup 18}F]FPrDU, [{sup 18}F]FBuDU, [{sup 18}F]FPeDU; [{sup 18}F]1a-c, respectively) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroalkyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl uracils ([{sup 18}F]FFPrAU, [{sup 18}F]FFBuAU, [{sup 18}F]FFPeAU; [{sup 18}F]1d-f, respectively) as probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression is described. Methods: [{sup 18}F]1a-f were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step one-pot nucleophilic fluorination reaction using 5-O-mesylate precursors and [{sup 18}F]F{sup -}. For in vivo studies, tumor xenografts were grown in nude mice by implanting RG2 cells stably expressing HSV1-tk (RG2TK+) and wild-type cells (RG2). Results: Biodistribution studies at 2 h pi revealed that the uptake of [{sup 18}F]1a-b and [{sup 18}F]1d-e in RG2TK+ tumors was not significantly different from control tumors. However, [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f had an average 1.6- and 1.7-fold higher uptake in RG2TK+ tumors than control RG2 tumors. Blood activity curves for [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f highlight rapid clearance of radioactivity in the blood. Dynamic small animal PET (A-PET) imaging studies of tumor-bearing mice with [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f showed higher initial uptake (3.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in RG2TK+ tumors than in control tumors, with continued washout of activity from both tumors over time. Conclusions: Biological evaluations suggest that [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f may have limited potential for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression due to fast washout of activity from the blood, thus significantly decreasing sensitivity and specificity of tracer accumulation in HSV1-tk-expressing tumors.

  14. Supersymmetric RG flows and Janus from type II orbifold compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karndumri, Parinya; Upathambhakul, Khem [Chulalongkorn University, String Theory and Supergravity Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-07-15

    We study holographic RG flow solutions within four-dimensional N = 4 gauged supergravity obtained from type IIA and IIB string theories compactified on T{sup 6}/Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold with gauge, geometric and non-geometric fluxes. In type IIB non-geometric compactifications, the resulting gauged supergravity has ISO(3) x ISO(3) gauge group and admits an N = 4 AdS{sub 4} vacuum dual to an N = 4 superconformal field theory (SCFT) in three dimensions. We study various supersymmetric RG flows from this N = 4 SCFT to N = 4 and N = 1 non-conformal field theories in the IR. The flows preserving N = 4 supersymmetry are driven by relevant operators of dimensions Δ = 1, 2 or alternatively by one of these relevant operators, dual to the dilaton, and irrelevant operators of dimensions Δ = 4 while the N = 1 flows in addition involve marginal deformations. Most of the flows can be obtained analytically. We also give examples of supersymmetric Janus solutions preserving N = 4 and N = 1 supersymmetries. These solutions should describe two-dimensional conformal defects within the dual N = 4 SCFT. Geometric compactifications of type IIA theory give rise to N = 4 gauged supergravity with ISO(3) x U(1){sup 6} gauge group. In this case, the resulting gauged supergravity admits an N = 1 AdS{sub 4} vacuum. We also numerically study possible N = 1 RG flows to non-conformal field theories in this case. (orig.)

  15. Caspase-Mediated Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Ginsenoside Rg5, a Main Rare Ginsenoside, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Hu, Jun-Nan; Yan, Meng-Han; Xing, Jing-Jing; Liu, Wen-Cong; Li, Wei

    2017-10-25

    Frequent overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most common and important incentives of acute hepatotoxicity. Prior to this work, our research group confirmed that black ginseng (Panax ginseng, BG) showed powerful protective effects on APAP-induced ALI. However, it is not clear which kind of individual ginsenoside from BG plays such a liver protection effect. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate whether ginsenoside Rg5 (G-Rg5) protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and the involved action mechanisms. Mice were administrated with G-Rg5 at two dosages of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days. After the last treatment, all of the animals that received a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (250 mg/kg) showed severe liver toxicity after 24 h, and the liver protection effects of G-Rg5 were examined. The results clearly indicated that pretreatment with G-Rg5 remarkably inhibited the production of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) compared with the APAP group. Meanwhile, G-Rg5 decreased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver tissues. G-Rg5 decreased APAP caused the hepatic overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, analysis of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting also indicated that G-Rg5 pretreatment inhibited activation of apoptotic pathways mainly via increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein, decreasing the expression of Bax protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that pretreatment with G-Rg5 could significantly inhibit hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and apoptosis caused by APAP. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that G-Rg5 exerts a liver protection effect against

  16. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  17. Theoretical descriptions of novel triplet germylenes M1-Ge-M2-M3 (M1 = H, Li, Na, K; M2 = Be, Mg, Ca; M3 = H, F, Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaee, Mohamad Zaman; Ashenagar, Samaneh

    2018-02-06

    In a quest to identify new ground-state triplet germylenes, the stabilities (singlet-triplet energy differences, ΔE S-T ) of 96 singlet (s) and triplet (t) M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 species were compared and contrasted at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, QCISD(T)/6-311++G**, and CCSD(T)/6-311++G** levels of theory (M 1  = H, Li, Na, K; M 2  = Be, Mg, Ca; M 3  = H, F, Cl, Br). Interestingly, F-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = F) appear to be more stable and linear than the corresponding Cl- or Br-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = Cl or Br). Triplets with M 1  = K (i.e., the K-Ge-M 2 -M 3 series) seem to be more stable than the corresponding triplets with M 1  = H, Li, or Na. This can be attributed to the higher electropositivity of potassium. Triplet species with M 3  = Cl behave similarly to those with M 3  = Br. Conversely, triplets with M 3  = H show similar stabilities and linearities to those with M 3  = F. Singlet species of formulae K-Ge-Ca-Cl and K-Ge-Ca-Br form unexpected cyclic structures. Finally, the triplet germylenes M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 become more stable as the electropositivities of the α-substituents (M 1 and M 2 ) and the electronegativity of the β-substituent (M 3 ) increase.

  18. rg Specht: toetan niikaua, kui suudan / Jörg Specht ; interv. Elina Kononenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Specht, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Võru maakonna 2004. a. parimaks toetajaks valiti Jörg Specht, kes töötab Bad Segebergis ehitusettevõtjana ning on Võrumaale toonud suurel hulgal abipakke ja kingitusi. Mullu autasustati teda päästeameti hõberistiga. Vt. samas: Specht kinkis Kandlele oma auto

  19. RG-inspired machine learning for lattice field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foreman Sam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning has been a fast growing field of research in several areas dealing with large datasets. We report recent attempts to use renormalization group (RG ideas in the context of machine learning. We examine coarse graining procedures for perceptron models designed to identify the digits of the MNIST data. We discuss the correspondence between principal components analysis (PCA and RG flows across the transition for worm configurations of the 2D Ising model. Preliminary results regarding the logarithmic divergence of the leading PCA eigenvalue were presented at the conference. More generally, we discuss the relationship between PCA and observables in Monte Carlo simulations and the possibility of reducing the number of learning parameters in supervised learning based on RG inspired hierarchical ansatzes.

  20. RG-inspired machine learning for lattice field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Sam; Giedt, Joel; Meurice, Yannick; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning has been a fast growing field of research in several areas dealing with large datasets. We report recent attempts to use renormalization group (RG) ideas in the context of machine learning. We examine coarse graining procedures for perceptron models designed to identify the digits of the MNIST data. We discuss the correspondence between principal components analysis (PCA) and RG flows across the transition for worm configurations of the 2D Ising model. Preliminary results regarding the logarithmic divergence of the leading PCA eigenvalue were presented at the conference. More generally, we discuss the relationship between PCA and observables in Monte Carlo simulations and the possibility of reducing the number of learning parameters in supervised learning based on RG inspired hierarchical ansatzes.

  1. Preclinical efficacy of the MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 in MDM2 amplified and TP53 wild-type glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Maite; Schmitt, Charlotte; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Pelton, Kristine; Haidar, Samer; Levasseur, Camille; Guehennec, Jeremy; Knoff, David; Labussiere, Marianne; Marie, Yannick; Ligon, Azra H.; Mokhtari, Karima; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Sanson, Marc; Alexander, Brian M; Wen, Patrick Y.; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Ligon, Keith L.; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Rationale p53 pathway alterations are key molecular events in glioblastoma (GBM). MDM2 inhibitors increase expression and stability of p53 and are presumed to be most efficacious in patients with TP53 wild-type and MDM2-amplified cancers. However, this biomarker hypothesis has not been tested in patients or patient-derived models for GBM. Methods We performed a preclinical evaluation of RG7112 MDM2 inhibitor, across a panel of 36 patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCLs), each genetically characterized according to their P53 pathway status. We then performed a pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of RG7112 distribution in mice and evaluated the therapeutic activity of RG7112 in orthotopic and subcutaneous GBM models. Results MDM2-amplified PDCLs were 44 times more sensitive than TP53 mutated lines that showed complete resistance at therapeutically attainable concentrations (avg. IC50 of 0.52 μM vs 21.9 μM). MDM4 amplified PDCLs were highly sensitive but showed intermediate response (avg. IC50 of 1.2 μM), whereas response was heterogeneous in TP53 wild-type PDCLs with normal MDM2/4 levels (avg. IC50 of 7.7 μM). In MDM2-amplified lines, RG7112 restored p53 activity inducing robust p21 expression and apoptosis. PK profiling of RG7112-treated PDCL intracranial xenografts demonstrated that the compound significantly crosses the blood-brain and the blood-tumor barriers. Most importantly, treatment of MDM2-amplified/TP53 wild-type PDCL-derived model (subcutaneous and orthotopic) reduced tumor growth, was cytotoxic, and significantly increased survival. Conclusion These data strongly support development of MDM2 inhibitors for clinical testing in MDM2-amplified GBM patients. Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2 amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. PMID:26482041

  2. Understanding the holographic principle via RG flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of some recent works which demonstrate how the classical equations of gravity in AdS themselves hold the key to understanding their holographic origin in the form of a strongly coupled large $N$ QFT whose algebra of local operators can be generated by a few (single-trace) elements. I discuss how this can be realised by reformulating Einstein's equations in AdS in the form of a non-perturbative RG flow that further leads to a new approach towards constructing strongly interacting QFTs. In particular, the RG flow can self-determine the UV data that are otherwise obtained by solving classical gravity equations and demanding that the solutions do not have naked singularities. For a concrete demonstration, I focus on the hydrodynamic limit in which case this RG flow connects the AdS/CFT correspondence with the membrane paradigm, and also reproduces the known values of the dual QFT transport coefficients.

  3. [Research of anti-aging mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 on brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-peng; Zhang, Meng-si; Liu, Jun; Geng, Shan; Li, Jing; Zhu, Jia-hong; Zhang, Yan-yan; Jia, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Shun-he; Wang, Ya-ping

    2014-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is common and frequently occurs in elderly patients. Previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 was able to inhibit senescent of brain, but the mechanism on the brain during the treatment remains elucidated. To study the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in the process of anti-aging of brain, forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Rg1 normal group, brain aging model group and Rg1 brain aging model group, each group with 10 rats (brain aging model group: subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (120 mg kg(-1)), qd for 42 consecutive days; Rg1 brain aging model group: while copying the same test as that of brain aging model group, begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Rg1 normal group: subcutaneous injection of the same amount of saline; begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Normal: injected with an equal volume of saline within the same time. Perform the related experiment on the second day after finishing copying the model or the completion of the first two days of drug injections). Learning and memory abilities were measured by Morris water maze. The number of senescent cells was detected by SA-beta-Gal staining while the level of IL-1 and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. The activities of SOD, contents of GSH in hippo- campus were quantified by chromatometry. The change of telomerase activities and telomerase length were performed by TRAP-PCR and southern blotting assay, respectively. It is pointed that, in brain aging model group, the spatial learning and memory capacities were weaken, SA-beta-Gal positive granules increased in section of brain tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzyme SOD and the contents of GSH decreased in hippocampus, the level of IL-1 and IL-6 increased in hippocampus, while the length of telomere and the activity of telomerase decreased in hippocampus

  4. Comparison of the removal of ethanethiol in twin-biotrickling filters inoculated with strain RG-1 and B350 mixed microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Wan, Shungang; Li, Guiying; Sun, Lei; Guo, Bin

    2010-11-15

    This study aims to compare the biological degradation performance of ethanethiol using strain RG-1 and B350 commercial mixed microorganisms, which were inoculated and immobilized on ceramic particles in twin-biotrickling filter columns. The parameters affecting the removal efficiency, such as empty bed residence time (EBRT) and inlet concentration, were investigated in detail. When EBRT ranged from 332 to 66 s at a fixed inlet concentration of 1.05 mg L(-1), the total removal efficiencies for RG-1 and B350 both decreased from 100% to 70.90% and 47.20%, respectively. The maximum elimination capacities for RG-1 and B350 were 38.36 (removal efficiency=89.20%) and 25.82 g m(-3) h(-1) (removal efficiency=57.10%), respectively, at an EBRT of 83 s. The variation of the inlet concentration at a fixed EBRT of 110 s did not change the removal efficiencies which remained at 100% for RG-1 and B350 at concentrations of less than 1.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum elimination capacities were 39.93 (removal efficiency=60.30%) and 30.34 g m(-3) h(-1) (removal efficiency=46.20%) for RG-1 and B350, respectively, at an inlet concentration of 2.03 mg L(-1). Sulfate was the main metabolic product of sulfur in ethanethiol. Based the results, strain RG-1 would be a better choice than strain B350 for the biodegradation of ethanethiol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Doação de órgãos: compreensão na perspectiva de adolescentes Organ donation: the opinion of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Carvalho Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a perspectiva dos adolescentes sobre doação de órgãos. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, com 13 adolescentes entre 16 a 19 anos, de duas escolas públicas do Recife/PE. A coleta dos dados ocorreu de fevereiro a maio de 2008 com entrevistas semiestruturadas, submetidas à análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. RESULTADOS: identificaram-se quatro temáticas: concepções que podem salvar vidas; conhecimentos revelados; sentimentos facilitadores e complicadores para a doação de órgãos; outras influências que repercutem na decisão de doar órgãos. Os adolescentes demonstraram desejo de salvar vidas doando órgãos, porém, não suficiente para uma tomada de decisão. A influência da família, mídia e amigos, surgiu como fator positivo ou de resistência, e a possibilidade de contribuir para a continuidade da vida funcionou positivamente na decisão. CONCLUSÕES: Na ótica dos adolescentes, a doação de órgãos é necessária e eles desejam contribuir, porém seus conhecimentos são inadequados. Há necessidade de informações sistemáticas e precisas para tornar realidade seu desejo em doar órgãos e salvar vidas.OBJECTIVES: to learn the opinion of adolescents regarding organ donation. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study was carried out with 13 adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years at two public schools in Recife, in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. Data were collected between February and May 2008 in semi-structured interviews that were subsequently subjected to themed content analysis. RESULTS: for themes were identified: the idea of saving lives; knowledge revealed; helpful and unhelpful feelings regarding organ donation; other issues that influence the decision to donate organs. The adolescents showed a willingness to save lives by donating organs, although this was not sufficient for them to make a decision to do so. The influence of family

  6. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 A, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 A.

  7. Study of gamma-ray induced variability on F1M1-F3M3 distant tomato hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siromeatnicov, Iulia; Cotenco, Eugenia; Ciobanu, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the evaluation of the gamma radiation's action, the growth and development tomato plant has shown that the coefficient of variation of plant height character is on the rise with increasing doses of gamma radiation. The hybrid combination F 1 M 1 (L.hpriz.1998) irradiated with dose 150 Gy variant presented superior value a towards scrutiny for plant height of the characters, number of flowers and fruits per bunch, number of fruits per plant and fruit mass of. The character F 2 M 2 generation plant height registered diminished value compared to F 1 M 1 generation. The highest value was recorded at the hybrid combination F 2 M 2 L.hpriz.1998 200 Gy treated dose. The evaluation research has highlighted that at the doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, have confirmed an increase in characters of reproductive system: the number of flowers and fruits per bunch, number of fruits per plant, fruit mass and reduction of the characters waist and height of placing of the first inflorescences plant. Similar aspects with some differences as low as hybrid combination Lhpi1998 in relation to the radiation doses used under study were confirmed in the case F 3 M 3 . (authors)

  8. Defects and boundary RG flows in ℂ/ℤ{sub d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Melanie; Cabrera, Yaniel [George and Cynthia Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, University at Albany,1400 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that topological defects in the language of Landau-Ginzburg models carry information about the RG flow between the non-compact orbifolds ℂ/ℤ{sub d}. We show that such defects correctly implement the bulk-induced RG flow on the boundary.

  9. Considerações gerais sôbre os órgãos odoríferos sexuais dos machos dos Lepidópteros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available São determinadas as seguintes regras sôbre a função dos órgãos odoríferos dos machos dos Lepidópteros: l.ª regra: A secreção das glândulas age em forma de gás sobre a fêmea diminuindo a reação normal de fuga e provocando a disposição e preparação para a copulação. 2.ª regra: Os órgãos odoríferos nos machos de um grupo de espécies parentes encontram-se constantemente nos mesmos órgãos possuindo o mesmo tipo de estrutura (constância orgânica . 3.ª regra: As partes quitinosas (escamas odoríferas, cerdas distribuidoras, inserções etc. são especificadas para cada espécie (constância de forma. 4.ª regra: O grau de desenvolvimento e com isto o grau de eficiência dos órgãos odoríferos dos Lepidópteros noturnos é sempre mais elevado do que os dos diurnos.

  10. Rigorous RG Algorithms and Area Laws for Low Energy Eigenstates in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Itai; Landau, Zeph; Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    One of the central challenges in the study of quantum many-body systems is the complexity of simulating them on a classical computer. A recent advance (Landau et al. in Nat Phys, 2015) gave a polynomial time algorithm to compute a succinct classical description for unique ground states of gapped 1D quantum systems. Despite this progress many questions remained unsolved, including whether there exist efficient algorithms when the ground space is degenerate (and of polynomial dimension in the system size), or for the polynomially many lowest energy states, or even whether such states admit succinct classical descriptions or area laws. In this paper we give a new algorithm, based on a rigorously justified RG type transformation, for finding low energy states for 1D Hamiltonians acting on a chain of n particles. In the process we resolve some of the aforementioned open questions, including giving a polynomial time algorithm for poly( n) degenerate ground spaces and an n O(log n) algorithm for the poly( n) lowest energy states (under a mild density condition). For these classes of systems the existence of a succinct classical description and area laws were not rigorously proved before this work. The algorithms are natural and efficient, and for the case of finding unique ground states for frustration-free Hamiltonians the running time is {\\tilde{O}(nM(n))} , where M( n) is the time required to multiply two n × n matrices.

  11. Bouncing and emergent cosmologies from Arnowitt–Deser–Misner RG flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Alfio; Gionti, S. J. Gabriele; Platania, Alessia

    2018-03-01

    Asymptotically safe gravity provides a framework for the description of gravity from the trans-Planckian regime to cosmological scales. According to this scenario, the cosmological constant and Newton’s coupling are functions of the energy scale whose evolution is dictated by the renormalization group (RG) equations. The formulation of the RG equations on foliated spacetimes, based on the Arnowitt–Deser–Misner (ADM) formalism, furnishes a natural way to construct the RG energy scale from the spectrum of the Laplacian operator on the spatial slices. Combining this idea with an RG improvement procedure, in this work we study quantum gravitational corrections to the Einstein–Hilbert action on Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker backgrounds. The resulting quantum-corrected Friedmann equations can give rise to both bouncing cosmologies and emergent Universe solutions. Our bouncing models do not require the presence of exotic matter and emergent Universe solutions can be constructed for any allowed topology of the spatial slices.

  12. The rice eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit f (OseIF3f is involved in microgametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eLi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microgametogenesis is the postmeiotic pollen developmental phase when unicellular microspores develop into mature tricellular pollen. In rice, microgametogenesis can influence grain yields to a great degree because pollen abortion occurs more easily during microgametogenesis than during other stages of pollen development. However, our knowledge of the genes involved in microgametogenesis in rice remains limited. Due to the dependence of pollen development on the regulatory mechanisms of protein expression, we identified the encoding gene of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit f in Oryza sativa (OseIF3f. Immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that OseIF3f was a subunit of rice eIF3, which consisted of at least 12 subunits including eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3d, eIF3e, eIF3f, eIF3g, eIF3h, eIF3i, eIF3k, eIF3l and eIF3m. OseIF3f showed high mRNA levels in immature florets and is highly abundant in developing anthers. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OseIF3f was localized to the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum in rice root cells. We further analyzed the biological function of OseIF3f using the double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi approach. The OseIF3f-RNAi lines grew normally at the vegetative stage but displayed a large reduction in seed production and pollen viability, which is associated with the down-regulation of OseIF3f. Further cytological observations of pollen development revealed that the OseIF3f-RNAi lines showed no obvious abnormalities at the male meiotic stage and the unicellular microspore stage. However, compared to the wild type, OseIF3f-RNAi lines contained a higher percentage of arrested unicellular pollen at the bicellular stage and a higher percentage of arrested unicellular and bicellular pollen, and aborted pollen at the tricellular stage. These results indicate that OseIF3f plays a role in microgametogenesis.

  13. Photoluminescence characterization of Dy3+ and Eu2+ ion in M5(PO4)3F (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpure, I.M.; Shinde, K.N.; Dhoble, S.J.; Kumar, Animesh

    2009-01-01

    Photoluminescence investigation of Eu and Dy activated phosphate based phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis, characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and photoluminescence techniques, has been reported. PL excitation spectrum of M 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F:Dy phosphors shows the excitation peaks ranging from 300 to 400 nm due to 4f → 4f transitions of Dy 3+ ions. PL emission spectrum of Dy 3+ ion under 348 nm excitation gives PL emission at 482 nm (blue) due to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 transitions, 574 nm (yellow) emission due to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions and 670 nm (red) due to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transitions, gives BYR (blue-yellow-red) emissions. The Eu 2+ broad band PL emission spectrum was observed in M 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F:Eu phosphor at 440 nm in the blue region of the spectrum due to 5d → 4f transition at 352 nm excitation. The 300-400 nm is Hg-free excitation (Hg excitation is 85% 254 nm wavelength of light and 15% other wavelengths), which is characteristic of solid-state lighting phosphors. Hence PL emission in divalent europium and trivalent dysprosium may be efficient photoluminescent materials for solid-state lighting phosphors.

  14. Synthesis of 6-[18F] and 4-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosines via regioselective radiofluorodestannylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namavari, Mohammad; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.; Barrio, J.R.; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA

    1993-01-01

    The regioselective radiofluorodestannylation of 6-trimethylstannyl-L-m-tyrosine derivative with [ 18 F]F 2 and [ 18 F]acetyl hypofluorite afforded, after acid hydrolysis, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine in radiochemical yields of 23 and 17%, respectively. Similarly, 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine was synthesized in 11% radiochemical yield from the corresponding 4-trimethylstannyl-L-m-tyrosine derivative using [ 18 F]F 2 . The structural analyses of precursors, intermediates, and the final products (after 18 F decay), were carried out by 1 H, 13 C, 19 F, 119 Sn-NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of Manoeuvrability Characteristics of Polish Ferries m/f „Polonia” and m/f „Gryf”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymonski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some specific manner of M/F “Polonia” manoeuvring at the Ystad harbour where she is regarded to be “over maximal ship” and also M/F “Gryf” manoeuvring at Trelleborg, taking part into consideration the effect of wind pressure into the ship’s superstructures and houses.

  16. Predicted NMR properties of noble gas hydride cations RgH +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Janusz; Sadlej, Joanna

    2008-12-01

    The NMR shielding constants and, for the first time, the spin-spin coupling constants of Rg and H in RgH + compounds for Rg = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe have been investigated by non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) and relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) methods. Electron-correlation effects have been furthermore calculated using SOPPA and CCSD at the non-relativistic level. The correlation effects are large on both parameters and opposite to the relativistic effects. The results indicate that both the relativistic and correlation effects need to be taken into account in a quantitative computations, especially in the case of the spin-spin coupling constants.

  17. Comparison of Model Systems (M+n·[CrX63−] and M3CrX6 + 18MX Based on Quantum-Chemical Calculations (X: F, Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Kremenetsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quantum-chemical calculations the most stable particle compositions are estimated in such model systems as (M+n·[CrCl6] and M3CrCl6 + 18MCl (M = Na, K, and Cs. In all systems these particles are positively charged. For systems (M+n·[CrCl6], (M+n·[CrF6], M3CrF6 + 18MCl, M3CrF6 + 18MF, and M3CrCl6 + 18MCl (M = Na, K, and Cs a number of energy parameters characterizing the state of the system before and after electron transfer are calculated. The results indicate the possibility of electron transfer from the cathode to the melt system, which is in the initial state. However, this possibility cannot be realized in systems where LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals have purely ligand character. In this case, the preliminary deformation of a cationic shell of electroactive species is required; it transforms the initial system to the transition state. However, in all considered systems the search of the transition state should be carried close to the initial state Pi. This greatly simplifies a problem and transforms it from a purely theoretical sphere to the field of practical tasks that do not require exceptional cost of computer time.

  18. Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.

  19. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å. PMID:16511316

  20. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Lai-Sheung [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Poon, Po-Ying [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun, E-mail: rnswong@hkbu.edu.hk [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  1. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  2. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen–glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qing; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wei; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is believed to be one of the main active principles in ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine extensively used to enhance stamina and deal with fatigue as well as physical stress. It has been reported that Rg1 performs multiple biological activities, including neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia–reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells and also probed its possible mechanisms. Methods...

  3. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Song [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sungbo, E-mail: sungbo@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences & Neuromarker Resource Bank (NRB), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jun, E-mail: pyj71@kribb.re.kr [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. - Highlights: • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits NO production through the regulation of iNOS expression. • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. • Ginsenosides Rg3 suppress on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced ROS levels in cells.

  4. Animal study of rh-endostatin combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on inhibiting growth of breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ming Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the inhibiting effect of rh-endostatin combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on growth of breast cancer xenografts. Methods: C57BL/6 nude mice were selected as research subjects, animal models with breast cancer xenografts were established through subcutaneous injection of breast cancer cells in the neck and randomly divided into A-D groups, and normal saline, rh-endostatin, ginsenoside Rg3 and rh-endostatin combined with ginsenoside Rg3 were injected respectively. Tumor growth, serum angiogenesis factor contents, percentages of cell cycles and expression levels of cell cycle-related molecules in tumor tissue of four groups were compared. Results: 7 d, 14 d and 21 d after treatment, tumor volume as well as serum VEGF and bFGF contents of B group, C group and D group were significantly lower than those of A group, and tumor volume as well as serum VEGF and bFGF contents of D group were significantly lower than those of B group and C group; 21 d after treatment, tumor weight, percentages of S phase and G2/M phase as well as mRNA contents and protein contents of cyclin E and CDC25A in tumor tissue of B group, C group and D group were lower than those of A group, and G0/G1 phase percentages were higher than that of A group; tumor weight, percentages of S phase and G2/M phase as well as mRNA contents and protein contents of cyclin E and CDC25A in tumor tissue of D group were significantly lower than those of B group and C group, and G0/G1 phase percentage was lower than those of B group and C group. Conclusion: rh-endostatin combined with ginsenoside Rg3 can more effectively inhibit growth of breast cancer xenografts, make cell cycle arrest and down-regulate expression of cell cyclerelated molecules.

  5. Evaluation of Ginsenoside Rg1 as a Potential Antioxidant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine whether Rg1 inhibits H2O2-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), an injury often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell viability of HUVECs treated with Rg1 and/or H2O2 was measured using 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, ...

  6. Functional perturbative RG and CFT data in the ε-expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, A. [Southern Denmark Univ., Odense (Denmark). CP3-Origins; INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Safari, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Fisica e Astronomia; Vacca, G.P. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zanusso, O. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Jena Univ. (Germany). Theoretisch-Physikalisches Inst.

    2018-01-15

    We show how the use of standard perturbative RG in dimensional regularization allows for a renormalization group-based computation of both the spectrum and a family of coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for a given universality class. The task is greatly simplified by a straightforward generalization of perturbation theory to a functional perturbative RG approach. We illustrate our procedure in the ε-expansion by obtaining the next-to-leading corrections for the spectrum and the leading corrections for the OPE coefficients of Ising and Lee-Yang universality classes and then give several results for the whole family of renormalizable multi-critical models φ{sup 2n}. Whenever comparison is possible our RG results explicitly match the ones recently derived in CFT frameworks. (orig.)

  7. Functional perturbative RG and CFT data in the ϵ -expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    We show how the use of standard perturbative RG in dimensional regularization allows for a renormalization group-based computation of both the spectrum and a family of coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for a given universality class. The task is greatly simplified by a straight......We show how the use of standard perturbative RG in dimensional regularization allows for a renormalization group-based computation of both the spectrum and a family of coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for a given universality class. The task is greatly simplified...... several results for the whole family of renormalizable multi-critical models ϕ2 n. Whenever comparison is possible our RG results explicitly match the ones recently derived in CFT frameworks....

  8. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quecini Vera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1, which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%, in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato.

  9. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  10. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  11. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. WD+RG systems as the progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Han Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play an important role in the study of cosmic evolution, especially in cosmology. There are several progenitor models for SNe Ia proposed in the past years. By considering the effect of accretion disk instability on the evolution of white dwarf (WD) binaries, we performed detailed binary evolution calculations for the WD + red-giant (RG) channel of SNe Ia, in which a carbon-oxygen WD accretes material from a RG star to increase its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. According to these calculations, we mapped out the initial and final parameters for SNe Ia in the orbital period-secondary mass (log P i - M i 2 ) plane for various WD masses for this channel. We discussed the influence of the variation of the duty cycle value on the regions for producing SNe Ia. Similar to previous studies, this work also indicates that the long-period dwarf novae offer possible ways for producing SNe Ia. Meanwhile, we find that the surviving companion stars from this channel have a low mass after the SN explosion, which may provide a means for the formation of the population of single low-mass WDs ( o-dot ).

  13. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Barleben, Leif [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 353 Yan An Road, 310031 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å.

  14. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å

  15. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3, a rare saponin from red ginseng, ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing PI3K/AKT pathway-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Dan; Hou, Jin-Gang; Liu, Wei; Ren, Shen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zi; Li, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Although ginsenoside Rg3 was isolated as a major component of Korea red ginseng and confirmed to exert potential hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury via induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in vitro, thein vivo hepatoprotective effect of Rg3 and the underlying molecular mechanism of action remain unclear. The current study was aimed to explore whether 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) could alleviate acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and to determine the involvement of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that a single injection of APAP (250 mg/kg) increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β); such increases were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with 20(R)-Rg3 for seven days. The depletion of glutathione (GSH), generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the over expression of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) caused by APAP exposure were also inhibited by 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment. Moreover, 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment significantly alleviated APAP-induced apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Importantly, 20(R)-Rg3 effectively attenuated APAP-induced liver injury in part via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In summary, 20(R)-Rg3 exerted liver protection against APAP-caused hepatotoxicity evidenced by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response, alleviation of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, showing potential as a novel therapeutic agent to prevent liver damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective low-energy Hamiltonians for interacting nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinza, Michael; Ortloff, Jutta; Honerkamp, Carsten

    2010-10-01

    We present a functional renormalization group (fRG) treatment of trigonal graphene nanodisks and composites thereof, modeled by finite-size Hubbard-like Hamiltonians with honeycomb lattice structure. At half filling, the noninteracting spectrum of these structures contains a certain number of half-filled states at the Fermi level. For the case of trigonal nanodisks, including interactions between these degenerate states was argued to lead to a large ground state spin with potential spintronics applications [M. Ezawa, Eur. Phys. J. B 67, 543 (2009)10.1140/epjb/e2009-00041-7]. Here we perform a systematic fRG flow where the excited single-particle states are integrated out with a decreasing energy cutoff, yielding a renormalized low-energy Hamiltonian for the zero-energy states that includes effects of the excited levels. The numerical implementation corroborates the results obtained with a simpler Hartree-Fock treatment of the interaction effects within the zero-energy states only. In particular, for trigonal nanodisks the degeneracy of the one-particle-states with zero energy turns out to be protected against influences of the higher levels. As an explanation, we give a general argument that within this fRG scheme the zero-energy degeneracy remains unsplit under quite general conditions and for any size of the trigonal nanodisk. We also discuss a second class of nanostructures, bow-tie-shaped systems, where the zero-energy states are not protected.

  17. The holographic RG flow in a field theory on a curved background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Luest, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    As shown by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner, the RG flow in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory broken to an N=1 theory by the addition of a mass term can be described in terms of a supersymmetric domain wall solution in five-dimensional N=8 gauged supergravity. The FGPW flow is an example of a holographic RG flow in a field theory on a flat background. Here we put the field theory studied by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner on a curved AdS 4 background, and we construct the supersymmetric domain wall solution which describes the RG flow in this field theory. This solution is a curved (non-Ricci flat) domain wall solution. This example demonstrates that holographic RG flows in supersymmetric field theories on a curved AdS 4 background can be described in terms of curved supersymmetric domain wall solutions. (author)

  18. “Out of Germany”: Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, Jakub’s World (2005, and the Commemoration of the Holocaust in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Stephanie Szlezák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses survivor stories as formulations of Holocaust memory in the U.S. More specifically, it focuses on the former concentration camp at Flossenbürg in southern Germany. Compared to places like Dachau and Buchenwald in Germany or Auschwitz and Treblinka in Poland, Flossenbürg is often absent from or—if present at all—marginalized in the public and scholarly discourse of Holocaust memory. The heavily autobiographical novel Jakub’s World (2005 tells the story of Jakub Szabmacher, a Jewish boy who is taken from his home in Poland by the Nazis and is eventually interned at Flossenbürg. He survives many months of deprivation and hardship in the concentration camp until U.S. forces liberate it in April 1945; orphaned and homeless, he eventually relocates to the U.S., yet returns to the site of his suffering many times. Reading the book against the backdrop of ongoing debates about Holocaust memory in the U.S., this essay explores structural and plot elements in the book that complicate both a Jewish identity derived from victimhood and the notion of liberation as the moment of ultimate redemption. Both Jakub’s World and the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp Memorial as sites of memory actively partake in the commemoration of the Holocaust, offering narratives that not only complicate the notion of World War II as the “Good War” but also reveal the transnational dimension of memories of the Holocaust. Neither the stories and memories of survivors of the Holocaust at Flossenbürg, nor the visitors to the present-day memorial site, nor the characters central to the memoir can be framed, addressed, or understood in the context of national boundaries.

  19. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  20. Ability of 18F-DOPA PET/CT and fused 18F-DOPA PET/MRI to assess striatal involvement in paediatric glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Puntoni, Matteo; Garre, Maria Luisa; Massollo, Michela; Naseri, Merhdad; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Lopci, Egesta

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of 18 F-DOPA PET/CT and fused 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI in detecting striatal involvement in children with gliomas. This retrospective study included 28 paediatric patients referred to our institution for the presence of primary, residual or recurrent glioma (12 boys, 16 girls; mean age 10.7 years) and investigated with 18 F-DOPA PET/CT and brain MRI. Fused 18 F-DOPA PET/MR images were obtained and compared with PET/CT and MRI images. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) for striatal involvement were calculated for each diagnostic tool. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between 18 F-DOPA PET/CT and fused 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI diagnostic results and tumour uptake outside the striatum, grade, dimension and site of striatal involvement (ventral and/or dorsal). Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100 % for MRI, 93 %, 89 %, 100 %, 100 % and 82 % for 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI, and 75 %, 74 %, 78 %, 88 % and 58 % for 18 F-DOPA PET/CT, respectively. 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI showed a trend towards higher accuracy compared with 18 F-DOPA PET/CT (p = 0.06). MRI showed significantly higher accuracy compared with 18 F-DOPA PET/CT (p = 0.01), but there was no significant difference between MRI and 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI. Both univariate and multivariate logistic analyses showed a significant association (OR 8.0 and 7.7, respectively) between the tumour-to-normal striatal uptake (T/S) ratio and the diagnostic ability of 18 F-DOPA PET/CT (p = 0.03). A strong significant association was also found between involvement of the dorsal striatum and the 18 F-DOPA PET/CT results (p = 0.001), with a perfect prediction of involvement of the dorsal striatum by 18 F-DOPA PET/MRI. Physiological striatal 18 F-DOPA uptake does not appear to be a main limitation in the evaluation of basal ganglia involvement. 18 F-DOPA PET/CT correctly detected

  1. Influence of grazing and land use on stream-channel characteristics among small dairy farms in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Genevieve; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Non-perturbative selection rules in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, and I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, Padova, I-35131 (Italy); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2015-09-29

    We discuss the structure of charged matter couplings in 4-dimensional F-theory compactifications. Charged matter is known to arise from M2-branes wrapping fibral curves on an elliptic or genus-one fibration Y. If a set of fibral curves satisfies a homological relation in the fibre homology, a coupling involving the states can arise without exponential volume suppression due to a splitting and joining of the M2-branes. If the fibral curves only sum to zero in the integral homology of the full fibration, no such coupling is possible. In this case an M2-instanton wrapping a 3-chain bounded by the fibral matter curves can induce a D-term which is volume suppressed. We elucidate the consequences of this pattern for the appearance of massive U(1) symmetries in F-theory and analyse the structure of discrete selection rules in the coupling sector. The weakly coupled analogue of said M2-instantons is worked out to be given by D1-F1 instantons. The generation of an exponentially suppressed F-term requires the formation of half-BPS bound states of M2 and M5-instantons. This effect and its description in terms of fluxed M5-instantons is discussed in a companion paper.

  4. Doação de órgãos: meu corpo, minha sociedade Organ donation: my body, my society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando Bendassolli

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A doação de órgãos é um problema de relevância social e científica, pois envolve as formas como a vida é perpetuada através do corpo de outra pessoa, especificamente por meio de seus órgãos. Quais são os fatores de resistência e de facilitação à doação de órgãos? Este artigo propõe um fator de resistência e um de facilitação. O primeiro, o narcisismo pelo próprio corpo; o segundo, o desejo de perpetuar-se a si mesmo e a vida.Organ donation is a problem of social and scientific relevance because it involves the ways through which life is perpetuated across another person’s body, specifically by its organs. What are resistance and facilitation factors to organ donation? This article proposes one factor of resistance and one of facilitation. The first, the narcissism of the own body; the second, the desire of perpetuate oneself and life.

  5. Constraints on perturbative RG flows in six dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stone, David [INFN, Sezione di Roma,Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Vitale, Lorenzo G. [Institut de Théorie des Phènoménes Physiques, EPFL,Route Cantonale, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-08-01

    When conformal field theories (CFTs) are perturbed by marginally relevant deformations, renormalization group (RG) flows ensue that can be studied with perturbative methods, at least as long as they remain close to the original CFT. In this work we study such RG flows in the vicinity of six-dimensional unitary CFTs. Neglecting effects of scalar operators of dimension two and four, we use Weyl consistency conditions to prove the a-theorem in perturbation theory, and establish that scale implies conformal invariance. We identify a quantity that monotonically decreases in the flow to the infrared due to unitarity, showing that it does not agree with the one studied recently in the literature on the six-dimensional ϕ{sup 3} theory.

  6. Processo de transporte de órgãos para transplante na Cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roberta Lira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo, em favor da sociedade completa 185 anos de existência. É um trabalho amplo e digno. Uma parcela desse trabalho apoia-se no Grupamento Aéreo da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo, guarnição direcionada especificamente à atividade de transportar órgãos para transplante. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo, objetiva avaliar essa atividade, baseando-se em pesquisa realizada junto às Instituições e profissionais responsáveis pela captação e o transporte de órgãos para transplante, e sugere também ações de melhorias no planejamento dessa complexa operação.

  7. Fatores associados à efetividade da doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplantes

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Izaura Luzia Silverio

    2013-01-01

    O transplante de órgãos e tecidos apresenta-se como importante opção terapêutica, tanto do ponto de vista médico, quanto social ou econômico. Assim, a identificação das variáveis que podem interferir na efetividade da doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante precisa ser investigada de maneira adequada, pois se está diante de crescente índice de doenças crônicas e degenerativas na população, que faz com que a lista de espera para transplante aumente desproporcionalmente e os pacientes chega...

  8. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Laurent, Veronique; Loyer, Pascal; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 μM PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  9. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  10. Overexpression of plastidial thioredoxins f and m differentially alters photosynthetic activity and response to oxidative stress in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eREY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs, reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are markedly and similarly altered. In contrast, plants overexpressing Trx m specifically display increased capacity for methionine sulfoxide reductases, enzymes repairing damaged proteins by regenerating methionine from oxidized methionine. Finally, we also observed that transplastomic plants exhibit distinct responses when exposed to oxidative stress conditions generated by methyl viologen or exposure to high light combined with low temperature, the plants overexpressing Trx m being notably more tolerant than Wt and those overexpressing Trx f. Altogether, these data indicate that Trxs f and m fulfill distinct physiological functions. They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast.

  11. Pivotal Roles of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Tumor Apoptosis Through Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hwa Yeon; Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Yoon, Yeo Min; Yun, Chul Won; Kim, Jae Heon; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-09-01

    Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed in various cancer types and pathophysiological conditions. In cancer cells, ROS induce cell proliferation, genetic instability, and a malignant phenotype. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the main pharmacologically active component in ginseng and has been reported to have an antioxidant effect. To overcome lung cancer by regulating the ROS level, we investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of Rg3 and its antioxidative property on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Inhibition of ROS was suppressed in LLC cells by Rg3 treatment, and these cells were used to investigate the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor effects in LLC cells. ROS production was increased in cells grown in serum-containing media (conditioned media) compared to those grown in serum-free media. The high level of ROS induced LLC cell proliferation, but treatment with Rg3 (200 ng/ml) resulted in reduction of ROS, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Treatment with Rg3 significantly reduced cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in LLC cells. Additionally, Rg3 treatment significantly suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced LLC cell apoptosis through activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and suppression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the role of Rg3 in reduction of the intracellular ROS level, attenuation of proliferation via augmentation of cell cycle- and cell proliferation-associated proteins, and activation of apoptosis through regulation of apoptosis-associated proteins in LLC. These findings suggest that Rg3 could be used as a therapeutic agent in lung cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. rg Haideri miljonid tekitavad kahtlusi / Marlen Rein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rein, Marlen, 1990-

    2010-01-01

    Austria ajakiri Profil avaldas väljavõtteid Iraagi siseminiseeriumi toimikust, mis heidavad halba varju Austria parempopulistliku partei Austria Tulevikuallianss autoõnnetuses hukkunud liidrile Jörg Haiderile ja teistele prominentsetele poliitikutele

  13. Peculiarities of the intermediate valence state of Ce in CeM2Si2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koterlyn, M.; Shcherba, I.; Yasnitskii, R.; Koterlyn, G.

    2007-01-01

    The results of thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity measurements connected with the intermediate valence (IV) of Ce are presented for the compounds CeM 2 Si 2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) in the temperature range of 4-800 K. It is shown that CeM 2 Si 2 are Kondo-lattices with the coherence scale T coh ∼ 60-80 K and the so-called single-site Kondo temperature T K ∼ 10 3 K. On the example of CeNi 2 Si 2 we have studied the changes in the structure of density of f states (f-DOS) near the Fermi energy caused by atomic substitutions. The results of structural, transport, magnetic, and Ce L III X-ray absorption spectra measurements in the series Ce 1-x La x Ni 2 Si 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), Ce(Ni 1-y Cu y ) 2 Si 2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.6) and CeNi 2 (Si 1-z Ge z ) 2 (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) are presented. We found that the IV state of Ce in the CeM 2 Si 2 is an evidence of possible opening a wide pseudogap Δ ∼ kT K within the f-DOS structure slightly above the Fermi energy

  14. Holographic RG flows from Quasi-Topological Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara da Silva, U.; Sotkov, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the holographic Renormalization Group (RG) flows and the critical phenomena that take place in the QFT's dual to the d-dimensional cubic Quasi-Topological Gravity coupled to scalar matter. The knowledge of the corresponding flat Domain Walls (DW's) solutions allows us to derive the explicit form of the QFT's β-functions, as well as of the trace anomalies a(l) and c(l), in terms of the matter superpotential. As a consequence we are able to determine the complete set of CFT data characterizing the universality classes of the UV and IR critical points and to follow the particular RG evolution of this data. We further analyse the dependence of the critical properties of such dual QFT's on the values of the Lovelock couplings and on the shape of the superpotential. For odd values of d, the explicit form of the “a and c-central charges” as functions of the running coupling constant, enable us to establish the conditions under which the a and c-Theorems for their decreasing are valid. The restrictions imposed on the massless holographic RG flows by the requirements of the positivity of the energy fluxes are derived. The particular case of quartic Higgs-like superpotential is studied in detail. It provides an example of unitary dual QFT's having few c≠a-critical points representing second or infinite order phase transitions. Depending on the range of the values of the coupling constant they exhibit massive and massless phases, described by a chain of distinct DW's solutions sharing common boundaries

  15. Impact of isomalathion on malathion cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human HepaRG cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Josse , Rozenn; Sharanek , Ahmad; Savary , Camille C; Guillouzo , André

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Isomalathion is a major impurity of technical grade malathion, one of the most abundantly applied insecticides; however little is known about its hepatotoxicity. In the present study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of malathion and isomalathion either individually or in combination, were assessed using the metabolically competent human liver HepaRG cell line. Isomalathion reduced cell viability starting at a 100 μM concentration after a 24h exposure. It also significant...

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xiqing; Li, Jing; Niu, Qingliang

    2016-06-01

    The complex etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has limited progression in the identification of effective therapeutic agents. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin‑1 (PS1) are always overexpressed in AD, and are considered to be the initiators of the formation of β‑amyloid plaques and the symptoms of AD. In the present study, a transgenic AD model, constructed via the overexpression of APP and PS1, was used to verify the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on memory performance and synaptic plasticity. AD mice (6‑month‑old) were treated via intraperitoneal injection of 0.1‑10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1. Long‑term memory, synaptic plasticity, and the levels of AD‑associated and synaptic plasticity‑associated proteins were measured following treatment. Memory was measured using a fear conditioning task and protein expression levels were investigated using western blotting. All the data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance or t‑test. Following 30 days of consecutive treatment, memory in the AD mouse model was ameliorated in the 10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 treatment group. As demonstrated by biochemical experiments, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment reduced the accumulations of β‑amyloid 1‑42 and phosphorylated (p)‑Tau in the AD model. Additionally, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p‑TrkB synaptic plasticity‑associated proteins were upregulated following ginsenoside Rg1 application. Correspondingly, long‑term potentiation (LTP) was restored following ginsenoside Rg1 application in the AD mice model. Taken together, ginsenoside Rg1 repaired hippocampal LTP and memory, likely through facilitating the clearance of AD‑associated proteins and through activation of the BDNF‑TrkB pathway. Therefore, ginsenoside Rg1 may be a candidate drug for the treatment of AD.

  17. Progress of Organizational Behavior of Libraries Kütüphanelerin Örgütsel Davranışının Gelişimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bayter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner of librarian, determines organizational behavior of library. We can define as all of human behavior of organizational behavior, the expressions of individual while working inside of institution, perception, worth, the capacity of learning and base of organizational of human behavior. User focused organizational library, must heal of service quality everyday. The heal of service quality is possible in case of good organizational behavior. At this work, we try to work under organizational behavior, organizational culture, organizational culture and library, organizational behavior of libraries, alternation and progress of organizational behavior of libraries. Kütüphanede çalışanların davranışları, kütüphanenin örgütsel davranışını belirler. Örgütsel davranışı; bireyin kurum içinde çalışırken g��sterdiği davranışları, algıları, değerleri, öğrenme kapasitesini ve örgütsel bazdaki insan davranışının tümü olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Kullanıcı odaklı örgüt olan kütüphane, kullanıcı memnuniyeti için hizmet kalitesini her gün iyileştirmek zorundadır. Bu çalışmamızda konuyu; örgütsel davranış, örgütsel kültür, örgütsel davranış ve kütüphane, kütüphanelerin örgütsel davranışı, kütüphanenin örgütsel davranışının değişim ve gelişim analiz modeli başlıkları altında incelemeye çalıştık

  18. rg Matthias Determann, Historiography in Saudi Arabia: Globalization and the State in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Pétriat, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that Saudi Arabia’s history is recent, that its main elements are oil, Salafism and sectarianism, and that this recent history has been written mostly by non-Saudi scholars. In a stimulating in-depth analysis of Saudi historiography on Saudi Arabia, Jörg Matthias Determann delves into the very writing of history. He draws on an impressive range of written (including Saudi and non-Saudi historical works, dissertations, articles and textbooks) as well as oral sources. A...

  19. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  20. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  1. 78 FR 8588 - Rg Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Consulting, Crown Security, Eastern Automation, EDS(HP), Teksystems, URS Corporation, and B More Industrial... from B More Industrial Services LLC were employed on-site at the Sparrows Point, Maryland location of RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC. The Department has determined that these workers from B More Industrial...

  2. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs

  3. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulan, V V; Grabovskij, E V; Gribov, A N; Luzhnov, V G [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs.

  4. Características físico-químicas de las microesferas obtenidas con diferentes polímeros y la liberación del principio activo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianelis Fernández Mena

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la influencia de varios polímeros del ácido láctico y su copolímero con el ácido glicólico sobre las características físico-químicas de las microesferas obtenidas por el método de emulsión múltiple y evaporación/extracción del solvente. Se comparó el comportamiento de cada uno de estos polímeros; se observó que los copolímeros del ácido láctico-glicólico (RG-503 y RG-506 permiten obtener un porcentaje de encapsulación más próximo al 100 % y los perfiles de liberación del principio activo desde las microesferas es mucho mejor que en los restantes polímeros estudiados.The influence of various polymers of lactic acid and its copolymer with the glycollic acid on the physical and chemical characteristics of the microspheres obtained by the multiple emulssion method and the evaporation extraction of the solvent was evaluated. The behavior of each of these polymers was compared. It was observed that the polymers of lactic-glycollic acid (RG-503 and RG-506 allow to attain a percentage of encapsulation closer to 100 % and that the release profiles of the active principle from the microspheres is much better than in the rest of the studied polymers.

  5. F-spin study of rare-earth nuclei using F-spin multiplets and angular momentum projected intrinsic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    The proton-neutron Interacting-Boson Model contains both symmetric and mixed-symmetry proton-neutron boson configurations. These states of different proton-neutron symmetry can be classified in terms of an SU(2) symmetry, called F-spin. This dissertation deals with some new applications of F-spin. Even-even nuclei drawn from the proton and neutron shells 50 + scissor mode, and the gyromagnetic ratios of the ground-band members, for which formulas are derived. A no-free-parameter calculation is performed for the summed M1 strength and the centroid energy of ( 146-158 )Sm isotopes. The g factors of deformed and transitional nuclei in the rare-earth mass region are also computed. The data in all cases are found to be well reproduced, in general. A weak L dependence is predicted for the g factors, and there appears to be no need to include two-body terms in the T(M1) operator for determining the M1 strength

  6. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the 'big' divisor Σ B (as opposed to the 'small' divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 12 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  7. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  8. F.F.F.F. armastab mõtestada ennast / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2002-01-01

    Rühmituse F.F.F.F. (Kristi Paap, Kaire Rannik, Berit Teeäär, Ketli Tiitsar, Maria Valdma) näitus "Meie igapäevane leib" 9. novembrini Hansapanga galeriis ja näitus "Pentagramm" 26. X-1. XII Tarbekunstimuuseumis

  9. Eğitim Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin Görüşlerine Göre Üniversitenin Örgütsel İmajının Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma KÖYBAŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Öz: Bu araştırmanın amacı, eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin görüşlerine göre Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi’nin örgütsel imajını değerlendirmektir. Çalışma, betimsel tarama modelinde nicel bir çalışmadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi 2014-2015 akademik yılı Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde öğrenim gören 951 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın verileri, Kazoleas vd. (2001 tarafından geliştirilen ve Polat (2011 tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan örgütsel imaj ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Örgütsel imaj ölçeği 6 boyutlu olup toplam ölçeğin güvenirlik katsayısı .94’tür. Veriler, betimsel nicel analiz tekniği ile çözümlenmiş, ayrıca fark testleri (t-testi ve Anova kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulgularına göre Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi öğrencileri üniversitenin örgütsel imajını düşük düzeyde değerlendirmişlerdir. Kalite alt boyutu hariç (orta düzey diğer alt boyutlardaki imaj puanları düşük düzeyde olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca üniversite öğrencilerinin görüşleri cinsiyet değişkenine göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermemiştir. Diğer değişkenler olan memleket, öğrenim durumu, sınıf düzeyi ve yerleşim birimi değişkenlerine göre öğrencilerinin üniversitenin örgütsel imajına ilişkin görüşleri anlamlı bir farklılık göstermektedir. Memleket değişkenine göre öğrencilerin görüşlerindeki farklılık Sivaslı olan öğrenciler lehinedir. Öğrenim durumu değişkenine göre öğrencilerin görüşlerindeki farklılık 1.Öğretim öğrencileri lehinedir. 4. Sınıf öğrencileri 2. Sınıf öğrencilerine göre üniversitenin örgütsel imajını daha düşük düzeyde değerlendirdikleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca, ilçede yaşayan öğrencilerin ilde yaşayan öğrencilere göre üniversitenin örgütsel imajını daha olumlu değerlendirdikleri bulunmuştur. Araştırma bulgular

  10. Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on tyrosine hydroxylase and related mechanisms in the forced swimming-induced fatigue rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxia; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chu; Shan, Ye; Wang, Dandan; Qian, Fenglei; Sun, Mengwei; Zhu, Cuiqing

    2013-10-28

    Ginsenoside Rg3 has shown multiple pharmacological activities and been considered as one of the most promising approaches for fatigue treatment. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Rg3 on anti-fatigue and the effect of Rg3 on dopaminergic system has not been reported yet. The major aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Rg3 on TH expression and the related biochemical parameters, such as PKAα, ERK1/2, Akt and α-synuclein in brain of fatigue rats. Weight-loaded forced swimming was performed to establish an animal model of fatigue. Rg3 (10mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) was intragastrically administrated before swimming. The effect of Rg3 on the expression and phosphorylation of TH and TH-related proteins in fatigue rats or in SH-SY5Y cells was assessed with western blotting. HPLC was used to examine the level of DA and DOPAC in the fatigue rats tissues. TH and phosphorylated TH were decreased in different brain regions of which ventral midbrain were less affected in weight-loaded forced swimming rats. Pretreatment with Rg3 significantly suppressed fatigue-induced decrease expression of TH and TH phosphorylation. Also treatment with Rg3 reversed the decrease expression of PKAα as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt which were induced by weight-loaded forced swimming. Moreover, weight-loaded swimming could induce the increase expression of α-synuclein in hippocampus and midbrain, while suppressed α-synuclein expression in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Rg3 could induce the increase of TH expression and phosphorylation which was accompanied with elevated expression and phosphorylation of related kinase proteins in vitro, while the inhibitors of kinase proteins could suppress these effects of Rg3. In addition, HPLC results showed that Rg3 could reverse the weight-loaded swimming-induced increase of DOPAC/DA ratio. Our data suggest that fatigue can induce the decrease of DA which might partially

  11. X-ray M4,5 Resonant Raman Scattering from La metal with final 4p hole: Calculations with 4p-4d-4f configuration interaction in the final state and comparison with the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Braicovich, L.; Tagliaferri, A.; Dallera, C.; Giarda, K.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Brookes, N.B.; Borgatti, F.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the X-Ray Resonant Raman Scattering (RRS) in La in the whole M 4,5 region ending with a state with a 4p hole, along the sequence 3d 10 4f 0 →3d 9 4f 1 →3d 10 4p 5 4f 1 . The final state configuration mixes with that with two 4d holes i.e. 3d 10 4d 8 4f n+2 having almost the same energy. Thus RRS must be described by introducing final state Configuration Interaction (CI) between states with one 4p hole and with two 4d holes. This approach allows detailed experimental data on La-metal to be interpreted on the basis of a purely ionic approach. It is shown that the inclusion of CI is crucial and has very clear effects. The calculations with the Kramers-Heisenberg formula describe all measured spectral features appearing in the strict Raman regime i.e. dispersing with the incident photon energy. In the experiment also a nondispersive component is present when the excitation energy is greater than about 2 eV above the M 5 peak. The shape and position of this component is well accounted for by a model based on all possible partitions of the excitation energy between localised and extended states. However, the intensity of the nondispersive component is greater in the measurements, suggesting a rearrangement in the intermediate excited state. The comparison of ionic calculations with the metal measurements is legitimate, as shown by the comparison between the measurements on La-metal and on LaF 3 with M 5 excitation, giving the same spectrum within the experimental accuracy. Moreover, the experiment shows that the final lifetime broadening is much greater in the final states corresponding to lower outgoing photon energies than in the states corresponding to higher outgoing photon energies. (author)

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves ischemic brain injury by balancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2017; 16 (10): 2469-2475 ... Keywords: Cerebral ischemia, Ginsenoside Rg1, Mitochondrial dysfunction, .... percentage of apoptotic death. .... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution,.

  13. RG domain wall for the general (su)-hat (2) coset models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanishkov, Marian [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy,Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-08-16

    We consider a RG flow in a general (su)-hat (2) coset model induced by the least relevant field. This is done using two different approaches. We first compute the mixing coefficients of certain fields in the UV and IR theories using a conformal perturbation theory. The necessary structure constants are computed. The same coefficients can be calculated using the RG domain wall construction of Gaiotto. We compute the corresponding one-point functions and show that the two approaches give the same result in the leading order.

  14. Quorum-dependent transfer of the opine-catabolic plasmid pAoF64/95 is regulated by a novel mechanism involving inhibition of the TraR antiactivator TraM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Margaret E; Asenstorfer, Robert E; Tate, Max E; Farrand, Stephen K

    2018-04-10

    We previously described a plasmid of Agrobacterium spp., pAoF64/95, in which the quorum-sensing system that controls conjugative transfer is induced by the opine mannopine. We also showed that the quorum-sensing regulators TraR, TraM, and TraI function similarly to their counterparts in other repABC plasmids. However, traR, unlike its counterpart on Ti plasmids, is monocistronic and not located in an operon that is inducible by the conjugative opine. Here, we report that both traR and traM are expressed constitutively and not regulated by growth with mannopine. We report two additional regulatory genes, mrtR and tmsP, that are involved in a novel mechanism of control of TraR activity. Both genes are located in the distantly linked region of pAoF64/95 encoding mannopine utilization. MrtR, in the absence of mannopine, represses the four-gene mocC operon as well as tmsP, which is the distal gene of the eight-gene motA operon. As judged by a bacterial two-hybrid analysis, TmsP, which shows amino acid sequence relatedness with the TraM-binding domain of TraR, interacts with the antiactivator. We propose a model in which mannopine, acting through the repressor MrtR, induces expression of TmsP which then titrates the levels of TraM thereby freeing TraR to activate the tra regulon. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves ischemic brain injury by balancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenoside Rg1 improves ischemic brain injury by balancing mitochondrial ... and autophagy-related proteins were determined by reat time-polymerase chain ... Treatment with autophagy inhibitors decreased the mitochondrial protective ...

  16. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Singlet-triplet energy differences in divalent five membered cyclic conjugated Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb; X = F, Cl, Br, and I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessally, Esmail; Dehbandi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Elaheh

    2016-09-01

    Singlet-triplet energy differences in Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2C compared and contrasted with their sila, germa, stana and plumba analogues; at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Free Gibbs energy differences between triplet (t) and singlet (s) states (Δ G(t-s)) change in the following order: plumbylenes > stannylenes > germylenes > silylenes > carbenes. The singlet states in XC2HN2C are generally more stable when the electron withdrawing groups such as-F was used at β-position. However, the singlet states in XC2N2HM (M = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) are generally more stable when the withdrawing groups such as-F was placed. The puckering energy is investigated for each the singlet and triplet states. The DFT calculations found the linear correlation to size of the group 14 divalent element (M), the ∠N-M-N angle, and the Δ(LUMO-HOMO) of XC2HN2M.

  18. The Study of Mechanisms of Protective Effect of Rg1 against Arthritis by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Maturation in CIA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL- induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, and calcitonin receptor (CTR. In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice.

  19. Ab initio study of the diatomic fluorides FeF, CoF, NiF, and CuF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukounas, Constantine; Mavridis, Aristides

    2008-11-06

    The late-3d transition-metal diatomic fluorides MF = FeF, CoF, NiF, and CuF have been studied using variational multireference (MRCI) and coupled-cluster [RCCSD(T)] methods, combined with large to very large basis sets. We examined a total of 35 (2S+1)|Lambda| states, constructing as well 29 full potential energy curves through the MRCI method. All examined states are ionic, diabatically correlating to M(+)+F(-)((1)S). Notwithstanding the "eccentric" character of the 3d transition metals and the difficulties to accurately be described with all-electron ab initio methods, our results are, in general, in very good agreement with available experimental numbers.

  20. Differential toxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines and their mixture in metabolically competent HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Le Hegarat, Ludovic; Aninat, Caroline; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. However, the toxic effects and related mechanisms of co-exposure to HAA in humans remain unknown. We compared the effects of two of the most common HAA, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), individually or in combination, in the metabolically competent human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Various endpoints were measured including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage by the comet assay. Moreover, the effects of PhIP and/or MeIQx on mRNA expression and activities of enzymes involved in their activation and detoxification pathways were evaluated. After a 24 h treatment, PhIP and MeIQx, individually and in combination, exerted differential effects on apoptosis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. Only PhIP induced DNA damage. It was also a stronger inducer of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and activity than MeIQx. In contrast, only MeIQx exposure resulted in a significant induction of CYP1A2 activity. The combination of PhIP with MeIQx induced an oxidative stress and showed synergistic effects on apoptosis. However, PhIP-induced genotoxicity was abolished by a co-exposure with MeIQx. Such an inhibitory effect could be explained by a significant decrease in CYP1A2 activity which is responsible for PhIP genotoxicity. Our findings highlight the need to investigate interactions between HAA when assessing risks for human health and provide new insights in the mechanisms of interaction between PhIP and MeIQx.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen–glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rg1 has neuroprotective effect on ischemia–reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells mediated by blocking calcium over-influx into neuronal cells and decreasing the nNOS activity after OGD exposure. We infer that ginsenoside Rg1 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for cerebral ischemia injury.

  2. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got

  3. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  5. Ginsenoside Rg5 improves cognitive dysfunction and beta-amyloid deposition in STZ-induced memory impaired rats via attenuating neuroinflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shenghui; Gu, Junfei; Feng, Liang; Liu, Jiping; Zhang, Minghua; Jia, Xiaobin; Liu, Min; Yao, Danian

    2014-04-01

    Neuroinflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5), an abundant natural compound in Panax ginseng, has been found to be beneficial in treating AD. In the present study, we demonstrated that Rg5 improved cognitive dysfunction and attenuated neuroinflammatory responses in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impaired rats. Cognitive deficits were ameliorated with Rg5 (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) treatment in a dose-dependent manner together with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (Pred and immunohistochemistry staining results showed that Rg5 alleviated Aβ deposition but enhanced the expressions of insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF-1) and brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (Pmemory impairments in rats could be improved by Rg5, which was associated with attenuating neuroinflammatory responses. Our findings suggested that Rg5 could be a beneficial agent for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological Expression of AMPKγ2RG Mutation Causes Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Induces Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Mudgett, John; Bou-About, Ghina; Champy, Marie-France; Jacobs, Hugues; Monassier, Laurent; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Lu, Ku; Feng, Wen; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Li-Jun; Askew, Roger; Erion, Mark D; Kelley, David E; Myers, Robert W; Li, Cai; Guan, Hong-Ping

    2016-11-04

    Mutations of the AMP-activated kinase gamma 2 subunit (AMPKγ2), N488I (AMPKγ2 NI ) and R531G (AMPKγ2 RG ), are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, a cardiac disorder characterized by ventricular pre-excitation in humans. Cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of human AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG leads to constitutive AMPK activation and the WPW phenotype in mice. However, overexpression of these mutant proteins also caused profound, non-physiological increase in cardiac glycogen, which might abnormally alter the true phenotype. To investigate whether physiological levels of AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG mutation cause WPW syndrome and metabolic changes in other organs, we generated two knock-in mouse lines on the C57BL/6N background harboring mutations of human AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG , respectively. Similar to the reported phenotypes of mice overexpressing AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG in the heart, both lines developed WPW syndrome and cardiac hypertrophy; however, these effects were independent of cardiac glycogen accumulation. Compared with AMPKγ2 WT mice, AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, and liver steatosis when fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, AMPKγ2 RG but not AMPKγ2 NI mice fed with an HFD exhibited severe kidney injury characterized by glycogen accumulation, inflammation, apoptosis, cyst formation, and impaired renal function. These results demonstrate that expression of AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG mutations at physiological levels can induce beneficial metabolic effects but that this is accompanied by WPW syndrome. Our data also reveal an unexpected effect of AMPKγ2 RG in the kidney, linking lifelong constitutive activation of AMPK to a potential risk for kidney dysfunction in the context of an HFD. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Physiological Expression of AMPKγ2RG Mutation Causes Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Induces Kidney Injury in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Mudgett, John; Bou-About, Ghina; Champy, Marie-France; Jacobs, Hugues; Monassier, Laurent; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Lu, Ku; Feng, Wen; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Li-Jun; Askew, Roger; Erion, Mark D.; Kelley, David E.; Myers, Robert W.; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the AMP-activated kinase gamma 2 subunit (AMPKγ2), N488I (AMPKγ2NI) and R531G (AMPKγ2RG), are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, a cardiac disorder characterized by ventricular pre-excitation in humans. Cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of human AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG leads to constitutive AMPK activation and the WPW phenotype in mice. However, overexpression of these mutant proteins also caused profound, non-physiological increase in cardiac glycogen, which might abnormally alter the true phenotype. To investigate whether physiological levels of AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG mutation cause WPW syndrome and metabolic changes in other organs, we generated two knock-in mouse lines on the C57BL/6N background harboring mutations of human AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG, respectively. Similar to the reported phenotypes of mice overexpressing AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG in the heart, both lines developed WPW syndrome and cardiac hypertrophy; however, these effects were independent of cardiac glycogen accumulation. Compared with AMPKγ2WT mice, AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, and liver steatosis when fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, AMPKγ2RG but not AMPKγ2NI mice fed with an HFD exhibited severe kidney injury characterized by glycogen accumulation, inflammation, apoptosis, cyst formation, and impaired renal function. These results demonstrate that expression of AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG mutations at physiological levels can induce beneficial metabolic effects but that this is accompanied by WPW syndrome. Our data also reveal an unexpected effect of AMPKγ2RG in the kidney, linking lifelong constitutive activation of AMPK to a potential risk for kidney dysfunction in the context of an HFD. PMID:27621313

  8. E2F1 regulates cellular growth by mTORC1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Real

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During cell proliferation, growth must occur to maintain homeostatic cell size. Here we show that E2F1 is capable of inducing growth by regulating mTORC1 activity. The activation of cell growth and mTORC1 by E2F1 is dependent on both E2F1's ability to bind DNA and to regulate gene transcription, demonstrating that a gene induction expression program is required in this process. Unlike E2F1, E2F3 is unable to activate mTORC1, suggesting that growth activity could be restricted to individual E2F members. The effect of E2F1 on the activation of mTORC1 does not depend on Akt. Furthermore, over-expression of TSC2 does not interfere with the effect of E2F1, indicating that the E2F1-induced signal pathway can compensate for the inhibitory effect of TSC2 on Rheb. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that E2F1 induces the translocation of mTORC1 to the late endosome vesicles, in a mechanism dependent of leucine. E2F1 and leucine, or insulin, together affect the activation of S6K stronger than alone suggesting that they are complementary in activating the signal pathway. From these studies, E2F1 emerges as a key protein that integrates cell division and growth, both of which are essential for cell proliferation.

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances radiosensitization of hypoxic oesophageal cancer cell lines through vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor 1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaolin; Zhen, Fuxi; Yang, Baixia; Yang, Xi; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Sheng; Cao, Yuandong; Ma, Jianxin; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the pretreatment of hypoxic human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines (EC109, TE1 and KYSE170) with ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) increases their radiosensitivity to X-rays. The growth inhibitory effect of different Rg3 concentrations was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Radiation sensitivity was measured using a clone formation assay and flow cytometry was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on radiation-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on the levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Rg3 inhibited EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 10 µmol/ml Rg3 increased EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 radiosensitivity. Rg3 plus radiation significantly increased the apoptosis rate compared with radiation alone. Rg3 also decreased VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels in EC109 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of Rg3 and radiation increased the fragmentation of double-stranded DNA. Rg3 enhanced the radiosensitivity of human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines cultured under hypoxic conditions possibly by downregulating VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin enhance human breast adipose-derived stem cells function for soft tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Mian; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Min-Hong; Li, De-Quan; Liang, Yi-Dan; Chi, Gang-Yi; Li, De-Hui; Yu, Bing-Chao; Huang, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to repair soft tissue defects, wounds, burns, and scars and to regenerate various damaged tissues. The cell differentiation capacity of ASCs is crucial for engineered adipose tissue regeneration in reconstructive and plastic surgery. We previously reported that ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 or Rg1) promotes proliferation and differentiation of ASCs in vitro and in vivio. Here we show that both G-Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improve the proliferation, differentiation, and soft tissue regeneration capacity of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs) on collagen type I sponge scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Three months after transplantation, tissue wet weight, adipocyte number, intracellular lipid, microvessel density, and gene and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PPARγ were higher in both G-Rg1- and PRF-treated HBASCs than in control grafts. More extensive new adipose tissue formation was evident after treatment with G-Rg1 or PRF. In summary, G-Rg1 and/or PRF co-administration improves the function of HBASCs for soft tissue regeneration engineering. PMID:27191987

  12. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais externos do macho de cutia (Dasyprocta aguti. Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo José Ayres de Menezes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados vinte e três cutias (D. aguti, machos, adultos, adquiridos em criatórios científicos, legalmente licenciados pelo IBAMA, da Universidade Federal do Piauí - UFPI, Teresina, PI e da Escola Superior Agrícola de Mossoró - ESAM, Mossoró, RN, com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os órgãos genitais masculinos externos, abordando aspectos histológicos e macroscópicos destes órgãos. Foi realizada a dissecação dos órgãos genitais externos dos espécimes. Fragmentos foram coletados e submetidos ao processamento histológico de rotina para inclusão em parafina, os quais foram cortados e corados pelos métodos de H/E e Tricômico de Masson e observados em microscópio de luz. Os resultados mostraram que o pênis destes animais possui características do tipo fibrocavernoso, com grande quantidade de estruturas queratinizadas no seu ápice. No terço médio do pênis da cutia foi evidenciado uma flexura peniana em forma de "U" deitado; a glande do pênis encontra-se revestida por uma epiderme queratinizada contendo espículas córneas; um osso peniano substituindo o corpo cavernoso e um saco suburetral ventral, com dois longos esporões córneos no seu interior, estão presentes no pênis desses espécimes. Na região escrotal não se observa limites externos nítidos do escroto. Dorsalmente, abaixo da lâmina interna do prepúcio, próximo ao óstio prepucial, verifica-se um par de glândulas prepuciais.

  13. Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d ^im plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson–Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato. PMID:24847092

  14. M2-F1 in flight being towed by a C-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here being towed behind a C-47 at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. In this rear view, the M2-F1 is flying above and to one side of the C-47. This was done to avoid wake turbulence from the towplane. Lacking wings, the M2-F1 used an unusual configuration for its control surfaces. It had two rudders on the fins, two elevons (called 'elephant ears') mounted on the outsides of the fins, and two body flaps on the upper rear fuselage. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind the C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and

  15. Identification and characterization of a ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and its application for enhanced production of minor ginsenoside Rg2(S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available The ginsenoside Rg2(S, which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28, which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding β-glucosidase (BglPC28 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37 °C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S; the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36 ± 1.10 and 1.42 ± 0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0 ± 2.55 and 5.62 ± 0.21 µmol min-1 mg-1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0 ± 1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Dipole model analysis of F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ derived from the new D* data in DIS at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I analyse the new D* deep inelastic scattering data from HERA with the help of dipole models. I calculate F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ from the GBW [1] and BGK [2] saturation models. I compare results with the last values determined by H1 at low Q2. I find good agreement with the data.

  17. Description of strong M1 transitions between 4^+ states at N=52 within the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Heinze, S.

    2009-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei near the N=50 shell closure have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetry state was identified from its strong M1 transition to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between 4^+ states in ^94Mo and ^92Zr, and shell model calculations indicate that hexadecapole excitations play a role. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg-Interacting Boson Model-2 in order to gain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and to which extent the hexadecapole degree of freedom is important at relatively low energies. First calculations within this model, using an F-spin conserving Hamiltonian to disentangle symmetric and mixed- symmetric structures, will be presented and compared to data.

  18. Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

  19. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F⋯HCH2CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Subha; Ma, Xinyou; Xie, Jing; Scott, Rebecca; Gao, Eric; Ruscic, Branko; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Setser, Donald W.; Hase, William L.

    2017-10-01

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. The experiments were performed at 300 K, and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F⋯HCH2CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH2CN and then trapping in the CH2CN⋯HF post-reaction potential energy well of ˜10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH2CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed: the majority proceeded by direct H-atom transfer and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH2CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. Simulations with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint gave product distributions for relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH2CN rotation, and CH2CN vibration as 5%, 11%, 60%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. In contrast, the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6% and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H-atom abstraction reactions. The simulation product energy partitioning and HF vibrational population for F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN

  20. Human HepaRG Cells can be Cultured in Hanging-drop Plates for Cytochrome P450 Induction and Function Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norie; Usui, Takashi; Slawny, Nicky; Chesné, Christophe; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent guidance/guidelines for industry recommend that cytochrome P450 induction can be assessed using human hepatocyte enzyme activity and/or mRNA levels to evaluate potential drug- drug interactions. To evaluate time-dependent cytochrome P450 induction precisely, induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 mRNA was confirmed (>2-fold) by the treatment with omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively, for 24 or 48 h on day 3 from the start of culture. After 24 h, the fold induction of CYP1A2 with 3.6 and 1.8x10(4) HepaRG cells per well was lower than that for 7.2x10(4) cells. CYP1A2 induction levels at 24 h were higher than those after 48 h. In contrast, higher CYP2B6 inductions were confirmed after 48 h exposure than after 24 h, independent of the number of cells per well. To help reduce the use of human cryopreserved hepatocytes, typical P450-dependent enzyme activities were investigated in human HepaRG cells cultured in commercial hanging-drop plates. Newly designed 96-well hanging-drop plates were capable of maintaining human CYP3A-dependent midazolam hydroxylation activities for up to 4 days using only 10% of the recommended initial 7.2x10(4) cells per well. Favorable HepaRG function using hanging-drop plates was confirmed by detecting 1'- hydroxymidazolam O-glucuronide on day 3, suggesting an improvement over traditional control plates in which this metabolite can be detected for 24-well plates. These results suggest that the catalytic function and/or induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 can be readily assessed with reduced numbers of starting HepaRG cells cultured in three-dimensional cultures in drops prepared with hanging-drop plates.

  1. Involvement of F-Actin in Chaperonin-Containing t-Complex 1 Beta Regulating Mouse Mesangial Cell Functions in a Glucose-Induction Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shuen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 beta (CCT2 in the regulation of mouse mesangial cell (mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration with filamentous/globular-(F/G- actin ratio under high glucose induction. A low CCT2 mMC model induced by treatment of small interference RNA was established. Groups with and without low CCT2 induction examined in normal and high (H glucose conditions revealed the following major results: (1 low CCT2 or H glucose showed the ability to attenuate F/G-actin ratio; (2 groups with low F/G-actin ratio all showed less cell contraction; (3 suppression of CCT2 may reduce the proliferation and migration which were originally induced by H glucose. In conclusion, CCT2 can be used as a specific regulator for mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration affected by glucose, which mechanism may involve the alteration of F-actin, particularly for cell contraction.

  2. Doação de órgãos e tecidos: relação com o corpo em nossa sociedade

    OpenAIRE

    Roza,Bartira De Aguiar; Garcia,Valter Duro; Barbosa,Sayonara de Fátima Faria; Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Schirmer,Janine

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo, de revisão bibliográfica, objetivou tecer considerações teóricas sobre doação de órgãos e tecidos e sua relação com o corpo em nossa sociedade. O aumento da taxa de doação depende de um olhar ampliado além das questões técnicas do processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos. Vários países, com larga experiência temporal e, que trabalham sistematicamente nesse processo, incorporaram a abordagem social e a perspectiva ética, baseadas no voluntarismo das famílias e no respeito ao direito...

  3. Sensitivity of fNIRS to cognitive state and load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Anthony Fishburn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an emerging low-cost noninvasive neuroimaging technique that measures cortical bloodflow. While fNIRS has gained interest as a potential alternative to fMRI for use with clinical and pediatric populations, it remains unclear whether fNIRS has the necessary sensitivity to serve as a replacement for fMRI. The present study set out to examine whether fNIRS has the sensitivity to detect linear changes in activation and functional connectivity in response to cognitive load, and functional connectivity changes when transitioning from a task-free resting state to a task. Sixteen young adult subjects were scanned with a continuous-wave fNIRS system during a 10-minute resting-state scan followed by a letter n-back task with three load conditions. Five optical probes were placed over frontal and parietal cortices, covering bilateral dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC, bilateral ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC, frontopolar cortex (FP, and bilateral parietal cortex. Activation was found to scale linearly with working memory load in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Functional connectivity increased with increasing n-back loads for fronto-parietal, interhemispheric dlPFC, and local connections. Functional connectivity differed between the resting state scan and the n-back scan, with fronto-parietal connectivity greater during the n-back, and interhemispheric vlPFC connectivity greater during rest. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is sensitive to both cognitive load and state, suggesting that fNIRS is well-suited to explore the full complement of neuroimaging research questions and will serve as a viable alternative to fMRI.

  4. 20(S-ginsenoside Rg3 promotes senescence and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells via the p53 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fei Zhang,* Maolan Li,* Xiangsong Wu,* Yunping Hu, Yang Cao, Xu’an Wang, Shanshan Xiang, Huaifeng Li, Lin Jiang, Zhujun Tan, Wei Lu, Hao Weng, Yijun Shu, Wei Gong, Xuefeng Wang, Yong Zhang, Weibin Shi, Ping Dong,# Jun Gu,# Yingbin Liu#Department of General Surgery and Laboratory of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work #These authors jointly directed this work Abstract: Gallbladder cancer (GBC, the most frequent malignancy of the biliary tract, is associated with high mortality and extremely poor prognosis. 20(S-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(S-Rg3 is a steroidal saponin with high pharmacological activity. However, the anticancer effect of 20(S-Rg3 in human GBC has not yet been determined. In this study, we primarily found that 20(S-Rg3 exposure suppressed the survival of both NOZ and GBC-SD cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, induction of cellular senescence and G0/G1 arrest by 20(S-Rg3 were accompanied by a large accumulation of p53 and p21 as a result of murine double minute 2 (MDM2 inhibition. 20(S-Rg3 also caused a remarkable increase in apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic caspase pathway. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of 20(S-Rg3 (20 or 40 mg/kg for 3 weeks markedly inhibited the growth of xenografts in nude mice. Our results demonstrated that 20(S-Rg3 potently inhibited growth and survival of GBC cells both in vitro and in vivo. 20(S-Rg3 attenuated GBC growth probably via activation of the p53 pathway, and subsequent induction of cellular senescence and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, 20(S-Rg3 may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for GBC therapy.Keywords: gallbladder cancer, 20(S-ginsenoside Rg3, senescence, apoptosis, p53 pathway

  5. Identification of a novel centrosomal protein CrpF46 involved in cell cycle progression and mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yi; Shen Enzhi; Zhao Na; Liu Qian; Fan Jinling; Marc, Jan; Wang Yongchao; Sun Le; Liang Qianjin

    2008-01-01

    A novel centrosome-related protein Crp F46 was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein Crp F46 has an apparent molecular mass of ∼ 60 kDa, is highly homologous to a 527 amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion of the protein Golgin-245, and appears to be a splice variant of Golgin-245. Immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized HeLa cells labeled with an anti-Crp F46 monoclonal antibody revealed that Crp F46 localized exclusively to the centrosome during interphase, although it dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis. Domain analysis using Crp F46 fragments in GFP-expression vectors transformed into HeLa cells revealed that centrosomal targeting is conferred by a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Antisense Crp F46 knockdown inhibited cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle typically stalled at S phase. The knockdown also resulted in the formation of poly-centrosomal and multinucleate cells, which finally became apoptotic. These results suggest that Crp F46 is a novel centrosome-related protein that associates with the centrosome in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is involved in the progression of the cell cycle and M phase mechanism

  6. Inequalities for trace anomalies, length of the RG flow, distance between the fixed points and irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2004-01-01

    I discuss several issues about the irreversibility of the RG flow and the trace anomalies c, a and a'. First I argue that in quantum field theory: (i) the scheme-invariant area Δ a' of the graph of the effective beta function between the fixed points defines the length of the RG flow; (ii) the minimum of Δ a' in the space of flows connecting the same UV and IR fixed points defines the (oriented) distance between the fixed points and (iii) in even dimensions, the distance between the fixed points is equal to Δ a = a UV - a IR . In even dimensions, these statements imply the inequalities 0 ≤ Δ a ≤ Δ a' and therefore the irreversibility of the RG flow. Another consequence is the inequality a ≤ c for free scalars and fermions (but not vectors), which can be checked explicitly. Secondly, I elaborate a more general axiomatic set-up where irreversibility is defined as the statement that there exist no pairs of non-trivial flows connecting interchanged UV and IR fixed points. The axioms, based on the notions of length of the flow, oriented distance between the fixed points and certain 'oriented-triangle inequalities', imply the irreversibility of the RG flow without a global a function. I conjecture that the RG flow is also irreversible in odd dimensions (without a global a function). In support of this, I check the axioms of irreversibility in a class of d = 3 theories where the RG flow is integrable at each order of the large N expansion

  7. Ginsenoside Rg1 Ameliorates Behavioral Abnormalities and Modulates the Hippocampal Proteomic Change in Triple Transgenic Mice of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, so far, there are no effective measures to prevent and cure this deadly condition. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 was shown to improve behavioral abnormalities in AD; however, the potential mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we pretreated 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice for 6 weeks with Rg1 and evaluated the effects of Rg1 on the behaviors and the protein expression of hippocampal tissues. The behavioral tests showed that Rg1 could improve the memory impairment and ameliorate the depression-like behaviors of 3xTg-AD mice. Proteomic results revealed a total of 28 differentially expressed hippocampal proteins between Rg1-treated and nontreated 3xTg-AD mice. Among these proteins, complexin-2 (CPLX2, synapsin-2 (SYN2, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNP25 were significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the WT mice, and the treatment of Rg1 modulated the expression of CPLX2 and SNP25 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. The expression of CPLX2, SYN2, and SNP25 was further validated by Western blot analysis. Taken together, we concluded that Rg1 could be a potential candidate drug to improve the behavioral deficits in AD via modulating the expression of the proteins (i.e., CPLX2, SYN2, and SNP25.

  8. Friction stir welding of F/M ODS steel plug and F/M steel tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon, E-mail: shkang77@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Vasudevan, M. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. • The curvature and smaller thickness of tube was the major limitation for applying FSW method, it was solved using specially designed jig. • Considerable hardening occurs in the joint because the cooling rate was sufficient to reproduce a martensitic microstructure. • The measured hoop strength of the FSWed joint was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. The dimensions of the tube included outer diameter of 7 mm, wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The objective was to find suitable process variables for gaining enough frictional heat from those thin and curved pieces. A specially designed jig was used for stabilization and slow rotation of tube during FSW. Additionally, the plug was designed to overlap the tube. Inconel 718 was used as FSW tool, the diameter was 3.5 mm. The adequate rotation speed of the tool and jig were 1200 rpm and 1.5 rpm, respectively. The joining was successfully accomplished using above combination, showing a good possibility. The hoop stress tests of joint were conducted by blowing Ar gas into the tube, the flow rate of gas was 10 MPa/min. The measured hoop stress was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube.

  9. Friction stir welding of F/M ODS steel plug and F/M steel tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Vasudevan, M.; Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. • The curvature and smaller thickness of tube was the major limitation for applying FSW method, it was solved using specially designed jig. • Considerable hardening occurs in the joint because the cooling rate was sufficient to reproduce a martensitic microstructure. • The measured hoop strength of the FSWed joint was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. The dimensions of the tube included outer diameter of 7 mm, wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The objective was to find suitable process variables for gaining enough frictional heat from those thin and curved pieces. A specially designed jig was used for stabilization and slow rotation of tube during FSW. Additionally, the plug was designed to overlap the tube. Inconel 718 was used as FSW tool, the diameter was 3.5 mm. The adequate rotation speed of the tool and jig were 1200 rpm and 1.5 rpm, respectively. The joining was successfully accomplished using above combination, showing a good possibility. The hoop stress tests of joint were conducted by blowing Ar gas into the tube, the flow rate of gas was 10 MPa/min. The measured hoop stress was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube.

  10. RG flows in the D-series of minimal CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, T.R.; Melzer, E.

    1993-01-01

    Using results of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz approach and conformal perturbation theory we argue that the φ 1,3 perturbation of a unitary minimal (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) in the D-series of modular invariant partition functions induces a renormalization group (RG) flow to the next-lower model in the D-series. An exception is the first model in the series, the three-state Potts CFT, which under the Z 2 -even φ 1,3 -perturbation flows to the tricritical Ising CFT, the second model in the A-series. We present arguments that in the A-series flow corresponding to this exceptional case, interpolating between the tetracritical and the tricritical Ising CFT, the IR fixed point is approached from 'exactly the opposite direction'. Our results indicate how (most of) the relevant conformal fields evolve from the UV to the IR CFT. (orig.)

  11. Tamanho relativo dos órgãos internos e do trato gastrintestinal de bovinos Zebu e mestiços leiteiros em sistema de recria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Alfredo Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 12 bovinos machos castrados, com peso vivo médio de 257kg, sendo quatro zebu e oito mestiços leiteiros (quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Gir e quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Guzerá. Foram pesados e distribuídos em dois tratamentos (zebu e mestiços leiteiros, em fase de recria. Os animais foram avaliados até atingirem 340kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi o feno de capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon. Por ocasião do abate foram coletadas amostras de rúmen, retículo, omaso, abomaso e intestinos, após o seu esvaziamento e limpeza, obtendo-se ainda os pesos e amostras de sangue, pele, pés, cabeça, fígado, rins, pulmões, língua, baço e gordura interna (mesentério e gorduras perirenal e pericardíaca. O peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ foi obtido pela soma dos pesos da carcaça, sangue, pele, pés, rabo, vísceras e órgãos. Na fase de recria e engorda, os animais zebu apresentaram a pele e o conjunto cabeça-pés-pele mais pesado do que os mestiços leiteiros. Também apresentaram os órgãos rins, baço, coração e língua mais leves do que dos mestiços. O conjunto rúmen-retículo-omaso-abomaso e os teores de gordura mesentérica e interna não apresentaram diferença entre animais mestiços leiteiros e zebu.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the F + H–F Transition-State Region by Photodetachment of [F–H–F] -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Gao-Lei [Physical; Wang, Xue-Bin [Physical; McCoy, Anne B. [Department; Borden, Weston Thatcher [Department

    2017-10-05

    The transition-state (TS) region of the simplest heavy-light-heavy type of reaction, F• + H-F F-H + F•, is investigated in this work by a joint experimental and theoretical approach. Photodetaching the bifluride anion, [F…H…F]–, generates a negative ion photoelectron (NIPE) spectrum with three partially resolved bands in the electron binding energy (eBE) range of 5.4 – 7.0 eV. These bands correspond to the transition from the ground state of the anion to the electronic ground state of [F-H-F]• neutral, with associated vibrational excitations. The significant increase of eBE of the bifluride anion, relative to that of F-, reflects a hydrogen bond energy between F- and HF of 46 kcal/mol. Theoretical modeling reveals that the antisymmetric motion of H between the two F atoms, near the TS on the neutral [F-H-F]• surface, dominates the observed three bands, while the F-H-F bending, F—F symmetric stretching modes, and the couplings between them is calculated to account for the breadth of the observed spectrum. From the NIPE spectrum, a lower limit on the activation enthalpy for F• + H-F F-H + F can be estimated to be H‡ = 12 ± 2 kcal/mol, a value below that of H‡ = 14.9 kcal/mol, given by our G4 calculations.

  13. Bioética e Doação e Transplante de Órgãos

    OpenAIRE

    Goldim, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Slide presentation about Bioethics, Organ Donations and Transplants. A brief review about ethical issues retated to organ transplantation.Apresentação de diapositivos sobre Bioética, Doação e Transplante de Órgãos. É uma breve apresentação dobre os aspectos éticos relacionados ao transplante de órgãos. 

  14. Broadband Electrophysiological Dynamics Contribute to Global Resting-State fMRI Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous activity observed with resting-state fMRI is used widely to uncover the brain's intrinsic functional networks in health and disease. Although many networks appear modular and specific, global and nonspecific fMRI fluctuations also exist and both pose a challenge and present an opportunity for characterizing and understanding brain networks. Here, we used a multimodal approach to investigate the neural correlates to the global fMRI signal in the resting state. Like fMRI, resting-state power fluctuations of broadband and arrhythmic, or scale-free, macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography activity were correlated globally. The power fluctuations of scale-free human electroencephalography (EEG) were coupled with the global component of simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI, with the global hemodynamic change lagging the broadband spectral change of EEG by ∼5 s. The levels of global and nonspecific fluctuation and synchronization in scale-free population activity also varied across and depended on arousal states. Together, these results suggest that the neural origin of global resting-state fMRI activity is the broadband power fluctuation in scale-free population activity observable with macroscopic electrical or magnetic recordings. Moreover, the global fluctuation in neurophysiological and hemodynamic activity is likely modulated through diffuse neuromodulation pathways that govern arousal states and vigilance levels. This study provides new insights into the neural origin of resting-state fMRI. Results demonstrate that the broadband power fluctuation of scale-free electrophysiology is globally synchronized and directly coupled with the global component of spontaneous fMRI signals, in contrast to modularly synchronized fluctuations in oscillatory neural activity. These findings lead to a new hypothesis that scale-free and oscillatory neural processes account for global and modular patterns of functional connectivity observed

  15. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled antimyosin F(ab)/sub 2/ monoclonal antibody and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in rhabdomyolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Hohenloser, S.; Kasper, W.; Meinertz, T.

    1988-02-01

    A report is presented of the scintigraphic diagnosis of a generalized rhabdomyolysis with myocardial involvement using /sup 111/In labelled antimyosin F(ab)/sub 2/ monoclonal antibodies as compared to /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate.

  16. A functional RG equation for the c-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; D'Odorico, G.; Pagani, C.

    2014-01-01

    , local potential approximation and loop expansion. In each case we construct the relative approximate c-function and find it to be consistent with Zamolodchikov's c-theorem. Finally, we present a relation between the c-function and the (matter induced) beta function of Newton's constant, allowing us...... to use heat kernel techniques to compute the RG running of the c-function....

  17. Radiation and drug response of the rat glioma RG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizsaecker, M.; Nagamune, A.; Winkelstroeter, R.; Vieten, H.; Wechsler, W.

    1982-01-01

    A clonogenic cell assay was developed for the chemically induced rat glioma RG2 that allows in vivo, in vitro, and in vivo to in vitro studies of cell survival after experimental therapy. RG2 monolayer cells were resistant to BCNU up to high concentrations. The x-radiation survival curves were characterized by a D 0 of 2.4 gray and n = 2.2 for monolayer cells, a D 0 of 3.5 gray and n = 1.3 for cells irradiated as brain tumors in air-breathing rats, and a D 0 of 5.9 gray and n = 1.2 for cells irradiated as brain tumors in nitrogen-asphyxiated rats. There was no evidence of a radiobiologically hypoxic fraction of cells in the brain tumors, but their radiosensitivity was definitely smaller than that of monolayer cells. (author)

  18. Identification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the side chains of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Malcolm [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Our goal was to gain insight into the genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), a borate cross-linked and structurally conserved pectic polysaccharide present in the primary cell walls of all vascular plants. The research conducted during the funding period established that (i) Avascular plants have the ability to synthesize UDP-apiose but lack the glycosyltransferase machinery required to synthesize RG-II or other apiose-containing cell wall glycans. (ii) RG-II structure is highly conserved in the Lemnaceae (duckweeds and relatives). However, the structures of other wall pectins and hemicellulose have changed substantial during the diversification of the Lemnaceae. This supports the notion that a precise structure of RG-II must be maintained to allow borate cross-linking to occur in a controlled manner. (iii) Enzymes involved in the conversion of UDP-GlcA to UDP-Api, UDP-Xyl, and UDP-Ara may have an important role in controlling the composition of duckweed cell walls. (iv) RG-II exists as the borate ester cross-linked dimer in the cell walls of soybean root hairs and roots. Thus, RG-II is present in the walls of plants cells that grow by tip or by expansive growth. (v) A reduction in RG-II cross-linking in the maize tls1 mutant, which lacks a borate channel protein, suggests that the growth defects observed in the mutant are, at least in part, due to defects in the cell wall.

  19. of Nd3+ions in YLiF4 and LuLiF4 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Henriques Librantz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nd3+ ultraviolet (UV fluorescence induced by multiphotonic laser excitations was studied in doped Nd:YLiF4 (YLF and Nd:LuLiF4 (LLF crystals by using the time resolved spectroscopy technique. The UV luminescences are due to transitions between the 4f25d and the 4f3 electronic configurations of Nd3+ ions. The 4f25d configuration can be reached by direct pumping or by multiphotonic excitation, both processes give rise to the UV band emission with structure due to the strong phonon coupling expected for 5d orbital involvement in the transition. The multiphotonic excitation process is due to three photons (532 nanometers [nm] sequential absorptions by metastable levels of the 4f3 configuration split by crystalline local field. The sequential excitation of Nd by the laser excitation is attributed to the 4I9/2 + 532 nm t 4G7/2 ground state absorption followed by the 4G7/2 + 532 nm t 2F5/2 and 2F5/2 + 532 nm t 4f25d excited state absorptions. The UV emissions due to 4f25d configuration are parity allowed, having lifetime of 35 nanoseconds (ns in contrast to UV emissions from 4f3 configuration which are induced by two absorption steps and are parity forbidden showing longer lifetime of 8 microseconds (ms and narrow lines. The polarization effects of the UV emissions were studied and their behaviors are dependent on the excited state configuration involving or not involving the 5d orbital. The allowed UV emission positions were affected by the host variation more than the ones originated from the 4f3 configuration as expected. The electronic energy of the 4f25d configuration shifts to lower energy for increasing the crystal field.

  20. Empty 4f states in TmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, P.; Grioni, M.

    1998-01-01

    The reflectivity of TmS single crystals has been measured between 2 meV and 12 eV at room temperature and at 6 K. Besides 3p 6 -5d interband transitions a plasma edge due to free carriers is observed. In the middle infrared (near 50 meV) two sharp lines are found which are interpreted as transitions from the Fermi level into empty crystal field split 4f 13 states. A Bremsstrahlen isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) measurement supports the assumption that the empty 4f 13 state is close to the Fermi energy. (orig.)

  1. Oxide fluoride sulfides of the lanthanoids with the formula M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd); Oxidfluoridsulfide der Lanthanoide vom Formeltyp M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossholz, Hagen; Zimmermann, Dirk D.; Janka, Oliver; Schleid, Thomas [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2013-07-15

    The lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride sulfides M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd) can be obtained by reacting the rare-earth metals, their trifluorides and sesquioxides with elemental sulfur in appropriate molar ratios at 850 C flux-assisted by NaCl in gas-tightly sealed niobium or tantalum ampoules. All compounds are colorless, except for those containing M = Pr with green, M = Nd with lilac and M = Sm with yellow color. They form transparent single crystals as needles or rods. The M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} representatives crystallize in a hexagonal structure (space group: P6{sub 3}/m; a {approx} 1382-1326, c {approx} 398-376 pm, c/a {approx} 0.288-0.284; Z = 2) with two different crystallographic M{sup 3+} positions. The (M2){sup 3+} cations reside in ninefold coordination of anions arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms formed by three F{sup -}, four mixed-occupied O{sup 2-}/F{sup -} and two S{sup 2-} anions, resembling the unique M{sup 3+} coordination sphere of the M{sub 3}OF{sub 5}S-type oxide fluoride sulfides. The (M1){sup 3+} cations are surrounded by square antiprisms built of four O{sup 2-}/F{sup -} and S{sup 2-} anions each, which are capped by one F{sup -} anion each, again resulting in a ninefold coordination similar to that of the A-MFS-type fluoride sulfides. While the crystallographically unique S{sup 2-} anions have six cationic neighbors arranged in trigonal prisms, there are four different light-anion positions. Two of them, representing only fluoride anions, are situated in a triangular environment of cations ((F1){sup -}: planar, (F2){sup -}: non-planar). The mixed-occupied light-anion positions (F3){sup -}/(O3){sup 2-} and (F4){sup -}/(O4){sup 2-} exhibit tetrahedral coordination spheres with a ratio F{sup -}: O{sup 2-} = 2:1. The M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} arrangement is characterized by an empty hexagonal channel structure created by (F1){sup -} anions with a potential of accommodating alkali-metal cations like Na

  2. Investigation of True High Frequency Electrical Substrates of fMRI-Based Resting State Networks Using Parallel Independent Component Analysis of Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahally, Sreenath P; Wang, Yun; Calhoun, Vince D; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Previous work using simultaneously acquired electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has shown that the slow temporal dynamics of resting state brain networks (RSNs), e.g., default mode network (DMN), visual network (VN), obtained from fMRI are correlated with smoothed and down sampled versions of various EEG features such as microstates and band-limited power envelopes. Therefore, even though the down sampled and smoothed envelope of EEG gamma band power is correlated with fMRI fluctuations in the RSNs, it does not mean that the electrical substrates of the RSNs fluctuate with periods state fMRI fluctuations in the RSNs, researchers have speculated that truly high frequency electrical substrates may exist for the RSNs, which would make resting fluctuations obtained from fMRI more meaningful to typically occurring fast neuronal processes in the sub-100 ms time scale. In this study, we test this critical hypothesis using an integrated framework involving simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition, fast fMRI sampling ( TR = 200 ms) using multiband EPI (MB EPI), and EEG/fMRI fusion using parallel independent component analysis (pICA) which does not require the down sampling of EEG to fMRI temporal resolution . Our results demonstrate that with faster sampling, high frequency electrical substrates (fluctuating with periods <100 ms time scale) of the RSNs can be observed. This provides a sounder neurophysiological basis for the RSNs.

  3. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Musso, Daniele [International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Redigolo, Diego [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France)

    2015-03-17

    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1){sub R} symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1){sub F} symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are spontaneously broken, and their lifting when the breaking is explicit. We further comment on the application of such class of backgrounds as archetypes of strongly coupled hidden sectors for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In particular, we show that it is possible to model in this way all types of hierarchies between the visible sector gaugino and sfermion masses.

  4. Successful rotational atherectomy over RG3 guidewire after failure of various techniques to deliver RotaWire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Umihiko; Kashima, Yoshifumi; Kanno, Daitaro; Sugie, Takuro; Kobayashi, Ken; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2017-10-01

    Although performing rotational atherectomy (RA) requires guidewire exchange for the dedicated guidewire, RotaWire guidewire (Boston Scientific) exhibits much lower performance than conventional guidewire. Consequently, there are times when RotaWire cannot be advanced past the lesion independently or using a microcatheter exchange technique, rendering RA impossible. We present a case of a heavily calcified, device-uncrossable, and non-expansible chronic total occlusion lesion successfully revascularized with RA over RG3 guidewire (Asahi Intecc), which has a length of 330 cm, hydrophilic coating, and a 0.010-inch-long shaft. RG3 provided excellent cross-ability and RA could also be performed over RG3 without guidewire exchange for the RotaWire.

  5. Depth Discrimination Using Rg-to-Sg Spectral Amplitude Ratios for Seismic Events in Utah Recorded at Local Distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibi, Rigobert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koper, Keith D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Pankow, Kristine L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Short-period fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) are commonly observed on seismograms of anthropogenic seismic events and shallow, naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes (TEs) recorded at local distances. In the Utah region, strong Rg waves traveling with an average group velocity of about 1.8 km/s are observed at ~1 Hz on waveforms from shallow events ( depth<10 km ) recorded at distances up to about 150 km. At these distances, Sg waves, which are direct shear waves traveling in the upper crust, are generally the dominant signals for TEs. Here in this study, we leverage the well-known notion that Rg amplitude decreases dramatically with increasing event depth to propose a new depth discriminant based on Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios. The approach is successfully used to discriminate shallow events (both earthquakes and anthropogenic events) from deeper TEs in the Utah region recorded at local distances ( <150 km ) by the University of Utah Seismographic Stations (UUSS) regional seismic network. Using Mood’s median test, we obtained probabilities of nearly zero that the median Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios are the same between shallow events on the one hand (including both shallow TEs and anthropogenic events), and deeper earthquakes on the other, suggesting that there is a statistically significant difference in the estimated Rg-to-Sg ratios between the two populations. We also observed consistent disparities between the different types of shallow events (e.g., mining blasts vs. mining-induced earthquakes), implying that it may be possible to separate the subpopulations that make up this group. Lastly, this suggests that using local distance Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios one can not only discriminate shallow events from deeper events but may also be able to discriminate among different populations of shallow events.

  6. Infinitely many N=1 dualities from m+1−m=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit; Intriligator, Kenneth; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We discuss two infinite classes of 4d supersymmetric theories, T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)}, labelled by an arbitrary non-negative integer, m. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} theory arises from the 6d, A{sub N−1} type N=(2,0) theory reduced on a 3-punctured sphere, with normal bundle given by line bundles of degree (m+1,−m); the m=0 case is the N=2 supersymmetric T{sub N} theory. The novelty is the negative-degree line bundle. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories likewise arise from the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a 4-punctured sphere, and can be regarded as gluing together two (partially Higgsed) T{sub N}{sup (m)} theories. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can be represented, in various duality frames, as quiver gauge theories, built from T{sub N} components via gauging and nilpotent Higgsing. We analyze the RG flow of the U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories, and find that, for all integer m>0, they end up at the same IR SCFT as SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors and quartic superpotential. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can thus be regarded as an infinite set of UV completions, dual to SQCD with N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} duals have different duality frame quiver representations, with 2m+1 gauge nodes.

  7. How restful is it with all that noise? Comparison of Interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) and conventional imaging in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Ferreira, M; Leppert, I R; Matsushita, R; Pike, B; Zatorre, R J

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the effects of acoustic noise on fMRI signals, including sparse sampling protocols and interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) acquisition methods, the latter being used only for task-based fMRI. Here, we developed an ISSS protocol for resting-state fMRI (rs-ISSS) consisting of rapid acquisition of a set of echo planar imaging volumes following each silent period, during which the steady state longitudinal magnetization was maintained with a train of relatively silent slice-selective excitation pulses. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of intensity and spatial extent of connectivity networks of fMRI BOLD signal across three different days for rs-ISSS and compared it with a standard resting-state fMRI (rs-STD). We also compared the strength and distribution of connectivity networks between rs-ISSS and rs-STD. We found that both rs-ISSS and rs-STD showed high reproducibility of fMRI signal across days. In addition, rs-ISSS showed a more robust pattern of functional connectivity within the somatosensory and motor networks, as well as an auditory network compared with rs-STD. An increased connectivity between the default mode network and the language network and with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) network was also found for rs-ISSS compared with rs-STD. Finally, region of interest analysis showed

  8. New type of chaos synchronization in discrete-time systems: the F-M synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouannas Adel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of synchronization for chaotic (hyperchaotic maps with different dimensions is proposed. The novel scheme is called FM synchronization, since it combines the inverse generalized synchronization (based on a functional relationship F with the matrix projective synchronization (based on a matrix M. In particular, the proposed approach enables FM synchronization with index d to be achieved between n-dimensional drive system map and m-dimensional response system map, where the synchronization index d corresponds to the dimension of the synchronization error. The technique, which exploits nonlinear controllers and Lyapunov stability theory, proves to be effective in achieving the FM synchronization not only when the synchronization index d equals n or m, but even if the synchronization index d is larger than the map dimensions n and m. Finally, simulation results are reported, with the aim to illustrate the capabilities of the novel scheme proposed herein.

  9. New type of chaos synchronization in discrete-time systems: the F-M synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouannas, Adel; Grassi, Giuseppe; Karouma, Abdulrahman; Ziar, Toufik; Wang, Xiong; Pham, Viet-Thanh

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new type of synchronization for chaotic (hyperchaotic) maps with different dimensions is proposed. The novel scheme is called F - M synchronization, since it combines the inverse generalized synchronization (based on a functional relationship F) with the matrix projective synchronization (based on a matrix M). In particular, the proposed approach enables F - M synchronization with index d to be achieved between n-dimensional drive system map and m-dimensional response system map, where the synchronization index d corresponds to the dimension of the synchronization error. The technique, which exploits nonlinear controllers and Lyapunov stability theory, proves to be effective in achieving the F - M synchronization not only when the synchronization index d equals n or m, but even if the synchronization index d is larger than the map dimensions n and m. Finally, simulation results are reported, with the aim to illustrate the capabilities of the novel scheme proposed herein.

  10. Preparation of a pure 99mTc-F(ab')2 radioimmunoconjugate by direct labeling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, G.L.; Jones, A.L.; Hansen, H.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Intact IgG and Fab' can be labeled directly with 99m Tc to give quantitative incorporation of radioactivity into the protein. With F(ab') 2 the reductive conditions yield a mixture of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 and 99m Tc-Fab'. We now report a direct labeling method to produce only 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 in quantitative yield and contaminated with 99m Tc-Fab'. The properties, stability and biodistribution of the 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 have been compared to 99m Tc-Fab'. This new technology will allow us to compare technetium direct-labeled IgG, F(ab') 2 and Fab' derivatives of the same antibody for radioimmunodetection. (author)

  11. Stochastic Four-State Mechanochemical Model of F1-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weixia; Zhan Yong; Zhao Tongjun; Han Yingrong; Chen Yafei

    2010-01-01

    F 1 -ATPase, a part of ATP synthase, can synthesize and hydrolyze ATP moleculars in which the central γ-subunit rotates inside the α 3 β 3 cylinder. A stochastic four-state mechanochemical coupling model of F 1 -ATPase is studied with the aid of the master equation. In this model, the ATP hydrolysis and synthesis are dependent on ATP, ADP, and Pi concentrations. The effects of ATP concentration, ADP concentration, and the external torque on the occupation probability of binding-state, the rotation rate and the diffusion coefficient of F 1 -ATPase are investigated. Moreover, the results from this model are compared with experiments. The mechanochemical mechanism F 1 -ATPase is qualitatively explained by the model. (general)

  12. A comparative modeling and molecular docking study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Zeynab; Naiker, Suhashni; Alves, Claudio N; Govender, Thavendran; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lameira, Jeronimo; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Kruger, Hendrik G; Honarparvar, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    An alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and the continuous high global morbidity of tuberculosis have reinvigorated the need to identify novel targets to combat the disease. The enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan in M. tuberculosis are essential and noteworthy therapeutic targets. In this study, the biochemical function and homology modeling of MurI, MurG, MraY, DapE, DapA, Alr, and Ddl enzymes of the CDC1551 M. tuberculosis strain involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall are reported. Generation of the 3D structures was achieved with Modeller 9.13. To assess the structural quality of the obtained homology modeled targets, the models were validated using PROCHECK, PDBsum, QMEAN, and ERRAT scores. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate root mean square deviation (RMSD) and radius of gyration (Rg) of MurI and MurG target proteins and their corresponding templates. For further model validation, RMSD and Rg for selected targets/templates were investigated to compare the close proximity of their dynamic behavior in terms of protein stability and average distances. To identify the potential binding mode required for molecular docking, binding site information of all modeled targets was obtained using two prediction algorithms. A docking study was performed for MurI to determine the potential mode of interaction between the inhibitor and the active site residues. This study presents the first accounts of the 3D structural information for the selected M. tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  13. Amplificador clase F para telefonía móvil celular

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Henckell, Grey Franck

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente, con el rápido crecimiento de las tecnologías de telefonía móvil celular, cada vez se pide más eficiencia energética a los terminales móviles. Para poder satisfacer esta necesidad, este proyecto presenta el diseño, fabricación y medida de un amplificador de potencia (PA) clase F utilizando un transistor GaN HEMT del proveedor Cree. El objetivo de este proyecto es diseñar un amplificador clase F para la banda GSM, una de las bandas de frecuencia más utilizadas para transmitir...

  14. Öğretmen Adaylarının Çevre Kirliliğine ve Çevreyle İlgili Sivil Toplum Örgütlerine Yönelik Görüşleri / Teacher Candidates’ Views about Environmental Pollution and Non-Governmental Organizations Related to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KAHYAOĞLU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, ilköğretim öğretmen adaylarının çevre eğitimi konusundaki duyarlılıklarını ortaya koyabilmek adına, çevre kirliliğiyle ilgili algıları, çevreyle ilgili sivil toplum örgütleri hakkındaki görüşleri ve çevre sorunlarının çözümüne yönelik düşüncelerinin ortaya konulması ayrıca Türkiye’deki çevre ile ilgili sivil toplum örgütlerinin faaliyetlerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma, 2010-2011 eğitim öğretim yılı bahar döneminde Siirt Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi İlköğretim Sınıf, Fen Bilgisi, Matematik ve Sosyal Bilgiler öğretmenliği programında gönüllülük esası ile seçkisiz (random olarak belirlenen ve son sınıfta öğrenim gören 37 öğrenci ile yürütülmüştür. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, öğretmen adayları çevreyle ilgili sivil toplum örgütlerinin görevleri hakkında yeterli bilgiye sahipken, bunlardan bir bölümünü tanımamaları dikkat çekicidir. Bu durum sivil toplum örgütlerinin çevre eğitimine yönelik faaliyetlere yer vermesine karşın ulusal anlamda amacına ulaşmadığını da ortaya koymaktadır.

  15. Influence of postbiotic RG14 and inulin combination on cecal microbiota, organic acid concentration, and cytokine expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, K Y; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Asmara, S A; Akit, H

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P  0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P inulin combinations are potential replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Enhancement of ginsenoside Rg(1) in Panax ginseng hairy root by overexpressing the α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Li, Gu-Cai; Xie, Tao; Hu, Teng; Luo, Zhi-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To improve the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in Panax ginseng. The α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve (BbRha) was overexpressed into hairy root culture system using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Ginsenoside Rg1 in hairy roots was obtained following transformation via overexpressed gene representing 2.2-fold higher than those of control lines. Several overexpression transgenic hairy root lines were obtained exhibiting markedly increased levels of the corresponding α-L-rhamnosidase enzymatic activity relative to control. Ginsenoside Rg1 levels in the transgenic lines were higher (2.2-fold) than those of control after following 30 days culturing, while ginsenoside Re contents in tested transgenic lines were found to be lower. The transgenic hairy roots harboring α-L-rhamnosidase gene improved the accumulation of ginsenoside Rg1 up to 3.6 mg g(-1) dry weight. BbRha gene selectively enhances the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in P. ginseng hairy roots.

  17. Novel solid state lasers for Lidar applications at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, G.; Galzerano, G.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Laporta, P.

    2005-09-01

    A review on the results achieved by our group in the development of novel solid-state lasers for Lidar applications at 2 μm is presented. These lasers, based on fluoride crystals (YLF4, BaY2F8, and KYF4) doped with Tm and Ho ions, are characterized by high-efficiency and wide wavelength tunability around 2 μm. Single crystals of LiYF4, BaY2F8, and KYF4 codoped with the same Tm3+ and Ho3+ concentrations were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The full spectroscopic characterization of the different laser crystals and the comparison between the laser performance are presented. Continuous wave operation was efficiently demonstrated by means of a CW diode-pumping. These oscillators find interesting applications in the field of remote sensing (Lidar and Dial systems) as well as in high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, frequency metrology, and biomedical applications.

  18. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metil coenzima M redutase (MCR e o fator 430 (F430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagaki Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents studies on methyl coenzyme M reductase, the biological system Factor 430 (F430 and the use of nickel(II complexes as structural and functional models. The ability of F430 and nickel(II macrocycle complexes to mediate the reductive dehalogenation of cyclohexyl halogens and the CH3-S bond cleavage of methyl CoM (by sodium borohydride and some intermediate species proposed for the catalytic cycle of the biological system F430 was reviewed. The importance of the structure of the nickel complexes and the condition of the catalytic reduction reaction are also discussed.

  20. Metil coenzima M redutase (MCR e o fator 430 (F430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This review presents studies on methyl coenzyme M reductase, the biological system Factor 430 (F430 and the use of nickel(II complexes as structural and functional models. The ability of F430 and nickel(II macrocycle complexes to mediate the reductive dehalogenation of cyclohexyl halogens and the CH3-S bond cleavage of methyl CoM (by sodium borohydride and some intermediate species proposed for the catalytic cycle of the biological system F430 was reviewed. The importance of the structure of the nickel complexes and the condition of the catalytic reduction reaction are also discussed.

  1. UNUSUAL ENERGY-DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION CROSS-SECTION FOR A SECONDARY ISOMERIC NUCLEAR BEAM (F-18(M), J(PI)=5(+), E(X)=1.1 MEV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTS, DA; BECCHETTI, FD; BROWN, JA; JANECKE, J; PHAM, K; ODONNELL, TW; WARNER, RE; RONNINGEN, RM; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    A primary O-17 beam has been used to produce a 22.3 MeV/nucleon F-18(m) isomeric secondary beam via a single nucleon transfer reaction on a carbon target. The total nuclear reaction cross sections for F-18(m) and F-18(g.s.) in silicon were measured in a stack of seven silicon solid-state detectors.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces DNA damage in human osteosarcoma cells and reduces MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in normal human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Hui; Li, Hai-Dong; Li, Bo; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng is a Chinese medicinal herb. Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components of P. ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is the primary ginsenoside. Ginsenosides can potently kill various types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 in human osteosarcoma cells and the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg3 with respect to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts). Four human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, OS732, U-2OS and HOS cells) and a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts) were employed to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenosides Rg3 by MTT assay. Alkaline comet assay and γH2AX focus staining were used to detect the DNA damage in MG-63 and U-2OS cells. The extent of cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and a DNA ladder assay. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 was dose-dependent in the human osteosarcoma cell lines, and MG-63 and U-2OS cells were the most sensitive to ginsenoside Rg3. As expected, compared to the negative control, ginsenoside Rg3 significantly increased DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. In agreement with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX-positive MG-63 and U-2OS cells indicated that ginsenoside Rg3 induced DNA double-strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. The results also suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 reduces the extent of MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human fibroblasts.

  3. Evidence for the strongest version of the 4d a-theorem via a-maximization along RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Intriligator, Ken; Wecht, Brian; Wright, Jason

    2004-01-01

    In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line 'almost proof' (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that aIRaUV, using our result that the exact superconformal R-symmetry of 4d SCFTs maximizes a=3TrR3-TrR. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it is only a local maximum of a. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing 'a-function' along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive-definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets

  4. Symmetries of string, M- and F-theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Proeyen, Antoine Van

    2001-01-01

    The d = 10 type II string theories, d = 11 M-theory and d = 12 F-theory have the same symmetry group. It can be viewed either as a subgroup of a conformal group OSp(1|64) or as a contraction of OSp(1|32). The theories are related by different identifications of their symmetry operators as generators

  5. Alternation in F-wave parameters of median nerve from unaffected extremity in stroke patients with hemiplegia under dynamic state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Zhao; Yong Lin; Wenhua Qi; Shuping Yin; Jiachun Feng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, the extremities of stroke patients are divided into affected side and unaffected side according to clinical symptoms and body signs. Moreover, previous rehabilitation function training is developed simply aiming to the dysfunction manifested by unaffected extremity. Problems of unaffected extremity are always ignored, such as left- and right- side connection dysfunction, abnormal muscular tension of unaffected side and so on.OBJECTIVE: To observe neurophysiological change characteristics of unaffected extremity of stroke patients with hemiplegia by electromyographical method.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: First Hospital, Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: Eighty stroke patients with hemiplegia confirmed by skull CT or MRI, who firstly hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, First Hospital, Jilin University between July 2004 and March 2005, were retrieved. They were scored > 8 points in Glasgow Coma Scale and had stable vital sign. Nineteen normal persons who received healthy examination in the clinic were involved in normal control group. Following the classification criteria of Brunnstrom's Recovery Stages of Stroke (BRSS), 80 stroke patients with hemiplegia were assigned into 3 groups: BRSS Ⅰ -Ⅱ group (n =36), BRSS Ⅲ-Ⅳ group (n =23) and BRSSⅤ-Ⅵ (n=21).METHODS: F-wave parameters of median nerve of unaffected extremity were detected by electromyographical technique. The recording electrode (muscular belly of abductor pollicis brevis) and reference electrode (first finger bone) were connected with grounding electrode. Stimulating electrode was placed in the median part of wrist joint with stimulation intensity of 130% that of threshold stimulation, stimulation frequency of 2 Hz, current pulse width of 0.2 ms, time course of 5 ms and sensitivity of 2 mV. The F-wave of median nerve of affected extremity under the resting stage (static status) and that of unaffected extremity under the maximum resistant contracted

  6. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos: relato de caso Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with multiple organ dysfunctions: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Spegiorin Moreno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hantavirose é uma zoonose que apresenta distribuição mundial e sua transmissão está relacionada com o íntimo contato com roedores. Causa dois tipos de doença: a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal (FHSR, endêmica na Ásia e Europa e a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus (SPH, encontrada no continente americano, inclusive no Brasil, com elevadas taxas de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de SPH com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, que recebeu tratamento intensivo precoce e reanimação guiada por parâmetros de fluxo e de perfusão tecidual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, iniciou quadro febril inespecífico, dispnéia progressiva, hipóxia grave e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Apresentava infiltrado interstício-alveolar difuso na radiografia de tórax. Evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (pulmonar, renal, hematológica, cardiovascular e metabólica. Recebeu tratamento e monitorização hemodinâmica invasiva precoces. As alterações laboratoriais mais importantes foram plaquetopenia, elevação dos níveis de hematócrito e hemoglobina, leucocitose, elevação de transaminases, de lactado desidrogenase e sorologia positiva para hantavírus (ELISA IgM positivo. O paciente apresentou reversão das disfunções orgânicas, recebendo alta hospitalar após 21 dias de hospitalização. CONCLUSÕES: A reanimação precoce e agressiva dirigida por metas levou à reversão da síndrome de falência de múltiplos órgãos e a um desfecho clínico favorável, apesar da gravidade da doença.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hantavirus infection is a zoonose with worldwide distribution. The transmission is related to the intimal contact with rodents. It causes two syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, endemic in Asia and Europe and the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, found in the American continent, including Brazil, with high mortality

  7. Line list for the ground state of CaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shilin; Bernath, Peter F.

    2018-05-01

    The molecular potential energy function and electronic dipole moment function for the ground state of CaF were studied with MRCI, ACPF, and RCCSD(T) ab initio calculations. The RCCSD(T) potential function reproduces the experimental vibrational intervals to within ∼2 cm-1. The RCCSD(T) dipole moment at the equilibrium internuclear separation agrees well with the experimental value. Over a wide range of internuclear separations, far beyond the range associated with the observed spectra, the ab initio dipole moment functions are similar and highly linear. An extended Morse oscillator (EMO) potential function was also obtained by fitting the observed lines of the laboratory vibration-rotation and pure rotation spectra of the 40CaF X2Σ+ ground state. The fitted potential reproduces the observed transitions (v ≤ 8, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0, 1) within their experimental uncertainties. With this EMO potential and the RCCSD(T) dipole moment function, line lists for 40CaF, 42CaF, 43CaF, 44CaF, 46CaF, and 48CaF were computed for v ≤ 10, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0-10. The calculated emission spectra are in good agreement with an observed laboratory spectrum of CaF at a sample temperature of 1873 K.

  8. Transitions between compound states of spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskii, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Wigner's statistical matrices are used to study the average reduced g widths and their dispersion for g transitions from a compound state c to another state f, with a lower excitation energy but of arbitrary complexity, for spherical nuclei. It is found that the Porter--Thomas distribution holds for the g widths for all cases of practical interest. In g transitions between compound states c and c' with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV, the most important transitions are M1 transitions involving the major many-quasiparticle components of state c and E1 transitions involving the minor components of state c. It is shown that the strength functions predicted by the various theories for M1 and E1 transitions between compound states with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV are similar. Preference is assigned to the M1-transition version because of experimental results on (n,ga) reactions with thermal and resonance neutrons

  9. Exact RG flow equations and quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the different forms of the functional RG equation and their relation to each other. In particular we suggest a generalized background field version that is close in spirit to the Polchinski equation as an alternative to the Wetterich equation to study Weinberg's asymptotic safety program for defining quantum gravity, and argue that the former is better suited for this purpose. Using the heat kernel expansion and proper time regularization we find evidence in support of this program in agreement with previous work.

  10. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Algısının İş Tatmini ve Örgütsel Bağlılık Üzerindeki Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    TUZCU, Arcan

    2014-01-01

    Günümüzde şirketlerin sorumlulukları ekonomik ve yasal olduğu kadar ahlaki ve kamusal temellere de dayanmaktadır. Kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk uygulamaları örgütlerin en önemli paydaşlarından biri olan çalışanları da etkilemektedir. Bu uygulamalar çalışanların örgütsel bağlılık ve iş tatminlerini etkileyebilmektedir. Bu çalışma çalışanların kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk algısını ve bu algının çalışanların iş tatmini ve örgütsel bağlılık etkilerini araştırmaktadır. Bu amaçla çalışanların cinsiyeti,...

  11. Opinião e conhecimento da população da cidade de curitiba sobre doação e transplante de órgãos

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Julio Cezar Uili; Cilião,Camilla; Parolin,Mônica Beatriz; Freitas,Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Gama Filho,Ózimo Pereira; Saad,Danilo Tatim; Pistori,Rafael Petracca; Martone,Daniel

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar a opinião e o conhecimento, de uma amostra da população da cidade de Curitiba, sobre doação e transplante de órgãos. MÉTODOS: A opinião e o conhecimento sobre doação e transplante de órgãos de mil pessoas, com idade superior a 18 anos, foram determinados através de um questionário de 20 perguntas. Os entrevistados avaliados tinham uma distribuição similar em idade, sexo e padrão socioeconômico, e escolaridade à população brasileira, determinada pelo IBGE. RESULTADOS: A m...

  12. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A' electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A' state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad, the vertical electron affinity (EAvert, and the vertical detachment energy (VDE. The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om (m = 1-4 and De- (BrO4F- → BrO4-mF- + Om and BrO4F- → BrO4-mF + Om- are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A'← 4A' (B3LYP method.

  13. Definition of multi-state weighted k-out-of-n: F systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Wu, Qiuwei; Zio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    of the Multi-state Weighted k-out-of-n: G System- the Multi-state Weighted k-out-of-n: F System has not been clearly defined and discussed. In this short communication, the basic definition of the Multi-state Weighted k-out-of-n: F System model is proposed. The relationship between the Multi-state Weighted k...

  14. Evaluating vacquinol-1 in rats carrying glioblastoma models RG2 and NS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstedt, Jonatan; Förnvik, Karolina; Zolfaghari, Shaian; Kwak, Dongoh; Hammarström, Lars G J; Ernfors, Patrik; Salford, Leif G; Redebrandt, Henrietta Nittby

    2018-02-02

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and available experimental and routine therapies result in limited survival benefits. A vulnerability of GBM cells to catastrophic vacuolization and cell death, a process termed methuosis, induced by Vacquinol-1 (VQ-1) has been described earlier. In the present study, we investigate the efficacy of VQ-1 treatment in two syngeneic rat GBM models, RG2 and NS1. VQ-1 treatment affected growth of both RG2 and NS1 cells in vitro . Intracranially, significant reduction in RG2 tumor size was observed, although no effect was seen on overall survival. No survival advantage or effect on tumor size was seen in animals carrying the NS1 models compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, immunological staining of FOXP3, CD4 and CD8 showed no marked difference in immune cell infiltrate in tumor environment following treatment. Taken together, a survival advantage of VQ-1 treatment alone could not be demonstrated here, even though some effect upon tumor size was seen. Staining for immune cell markers did not indicate that VQ-1 either reduced or increased host anti-tumor immune response.

  15. Ginsenoside Rg1 nanoparticle penetrating the blood–brain barrier to improve the cerebral function of diabetic rats complicated with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Junyi Shen, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Shang, Chunli Liu, Beibei Zhang, Lingjie Zhao, Hui Cai Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Abstract: Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood–brain barrier (BBB restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H, Rg1, and OX26 antibody, targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo. Dynamic light scattering analysis shows the average particle size of PHRO was 79±18 nm and the polydispersity index =0.18. The transmission electron microscope images showed that all NPs were spherical in shape with diameters of 89±23 nm. PHRO released Rg1 with sustained release manner and could promote the migration of cerebrovascular endothelial cells and tube formation and even penetrated the BBB in vitro. PHRO could penetrate the BBB with high concentration in brain tissue to reduce the cerebral infarction volume and promote neuronal recovery in vivo. PHRO was promising to be a clinical treatment of diabetes mellitus with cerebral infarction. Keywords: poly-γ-glutamic acid, ginsenoside Rg1, OX26, blood–brain barrier

  16. Variability of critical frequency and M(3000)F2 at Tucuman and San Juan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Corbella, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of the M(3000)F2 factor and the critical frequency of the E and F2 ionospheric regions over two argentine stations for middle solar activity conditions is studied. To this end different parameters to specify variability are used, namely: standard deviation, difference between median to lower quartile and to upper quartile. The results show that low variability is observed for foE and M(3000)F2 factor at both stations for equinoxes and solstices. The coefficients of variability are lower than 10% for foE and M(3000)F2 factor. The highest variability was observed for foF2. In general, the foF2 coefficient of variability ranges between 0 and 30%, at both stations. (author)

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of the Ginsenoside Rg1 on Cerebral Ischemic Injury In Vivo and In Vitro Is Mediated by PPARγ-Regulated Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a neuroprotective effect during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rg1 has been previously reported to improve PPARγ expression and signaling, consequently enhancing its regulatory processes. Due to PPARγ’s role in the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, Rg1’s PPARγ-normalizing capacity may play a role in the observed neuroprotective action of Rg1 during ischemic brain injury. We utilized a middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury model in rats in addition to an oxygen glucose deprivation model in cortical neurons to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. We found that Rg1 significantly increased PPARγ expression and reduced multiple indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ultimately, Rg1 treatment improved neurological function and diminished brain edema, indicating that Rg1 may exert its neuroprotective action on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the activation of PPARγ signaling. In addition, the present findings suggested that Rg1 was a potent PPARγ agonist in that it upregulated PPARγ expression and was inhibited by GW9662, a selective PPARγ antagonist. These findings expand our previous understanding of the molecular basis of the therapeutic action of Rg1 in cerebral ischemic injury, laying the ground work for expanded study and clinical optimization of the compound.

  18. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Dachuan; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Linbo; Jing, Pengwei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping

    2016-06-09

    Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1⁺ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16(Ink4a), Rb, p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p53 in senescent Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16(Ink4a)-Rb and p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) signaling.

  19. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for .... possible by the use of a microscope with UV optics that ... Abiotic stress factors that induced the expression of the ..... Arabidopsis mutant.

  20. Siegenberg Germany Gunnery Range, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-10-28

    1 OP1470-- WET BULS TEMPERATURE DEPRESSIO -4 F’ OA" , 0F 1-2 3- 5-6 7-8 9. 10 11- 12 13- 14 1.- 16 17. : 19 20 21- - --s , 5 . D - 88/ 87 log 2 86...PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIR AEATE E SERVICE/AC 34199 SIEGEN5uRG GERMANY GUNNERY RAhGE e87C Sp’ AA :- E 1 - wET eULB TE-PERATuRE DEPRESSIO -- F- C - 3 5. 6

  1. Logistika mõisted

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    rg 18. märts lk. 19, 29. aprill lk. 17, 20. mai lk. 14, 19. august lk. 24, 23. september lk. 12, 4. november, 2. dets. lk. 16, 20. jaanuar 2004 lk. 10, 2. märts lk. 20, 6. aprill lk. 22, 4. mai lk. 16, 1. juuni lk. 14, 5. juuli, 2. august lk. 18, 5. oktoober lk. 22, 7. dets. lk. 23. Logistika põhimõisted

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against ischemia induced apoptosis through miR-494-3p and ROCK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-Zhen; Fu, Xue-Kun; Shang, Jiu-Long; Lu, Rong-Xi; Ou, Yong-Fang; Chen, Chun-Ling

    2018-03-05

    This study aimed to verify the cytoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of Rg1 in the ischemic microenvironment. Male rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) or rBMSCs treated with Rg1 were injected into ischemic region of the arterial embolism hind limb in female rats. Behavioral and histological data, obtained one-week post injection, showed that rBMSCs with Rg1 could improve the survival rate of BMSCs and enhance the therapeutic effects. rBMSCs treated with hypoxia and serum deprivation for 24h (H/SD-rBMSCs) showed the up-regulated expression of ras homolog family member A (RhoA), Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1), myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2), Bcl2 associated agonist of cell death (Bad) and Bcl2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (Bax); while the expression of miR-148b-3p, miR-148b-5p and miR-494-3p was down-regulated. H/SD with Rg1 treatment (H/SD+Rg1-rBMSCs) inhibited the expression of ROCK-1, MLC-2, Bad and Bax, increased the expression of Bcl-2, miR-494-3p. After ROCK-1 knockout, the expression of Bad and Bax were downregulated and Bcl-2 upregulated, but Rg1 no longer altered their expression. Mir-494-3p functional study established that miR-494-3 mimic downregulated and miR-494-3 inhibitor upregulated ROCK-1 gene expression, Rg1 did not have the ability to change the ROCK gene expression after loss of function of miR-494-3p. Also, the function loss of mir-494-3p promoted apoptosis; otherwise reduced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effect of Rg1 disappeared after mir-494-3p loss or gain function. In conclusion, Ginsenoside Rg1 has shown to have protective effects on ischemic-induced rBMSCs apoptosis through mir-494-3p→ROCK-1→Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. f-state luminescence of lanthanide and actinide ions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed studies of the luminescence of aquated Am 3+ are presented in the context of prior lanthanide and actinide ion work. The luminescing state of aquated Am 3+ is confirmed to be 5 D l based on observed emission and excitation spectra. The luminescence lifetime of Am 3+ in H 2 O solution is (22 ± 3) ns and (155 ± 4) ns in D 2 O solution at 295 K. Judd-Ofelt transition intensity theory qualitatively describes the observed Am 3+ relative integrated fluorescence intensities. Recent luminescence studies on complexed trivalent f-element ions in solution are reviewed as to the similarities and differences between lanthanide ion 4f state and actinide ion 5f state properties

  4. Comparison of foE and M(3000)F2 variability at Ibadan, Singapore and Slough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoye, E. O.; Onori, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The variability, VR, of critical frequency of E-layer, foE, and ionospheric propagation factor, M(3000)F2 at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) is investigated for local time, seasonal and solar cycle variations. Latitudinal influence of these characteristics is sought by comparison with foE VR and M(3000)F2 VR of Slough ( 51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°N dip) in the European sector, and Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the Asian sector. While the pattern of foE VR is similar to those of other F2 characteristics with characteristic peaks around dawn and dusk, M(3000)F2 VR shows no clear diurnal trend.A lower bound of foE VR is usually 3% while the maximum VR ranges between 8% and13% at post-sunrise and pre-sunset hours at all the epochs, M(3000)F2 VR is however lower during MSA (about 9%) than during LSA and HSA when it is 4% to about 12-14%. Generally, daytime M(3000)F2 VR is greater than that of foE VR by between 5% and 10%. Furthermore, no latitudinal difference is observed in both characteristics during both HSA and MSA. While nighttime M(3000)F2 VR is about half that of nighttime foF2 VR (the critical frequency of F2-layer ) VR, daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal during the three epochs at Ibadan. For Slough, nighttime M(3000)F2 VR and nighttime foF2 VR as well as the daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal. This difference is most likely due to latitudinal effect.

  5. Self-ion Irradiation Damage of F/M and ODS steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young-Bum; Noh, Sanghoon; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are potential high-temperature materials that are stabilized by dispersed particles at elevated temperatures. These dispersed particles improve the tensile strength and creep rupture strength, they are expected to increase the operation temperature up to approximately 650 .deg. C and also enhance the energy efficiency of the fusion reactor. Some reports described that the nano-clusters are strongly resistant to coarsening by annealing up to 1000 .deg. C, and nanoclusters do not change after ion irradiation up to 0.7 dpa at 300 .deg. C. ODS steels will be inevitably exposed to neutron irradiation condition; the irradiation damages, creep and swelling are always great concern. The dispersed oxide particles are believed to determine the performance of the steel, even the radiation resistance. In this study, F/M and ODS model alloys of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were irradiated by Fe 3+ self-ion to emulate the neutron irradiation effect. In this study, Fe 3+ self-ion irradiation is used as means of introducing radiation damage in F/M steel and ODS steel. The ion accelerator named DuET (in Kyoto University, Japan) was used for irradiation of Fe 3+ ion by 6.4 MeV at 300 .deg. C. The maximum damage rate in F/M and ODS steels were estimated roughly 6 dpa. After radiation, point or line defects were dominantly observed in F/M steel, on the other hands, small circular cavities were typically observed in ODS steel. Nanoindentation is a useful tool to determine the irradiationinduced hardness change in the damage layer of ionirradiated iron base alloys

  6. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine on angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tai-Guo; Huang, Ying; Cui, Dan-Dan; Huang, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Shu-Hua; Ji, Ling-Ling; Song, Hai-Bo; Yi, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, inhibits angiogenesis. The combination of low-dose chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic inhibitors suppresses growth of experimental tumors more effectively than conventional therapy or anti-angiogenic agent alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose gemcitabine combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on angiogenesis and growth of established Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. C57L/6 mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma were randomized into the control, ginsenoside Rg3, gemcitabine and combination group. The quality of life and survival of mice were recorded. Tumor volume, inhibitive rate and necrosis rate were estimated. Necrosis of tumor and signals of blood flow as well as dynamic parameters of arterial blood flow in tumors such as peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were observed by immunohistochemstry, and microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor tissues was assessed by CD31 immunohistochemical analysis. Quality of life of mice in the ginsenoside Rg3 and combination group were better than in the control and gemcitabine group. Combined therapy with ginsenoside Rg3 and gemcitabine not only enhanced efficacy on suppression of tumor growth and prolongation of the survival, but also increased necrosis rate of tumor significantly. In addition, the combination treatment could obviously decrease VEGF expression and MVD as well as signals of blood flow and PSV in tumors. Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine may significantly inhibit angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer and improve survival and quality of life of tumor-bearing mice. The combination of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs may be an innovative and promising therapeutic strategy in the experimental treatment of human lung cancer

  7. Temporo-parietal dysfunction in Tourette syndrome: Insights from an fMRI study of Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Rickards, Hugh E; Hansen, Peter C

    2016-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics, repetitive movements and vocalizations which are prompted by a sensory-cognitive premonitory urge. Complex tics include environmentally dependent social behaviors such as echoing of other people's speech and actions. Recent studies have suggested that adults with TS can show differences to controls in Theory of Mind (ToM): reasoning about mental states (e.g. beliefs, emotions). In this study, twenty-five adults with uncomplicated TS (no co-morbid disorders, moderate tic severity), and twenty-five healthy age and gender matched controls were scanned with fMRI during an established ToM task. Neural activity was contrasted across ToM trials involving reasoning about false-belief, and matched trials requiring judgments about physical states rather than mental states. Contrasting task conditions uncovered differential fMRI activation in TS during ToM involving the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), right amygdala and posterior cingulate. Further analysis revealed that activity within the right TPJ as localised by this task covaried with the severity of symptoms including echophenomena, impulse control problems and premonitory urges in TS. Amygdala activation was also linked to premonitory urges, while activity in the left TPJ during ToM was linked to ratings of non-obscene socially inappropriate symptoms. These findings indicate that patients with TS exhibit atypical functional activation within key neural substrates involved in ToM. More generally, our data could highlight an important role for TPJ dysfunction in driving compulsive behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Chondrogenic Gene Expression and Cartilage Phenotype Differentiation in Human Breast Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promoted by Ginsenoside Rg1 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Tian Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Investigating and understanding chondrogenic gene expression during the differentiation of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs into chondrogenic cells is a prerequisite for the application of this approach for cartilage repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to characterize HBASCs and to examine chondrogenic gene expression in chondrogenic inductive culture medium containing ginsenoside Rg1. Methods: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells at passage 3 were evaluated based on specific cell markers and their multilineage differentiation capacity. Cultured HBASCs were treated either with basic chondrogenic inductive conditioned medium alone (group A, control or with basic chondrogenic inductive medium plus 10 µg/ml (group B, 50 µg/ml (group C, or 100µg/ml ginsenoside Rg1 (group D. Cell proliferation was assessed using the CCK-8 assay for a period of 9 days. Two weeks after induction, the expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, collagen type XI, ACP, COMP and ELASTIN was determined using real-time PCR in all groups. Results: The different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 that were added to the basic chondrogenic inductive culture medium promoted the proliferation of HBASCs at earlier stages (groups B, C, and D but resulted in chondrogenic phenotype differentiation and higher mRNA expression of collagen type II (CO-II, collagen type XI (CO-XI, acid phosphatase (ACP, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and ELASTIN compared with the control (group A at later stages. The results reveal an obvious positive dose-effect relationship between ginsenoside Rg1 and the proliferation and chondrogenic phenotype differentiation of HBASCs in vitro. Conclusions: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture through passage 3 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration in vitro. Chondrogenesis in HBASCs was found to be prominent

  9. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  10. Chaperone-like properties of tobacco plastid thioredoxins f and m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barrio, Ruth; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Carballeda, Jon; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Seguí-Simarro, José M.; Farran, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous disulphide reductases that play important roles in the redox regulation of many cellular processes. However, some redox-independent functions, such as chaperone activity, have also been attributed to Trxs in recent years. The focus of our study is on the putative chaperone function of the well-described plastid Trxs f and m. To that end, the cDNA of both Trxs, designated as NtTrxf and NtTrxm, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum plants. It was found that bacterially expressed tobacco Trx f and Trx m, in addition to their disulphide reductase activity, possessed chaperone-like properties. In vitro, Trx f and Trx m could both facilitate the reactivation of the cysteine-free form of chemically denatured glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (foldase chaperone activity) and prevent heat-induced malate dehydrogenase aggregation (holdase chaperone activity). Our results led us to infer that the disulphide reductase and foldase chaperone functions prevail when the proteins occur as monomers and the well-conserved non-active cysteine present in Trx f is critical for both functions. By contrast, the holdase chaperone activity of both Trxs depended on their oligomeric status: the proteins were functional only when they were associated with high molecular mass protein complexes. Because the oligomeric status of both Trxs was induced by salt and temperature, our data suggest that plastid Trxs could operate as molecular holdase chaperones upon oxidative stress, acting as a type of small stress protein. PMID:21948853

  11. Biogas Production from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes): The Effect of F/M Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, W. D.; Syafrudin; Pradita, L. L.; Matin, H. H. A.; Budiyono

    2018-05-01

    Distribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), generally considered as a water weed, that has been a problem which can harm the environment, irrigation system, and agriculture. However water hyacinth can be used in biogas production because it has large enough amount of hemicellulose contents. The purpose of this study was to know the effect of F/M ratio to biogas production from water hyacinth waste with Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD) method. A series of laboratory experiments using biodigester were performed in batch anaerobic operation at room temperature. F/M ratio that used in each reactor was 39.76, 20.03, 13.32, and 10.01. Degradation process was done in 60 days. The result showed that F/M ratio effects to the biogas production. The best performance of biogas production from this research will be obtained if F/M ratio is in the range of 10.01-20.03 (correspond to 25%-50% of rumen fluid) with water hyacinth as the main substrate.

  12. [Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on Pim-3 and Bad proteins in human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jie; Hu, Zhi-Fang; Huang, Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3 is a traditional Chinese medicine monomer which possesses anticancer effects. This study was to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on Pim-3 and phosphorylated Bad (pBad) proteins, pBad (Ser112) and pBad (Ser136) in human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells were exposed to 10, 20, 40 and 80 micromol/L ginsenoside Rg3 for 24 h. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) of Pim-3 was cloned and inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector pSilencer 3.1-H1 Neo to construct pSilencer 3.1-H1 Neo-Pim-3. pSilencer 3.1-H1 Neo-Pim-3 was then transfected into PANC-1 cells. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay; cell apoptosis was observed under an invert microscope and measured by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining; protein expressions of Pim-3, Bad, pBad (Ser112) and pBad (Ser136) were measured by Western blot. The inhibitory rates of 10, 20, 40 and 80 micromol/L ginsenoside Rg3 on PANC-1 cells were 20.2%, 33.4%, 52.8% and 65.3%, respectively. Typical morphological changes in apoptosis were induced by ginsenoside Rg3. The apoptotic rate of PANC-1 cells was significantly higher in the ginsenoside Rg3 treatment group (80 micromol/L) than in the control group (12.2% vs. 3.3%, PPANC-1 cells. Compared with the control group, the percentages of early and total apoptotic cells were significantly increased in PANC-1 cells transfected with pim-3-shRNA [(11.5+/-3.7)% vs. (5.8+/-2.2)%,P<0.01;(20.8+/-2.6)% vs.(13.0+/-4.1)%,P<0.05], while the expressions of pim-3 and pBad (Ser112) were both decreased. The anti-tumor effect of ginsenoside Rg3 may be associated with the decrease of Pim-3 and pBad (Ser112).

  13. The insula is not specifically involved in disgust processing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, A; Stark, R; Walter, B; Blecker, C; Ott, U; Kirsch, P; Sammer, G; Vaitl, D

    2002-11-15

    fMRI studies have shown that the perception of facial disgust expressions specifically activates the insula. The present fMRI study investigated whether this structure is also involved in the processing of visual stimuli depicting non-mimic disgust elicitors compared to fear-inducing and neutral scenes. Twelve female subjects were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of 40 disgust-inducing, 40 fear-inducing and 40 affectively neutral pictures, shown for 1.5 s each. Afterwards, affective ratings were assessed. The disgust pictures, rated as highly repulsive, induced activation in the insula, the amygdala, the orbitofrontal and occipito-temporal cortex. Since during the fear condition the insula was also involved, our findings do not fit the idea of the insula as a specific disgust processor.

  14. Macroscopic quantum interference in the conventional and coherent quantum 1/F effect with negative quantum entropy states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handel, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    The author's recent application of the new Quantum Information Theory Approach (QIT) to Infra Quantum Physics (IQP) explains for the first time the apparent lack of unitarity caused by the entropy increase in the Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE). This allows for a better understanding of the quantum 1/f effect in this paper, showing no resultant entropy increase and therefore no violation of unitarity. This new interpretation involves the concept of von Neumann Quantum Entropy, including the new negative conditional entropy concept for quantum entangled states introduced by QIT. The Q1/fE was applied to many high-tech systems, in particular to ultra small electronic devices. The present paper explains how the additional entropy implied by the Q1/fE arises in spite of the entropy-conserving evolution of the system. On this basis, a general derivation of the conventional and coherent quantum 1/f effect is given. (author)

  15. Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezhu, Wang; Pan, Xu; Cong, Lu; Liming, Dong; Beiyue, Zhang; Jingwei, Lu; Yanyan, Yang; Xinmin, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  17. Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in premenstrual syndrome: A resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hai; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liu, Peng; Liu, Yanfei; Pang, Yong; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Tao, Jien; Wen, Danhong; Li, Shasha; Liang, Lingyan; Deng, Demao

    2017-08-15

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is becoming highly prevalent among female and is characterized by emotional, physical and behavior symptoms. Previous evidence suggested functional dysregulation of female brain was expected to be involved in the etiology of PMS. The aim of present study was to evaluate the alterations of spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 PMS patients and 21 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scanning during luteal phase. All participants were asked to complete a prospective daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) questionnaire. Compared with healthy controls, the results showed that PMS patients had increased fALFF in bilateral precuneus, left hippocampus and left inferior temporal cortex, and decreased fALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum at luteal phase. Moreover, the DRSP scores of PMS patients were negatively correlated with the mean fALFF in ACC and positively correlated with the fALFF in precuneus. (1) the study did not investigate whether or not abnormal brain activity differences between groups in mid-follicular phase, and within-group changes. between phases.(2) it was relatively limited sample size and the participants were young; (3) fALFF could not provide us with more holistic information of brain network;(4) the comparisons of PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were not involved in the study. The present study shows abnormal spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients revealed by fALFF, which could provide neuroimaging evidence to further improve our understanding of the underlying neural mechanism of PMS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Jahn-Teller and Non-Jahn-Teller Systems Involving CuF64- Units: Role of the Internal Electric Field in Ba2ZnF6:Cu2+ and Other Insulating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of the Jahn-Teller (JT) framework to 6-fold coordinated d9 ions whose local symmetry is not strictly octahedral is explored by means of first principle calculations. Our results contradict much of the existing literature where these systems are analyzed within the quasi-JT regime...... transitions for CuF64- units formed in Cu2+-doped the tetragonal Ba2ZnF6 host lattice. While the experimental d-d transitions cannot be reproduced through the isolated CuF64- unit at the equilibrium geometry, a reasonable agreement is reached adding in the calculation the internal electric field, ER...... state with the hole in the a1g(∼ 3z2-r2) level while it is always placed in the b1g(∼ x2-y2) level for MX6 complexes (M = Cu2+, Ag2+, NiΤ; X = F--, Cl-) in cubic lattices displaying a static JT effect. While the experimental results of CuF64- in Ba2ZnF6 cannot be understood within the JT framework...

  19. Análise da mortalidade na lista de espera de fígado no Paraná, Brasil: o que devemos fazer para enfrentar a escassez de órgãos? Analysis of liver waiting list mortality in Paraná, Brazi: what shall we do to face organ shortage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O transplante hepático é a melhor modalidade terapêutica para pacientes em estágio final de doença hepática. Minimização de morte, enquanto se espera o procedimento, envolve priorização de acordo com o estado clínico e a alocação adequada de fígados de doadores. OBJETIVO: Análise da mortalidade na lista de espera de fígado no estado do Paraná, PR, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados ​​os dados sobre todos os pacientes (n = 65 que foram registrados na lista de espera de fígado durante um período de 32 meses. RESULTADOS: A morte em lista de espera foi de 41,5% (n = 27. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada em relação aos MELD / MELD-Na entre o grupo que faleceu (19,88 / 21,6 e não morreu (17,28 / 19,47. MELD-Na previu maior mortalidade, especialmente no subgrupo de pacientes com gravidade intermediária da doença (classe B previsto pelo escore de CTP. CONCLUSÃO: É crítica a escassez de doadores de órgãos nessa região e a taxa de mortalidade em lista de espera excede em muito o risco inerente de um transplante de fígado, especialmente entre pacientes com MELD mais baixos. É desejável a utilização de um protocolo agressivo de doadores com critérios expandidos, split liver e transplante de doador vivo.BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver transplantation is the best therapeutic modality for patients with end stage of liver disease. Minimization of death, while waiting for the procedure, involves accurate priorization according to clinical status and appropriate allocation of donor livers. AIM: The mortality analysis in the liver waiting list in Paraná state, PR, Brazil. METHODS: Were analyzed the data on all patients (n=65 who were registered on the liver waiting list during a 32 months period in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. RESULTS: The death rated in waiting list was 41,5% (n=27. No statistic difference was observed regarding the MELD/MELD-Na scores between the group who died (19,88/21,6 and

  20. Influence of B-Complex Vitamins on the Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Ro After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peihe; Chen, Yinbin; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Hecheng; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Siwen; Xiao, Shengyuan; Wang, Yingping

    2017-11-01

    After cultivation of ginseng, ginsenosides, which are the major active ingredients of gingeng, were approved for use by the food industry, and began to be used as added functional ingredients to try to improve the quality and price of functional foods. However, the interaction between different types of ginsenosides and nutrients needs further study. We investigated the effect of B-complex vitamins (which are essential nutrients) on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides protopanaxatriol-type saponin Rg 1 , protopanaxadiol-type saponin Rb 1 , and oleanolic acid-type saponin Ro after oral administration. Ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and Ro, with or without B-complex vitamins, respectively, were administered orally to rats to evaluate their pharmacokinetics. The concentration of ginsenosides in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were fitted using WinNonlin v6.2. After oral coadministration with B-complex vitamins, the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) of ginsenoside Rg 1 was reduced by 70%, that of ginsenoside Rb 1 was reduced by 43%, and that of ginsenoside Ro was reduced by 34%. The AUC 0-∞ of ginsenosides Rg 1 and Rb 1 showed significant differences between different treatments, but the AUC 0-∞ of ginsenoside Ro did not. These results suggest significant ginsenoside-nutrient interactions between ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and B-complex vitamins.

  1. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  2. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin

    2005-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement

  3. Entanglement and RG in the O(N) vector model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, Chris; Ben-Ami, Omer; Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We consider the large N interacting vector O(N) model on a sphere in 4−ϵ Euclidean dimensions. The Gaussian theory in the UV is taken to be either conformally or non-conformally coupled. The endpoint of the RG flow corresponds to a conformally coupled scalar field at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point. We take a spherical entangling surface in de Sitter space and compute the entanglement entropy everywhere along the RG trajectory. In 4 dimensions, a free non-conformal scalar has a universal area term scaling with the logarithm of the UV cutoff. In 4−ϵ dimensions, such a term scales as 1/ϵ. For a non-conformal scalar, a 1/ϵ term is present both at the UV fixed point, and its vicinity. For flow between two conformal fixed points, 1/ϵ terms are absent everywhere. Finally, we make contact with replica trick calculations. The conical singularity gives rise to boundary terms residing on the entangling surface, which are usually discarded. Consistency with our results requires they be kept. We argue that, in fact, this conclusion also follows from the work of Metlitski, Fuertes, and Sachdev, which demonstrated that such boundary terms will be generated through quantum corrections.

  4. Beobachten Sie mich! Über die Möglichkeiten von Videoüberwachung in Jörg Kalts Crash Test Dummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina StögerJörg Kalt erzeugte in seinen Filmen stets eine eigene Wirklichkeit mit eigenen Gesetzmäßigkeiten. Deshalb ist es auch nicht verwunderlich, dass die Videoüberwachung, die in seinem letzten Film Crash Test Dummies zum Einsatz kommt, ihrem eigentlichen Zweck der Kontrolle enthoben wird und als reziprokes Kommunikationsinstrument eingesetzt wird. Die Figuren lässt Kalt wie Testpersonen aufeinander prallen und zeigt die Versuche einer zwischenmenschlichen Interaktion, wenn direkte soziale Kontakte und sprachliche Kommunikation scheitern. Mit Bezug auf Kalts Biografie soll deutlich gemacht werden, wie autoritäre Systeme „gecrashed“ werden können und wie der Regisseur selbst seinen Film hacked, der sinnbildlich für einen Abschnitt der österreichischen Filmgeschichte steht.Jörg Kalt erzeugte in seinen Filmen stets eine eigene Wirklichkeit mit eigenen Gesetzmäßigkeiten. Deshalb ist es auch nicht verwunderlich, dass die Videoüberwachung, die in seinem letzten Film Crash Test Dummies zum Einsatz kommt, ihrem eigentlichen Zweck der Kontrolle enthoben wird und als reziprokes Kommunikationsinstrument eingesetzt wird. Die Figuren lässt Kalt wie Testpersonen aufeinander prallen und zeigt die Versuche einer zwischenmenschlichen Interaktion, wenn direkte soziale Kontakte und sprachliche Kommunikation scheitern. Mit Bezug auf Kalts Biografie soll deutlich gemacht werden, wie autoritäre Systeme „gecrashed“ werden können und wie der Regisseur selbst seinen Film hacked, der sinnbildlich für einen Abschnitt der österreichischen Filmgeschichte steht.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jörg Kalt erzeugte in seinen Filmen stets eine eigene Wirklichkeit mit eigenen Gesetzmäßigkeiten. Deshalb ist es auch nicht verwunderlich, dass die Videoüberwachung, die in seinem letzten Film Crash Test Dummies zum Einsatz kommt, ihrem eigentlichen Zweck der Kontrolle enthoben wird und als reziprokes Kommunikationsinstrument eingesetzt wird. Die Figuren lässt Kalt wie Testpersonen aufeinander prallen und zeigt die Versuche einer zwischenmenschlichen Interaktion, wenn direkte soziale Kontakte und sprachliche Kommunikation scheitern. Mit Bezug auf Kalts Biografie soll deutlich gemacht werden, wie autoritäre Systeme „gecrashed“ werden können und wie der Regisseur selbst seinen Film hacked, der sinnbildlich für einen Abschnitt der österreichischen Filmgeschichte steht.

  5. The effect of Medicago arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa saponins on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. tulipae apt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was shown that total saponins originated from M. hybrida and M. sativa substantially limited mycelium growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae and symptoms of fusariosis on tulip bulbs. Out of 15 individual tested saponins originated from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa, four compounds: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin, hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, medicagenic acid, medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae on PDA medium. The total saponins from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa inhibited the number of colony forming units of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in artificially infested substrate. The use of saponins originated from Medicago as a fungicide is suggested.

  6. i9»Ã>=** R*/¤&ª÷øtW²e—mœÇŸ*Ñ$Ú¤*žˆiIËPJQº(k¹CV¯TÓ ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B*ƒ¤NWÃPL*™*Ë‹+©äRgƒ$1¦x**ANh¥ÝÎf$ *Uh›¡Ðb qh•$îv³Þ@*¨²Êoå†ÜÈ«»£ æ\\€È***`ç*æ4a¬\\Ùýp›fL·nIœúƒá*ÇÎÅ^*¤*k4D£m É›a#*稰HVr –aõ”Ó ...

  7. From F/M-theory to K-theory and back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider discrete K-theory tadpole cancellation conditions in type IIB orientifolds with magnetised 7-branes. Cancellation of K-theory charge constrains the choices of world-volume magnetic fluxes on the latter. We describe the F-/M-theory lift of these configurations, where 7-branes are encoded in the geometry of an elliptic fibration, and their magnetic quanta correspond to supergravity 4-form field strength fluxes. In a K3 compactification example, we show that standard quantization of 4-form fluxes as integer cohomology classes in K3 automatically implies the K-theory charge cancellation constraints on the 7-brane worldvolume magnetic fluxes in string theory (as well as new previously unnoticed discrete constraints, which we also interpret). Finally, we show that flux quantization in F-/M-theory implies that 7-brane world-volume flux quantization conditions are modified in the presence of 3-form fluxes

  8. From F/M-theory to K-theory and back

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Etxebarria, I; Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider discrete K-theory tadpole cancellation conditions in type IIB orientifolds with magnetised 7-branes. Cancellation of K-theory charge constrains the choices of world-volume magnetic fluxes on the latter. We describe the F-/M-theory lift of these configurations, where 7-branes are encoded in the geometry of an elliptic fibration, and their magnetic quanta correspond to supergravity 4-form field strength fluxes. In a K3 compactification example, we show that standard quantization of 4-form fluxes as integer cohomology classes in K3 automatically implies the K-theory charge cancellation constraints on the 7-brane worldvolume magnetic fluxes in string theory (as well as new previously unnoticed discrete constraints, which we also interpret). Finally, we show that flux quantization in F-/M-theory implies that 7-brane world-volume flux quantization conditions are modified in the presence of 3-form fluxes.

  9. An improved radiosynthesis of the muscarinic M2 radiopharmaceutical, [18F]FP-TZTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosten, Erik M. van; Wilson, Alan A.; Stephenson, Karin A.; Mamo, David C.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Yudin, Andrei K.; Houle, Sylvain; Vasdev, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The radioligand 3-(4-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-methyl-1,2,5, 6-tetrahydropyridine ([ 18 F]FP-TZTP) is an agonist with specificity towards subtype 2 of muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptors. It is currently the only radiotracer available for imaging M2 receptors in human subjects with positron emission tomography. The present study reports on an improved method for the synthesis of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP, automated using a GE TRACERlab TM FX FN radiosynthesis module. A key facet was the use of a new precursor, 3-(4-(1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ylthio) propyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The precursor was fluorinated via nucleophilic displacement of the tosyloxy group by potassium cryptand [ 18 F]fluoride (K[ 18 F]/K 222 ) in CH 3 CN at 80 deg. C for 5 min, and purified by HPLC. Formulated [ 18 F]FP-TZTP was prepared in an uncorrected radiochemical yield of 29±4%, with a specific activity of 138±41 GBq/μmol (3732±1109 mCi/μmol) at the end of synthesis (35 min; n=3). This methodology offers higher yields, faster synthesis times, an optimized precursor, and simpler automation than previously reported

  10. Efficient transfection of Xenobiotic Responsive Element-biosensor plasmid using diether lipid and phosphatidylcholine liposomes in differentiated HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeau, Maxime; Quesnot, Nicolas; Ripoche, Nicolas; Rauch, Claudine; Jeftić, Jelena; Morel, Fabrice; Gauffre, Fabienne; Benvegnu, Thierry; Loyer, Pascal

    2017-05-30

    In this study, we evaluated cationic liposomes prepared from diether-NH 2 and egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) for in vitro gene delivery. The impact of the lipid composition, i.e. the EPC and Diether-NH 2 molar ratio, on in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was investigated using the human HEK293T and hepatoma HepaRG cells known to be permissive and poorly permissive cells for liposome-mediated gene transfer, respectively. Here, we report that EPC/Diether-NH 2 -based liposomes enabled a very efficient transfection with low cytotoxicity compared to commercial transfection reagents in both HEK293T and proliferating progenitor HepaRG cells. Taking advantage of these non-toxic EPC/Diether-NH 2 -based liposomes, we developed a method to efficiently transfect differentiated hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells and a biosensor plasmid containing a Xenobiotic Responsive Element and a minimal promoter driving the transcription of the luciferase reporter gene. We demonstrated that the luciferase activity was induced by a canonical inducer of cytochrome P450 genes, the benzo[a]pyrene, and two environmental contaminants, the fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and the endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide, known to induce toxicity and genotoxicity in differentiated HepaRG cells. In conclusion, we established a new efficient lipofection-mediated gene transfer in hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells opening new perspectives in drug evaluation relying on xenobiotic inducible biosensor plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spitzer Observations of M33 & M83 and the Hot Star, Hii Region Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R.; Simpson, J.; Colgan, S.; Dufour, R.; Citron, R.; Ray, K.; Erickson, E.; Haas, M.; Pauldrach, A.

    2007-05-01

    H II regions play a crucial role in the measurement of current interstellar abundances. They also serve as laboratories for atomic physics and provide fundamental data about heavy element abundances that serve to constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. We observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.5, H (7-6) 12.4, [Ne II] 12.8, [Ne III] 15.6, & [S III] 18.7 micron cospatially with the Spitzer Space Telescope using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) in short-high mode (SH). Here we concentrate on the galaxy M33 and compare the results with our earlier similar study of M83. In each of these substantially face-on spirals, we observed ˜25 H II regions, covering a full range of galactocentric radii (RG). For most of the M33 H II regions, we were able to measure the H (7-6) line while none were detectable in M83. This limited our M83 study to a determination of the Ne++/Ne+, /, and S3+/S++ abundance ratios vs. RG. Angular brackets denote fractional ionizations. As well as having the addition of fluxes for the H(7-6) line, the M33 H II regions are generally of much higher ionization than those in M83, resulting in larger Ne++/Ne+ and S3+/ S++ abundance ratios. For M33, in addition to what we derived for those nebulae in M83, we are also able to derive Ne/H, S/H and Ne/S vs. RG. Important advantages compared with prior optical studies are: 1) the IR lines have a weak and similar electron temperature (Te) dependence while optical lines vary exponentially with Te and 2) the IR lines suffer far less from interstellar extinction. Additionally, these data may be used as constraints on the ionizing spectral energy distribution for the stars exciting these nebulae by comparing the above ionic ratios with predictions using stellar atmosphere models from several different non-LTE model sets. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407

  12. State-space model with deep learning for functional dynamics estimation in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heung-Il; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-04-01

    Studies on resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) have shown that different brain regions still actively interact with each other while a subject is at rest, and such functional interaction is not stationary but changes over time. In terms of a large-scale brain network, in this paper, we focus on time-varying patterns of functional networks, i.e., functional dynamics, inherent in rs-fMRI, which is one of the emerging issues along with the network modelling. Specifically, we propose a novel methodological architecture that combines deep learning and state-space modelling, and apply it to rs-fMRI based Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) diagnosis. We first devise a Deep Auto-Encoder (DAE) to discover hierarchical non-linear functional relations among regions, by which we transform the regional features into an embedding space, whose bases are complex functional networks. Given the embedded functional features, we then use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to estimate dynamic characteristics of functional networks inherent in rs-fMRI via internal states, which are unobservable but can be inferred from observations statistically. By building a generative model with an HMM, we estimate the likelihood of the input features of rs-fMRI as belonging to the corresponding status, i.e., MCI or normal healthy control, based on which we identify the clinical label of a testing subject. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we performed experiments on two different datasets and compared with state-of-the-art methods in the literature. We also analyzed the functional networks learned by DAE, estimated the functional connectivities by decoding hidden states in HMM, and investigated the estimated functional connectivities by means of a graph-theoretic approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional HepaRG model as an attractive tool for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sofia B; Wilk-Zasadna, Iwona; Zaldivar, Jose M; Airola, Elodie; Reis-Fernandes, Marcos A; Mennecozzi, Milena; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Chesne, Christopher; Guillou, Claude; Alves, Paula M; Coecke, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    The culture of HepaRG cells as three dimensional (3D) structures in the spinner-bioreactor may represent added value as a hepatic system for toxicological purposes. The use of a cost-effective commercially available bioreactor, which is compatible with high-throughput cell analysis, constitutes an attractive approach for routine use in the drug testing industry. In order to assess specific aspects of the biotransformation capacity of the bioreactor-based HepaRG system, the induction of CYP450 enzymes (i.e., CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, and 3A4) and the activity of the phase II enzyme, uridine diphosphate glucuronoltransferase (UGT), were tested. The long-term functionality of the system was demonstrated by 7-week stable profiles of albumin secretion, CYP3A4 induction, and UGT activities. Immunofluorescence-based staining showed formation of tissue-like arrangements including bile canaliculi-like structures and polar distribution of transporters. The use of in silico models to analyze the in vitro data related to hepatotoxic activity of acetaminophen (APAP) demonstrated the advantage of the integration of kinetic and dynamic aspects for a better understanding of the in vitro cell behavior. The bioactivation of APAP and its related cytotoxicity was assessed in a system compatible to high-throughput screening. The approach also proved to be a good strategy to reduce the time necessary to obtain fully differentiated cell cultures. In conclusion, HepaRG cells cultured in 3D spinner-bioreactors are an attractive tool for toxicological studies, showing a liver-like performance and demonstrating a practical applicability for toxicodynamic approaches.

  14. Dynamic Filtering Improves Attentional State Prediction with fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Weissman, Daniel H.; Noll, Douglas C.; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can predict a person's level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise - thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy - remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% +/- 6% versus 72% +/- 15%).

  15. A phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of RG7652, a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Amos; Luca, Diana; Kahn, Robert S; Cowan, Kyra J; Leabman, Maya; Budha, Nageshwar R; Chiu, Cecilia P C; Wu, Yan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Peterson, Andrew; Davis, John C; Tingley, Whittemore G

    2017-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) downregulates low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, thereby leading to a rise in circulating LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). RG7652 is a fully human monoclonal antibody against PCSK9. This placebo-controlled, phase 1 ascending-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated the safety of RG7652 and its efficacy as a potential LDL-C-lowering drug. Anti-PCSK9 antibody therapy safely and effectively reduces LDL-C. Subjects (N = 80) were randomized into 10 cohorts. Six sequential single-dose cohorts received 10, 40, 150, 300, 600, or 800 mg of RG7652 via subcutaneous injection. Four multiple-dose cohorts received 40 or 150 mg of RG7652 once weekly for 4 weeks, either with or without statin therapy (atorvastatin). Adverse events (AEs) were generally mild; the most common AEs were temporary injection-site reactions. No serious AEs, severe AEs, AEs leading to study-drug discontinuation, or dose-limiting toxicities were reported. RG7652 monotherapy reduced mean LDL-C levels by up to 64% and as much as 100 mg/dL at week 2; the effect magnitude and duration increased with dose (≥57 days following a single RG7652 dose ≥300 mg). Exploratory analyses showed reduced oxidized LDL, lipoprotein(a), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 with RG7652. Antidrug antibody against RG7652 tested positive in 2 of 60 (3.3%) RG7652-treated and in 4 of 20 (20.0%) placebo-treated subjects. Simultaneous atorvastatin administration did not appear to impact the pharmacokinetic profile or lipid-lowering effects of RG7652. Overall, RG7652 elicited substantial and sustained dose-related LDL-C reductions with an acceptable safety profile and minimal immunogenicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Mimetic F(R Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Oikonomou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study under which conditions the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole can be a solution of the vacuum mimetic F ( R gravity with Lagrange multiplier and mimetic scalar potential. As the author demonstrates, the resulting picture in the mimetic F ( R gravity case is a trivial extension of the standard F ( R approach, and in effect, the metric perturbations in the mimetic F ( R gravity case, for the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole metric, at the first order of the perturbed variables are the same at the leading order.

  17. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A A; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Hendriks, Erik J; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on applicability in BALs and to identify possible strategies for further improvement. We tested both cell lines in monolayer- and BAL cultures on growth characteristics, hepatic differentiation, nitrogen-, carbohydrate-, amino acid- and xenobiotic metabolism. Interestingly, both cell lines adapted the hepatocyte phenotype more closely when cultured in BALs; e.g. monolayer cultures produced lactate, while BAL cultures showed diminished lactate production (C3A) or conversion to elimination (HepaRG), and urea cycle activity increased upon BAL culturing in both cell lines. HepaRG-BALs outperformed C3A-BALs on xenobiotic metabolism, ammonia elimination and lactate elimination, while protein synthesis was comparable. In BAL cultures of both cell lines ammonia elimination correlated positively with glutamine production and glutamate consumption, suggesting ammonia elimination was mainly driven by the balance between glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activity. Both cell lines lacked significant urea cycle activity and both required multiple culture weeks before reaching optimal differentiation in BALs. In conclusion, culturing in BALs enhanced hepatic functionality of both cell lines and from these, the HepaRG cells are the most promising proliferative cell source for BAL application.

  18. Syntheses, Raman spectra, and X-ray crystal structures of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [M][OsO(3)F(3)] (M = XeF(5)(+), Xe(2)F(11)(+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2010-04-05

    Stoichiometric amounts of XeF(6) and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity) react at 25-50 degrees C to form salts of the known XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations, namely, [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)], [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)], and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)]. Although XeF(6) is oxophilic toward a number of transition metal and main-group oxides and oxide fluorides, fluoride/oxide metathesis was not observed. The series provides the first examples of noble-gas cations that are stabilized by metal oxide fluoride anions and the first example of a mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) salt. Both [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are orange solids at room temperature. The [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] salt is an orange liquid at room temperature that solidifies at 5-0 degrees C. When the salts are heated at 50 degrees C under 1 atm of N(2) for more than 2 h, significant XeF(6) loss occurs. The X-ray crystal structures (-173 degrees C) show that the salts exist as discrete ion pairs and that the osmium coordination spheres in OsO(3)F(3)(-) and mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) are pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3)-units having facial arrangements of oxygen and fluorine atoms. The mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) anion is comprised of two symmetry-related OsO(3)F(2)-groups that are fluorine-bridged to one another. Ion pairing results from secondary bonding interactions between the fluorine/oxygen atoms of the anions and the xenon atom of the cation, with the Xe...F/O contacts occurring opposite the axial fluorine and from beneath the equatorial XeF(4)-planes of the XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations so as to avoid the free valence electron lone pairs of the xenon atoms. The xenon atoms of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are nine-coordinate and the xenon atom of [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] is eight-coordinate. Quantum-chemical calculations at SVWN and B3LYP levels of theory were used to obtain the gas-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies, and NBO bond orders, valencies, and NPA charges of

  19. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Romilly, Cédric; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2016-11-08

    VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF 30 (30 kDa), and the shorter VirF 21 (21 kDa), lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF 30 and VirF 21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF 21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA) whose 5' end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF 21 The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF 30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF 21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF 21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA. Shigella spp. are a major cause of dysentery in humans. In bacteria of this genus, the activation of the invasive program involves a multitude of signals that act on all layers of the gene regulatory hierarchy. By controlling the essential genes for host cell invasion, VirF is the key regulator of the switch from the noninvasive to the invasive phenotype. Here, we show that the Shigella virF gene encodes two proteins of different sizes, VirF 30 and VirF 21 , that are functionally distinct. The major form, VirF 30 , activates the genes

  20. The Revolutionary Movement in the Evaluation of F.M. Dostoevsky: To Understand Conservatism in the Political History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Lotarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to show the features of the conservative worldview of F. M. Dostoevsky through the prism of his assessments of the revolutionary movement and socialist ideas in Russia. The main focus is on the analysis of artistic creativity, and journalism, especially "Diary of a Writer". This allowed us to identify the political views of F. M. Dostoevsky and the possibility of their practical implementation. It is concluded that the main cause of the political turmoil in the 1860s – early 1880s, the spread of revolutionary ideas the writer felt a deep moral crisis afflicting Russian society. Therefore, the cause of the crisis he saw not in reforming state institutions, and in fundamental moral renewal of Russian life on the basis of Christian Orthodox values.

  1. LAPTM4b recruits the LAT1-4F2hc Leu transporter to lysosomes and promotes mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkereit, Ruth; Persaud, Avinash; Vanoaica, Liviu; Guetg, Adriano; Verrey, Francois; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-05-22

    Mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cellular growth, is activated downstream of growth factors, energy signalling and intracellular essential amino acids (EAAs) such as Leu. mTORC1 activation occurs at the lysosomal membrane, and involves V-ATPase stimulation by intra-lysosomal EAA (inside-out activation), leading to activation of the Ragulator, RagA/B-GTP and mTORC1 via Rheb-GTP. How Leu enters the lysosomes is unknown. Here we identified the lysosomal protein LAPTM4b as a binding partner for the Leu transporter, LAT1-4F2hc (SLC7A5-SLAC3A2). We show that LAPTM4b recruits LAT1-4F2hc to lysosomes, leading to uptake of Leu into lysosomes, and is required for mTORC1 activation via V-ATPase following EAA or Leu stimulation. These results demonstrate a functional Leu transporter at the lysosome, and help explain the inside-out lysosomal activation of mTORC1 by Leu/EAA.

  2. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  3. QTLs and potential candidate genes for heat stress tolerance identified from the mapping populations specifically segregating for Fv/Fm in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Torp, Anna Maria; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that F-v/F-m (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II) is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify...... quantitative trait locus (QTL) and the potential candidate genes linked to F-v/F-m for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Three bi-parental F-2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan) selected...... for high F-v/F-m with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany) selected for lowest F-v/F-m out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin. Parents together with 140 F-2 individuals in each population were phenotyped by F-v/F-m under heat stress (40 degrees C for 3 days...

  4. Density functional calculations on the geometric structure and properties of the 3d transition metal atom doped endohedral fullerene M@C20F20 (M = Sc–Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Mei, Tang; Wei-Hua, Zhu; Kai-Ming, Deng

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the generalised gradient approximation based on density functional theory to analyse the geometric structure and properties of the 3d transition metal atom doped endohedral fullerene M@C 20 F 20 (M = Sc–Ni). The geometric optimization shows that the cage centre is the most stable position for M, forming the structure named as M@C 20 F 20 -4. The inclusion energy, zero-point energy, and energy gap calculations tell us that N@C 20 F 20 -4 should be thermodynamically and kinetically stablest. M@C 20 F 20 -4 (M = Sc–Co) possesses high magnetic moments varied from 1 to 6 μ B , while Ni@C 20 F 20 -4 is nonmagnetic. The Ni–C bond in Ni@C 20 F 20 -4 contains both the covalent and ionic characters

  5. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenti, M.; Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; MacKenty, J. W.; Oesch, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Shull, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results on the search for very bright (M AB ∼ -21) galaxies at redshift z ∼ 8 from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. BoRG is a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel survey that is obtaining images on random lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes in four filters (F606W, F098M, F125W, and F160W), with integration times optimized to identify galaxies at z ∼> 7.5 as F098M dropouts. We discuss here results from a search area of approximately 130 arcmin 2 over 23 BoRG fields, complemented by six other pure-parallel WFC3 fields with similar filters. This new search area is more than two times wider than previous WFC3 observations at z ∼ 8. We identify four F098M-dropout candidates with high statistical confidence (detected at greater than 8σ confidence in F125W). These sources are among the brightest candidates currently known at z ∼ 8 and approximately 10 times brighter than the z = 8.56 galaxy UDFy-38135539. They thus represent ideal targets for spectroscopic follow-up observations and could potentially lead to a redshift record, as our color selection includes objects up to z ∼ 9. However, the expected contamination rate of our sample is about 30% higher than typical searches for dropout galaxies in legacy fields, such as the GOODS and HUDF, where deeper data and additional optical filters are available to reject contaminants.

  6. LukM/LukF'-PV is the most active Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin on bovine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Maria B; Rainard, Pascal; Prévost, Gilles

    2006-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous pathogen causing infections in humans and domestic animals. It is often associated with bovine mastitis. Among secreted virulence factors, the leukotoxins constitute a family of toxins composed of two distinct subunits (class S and F proteins) which induce first Ca2+ influx and subsequent pore formation that allows ethidium entry. As mastitis-causing isolates harbor the genes of at least two, and often three leukotoxins, we compared the biological activities of the purified leukotoxins whose genes are found in mastitis-causing isolates on bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): spreading on a solid support, calcium influx and ethidium entry. In the spreading assay, the homologous pair LukM/LukF'-PV was the most active leukotoxin. Within each class, either S or F, subunits were interchangeable and generated leukotoxins with different specific activity. LukM was also very active when associated with heterologous F subunits. A similar ranking of homologous pairs was also found in the ethidium entry assay: LukM/LukF'-PV > HlgA/HlgB > HlgC/HlgB > LukE/LukD = LukEv/LukDv. In the Ca2+ flux assay, LukM/F'-PV was the most active pair, but gamma-hemolysin (Hlg) was also very efficient. LukEv/Dv was more active (twofold) than LukE/D in the spreading assay, but the two variants showed similar activities in the other two assays. Supposing that spreading and ethidium entry (pore formation) reflect toxic activities on bovine PMN, and Ca2+ influx cell activation, LukM/F'-PV was by far the most cytotoxic leukotoxin, but it was closely followed by gamma-hemolysin for PMN activation. These results suggest that LukM/F'-PV may constitute a particular virulence attribute of mastitis-causing S. aureus strains.

  7. Resting-state fMRI and social cognition: An opportunity to connect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruyter, Alex; Groenewold, Nynke A; Dupont, Patrick; Stein, Dan J; Warwick, James M

    2017-09-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing. Resting-state fMRI allows researchers to investigate the functional relationships between brain regions in a neutral state: so-called resting functional connectivity (RFC). There is evidence that RFC is predictive of how the brain processes information during social tasks. This is important because it shifts the focus from possibly context-dependent aberrations to context-independent aberrations in functional network architecture. Rather than being analysed in isolation, the study of resting-state brain networks shows promise in linking results of task-based fMRI results, structural connectivity, molecular imaging findings, and performance measures of social cognition-which may prove crucial in furthering our understanding of the social brain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Highly preferential association of NonF508del CF mutations with the M470 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, B M; Bonizzato, A; Bombieri, C; Pompei, F; Gabaldo, M; Ciccacci, C; Begnini, A; Holubova, A; Zorzi, P; Piskackova, T; Macek, M; Castellani, C; Modiano, G; Pignatti, P F

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous findings on random individuals, we hypothesized a preferential association of CF causing mutations with the M allele of the M470V polymorphic site of the CFTR gene. We have determined the M/V-CF mutation haplotype in a series of 201 North East Italian and 73 Czech CF patients who were not F508del homozygotes, as F508del was already known to be fully associated with the M allele. Out of 358 not F508del CF genes, 84 carried the V allele and 274 the less common M allele. In the N-E Italian population, MM subjects have a risk of carrying a CF causing mutation 6.9x greater than VV subjects when F508del is excluded and 15.4x when F508del is included. In the Czech population a similar, although less pronounced, association is observed. Besides the possible biological significance of this association, the possibility of exploiting it for a pilot screening program has been explored in a local North East Italian population for which CF patients were characterized for their CF mutation. General M470V genotyping followed by common CF mutation screening limited to couples in which each partner carries at least one M allele would need testing only 39% of the couples, which contribute 89% of the total risk, with a cost benefit.

  9. RG-Whitham dynamics and complex Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gorsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the Seiberg–Witten exact solution, we consider some aspects of the Hamiltonian dynamics with the complexified phase space focusing at the renormalization group (RG-like Whitham behavior. We show that at the Argyres–Douglas (AD point the number of degrees of freedom in Hamiltonian system effectively reduces and argue that anomalous dimensions at AD point coincide with the Berry indexes in classical mechanics. In the framework of Whitham dynamics AD point turns out to be a fixed point. We demonstrate that recently discovered Dunne–Ünsal relation in quantum mechanics relevant for the exact quantization condition exactly coincides with the Whitham equation of motion in the Ω-deformed theory.

  10. THE EFFECT OF F/M RATIO TO THE ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FISH OFFAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hadiyarto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a gas produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds. In the production of biogas from anaerobic digestion, value of F/M ratio shows a ratio between the mass of food available in the waste substrate with a mass of microorganisms that act as decomposers. F/M ratio is too small causing microbes could not metabolize perfectly and vice versa on the value of the ratio F / M overload resulting metabolic imbalance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of F/M ratio to optimal production of biogas from fish offal waste. The process of anaerobic digestion is conducted in the biodigester with four-liter volume and batch system operated at ambient temperature for 38 days. As a raw material, fish offal and microbial sludge obtained from the curing of fish and river mud discharges in the region of Bandarharjo, Semarang, Central Java. F/M ratio is set at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 are derived from sewage sludge VSS weight ratio of fish offal with sludge containing microbes. The addition of micronutrients supplied with a concentration of 0.4 mg/liter. Yield maximum methane gas obtained was 164,7 l/kg CODMn when the ratio F/M was 0.2. Based on the results of the study, found that the ratio F/M affect the amount of biogas produced. Meanwhile, the retention time (HRT is only influenced by the ratio F/M.

  11. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  12. The Synergistic Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 and Ginsenoside Rg1 against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide Damage Model In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs transplanted is one of the hottest research to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but cholinergic neurons from stem cells were also susceptible to cell death which Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 was affirmed to reverse. Related to cognitive impairment, cholinergic nervous cells should be investigated and ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 was considered to increase them. We chose tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP damage model to study in vitro. Functional properties of our recombination plasmid pEGFP-C2-HSP70 were affirmed by SH-SY5Y cells. To opposite the transitory appearance of HSP70, NSCs used as the vectors of HSP70 gene overexpressed HSP70 for at least 7 days in vitro. After transfection for 3 days, G-Rg1 pretreatment for 4 hours, and coculture for 3 days, the expression of acetylcholinesterase (ChAT, synaptophysin, and the ratio of NeuN and GFAP were assessed by western blot; Morphological properties were detected by 3D reconstruction and immunofluorescence. ChAT was markedly improved in the groups contained G-Rg1. In coculture system, the ratio of neurons/astrocytes and the filaments of neurons were increased; apoptosis cells were decreased, compared to monotherapy (P<0.05. In conclusion, we demonstrated that, as a safe cotreatment affirmed in vitro, overexpression of HSP70 in NSCs plus G-Rg1 promoted nervous cells regeneration from chronic oxidative damage.

  13. R.G. Collingwood, Analytical Philosophy And Logical Positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connelly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available R.G. Collingwood is not normally associated with analytic philosophy, neither negatively nor positively. He neither regarded himself, nor was regarded by his contemporaries and their successors, as an analytical philosopher. However, the story is more interestingly complex than this, both because Collingwood is one of the few pre-analytics in the UK who continues to be of interest to current analytical philosophers, especially in relation to the philosophy of art and history and his conception of metaphysics, and because he mounted a critique of analytical philosophy in the years of its emergence.

  14. M-center growth in alkali halides: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.; Jaque, F.; Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1983-01-01

    The heterogeneous interstitial nucleation model previously proposed to explain F-center growth curves in irradiated alkali halides has been extended to account for M-center kinetics. The interstitials produced during the primary irradiation event are assumed to be trapped at impurities and interstitial clusters or recombine with F and M centers. For M-center formation two cases have been considered: (a) diffusion and aggregation of F centers, and (b) statistical generation and pairing of F centers. Process (b) is the only one consistent with the quadratic relationship between M and F center concentrations. However, to account for the F/M ratios experimentally observed as well as for the role of dose-rate, a modified statistical model involving random creation and association of F + -F pairs has been shown to be adequate. (author)

  15. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  16. Investigating the capability of ToF-SIMS to determine the oxidation state of Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed Ahmed, H. A. A.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    The capability of time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to determine the oxidation state of Ce ions doped in a phosphor was investigated. Two samples of SiO2:Ce (4 mol%) with known Ce3+/Ce4+ relative concentrations were subjected to ToF-SIMS measurements. The spectra were very similar and no significant differences in the relative peak intensities were observed that would readily allow one to distinguish Ce3+ from Ce4+. Although ToF-SIMS was therefore not useful to distinguish the charge state of Ce ions doped in this phosphor material, the idea in principle was also tested on two other samples, namely CeF3 and CeF4 These contain Ce as part of the host (i.e. much higher concentration) and are fluorides, which is significant because ToF-SIMS has previously been reported to be able to distinguish Eu2+ from Eu3+ in Eu doped Sr5(PO4)3F phosphor. The spectrum of CeF4 contained a small peak related to Ce4+ which was not observed in the CeF3 spectrum, yet the peak related to the Ce3+ ions was found to be much more intense in the spectrum of CeF4 than CeF3, showing that the ToF-SIMS signals cannot be directly interpreted as retaining the charge state of the ions in the original material. Nevertheless, the significant differences in the Ce-related peaks in the ToF-SIMS spectra from CeF3 and CeF4 show that the charge state of Ce may be distinguished. This study shows that while in principle ToF-SIMS may be used to distinguish the charge state of Ce ions, this depends on the sample and it would not be easy to interpret the spectra without a standard or reference.

  17. Capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo e constante de energia em Latossolo Bruno em razão de diferentes ajustes do modelo Langmuir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovisson Menotti Boeira de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo (CMAP é um parâmetro bastante útil para caracterizar a capacidade de adsorção de fósforo (P do solo e, por isso, o modelo de Langmuir, que possibilita essa estimativa, é bastante difundido. Porém, se o ajuste da equação for realizado por modelos não lineares ou linearizados, ou se forem escolhidos modelos de região única ou múltiplas, nem sempre os valores estimados da CMAP e da constante de energia de ligação (k são semelhantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso de diferentes métodos de ajuste do modelo de Langmuir sobre os valores estimados de CMAP e k. Para isso, utilizouse um único solo de alta capacidade de adsorção de P, o qual foi misturado a quantidades crescentes de areia lavada, construindo-se sistemas com capacidades de sorção crescentes, mas com a fase sólida constituída da mesma mineralogia. Foi utilizado solo do horizonte B de um Latossolo Bruno com 800 g kg-1 de argila, o qual foi misturado com areia em quantidades para obterem-se solos artificiais com 0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 g kg-1 de argila. Esses solos artificiais foram incubados por 30 dias com calcário para elevar o pH(H2O até 6,0 e, após, foram secos em estufa e peneirados. Foram realizadas as isotermas de adsorção e os dados ajustados pelo modelo de Langmuir, usando os seguintes métodos: NLin - não linear com região única; L-1R - linearização com região única; L-2RG - linearização com duas regiões, ajuste gráfico; L-3RG - linearização com três regiões, ajuste gráfico; L-2RE linerização com duas regiões, ajuste estatístico. Os resultados evidenciaram que todos os métodos utilizados estimaram valores de CMAP proporcionais ao teor de argila dos solos e poderiam ser usados para caracterizar os solos. Contudo, quando utilizados ajustes com mais de uma região de adsorção, os valores da CMAP para a última região foram sensivelmente superiores

  18. Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 May Transform Tryptophan to Melatonin and Promote Endogenous Melatonin Levels in the Roots of Four Grape Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaner; Jiao, Jian; Fan, Xiucai; Sun, Haisheng; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Chonghuai

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes have been verified to synthesize melatonin in vitro and promote abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) roots. This study aimed to further characterize the biotransformation of tryptophan to melatonin in the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 and to investigate its capacity for enhancing endogenous melatonin levels in the roots of different grape cultivars. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with 15N double-labeled L -tryptophan as the precursor for melatonin, we detected isotope-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N -acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but tryptamine was not detected during the in vitro incubation of P. fluorescens RG11. Furthermore, the production capacity of these four compounds peaked during the exponential growth phase. RG11 colonization increased the endogenous levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, N -acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but reduced those of tryptamine and serotonin, in the roots of the Red Globe grape cultivar under salt stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that RG11 reduced the transcription of grapevine tryptophan decarboxylase and serotonin N -acetyltransferase genes when compared to the un-inoculated control. These results correlated with decreased reactive oxygen species bursts and cell damage, which were alleviated by RG11 colonization under salt stress conditions. Additionally, RG11 promoted plant growth and enhanced the levels of endogenous melatonin in different grape cultivars. Intraspecific variation in the levels of melatonin precursors was found among four grape cultivars, and the associated root crude extracts appeared to significantly induce RG11 melatonin biosynthesis in vitro . Overall, this study provides useful information that enhances the existing knowledge of a potential melatonin synthesis pathway in rhizobacteria, and it reveals plant-rhizobacterium interactions that affect

  19. Concurrent tACS-fMRI Reveals Causal Influence of Power Synchronized Neural Activity on Resting State fMRI Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächinger, Marc; Zerbi, Valerio; Moisa, Marius; Polania, Rafael; Liu, Quanying; Mantini, Dante; Ruff, Christian; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-05-03

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is commonly used to study the brain's intrinsic neural coupling, which reveals specific spatiotemporal patterns in the form of resting state networks (RSNs). It has been hypothesized that slow rs-fMRI oscillations (5 Hz); however, causal evidence for this relationship is currently lacking. Here we measured rs-fMRI in humans while applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to entrain brain rhythms in left and right sensorimotor cortices. The two driving tACS signals were tailored to the individual's α rhythm (8-12 Hz) and fluctuated in amplitude according to a 1 Hz power envelope. We entrained the left versus right hemisphere in accordance to two different coupling modes where either α oscillations were synchronized between hemispheres (phase-synchronized tACS) or the slower oscillating power envelopes (power-synchronized tACS). Power-synchronized tACS significantly increased rs-fMRI connectivity within the stimulated RSN compared with phase-synchronized or no tACS. This effect outlasted the stimulation period and tended to be more effective in individuals who exhibited a naturally weak interhemispheric coupling. Using this novel approach, our data provide causal evidence that synchronized power fluctuations contribute to the formation of fMRI-based RSNs. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the brain's intrinsic coupling at rest can be selectively modulated by choosing appropriate tACS signals, which could lead to new interventions for patients with altered rs-fMRI connectivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has become an important tool to estimate brain connectivity. However, relatively little is known about how slow hemodynamic oscillations measured with fMRI relate to electrophysiological processes. It was suggested that slowly fluctuating power envelopes of electrophysiological signals synchronize across brain areas and that the topography of this activity is spatially correlated to

  20. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  1. Functional network centrality in obesity: A resting-state and task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Isabel; Jurado, María Ángeles; Garolera, Maite; Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Horstmann, Annette; Segura, Bàrbara; Pueyo, Roser; Sender-Palacios, María José; Vernet-Vernet, Maria; Villringer, Arno; Junqué, Carme; Margulies, Daniel S; Neumann, Jane

    2015-09-30

    Obesity is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that are often functionally distinct and anatomically distant. This suggests that obesity is associated with differences in functional connectivity of regions distributed across the brain. However, studies addressing whole brain functional connectivity in obesity remain scarce. Here, we compared voxel-wise degree centrality and eigenvector centrality between participants with obesity (n=20) and normal-weight controls (n=21). We analyzed resting state and task-related fMRI data acquired from the same individuals. Relative to normal-weight controls, participants with obesity exhibited reduced degree centrality in the right middle frontal gyrus in the resting-state condition. During the task fMRI condition, obese participants exhibited less degree centrality in the left middle frontal gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex along with reduced eigenvector centrality in the lateral occipital cortex and occipital pole. Our results highlight the central role of the middle frontal gyrus in the pathophysiology of obesity, a structure involved in several brain circuits signaling attention, executive functions and motor functions. Additionally, our analysis suggests the existence of task-dependent reduced centrality in occipital areas; regions with a role in perceptual processes and that are profoundly modulated by attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 8742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin... control of Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX. The human remains and associated funerary..., which was under contract with Stephen F. Austin State University. In the early 1900s, human remains...

  3. Brain involvement in Alström syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citton Valentina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alström Syndrome (AS is a rare ciliopathy characterized by cone–rod retinal dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Most patients do not present with neurological issues and demonstrate normal intelligence, although delayed psychomotor development and psychiatric disorders have been reported. To date, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI abnormalities in AS have not been explored. Methods We investigated structural brain changes in 12 genetically proven AS patients (mean-age 22 years; range: 6–45, 6 females and 19 matched healthy and positive controls (mean-age 23 years; range: 6–43; 12 females using conventional MRI, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. Results 6/12 AS patients presented with brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement (4/12, periventricular white matter abnormalities (3/12 and lacune-like lesions (1/12; all patients older than 30 years had vascular-like lesions. VBM detected grey and white matter volume reduction in AS patients, especially in the posterior regions. DTI revealed significant fractional anisotropy decrease and radial diffusivity increase in the supratentorial white matter, also diffusely involving those regions that appeared normal on conventional imaging. On the contrary, axial and mean diffusivity did not differ from controls except in the fornix. Conclusions Brain involvement in Alström syndrome is not uncommon. Early vascular-like lesions, gray and white matter atrophy, mostly involving the posterior regions, and diffuse supratentorial white matter derangement suggest a role of cilia in endothelial cell and oligodendrocyte function.

  4. N=1 Deformations and RG flows of N=2 SCFTs, part II: non-principal deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit [Department of Physics and Astronomy & Center for Theoretical Physics,Seoul National University,Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Maruyoshi, Kazunobu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University,3-3-1 Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8633 (Japan); Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We continue to investigate the N=1 deformations of four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) labeled by a nilpotent element of the flavor symmetry http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.04281. This triggers a renormalization group (RG) flow to an N=1 SCFT. We systematically analyze all possible deformations of this type for certain classes of N=2 SCFTs: conformal SQCDs, generalized Argyres-Douglas theories and the E{sub 6} SCFT. We find a number of examples where the amount of supersymmetry gets enhanced to N=2 at the end point of the RG flow. Most notably, we find that the SU(N) and Sp(N) conformal SQCDs can be deformed to flow to the Argyres-Douglas (AD) theories of type (A{sub 1},D{sub 2N−1}) and (A{sub 1},D{sub 2N}) respectively. This RG flow therefore allows us to compute the full superconformal index of the (A{sub 1},D{sub N}) class of AD theories. Moreover, we find an infrared duality between N=1 theories where the fixed point is described by an N=2 AD theory. We observe that the classes of examples that exhibit supersymmetry enhancement saturate certain bounds for the central charges implied by the associated two-dimensional chiral algebra.

  5. Bioimpressão e produção de mini-órgãos com células tronco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila A. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A bioimpressão é considerada uma fonte promissora no desenvolvimento celular, e na produção de mini-órgãos, válulas, cartilagens que futuramente poderão ser utilizados na terapia para transplantes em animais e humanos. Assim, essa técnica poderá ser utilizada como uma terapia eletiva, no tratamento de injúrias e principalmente no tratamento de doenças crônico-degenerativas. Em humanos essa terapia está sendo pesquisada a fim de auxiliar a medicina no tratamento e regeneração de tecidos impressos a partir de arcabouços de células desenvolvidas a partir de células-tronco, biomateriais e impressões em 3D. O uso dessa tecnologia é também um auxiliar nas pesquisas oncológicas com o intuito de projetar e avaliar a proliferação celular de tumores, bem como a ação de novos medicamentos quimioterápicos. No entanto, a maior limitação para o uso da terapia utilizando-se a impressora de células, órgãos e tecidos em 3D é a falta de protocolos unificados com metodologias reprodutíveis e detalhadas; com o objetivo de viabilizar a utilização da impressora e a impressão de células, órgãos e tecidos em 3D. Dessa forma, esta revisão busca reunir as publicações mais atuais na área, as quais destacam os avanços no uso de bioimpressão com células-tronco, a fim de descrever as principais técnicas e os potenciais de utilização como alternativa terapêutica na medicina humana e veterinária.

  6. Morfologia e topografia dos órgãos genitais masculinos externos da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Moreira Borges

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p209 A paca (Cuniculus paca é uma espécie de roedor da família Cuniculidae, encontrada na América do Sul, desde a Bacia do Rio Orinoco até o Paraguai. Apesar de amplamente estudada quanto aos aspectos morfológico e reprodutivo, ainda não há registros sobre a morfologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino dessa espécie. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar não só a anatomia macro e microscópica dos órgãos genitais externos dessa espécie, mas, também, sua topografia. Foram estudados os órgãos genitais externos de 10 pacas, machos, adultas; 5 espécimes, fixados em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, foram estudados macroscopicamente e de 5 espécimes foram coletados fragmentos do aparelho reprodutor, para análise microscópica. Os testículos apresentavam parênquima estruturado em túbulos seminíferos e o epitélio germinativo repousava sobre sua membrana basal. Esses órgãos estavam localizados na cavidade abdominal, no trajeto inguinal ou no interior do escroto. O pênis, fibroelástico, localizava-se na região púbica, em direção caudal. Sua glande, revestida por epitélio queratinizado, era recoberta pelo prepúcio e, abaixo deste, identificou-se uma estrutura delgada cartilagínea com bordas serreadas. Um par de esporões ósseos abrigava-se em um saco ventral à uretra, cuja mucosa era revestida por epitélio de transição. O ducto epididimário apresentava-se enovelado na cabeça, continha corpo e cauda, sendo a cabeça revestida por epitélio pseudoestratificado estereociliado, e a cauda por epitélio cúbico simples; desta originava-se o ducto deferente, revestido por epitélio estratificado colunar.

  7. Preventive effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behavior in male C57/B6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongli; Zhu, Kexuan; Chen, Lin; Ou Yang, Liufeng; Huang, Yufang; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-09-25

    We investigated the preventive effects of Rg1 on a model of mouse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) induced by electric shock combined with situation reminder and explored the underlying mechanism. In the experiment, before the PTSD animal model was developed, Rg1 (10, 5, and 2.5mg/kg) was orally administered for one week. After the animal model was established, PTSD-like behavior was observed using elevated plus maze, black and light box, and open field tests. One hour after the behavior test, all mice were sacrificed, and then serum corticosterone (CORT) and hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assays were performed. Results showed that Rg1 (5mg/kg) treatments relieved PTSD-like behavior by altering elevated serum corticosterone and hypothalamus CRH levels. By contrast, fluoxetine (3mg/kg) treatment reversed the behavior changes and had no effect on increased CORT and CRH levels. These findings confirmed the preventive effect of Rg1 in PTSD model. Decreasing CORT and CRH levels may be one of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ADHD-200 Global Competition: Diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R G Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including ADHD patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined type, or ADHD inattentive type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ, without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52% as well as the highest score (124 of 195 of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data.

  9. Core polarization and 3/2 states of some f-p shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelly, S.

    1976-01-01

    The energies, wavefunctions, spectroscopic factors and M1 transition strengths have been calculated for the 3/2 - states excited via single proton transfer to 2p3/2 orbit of the target nuclei 50 Ti, 52 Cr, 54 Fe and 56 Fe. The calculations have been done by using the Kuo and Brown interaction in the entire four shell space as well as the shrunk Kuo and Brown interaction calculated in (1f7/2-2p3/2) space. The salient feature of the calculation is that whereas the systematics of single particle strength distribution are well reproduced, the energy splitting between the calculated T> centroid and the centroid of T> states is always much smaller than that observed experimentally. It has been found, however, that the modified KB interaction widens the energy gap between the T> centroid and the centroid of T> states without appreciably affecting the final wave-functions. (author)

  10. Diretrizes para avaliação e validação do potencial doador de órgãos em morte encefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Adrieno Westphal

    Full Text Available RESUMO O transplante de órgãos é a única alternativa para muitos pacientes portadores de algumas doenças terminais. Ao mesmo tempo, é preocupante a crescente desproporção entre a alta demanda por transplantes de órgãos e o baixo índice de transplantes efetivados. Dentre as diferentes causas que alimentam essa desproporção, estão os equívocos na identificação do potencial doador de órgãos e as contraindicações mal atribuídas pela equipe assistente. Assim, o presente documento pretende fornecer subsídios à equipe multiprofissional da terapia intensiva para o reconhecimento, a avaliação e a validação do potencial doador de órgãos.

  11. [Evaluation of bronchial mucosa involvement in sarcoidosis patients using ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Feng, Huasong; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xiao; Liang, Yingkui; Ding, Xinmin; Meng, Jiguang; Han, Zhihai

    2014-11-01

    To explore the value of ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement in patients with saroidosis. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 6 sarcoidosis patients with and 14 patients without bronchial mucosa involvement to collect the data including the standard uptake value (SUVMax/Mean) of ¹⁸F-FDG, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE), and proportion of lymphocytes and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The lung focal SUV(Max/Mean) was higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement than those without (7.04 ± 5.83/5.00 ± 4.69 vs 5.68 ± 3.66/3.82 ± 2.39), but such differences were not statistically significant (P=0.565/0.495). The SUV(Max/Mean) of the hilum of the lung and the mediastina lymph nodes were significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (13.28 ± 5.57/10.48 ± 4.43 vs 6.20 ± 1.77/4.52 ± 1.43, P=0.0003/0.0002; 13.84 ± 4.35/9.69 ± 2.74 vs 7.16 ± 2.52/5.28 ± 1.77, P=0.0004/0.0004). The level of sACE and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in BALF were also significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (60.58 ± 16.3 vs 49.16 ± 13.3 IU/L, P=0.045; 7.30 ± 5.0 vs 2.90 ± 3.1, P=0.026). The proportion of lymphocytes in BALF was comparable between the patients with and without bronchial mucosa involvement (44.10 ± 10.3% vs 35.30 ± 12.5%, P=0.148). For patients with saroidosis, ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT is useful in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement, which is one of the key features of active sarcoidosis.

  12. Características das carcaças, biometria do trato gastrintestinal, tamanho dos órgãos internos e conteúdo gastrintestinal de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore alimentados com dietas contendo vários níveis de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Marcelo de Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de diferentes níveis de concentrado na ração (25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75% foi avaliada sobre as características da carcaça, o peso dos compartimentos do trato gastrintestinal, o peso dos órgãos internos e o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal, de 24 bovinos mestiços Simental x Nelore, não-castrados, com 17 meses de idade e peso vivo médio de 354 kg. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram 500 kg de peso vivo. Após o resfriamento, as carcaças foram avaliadas qualitativa (área de olho de lombo e quantitativamente (medições, rendimentos e cortes básicos. O rendimento da carcaça e dos cortes básicos, a área de olho de lombo e as proporções de músculo e gordura não foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado, enquanto o comprimento de carcaça diminuiu linearmente com o aumento do nível de concentrado. O conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal diminuiu linearmente com a adição de concentrado na ração. Não houve efeito dos níveis de concentrado nos pesos de coração, pulmão e rúmen-retículo. Os pesos de fígado, rins, baço, abomaso, intestino delgado e gordura interna aumentaram e o do omaso diminuiu linearmente com a adição de concentrado na dieta.

  13. RG cascades in hyperbolic quiver gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahl Laamara, R.; Ait Ben Haddou, M.; Belhaj, A.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a general classification of supersymmatric QFT4s into three basic sets: ordinary, affine and indefinite classes. The last class, which has not been enough explored in literature, is shown to share most of properties of ordinary and affine super-QFT4s. This includes, amongst others, its embedding in type II string on local Calabi-Yau threefolds. We give realizations of these supersymmetric QFT4s as D-brane world volume gauge theories. A special interest is devoted to hyperbolic subset for its peculiar features and for the role it plays in type IIB background with non-zero axion. We also study RG flows and duality cascades in case of hyperbolic quiver theories. Comments regarding the full indefinite sector are made

  14. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A. A.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Hendriks, Erik J.; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on

  15. Luminescence properties of Sr{sub 3-x-3y/2}M{sub x}Ce{sub y}AlO{sub 4}F (M=Ca, Ba, 0{<=}x{<=}0.9, 0.001{<=}y{<=}0.05) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye-Min [Department of Engineering in Energy and Applied Chemistry, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangmoon, E-mail: spark@silla.ac.kr [Department of Engineering in Energy and Applied Chemistry, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Luminescent materials composed of Sr{sub 3-x-3y/2}M{sub x}Ce{sub y}AlO{sub 4}F (M=Ca, Ba, 0{<=}x{<=}0.9, 0.001{<=}y{<=}0.05) were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the obtained oxyfluorides are exhibited for indexing peak positions. Dynamic excitation and emission spectra of the Ce{sup 3+}-activated oxyfluoride phosphors are clearly monitored. The critical emission quenching as a function of Ce{sup 3+} contents in Sr{sub 2.5-3y/2}M{sub 0.5}Ce{sub y}AlO{sub 4}F phosphors is revealed at quite low concentrations of the activator. CIE coordinates of blue and green Sr{sub 2.5-3y/2}M{sub 0.5}Ce{sub y}AlO{sub 4}F phosphors are clearly measured. The relative quantum efficiency of Sr{sub 2.4985}Ca{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.005}AlO{sub 4}F based on the integrated emission is determined. The Sr{sub 3-x-3y/2}M{sub x}Ce{sub y}AlO{sub 4}F phosphors excited near 410 nm light could be prominent phosphors in applications of NUV-LED. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue and green emitting oxyfluoride phosphors are excitated near 410 nm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sup 3+}-activated oxyfluoride phosphors are quite effective to prepare white light for near-UV LED applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gradual substitution of Ce{sup 3+} content in the oxyfluoride hosts changes CIE values.

  16. Kontrol odağı ve örgütsel muhalefet arasındaki ilişki üzerine bir araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Çiğdem

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmada çalışanların iş çevrelerindeki kontrol algılarının (kontrol odağının), örgütle ilgili anlaşmazlıklarını ve karşıt fikirlerini sözlü olarak ifade etme stratejileri (örgütsel muhalefet) ile ilişkisinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, İstanbul’da çeşitli sektörlerde faaliyet gösteren firmalarda çalışan 180 beyaz yakalı çalışandan toplanan veri analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, çalışanların kontrol odaklarının yapıcı açık muhalefet, dışsal muhalefet ve sorgulayıcı açık m...

  17. An improved radiosynthesis of the muscarinic M2 radiopharmaceutical, [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosten, Erik M. van [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A.; Stephenson, Karin A. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Mamo, David C. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Yudin, Andrei K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)], E-mail: neil.vasdev@camhpet.ca

    2009-04-15

    The radioligand 3-(4-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-methyl-1,2,5, 6-tetrahydropyridine ([{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP) is an agonist with specificity towards subtype 2 of muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptors. It is currently the only radiotracer available for imaging M2 receptors in human subjects with positron emission tomography. The present study reports on an improved method for the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP, automated using a GE TRACERlab{sup TM} FX{sub FN} radiosynthesis module. A key facet was the use of a new precursor, 3-(4-(1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ylthio) propyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The precursor was fluorinated via nucleophilic displacement of the tosyloxy group by potassium cryptand [{sup 18}F]fluoride (K[{sup 18}F]/K{sub 222}) in CH{sub 3}CN at 80 deg. C for 5 min, and purified by HPLC. Formulated [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP was prepared in an uncorrected radiochemical yield of 29{+-}4%, with a specific activity of 138{+-}41 GBq/{mu}mol (3732{+-}1109 mCi/{mu}mol) at the end of synthesis (35 min; n=3). This methodology offers higher yields, faster synthesis times, an optimized precursor, and simpler automation than previously reported.

  18. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  19. Large-scale DCMs for resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Razi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the identification of large directed graphs for resting-state brain networks based on biophysical models of distributed neuronal activity, that is, effective connectivity. This identification can be contrasted with functional connectivity methods based on symmetric correlations that are ubiquitous in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI. We use spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to invert large graphs comprising dozens of nodes or regions. The ensuing graphs are directed and weighted, hence providing a neurobiologically plausible characterization of connectivity in terms of excitatory and inhibitory coupling. Furthermore, we show that the use of Bayesian model reduction to discover the most likely sparse graph (or model from a parent (e.g., fully connected graph eschews the arbitrary thresholding often applied to large symmetric (functional connectivity graphs. Using empirical fMRI data, we show that spectral DCM furnishes connectivity estimates on large graphs that correlate strongly with the estimates provided by stochastic DCM. Furthermore, we increase the efficiency of model inversion using functional connectivity modes to place prior constraints on effective connectivity. In other words, we use a small number of modes to finesse the potentially redundant parameterization of large DCMs. We show that spectral DCM—with functional connectivity priors—is ideally suited for directed graph theoretic analyses of resting-state fMRI. We envision that directed graphs will prove useful in understanding the psychopathology and pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. We will demonstrate the utility of large directed graphs in clinical populations in subsequent reports, using the procedures described in this paper.

  20. Reward for food odors: an fMRI study of liking and wanting as a function of metabolic state and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Royet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Brain reward systems mediate liking and wanting for food reward. Here, we explore the differential involvement of the following structures for these two components: the ventral and dorsal striatopallidal area, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Twelve healthy female participants were asked to rate pleasantness (liking of food and non-food odors) and the desire to eat (wanting of odor-evoked food) during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective ratings and fMRI were performed in hunger and satiety states. Activations of regions of interest were compared as a function of task (liking vs wanting), odor category (food vs non-food) and metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). We found that the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum were differentially involved in liking or wanting during the hunger state, which suggests a reciprocal inhibitory influence between these structures. Neural activation of OFC subregions was correlated with either liking or wanting ratings, suggesting an OFC role in reward processing magnitude. Finally, during the hunger state, participants with a high body mass index exhibited less activation in neural structures underlying food reward processing. Our results suggest that food liking and wanting are two separable psychological constructs and may be functionally segregated within the cortico-striatopallidal circuit. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Percepção do corpo, medo da morte, religião e doação de órgãos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendassolli Pedro Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de levantar as principais razões que levam estudantes universitários a doarem seus órgãos para transplante e as relações entre a doação de órgãos, o medo da morte e a religião dos participantes. Para tanto, foram realizados três estudos interdependentes, os quais somaram a participação de 192 estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos nestes estudos sugerem, como sendo as principais razões para a doação: desejo de continuar a vida do outro; reaproveitamento dos órgãos; dar qualidade de vida aos que necessitam de um transplante; inutilidade do corpo após a morte. Quanto à não doação, as principais razões foram: crítica à lei dos transplantes; crítica ao sistema de saúde brasileiro; razões bioéticas, tais como receio de morte premeditada e contrabando de órgãos. Nestes estudos não foi encontrada relação significativa entre religião e doação de órgãos, mas foi encontrada entre o medo da morte e a não doação.

  2. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  3. Species differences in mGluR5 binding sites in mammalian central nervous system determined using in vitro binding with [18F]F-PEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shil; Hamill, Terence G.; Connolly, Brett; Jagoda, Elaine; Li Wenping; Gibson, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Binding of [ 18 F]3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]F-PEB) was evaluated in membranes and tissue sections prepared from rat, rhesus and human brain. Saturation equilibrium binding experiments with frozen brain cortex and caudate-putamen membranes of young adult rhesus and human and with cortex and striatum from rat yielded data indicative of specific high-affinity binding (K D =0.1-0.15 nM, n≥3) to a saturable site previously shown to be metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5; Patel S, Ndubizu O, Hamill T, Chaudhary A, Burns HD, Hargreaves RJ, Gibson RE. Screening cascade and development of potential positron emission tomography radiotracers for mGluR5: in vitro and in vivo characterization. Mol Imaging Biol 2005;7:314-323). High-affinity binding of [ 18 F]F-PEB was also detected in cerebellum membranes from rat, rhesus and human. The density of binding sites (B max ) measured using [ 18 F]F-PEB followed the rank order cortex∼caudate-putamen/striatum>cerebellum for all three species, with the cerebellum B max being significantly lower than that observed in the other regions. Receptor autoradiography studies in tissue sections confirmed that the regional distribution of [ 18 F]F-PEB in mammalian central nervous system is consistent with that of mGluR5 and that a small but specific mGluR5 signal is observed in rhesus and human cerebellum. A small and quantifiable specific signal could also be observed in rat cerebellum using this radiotracer. Immunohistochemical analysis in brain sections revealed a rank order of staining in rhesus and human brain of cortex∼caudate-putamen>cerebellum. Rat brain immunohistochemistry followed the same rank order, although the staining in the cerebellum was significantly lower. Using a 'no-wash' wipe assay, the development of a specific signal within 20 min of incubation of tissue brain sections (>60% in the cortex and striatum; 36-49% in the cerebellum) from all three species confirmed previous in vivo

  4. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 Inhibits the Warburg Effect Via Modulating DNMT3A/ MiR-532-3p/HK2 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xia; Lu, Jiaojiao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Zhao, Le

    2018-01-01

    The Warburg effect is one of the main energy metabolism features supporting cancer cell growth. 20(S)-Rg3 exerts anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer partly by inhibiting the Warburg effect. microRNAs are important regulators of the Warburg effect. However, the microRNA regulatory network mediating the anti-Warburg effect of 20(S)-Rg3 was largely unknown. microRNA deep sequencing was performed to identify the 20(S)-Rg3-influenced microRNAs in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. miR-532-3p was overexpressed by mimic532-3p transfection in SKOV3 and A2780 cells or inhibited by inhibitor532-3p transfection in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine the changes in HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption, lactate production and cell growth. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the direct binding of miR-532-3p to HK2. The methylation status in the promoter region of pre-miR-532-3p gene was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Expression changes of key molecules controlling DNA methylation including DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and TET1-3 were examined in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells. DNMT3A was overexpressed in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine its influence on miR-532-3p level, HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production. Deep sequencing results showed that 11 microRNAs were increased and 9 microRNAs were decreased by 20(S)-Rg3 in SKOV3 cells, which were verified by qPCR. More than 2-fold increase of miR-532-3p was found in 20(S)-Rg3-treated SKOV3 cells. Forced expression of miR-532-3p reduced HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of miR-532-3p antagonized the suppressive effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in ovarian cancer cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-532-3p directly suppressed HK2 rather than PKM2. miR-532-3p level was controlled by the methylation in the promoter region of its host

  5. Riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel för män och kvinnor : altruism, riskbenägenhet och traditionella könsroller

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Gauffin, Rebecka

    2017-01-01

    Preventivmedel för kvinnor innefattar en betydande andel biverkningar. Hittills har män inte upplevt några allvarliga biverkningar av de testade preventivmedlen för män, trots detta är det biverkningarna som stoppat preventivmedel för män från att lanseras på marknaden. I denna studie argumenteras för att en möjlig förklaring till detta ligger i skilda riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel för män och kvinnor. Studien undersöker riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel samt hur individers egenskaper...

  6. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Test set up description and performances for HAWAII-2RG detector characterization at ESTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; ter Haar, J.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Butler, B.; Smit, H.; van der Luijt, C.; Martin, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame work of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision program, the Euclid mission has the objective to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies will be observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths by an imaging and spectroscopic channel. For the Near Infrared Spectrometer instrument (NISP), the state-of-the-art HAWAII-2RG detectors will be used, associated with the SIDECAR ASIC readout electronic which will perform the image frame acquisitions. To characterize and validate the performance of these detectors, a test bench has been designed, tested and validated. This publication describes the pre-tests performed to build the set up dedicated to dark current measurements and tests requiring reasonably uniform light levels (such as for conversion gain measurements). Successful cryogenic and vacuum tests on commercial LEDs and photodiodes are shown. An optimized feed through in stainless steel with a V-groove to pot the flex cable connecting the SIDECAR ASIC to the room temperature board (JADE2) has been designed and tested. The test set up for quantum efficiency measurements consisting of a lamp, a monochromator, an integrating sphere and set of cold filters, and which is currently under construction will ensure a uniform illumination across the detector with variations lower than 2%. A dedicated spot projector for intra-pixel measurements has been designed and built to reach a spot diameter of 5 μm at 920nm with 2nm of bandwidth [1].

  8. Pharmacokinetics and efficiency of brain targeting of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 given as Nao-Qing microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Shu, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Jia-Yin; Liang, Run-Cheng; Dian, Shao-Na; Lv, Xiao-Xun; Yang, Meng-Qi; Huang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Gang; Yang, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Nao-Qing solution has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The purpose of this study was to improve the pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of Nao-Qing, administered as an oil-in-water microemulsion. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given Nao-Qing microemulsion by intranasal or intragastric routes. Samples of blood, brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney were collected at pre-determined time intervals, and the contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 (active ingredients of the Nao-Qing microemulsion) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 in Nao-Qing microemulsion was 8475.13 ± 54.61 μg/ml and 6633.42 ± 527.27 μg/ml, respectively, and that the particle size, pH and viscosity of the microemulsion were 19.9 ± 5.07 nm, 6.1 and 3.056 × 10(-3 )Pas, respectively. Absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 was higher than that of ginsenoside Rb1, which was barely detectable after intragastric administration; furthermore, the concentration of ginsenoside Rg1 in blood and other tissues at each time point was lower for intragastric than for intranasal administration. Compared with intragastric administration, intranasal administration resulted in a shorter tmax (0.08 versus 1 h), a higher Cmax (16.65 versus 11.29 μg/ml), and a higher area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (592.91 versus 101.70 μgċh/ml) in the brain. The relative rates of uptake (Re) and the ratio of peak concentration (Ce) in the brain were 126.31% and 147.48% for ginsenoside Rg1, respectively. These data illustrate that intranasal administration can promote the absorption of drugs in Nao-Qing microemulsion and achieve fast effect.

  9. Revisão integrativa: indicadores de resultado processo de doação de órgãos e transplantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Spallini Ferraz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar por meio da revisão integrativa os principais indicadores de resultado do processo de doação de órgãos e transplantes utilizados e transplantes no Brasil e no mundo. A revisão integrativa da literatura foi realizada nas bases de dados bibliográficas MedLine/PubMed e LILACS e sites governamentais e não governamentais no período de 1995 e 2011. Os descritores/palavras chaves utilizados foram doação de órgãos, transplante de órgãos e resultados em saúde, sendo selecionados 26 artigos e nove sites. A classificação do nível de evidência dos artigos variou de um a seis. RESULTADOS: Nível de evidência dos artigos na sua maioria 66,6% foi quatro (12:18 PubMed todos os artigos da base LILACS (8. Os indicadores apresentados nos artigos se propõem a avaliar, mensurar e controlar dados relacionados ao perfil do doador, condições clínicas e hospitalares, tempo de isquemia e tamanho do órgão, procedimento cirúrgico e as complicações advindas do transplante.

  10. A SVM-based quantitative fMRI method for resting-state functional network detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomu; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-09-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) aims to measure baseline neuronal connectivity independent of specific functional tasks and to capture changes in the connectivity due to neurological diseases. Most existing network detection methods rely on a fixed threshold to identify functionally connected voxels under the resting state. Due to fMRI non-stationarity, the threshold cannot adapt to variation of data characteristics across sessions and subjects, and generates unreliable mapping results. In this study, a new method is presented for resting-state fMRI data analysis. Specifically, the resting-state network mapping is formulated as an outlier detection process that is implemented using one-class support vector machine (SVM). The results are refined by using a spatial-feature domain prototype selection method and two-class SVM reclassification. The final decision on each voxel is made by comparing its probabilities of functionally connected and unconnected instead of a threshold. Multiple features for resting-state analysis were extracted and examined using an SVM-based feature selection method, and the most representative features were identified. The proposed method was evaluated using synthetic and experimental fMRI data. A comparison study was also performed with independent component analysis (ICA) and correlation analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed method can provide comparable or better network detection performance than ICA and correlation analysis. The method is potentially applicable to various resting-state quantitative fMRI studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ArF Excimer Laser-induced Deposition of Ag/C Nanocomposite Thin Films in the Presence of n-Hexane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondal, M.A.; Fajgar, Radek; Chang, X.; Shen, K.; Xu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 311, AUG 30 (2014), s. 95-100 ISSN 0169-4332 Grant - others:NNSFCH(CN) 51172044; NSFJP(CN) BK2011617; KFUPM(CN) RG 1311-1 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ArF excimer laser * nanocomposite * laser deposition Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  12. Study on resting-state fMRI based on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-jie PAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe characteristics of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in patients with major depression and explore the possible pathogenesis. Methods A total of 24 major depression patients and 26 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy controls were scanned with rs-fMRI based on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. The correlation between mALFF values of brain regions and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17 score was analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results Compared with control group, mALFF values in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, right orbital superior frontal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left operculum inferior frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and left gyrus rectus in major depression group were significantly increased (P 0.05, for all. Conclusions Abnormal brain spontaneous activity within default mode network (DMN and limbic system could emerge in major depression patients during resting-state, which may be neurobiological substrate of major depression. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2018.03.005

  13. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-gallium alloys determined from e.m.f. and calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Ga alloys were determined using e.m.f. and calorimetric methods. In the e.m.f. method, solid oxide galvanic cells were used with zirconia electrolyte. The cells of the type W,Ag x Ga (1-x) ,Ga 2 O 3 //ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//FeO,Fe,W were used in the temperature range from 1098 K to 1273 K, and in the range of mole fraction from x Ga = 0.1 to x Ga = 1.0. At first, the Gibbs free energy of formation of pure solid gallium oxide, Ga 2 O 3 , from pure elements was derived. Using values of the measured e.m.f. for the cell with x Ga = 1.0, the following temperature dependence was obtained: Δ f G m,Ga 2 O 3 0 (±4kJ·mol -1 J)=-1061.7235+0.2899T/K. Next, the activity of the gallium was derived as a function of the alloy composition from the values of the measured e.m.f. Activities of silver were calculated using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The drop calorimetric measurements were carried out at two temperatures, viz. 923 K and 1123 K, using a Setaram MHTC calorimeter. Integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid binary alloys were determined at those temperatures. Finally, thermodynamic properties of the liquid alloys were described with the Redlich-Kister equation using ThermoCalc software.

  14. Microarray analysis identified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genes involved in infection and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. To identify Pst genes involved in infection and sporulation, a custom oligonucleotide Genechip was made using sequences of 442 genes selected from Pst cDNA libraries. Microarray analy...

  15. Continuously tunable cw lasing near 2.75 μm in diode-pumped Er3+ : SrF2 and Er3+ : CaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Orlovskii, Yu V; Polyachenkova, M V; Fedorov, Pavel P; Kuznetsov, S V; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Alimov, Olimkhon K; Dergachev, Alexey Yu

    2006-01-01

    CW lasing is obtained in Er 3+ (5%) : CaF 2 and Er 3+ (5%) : SrF 2 crystals near 2.75 μm with 0.4 and 2 W of output powers, respectively, upon transverse diode laser pumping into the upper 4 I 11/2 laser level of erbium ions at 980 nm. Continuous tuning of the laser wavelength between 2720 and 2760 nm is realised in the Er 3+ : SrF 2 crystal. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  16. Effect of plastic straining on the F and M centres kinetics in γ-irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo Lopez, F.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of plastic straining on the room-temperature F and H growth curves in a γ-radiation field has been analyzed. Cristal are strained after F-saturation is reached and then irradiation is continued. The new F growth curve consists of an initial fast growing stage due to additional vacancies created by deformation being turned into F centre, followed by a linear stage. Its slope is higher than that prior to straining. Also the role of straining on M centre thermal decay as well as on the F→M reaction under F light, has been investigated. This reaction has been shown to preferentially occur where intense gliding has developed. (Author) 44 refs

  17. Effect of plastic straining on the F and M centres kinetics in {gamma}-irradiated NaCl; Efecto de la deformacion plastica sobre la Cinetica de Centro de color F y M en NaCl, irradiado con rayos {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo Lopez, F

    1966-07-01

    The effect of plastic straining on the room-temperature F and H growth curves in a {gamma}-radiation field has been analyzed. Cristal are strained after F-saturation is reached and then irradiation is continued. The new F growth curve consists of an initial fast growing stage due to additional vacancies created by deformation being turned into F centre, followed by a linear stage. Its slope is higher than that prior to straining. Also the role of straining on M centre thermal decay as well as on the F{yields}M reaction under F light, has been investigated. This reaction has been shown to preferentially occur where intense gliding has developed. (Author) 44 refs.

  18. Inteligencias múltiples y rendimiento en fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª del Pino Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio ha sido intentar determinar la existencia de un perfil de inteligencia típico para futbolistas en general, y específico por demarcaciones, desde los postulados que ofrece la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples de Howard Gardner. Para ello, 37 futbolistas y cuerpo técnico de dos clubes, cumplimentaron una serie de cuestionarios para fijar los términos referidos: a perfil de inteligencias múltiples, y b percepción de competencia deportiva. Se sometieron al test de campo de Course Navette para delimitar su Potencia aeróbica máxima y el VO2 máx. Se codifican los estadísticos de competición para cada uno de los deportistas, al objeto de delimitar el perfil de IM asociado al rendimiento deportivo para futbolistas, y analizar la incidencia de cada tipo de inteligencia con los factores de eficacia coligados a la competencia deportiva en esta disciplina. Se identifica un perfil típico de IM para futbolistas con escasa incidencia en el rendimiento en fútbol.

  19. Synergistic Use of Geniposide and Ginsenoside Rg1 Balance Microglial TNF-α and TGF-β1 following Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation In Vitro: A Genome-Wide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-activated microglia are like a double-edged sword, characterized by both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to reveal the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 based on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and transforming growth factor- (TGF- β1 balance of microglia. BV2 microglial cells were divided into 5 groups: control, model (oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, geniposide-treated, ginsenoside-Rg1-treated, and combination-treated. A series of assays were used to detect on (i cell viability; (ii NO content; (iii expression (content of TNF-α and TGF-β1; and (iv gene expression profiles. The results showed that integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited NO level and protected cell viability, improved the content and expression of TGF-β1, and reduced the content and expression of TNF-α. Separated use of geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 showed different effects at different emphases. Next-generation sequencing showed that Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway played a key regulatory role in the balance of TNF-α and TGF-β1 when cotreated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible avenue for the application.

  20. Superhalogen properties of hetero-binuclear anions MM‧F4- and MM″F5- (M = Li, Na, M‧ = Be, Mg, Ca; M″ = B, Al, Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Ying; He, Hui-Min; Tong, Jing; Wu, Di; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Hetero-binuclear superhalogen anions, namely MM‧F4- and MM″F5- (M = Li, Na; M‧ = Be, Mg, Ca; M″ = B, Al, Ga), have been theoretically characterized at the MP2(FULL)/6-311+G(3df) level. It is found that two central atoms can be linked by at most three fluorine ligands. The large vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs, 7.449-8.978 eV) verify the superhalogen identity of these anions. The VDEs of both MM‧F4- and MM″F5- decrease when the atomic size of M increases whereas increase with the size of M‧ and M″. Besides, the extra electron distribution also has effect on the VDEs of such superhalogen anions.

  1. Effect of Genetic Variability in the CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 Genes on Liver mRNA Levels and Warfarin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP 4F2, a vitamin K oxidase, affect stable warfarin dose requirements and time to therapeutic INR. CYP4F2 is part of the CYP4F gene cluster, which is highly polymorphic and exhibits a high degree of linkage disequilibrium, making it difficult to define causal variants. Our objective was to examine the effect of genetic variability in the CYP4F gene cluster on expression of the individual CYP4F genes and warfarin response. mRNA levels of the CYP4F gene cluster were quantified in human liver samples (n = 149 obtained from a well-characterized liver bank and fine mapping of the CYP4F gene cluster encompassing CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 was performed. Genome-wide association study (GWAS data from a prospective cohort of warfarin-treated patients (n = 711 was also analyzed for genetic variations across the CYP4F gene cluster. In addition, SNP-gene expression in human liver tissues and interactions between CYP4F genes were explored in silico using publicly available data repositories. We found that SNPs in CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 were associated with mRNA expression in the CYP4F gene cluster. In particular, CYP4F2 rs2108622 was associated with increased CYP4F2 expression while CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with decreased CYP4F2 expression. Interestingly, these CYP4F2 and CYP4F11 SNPs showed similar effects with warfarin stable dose where CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with a reduction in daily warfarin dose requirement (∼1 mg/day, Pc = 0.017, an effect opposite to that previously reported with CYP4F2 (rs2108622. However, inclusion of either or both of these SNPs in a pharmacogenetic algorithm consisting of age, body mass index (BMI, gender, baseline clotting factor II level, CYP2C9∗2 rs1799853, CYP2C9∗3 rs1057910, and VKORC1 rs9923231 improved warfarin dose variability only by 0.5–0.7% with an improvement in dose prediction accuracy of ∼1–2%. Although there is complex

  2. Human exposure to power frequency magnetic fields up to 7.6 mT: An integrated EEG/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Julien; Thomas, Alex W; Legros, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the effects of power-line frequency (60 Hz in North America) magnetic fields (MF) in humans using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five participants were enrolled in a pseudo-double-blind experiment involving "real" or "sham" exposure to sinusoidal 60 Hz MF exposures delivered using the gradient coil of an MRI scanner following two conditions: (i) 10 s exposures at 3 mT (10 repetitions); (ii) 2 s exposures at 7.6 mT (100 repetitions). Occipital EEG spectral power was computed in the alpha range (8-12 Hz, reportedly the most sensitive to MF exposure in the literature) with/without exposure. Brain functional activation was studied using fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD, inversely correlated with EEG alpha power) maps. No significant effects were detected on occipital EEG alpha power during or post-exposure for any exposure condition. Consistent with EEG results, no effects were observed on fMRI BOLD maps in any brain region. Our results suggest that acute exposure (2-10 s) to 60 Hz MF from 3 to 7.6 mT (30,000 to 76,000 times higher than average public exposure levels for 60 Hz MF) does not induce detectable changes in EEG or BOLD signals. Combined with previous findings in which effects were observed on the BOLD signal after 1 h exposure to 3 mT, 60 Hz MF, this suggests that MF exposure in the low mT range (<10 mT) might require prolonged durations of exposure to induce detectable effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:425-435, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hidden selection rules, M5-instantons and fluxes in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, & I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the selection rules governing the contributions of fluxed M5-instantons to the F-theory four-dimensional effective action, with emphasis on the generation of charged matter F-terms. The structure of such couplings is unraveled by exploiting the perturbative and non-perturbative homological relations, introduced in our companion paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)198, which encode the interplay between the self-dual 3-form flux on the M5-brane, the background 4-form flux and certain fibral curves. The latter are wrapped by time-like M2-branes representing matter insertions in the instanton path integral. In particular, we clarify how fluxed M5-instantons detect the presence of geometrically massive U(1)s which are responsible for ‘hidden’ selection rules. We discuss how for non-generic embeddings the M5-instanton can probe ‘locally massless’ U(1) symmetries if the rank of its Mordell-Weil group is enhanced compared to that of the bulk. As a phenomenological off-spring we propose a new type of non-perturbative corrections to Yukawa couplings which may change the rank of the Yukawa matrix. Along the way, we also gain new insights into the structure of massive U(1) gauge fluxes in the stable degeneration limit.

  4. Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Ken-ji

    2014-01-01

    The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell's RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\\chi(D...

  5. Unusual spin frozen state in a frustrated pyrochlore system NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} as observed by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, R.; Brueckner, F.; Klauss, H.H. [IFP, TU Dresden (Germany); Krizan, J.W.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present {sup 23}Na -and {sup 19}F NMR results on the magnetically frustrated pyrochlore NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} with a frustration index of f = θ{sub CW}/T{sub f} ∝ 56. Recent neutron scattering experiments proposed XY like antiferromagnetic spin clusters at low energies in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}. {sup 23}Na NMR -spectra reveal the presence of two magnetically non equivalent Na sites in conjunction with the local Co{sup 2+} spin structure. Below 3.6 K both the {sup 23}Na -and {sup 19}F spectra broaden due to the formation of static spin correlations. A huge reduction of the {sup 19}F -and {sup 23}Na NMR signal intensity hints at a quasi-static field distribution in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} in this regime. The {sup 19}F spin-lattice relaxation rate {sup 19}(1/T{sub 1}) exhibits a peak at around 2.9 K, at the same temperature range where ac and dc susceptibility data show a broad maximum. The character of the spin fluctuation appears to be isotropic. The overall temperature dependence of {sup 19}(1/T{sub 1}) can be described by the BPP theory considering a fluctuating hyperfine field with an autocorrelation function. The correlation time of the autocorrelation function exhibits an activation behavior further indicating the spin-frozen state. While the present NMR studies suggest the spin frozen state at low temperatures, μSR investigations however reveal the presence of so called persistent spin dynamics down to 20 mK implying an exotic ground state in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}.

  6. Coronin 3 involvement in F-actin-dependent processes at the cell cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosentreter, Andre; Hofmann, Andreas; Xavier, Charles-Peter; Stumpf, Maria; Noegel, Angelika A.; Clemen, Christoph S.

    2007-01-01

    The actin interaction of coronin 3 has been mainly documented by in vitro experiments. Here, we discuss coronin 3 properties in the light of new structural information and focus on assays that reflect in vivo roles of coronin 3 and its impact on F-actin-associated functions. Using GFP-tagged coronin 3 fusion proteins and RNAi silencing we show that coronin 3 has roles in wound healing, protrusion formation, cell proliferation, cytokinesis, endocytosis, axonal growth, and secretion. During formation of cell protrusions actin accumulation precedes the focal enrichment of coronin 3 suggesting a role for coronin 3 in events that follow the initial F-actin assembly. Moreover, we show that coronin 3 similar to other coronins interacts with the Arp2/3-complex and cofilin indicating that this family in general is involved in regulating Arp2/3-mediated events

  7. Morte encefálica, cuidados ao doador de órgãos e transplante de pulmão

    OpenAIRE

    D'Império,Fernando

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O transplante de órgãos é aceito como uma opção para doença orgânica terminal, em pacientes bem selecionados. Este é o resultado de grandes avanços nos campos da Imunologia, da Tecnologia da Terapia Intensiva e da Farmacologia. Entretanto, os sistemas de transplantes são, atualmente, vítimas de seu próprio sucesso, à medida que as listas de espera se alongam, em contraste com a disponibilidade de órgãos, que permanece estável, acarretando crescente número de mortes ...

  8. Supersymmetric states in M5/M2 CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz

    2007-01-01

    We propose an exact, finite N formula for the partition function over 1/4 th BPS states in the conformal field theory on the world volume of N coincident M5 branes, and 1/8 th BPS states in the theory of N conincident M2 branes. We obtain our partition function by performing the radial quantization of the Coulomb Branches of these theories and rederive the same formula from the quantization of supersymmetric giant and dual giant gravitons in AdS 7 x S 4 and AdS 4 x S 7 . Our partition function is qualitatively similar to the analogous quantity in N = 4 Yang Mills. It reduces to the sum over supersymmetric multi gravitons at low energies, but deviates from this supergravity formula at energies that scale like a positive power of N

  9. Stable Overexpression of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Reduces the Requirement for Culture with Dimethyl Sulfoxide for High Drug Metabolism in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; Rudi de Waart, D; Shevchenko, Valery; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) induces cellular differentiation and expression of drug metabolic enzymes in the human liver cell line HepaRG; however, DMSO also induces cell death and interferes with cellular activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the nuclear receptor controlling various drug metabolism genes, would sufficiently promote differentiation and drug metabolism in HepaRG cells, optionally without using DMSO. By stable lentiviral overexpression of CAR, HepaRG cultures were less affected by DMSO in total protein content and obtained increased resistance to acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cell death. Transcript levels of CAR target genes were significantly increased in HepaRG-CAR cultures without DMSO, resulting in increased activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and bilirubin conjugation to levels equal or surpassing those of HepaRG cells cultured with DMSO. Unexpectedly, CAR overexpression also increased the activities of non-CAR target P450s, as well as albumin production. In combination with DMSO treatment, CAR overexpression further increased transcript levels and activities of CAR targets. Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 remained unchanged, whereas CYP3A4 was reduced. Moreover, the metabolism of low-clearance compounds warfarin and prednisolone was increased. In conclusion, CAR overexpression creates a more physiologically relevant environment for studies on hepatic (drug) metabolism and differentiation in HepaRG cells without the utilization of DMSO. DMSO still may be applied to accomplish higher drug metabolism, required for sensitive assays, such as low-clearance studies and identification of (rare) metabolites, whereas reduced total protein content after DMSO culture is diminished by CAR overexpression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Resting-State Seed-Based Analysis: An Alternative to Task-Based Language fMRI and Its Laterality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, B; Kesavadas, C

    2017-06-01

    Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks. The laterality indices of Broca and Wernicke areas were calculated by using task-based fMRI via a voxel-value approach. We adopted seed-based resting-state fMRI connectivity analysis together with parameters such as amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF). Resting-state fMRI connectivity maps for language networks were obtained from Broca and Wernicke areas in both hemispheres. We performed correlation analysis between the laterality index and the z scores of functional connectivity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, and fALFF. Pearson correlation analysis between signals obtained from the z score of fALFF and the laterality index yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.849 ( P laterality index yielded an R 2 value of 0.721, indicating that 72.1% of the variance in the laterality index of task-based fMRI could be predicted from the fALFF of resting-state fMRI. The present study demonstrates that fALFF can be used as an alternative to task-based fMRI for assessing language laterality. There was a strong positive correlation between the fALFF of the Broca area of resting-state fMRI with the laterality index of task-based fMRI. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy of fALFF for predicting the laterality of task-based fMRI. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. The Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies Survey: Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, M.; Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Oesch, P.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; MacKenty, J. W.; Carollo, C. M.; Illingworth, G. D.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first results on the search for very bright (M AB ≈ -21) galaxies at redshift z ~ 8 from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. BoRG is a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel survey that is obtaining images on random lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes in four filters (F606W, F098M, F125W, and F160W), with integration times optimized to identify galaxies at z >~ 7.5 as F098M dropouts. We discuss here results from a search area of approximately 130 arcmin2 over 23 BoRG fields, complemented by six other pure-parallel WFC3 fields with similar filters. This new search area is more than two times wider than previous WFC3 observations at z ~ 8. We identify four F098M-dropout candidates with high statistical confidence (detected at greater than 8σ confidence in F125W). These sources are among the brightest candidates currently known at z ~ 8 and approximately 10 times brighter than the z = 8.56 galaxy UDFy-38135539. They thus represent ideal targets for spectroscopic follow-up observations and could potentially lead to a redshift record, as our color selection includes objects up to z ~ 9. However, the expected contamination rate of our sample is about 30% higher than typical searches for dropout galaxies in legacy fields, such as the GOODS and HUDF, where deeper data and additional optical filters are available to reject contaminants. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with Programs 11700, 11702.

  12. Enhanced Production and Characterization of a Solvent Stable Amylase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: Thermostable and Surfactant Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca2+ ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1% and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5% on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01 may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  13. Interaction of xenone difluoride with the fluorocomplexes of lanthanides and rubidium of the Rb3M3F6 composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachenkov, S.A.; Fadeeva, N.E.; Kiselev, Yu.M.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of preparing rubidium fluorocomplexes of tetravalent lanthanides of the Rb 3 M 4 F 7 composition from Rb 3 M 3 F 6 (M 3 =Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) with XeF 2 has been studied. By the DTA method it is shown that Ce and Pr salts are fluorinated respectively at approximately 100 and approximately 235 deg C with a noticeable exoeffect. Tb and Dy salts fluorination proceeds with considerable kinetic difficulties. The fluorination products composition, Rb 3 M 4 F 7 (M 4 =Ce, Pr, Tb, Dy) is confirmed by the methods of chemical, IR-spectroscopic and X-ray phase analyses. XeF 2 interaction with Rb 3 M 3 F 6 salts of other lanthanides up to 400 deg C has not been observed

  14. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement 2013 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER E N G IN EE RI N G L IB E o n 10 /1 4/ 13 . C op yr ig ht A SC E. F or p er so na l u se o nl y; a ll rig ht s r es er ve d. 2 composed of a measuring mechanism... a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 : S u s t a i n a b l e a n d E f f i c i e n t P a v e m e n t s © A S C E 2 0 1 3 A i r f i e l d a n d H i g h w a y P a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER...

  15. Escassez de órgãos e clonagem terapêutica: uma conexão possível?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Freire de Sá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de dois assuntos polêmicos. O primeiro é a escassez de órgãos, problema em escala global que urge por soluções. O segundo é a clonagem terapêutica, técnica com perspectivas promissoras para a medicina regenerativa. É possível estabelecer uma conexão entre esses temas? Pode a clonagem terapêutica representar uma solução para o problema da escassez de órgãos? Para responder a essas perguntas deve-se passar por barreiras jurídicas e éticas. A travessia dessas barreiras será, portanto, o caminho percorrido ao longo deste artigo.

  16. Mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas no cromossomo 6, associados às características de carcaça e de órgãos internos de suínos Mapping of quantitative trait loci for carcass traits and internal organs in swine chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Vieira Pires

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de mapear locos de características quantitativas (QTLs associados às características de carcaça e de órgão internos, uma população composta de 550 animais F2 foi produzida a partir do intercruzamento da geração F1, obtida pelo cruzamento divergente de dois machos da raça nativa brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas comerciais. Os animais foram genotipados para 13 marcadores microssatélites distribuídos no cromossomo 6. As características avaliadas foram: comprimento de carcaça pelos métodos brasileiro e americano, peso e rendimento de carcaça, espessura de toucinho na região da copa, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, espessura de toucinho entre a última e a penúltima vértebra lombar, menor espessura de toucinho na região acima da última vértebra lombar, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, a 6,5 cm da linha dorso-lombar, espessura de toucinho média (geral = estimada a partir da média de todas as espessuras de toucinho citadas anteriormente; e dorso-lombar = estimada a partir das espessuras de toucinho tomadas na linha dorso-lombar do animal, espessura de bacon, profundidade de lombo, área de olho-de-lombo, pesos de órgãos internos (coração, pulmões, fígado, baço e rim e comprimento de intestino. Utilizou-se o método de regressão por intervalo de mapeamento por meio do programa QTL Express. Foram encontrados QTLs sugestivos para as características de comprimento de carcaça pelo método brasileiro e espessura de bacon e QTL significativo para peso do rim. Nos intervalos dos picos da estatística F em que se encontraram QTLs sugestivos, devem ser incluídos mais marcadores para se confirmar a real presença de QTL.A total of the 550 F2 animals produced by divergent cross using two sires of the native Brazilian breed named Piau and 18 commercial dams were genotyped for 13 microsatellite markers in swine chromosome 6. The traits evaluated were: carcass

  17. Mätosäkerhet vid kalibrering av referensutrustning för blodtrycksmätning : En modell för framtagning av mätosäkerhet för referensmanometer WA 767

    OpenAIRE

    Patzauer, Rebecka; Wessel, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Avdelningen för Medicinsk teknik på Akademiska sjukhuset har uppdaterat befintliga kalibreringsprotokoll för Welch Allyn 767 som används som referensmanometer vid kalibrering av blodtrycksmätare. I protokollet ska det enligt ISO 9001 och ISO 13485 ingå att vid varje kalibreringspunkt ange mätosäkerheten.  Rutiner kring detta var inte definierade. En modell för att ta fram mätosäkerhet utformades utifrån standardiserade metoder från “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” och a...

  18. Associação entre nível de atividade física habitual e qualidade de vida em adulto com diabetes melito tipo2

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cacio Costa da

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: O diabetes melito é um grupo de doenças metabólicas caracterizadas por hiperglicemia e associadas a complicações em vários órgãos, especialmente olhos, rins, nervos, cérebro, coração e vasos sanguíneos. A atividade física (AF) é definida como qualquer movimento corporal realizado pelos músculos esqueléticos que resulta em gasto energético acima dos níveis de repouso. A qualidade de vida (QV) é definida como a percepção do indivíduo sobre a sua posição na vida, no co...

  19. Correlates of Level and Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to determine (a) the cognitive abilities assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, & P. R. McHugh, 1975), (b) whether the same abilities are associated with MMSE performance among people of different ages, and (c) whether the same abilities are involved in changes…

  20. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Songhie An,* Kihoon Nam,* Sunghyun Choi, Cheng Z Bai, Yan Lee, Jong-Sang ParkDepartment of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model.Methods and results: The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4. Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of >40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, 4´,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining.Conclusion: The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%–40% in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of

  1. Why does the agonist [18F]FP-TZTP bind preferentially to the M2 muscarinic receptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravasi, L.; Kiesewetter, D.O.; Shimoji, K.; Lucignani, G.; Eckelman, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Preferential binding of FP-TZTP at the M 2 receptor in vivo led to investigation of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP as a potential PET tracer for Alzheimer's disease, in which a substantial reduction of M 2 receptors has been observed in autopsy studies. We hereby investigated in vitro the FP-TZTP behavior to further elucidate the properties of FP-TZTP that lead to its M 2 selectivity. Chinese hamster ovarian cells expressing the five subtypes of human muscarinic receptor as well as the wild type were harvested in culture to assess equilibrium binding. Specific binding was calculated by subtraction of non-specific binding from total binding. Internal specific binding was calculated by subtraction of external specific binding from the total specific binding. Saturation assays were also performed to calculate B max , K i , and IC 50 . In addition, equilibrium binding and dissociation kinetic studies were performed on rat brain tissue. Selected regions of interest were drawn on the digital autoradiograms and [ 18 F]FP-TZTP off-rates were determined by measurement of the rate of release into a buffer solution of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP from slide-bound cells that had been preincubated with [ 18 F]FP-TZTP. At equilibrium in vitro, M 2 subtype selectivity of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP was not evident. We demonstrated that ATP-dependent mechanisms are not responsible for FP-TZTP M 2 selectivity. In vitro off-rate studies from rat brain tissue showed that the off-rate of FP-TZTP varied with the percentage of M 2 subtype in the tissue region. The slower dissociation kinetics of FP-TZTP from M 2 receptors compared with the four other muscarinic receptor subtypes may be a factor in its M 2 selectivity. (orig.)

  2. High-pressure on f-element materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    540Studies of the f-elements under pressure provide important insights into their solid state chemistry and physics. From such studies of the elements and their alloys, it has been established that the normally localized f-electrons of several of these elements can become involved in bonding under pressure. The electronic behavior of f-element compounds under pressure tend to be more difficult to interpret, due to the variety and the nature of electronic orbitals that are present. The 4f-elements and some 60% of the 5f-elements have been studied under pressure. The systematic comparisons that have been established for these materials are discussed. 76 refs., 3 figs

  3. Species differences in mGluR5 binding sites in mammalian central nervous system determined using in vitro binding with [{sup 18}F]F-PEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shil [Department of Research Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail: shailendra_patel@merck.com; Hamill, Terence G.; Connolly, Brett; Jagoda, Elaine; Li Wenping; Gibson, Raymond E. [Department of Research Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Binding of [{sup 18}F]3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([{sup 18}F]F-PEB) was evaluated in membranes and tissue sections prepared from rat, rhesus and human brain. Saturation equilibrium binding experiments with frozen brain cortex and caudate-putamen membranes of young adult rhesus and human and with cortex and striatum from rat yielded data indicative of specific high-affinity binding (K{sub D}=0.1-0.15 nM, n{>=}3) to a saturable site previously shown to be metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5; Patel S, Ndubizu O, Hamill T, Chaudhary A, Burns HD, Hargreaves RJ, Gibson RE. Screening cascade and development of potential positron emission tomography radiotracers for mGluR5: in vitro and in vivo characterization. Mol Imaging Biol 2005;7:314-323). High-affinity binding of [{sup 18}F]F-PEB was also detected in cerebellum membranes from rat, rhesus and human. The density of binding sites (B{sub max}) measured using [{sup 18}F]F-PEB followed the rank order cortex{approx}caudate-putamen/striatum>cerebellum for all three species, with the cerebellum B{sub max} being significantly lower than that observed in the other regions. Receptor autoradiography studies in tissue sections confirmed that the regional distribution of [{sup 18}F]F-PEB in mammalian central nervous system is consistent with that of mGluR5 and that a small but specific mGluR5 signal is observed in rhesus and human cerebellum. A small and quantifiable specific signal could also be observed in rat cerebellum using this radiotracer. Immunohistochemical analysis in brain sections revealed a rank order of staining in rhesus and human brain of cortex{approx}caudate-putamen>cerebellum. Rat brain immunohistochemistry followed the same rank order, although the staining in the cerebellum was significantly lower. Using a 'no-wash' wipe assay, the development of a specific signal within 20 min of incubation of tissue brain sections (>60% in the cortex and striatum; 36-49% in the cerebellum

  4. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  5. X-ray spectral study of the Th6p,5f electron states in ThO2 and ThF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Y.A.; Nikitin, A.S.; Teterin, A.Y.; Ivanov, K.E.; Utkin, I.O.; Nerehov, V.A.; Ryzhkov, M.V.; Vukchevich, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The study of the Th6p,5f electron states in Th, ThO 2 and ThF was carried out on the basis of the X-ray photoelectron fine spectral structure parameters in the binding energy range of 0-∼ 1000 eV, X-ray O 4,5 (Th) emission spectra of the shallow (0-∼50 eV) electrons and results of theoretical calculations. As a result, despite the absence of the Th5f electrons in thorium atoms, the Th5f atomic orbitals were established to participate in the formation of molecular orbitals in thorium dioxide and tetrafluoride. In the MO LCAO approximation this allowed to suggest the possible existence of filled Th5f electronic states in thorium compounds. On the basis of the X-ray O 4,5 (Th) emission spectral structure parameters the effective formation of the inner valence molecular orbitals in the studied compounds was confirmed. (authors)

  6. Translation initiation complex eIF4F is a therapeutic target for dual mTOR kinase inhibitors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Mary J.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Wellik, Linda E.; Link, Brian; Hege, Kristen; Dogan, Ahmet; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Witzig, Thomas; Gupta, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4EWT) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4Ecap mutant) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site dual mTOR inhibitor CC214-1 reduced the level of the eIF4F complex by decreasing the cap bound fraction of eIF4G and increasing the levels of 4E-BP1. CC214-1 inhibited both the cap dependent and global protein translation. CC214-1 inhibited c-Myc, and cyclin D3 translation by decreasing polysomal fractions from lymphoma cells. Inhibition of eIF4E with shRNA further decreased the CC214-1 induced inhibition of the eIF4F complex, c-Myc, cyclin D3 translation, and colony formation. These studies demonstrate that the eIF4F complex is deregulated in aggressive lymphoma and that dual mTOR therapy has therapeutic potential in these patients. PMID:25839159

  7. Advanced cell-based modeling of the royal disease: characterization of the mutated F9 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, L; Luce, E; Vazquez, J L; Richaud-Patin, Y; Jimenez-Delgado, S; Corrales, I; Borras, N; Casacuberta-Serra, S; Weber, A; Parra, R; Altisent, C; Follenzi, A; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A; Raya, A; Vidal, F; Barquinero, J

    2017-11-01

    Essentials The Royal disease (RD) is a form of hemophilia B predicted to be caused by a splicing mutation. We generated an iPSC-based model of the disease allowing mechanistic studies at the RNA level. F9 mRNA analysis in iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells showed the predicted abnormal splicing. Mutated F9 mRNA level was very low but we also found traces of wild type transcripts. Background The royal disease is a form of hemophilia B (HB) that affected many descendants of Queen Victoria in the 19th and 20th centuries. It was found to be caused by the mutation F9 c.278-3A>G. Objective To generate a physiological cell model of the disease and to study F9 expression at the RNA level. Methods Using fibroblasts from skin biopsies of a previously identified hemophilic patient bearing the F9 c.278-3A>G mutation and his mother, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both the patient's and mother's iPSCs were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and their F9 mRNA was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results and Conclusion We demonstrated the previously predicted aberrant splicing of the F9 transcript as a result of an intronic nucleotide substitution leading to a frameshift and the generation of a premature termination codon (PTC). The F9 mRNA level in the patient's HLCs was significantly reduced compared with that of his mother, suggesting that mutated transcripts undergo nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), a cellular mechanism that degrades PTC-containing mRNAs. We also detected small proportions of correctly spliced transcripts in the patient's HLCs, which, combined with genetic variability in splicing and NMD machineries, could partially explain some clinical variability among affected members of the European royal families who had lifespans above the average. This work allowed the demonstration of the pathologic consequences of an intronic mutation in the F9 gene and represents the first bona fide cellular model of HB allowing the

  8. Decoding Complex Cognitive States Online by Manifold Regularization in Real-Time fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2011-01-01

    Human decision making is complex and influenced by many factors on multiple time scales, reflected in the numerous brain networks and connectivity patterns involved as revealed by fMRI. We address mislabeling issues in paradigms involving complex cognition, by considering a manifold regularizing...

  9. Cosmic strings in f(R,L{sub m}) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-02-01

    We consider Kasner-type static, cylindrically symmetric interior string solutions in the f(R,L{sub m}) theory of modified gravity. The physical properties of the string are described by an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor satisfying the condition T{sub t}{sup t} = T{sub z}{sup z}; that is, the energy density of the string along the z-axis is equal to minus the string tension. As a first step in our study we obtain the gravitational field equations in the f(R,L{sub m}) theory for a general static, cylindrically symmetric metric, and then for a Kasner-type metric, in which the metric tensor components have a power law dependence on the radial coordinate r. String solutions in two particular modified gravity models are investigated in detail. The first is the so-called ''exponential'' modified gravity, in which the gravitational action is proportional to the exponential of the sum of the Ricci scalar and matter Lagrangian, and the second is the ''self-consistent model'', obtained by explicitly determining the gravitational action from the field equations under the assumption of a power law dependent matter Lagrangian. In each case, the thermodynamic parameters of the string, as well as the precise form of the matter Lagrangian, are explicitly obtained. (orig.)

  10. Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Erritzoe, David; Williams, Tim; Stone, James M; Reed, Laurence J; Colasanti, Alessandro; Tyacke, Robin J; Leech, Robert; Malizia, Andrea L; Murphy, Kevin; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Feilding, Amanda; Wise, Richard G; Nutt, David J

    2012-02-07

    Psychedelic drugs have a long history of use in healing ceremonies, but despite renewed interest in their therapeutic potential, we continue to know very little about how they work in the brain. Here we used psilocybin, a classic psychedelic found in magic mushrooms, and a task-free functional MRI (fMRI) protocol designed to capture the transition from normal waking consciousness to the psychedelic state. Arterial spin labeling perfusion and blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI were used to map cerebral blood flow and changes in venous oxygenation before and after intravenous infusions of placebo and psilocybin. Fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned with arterial spin labeling and a separate 15 with BOLD. As predicted, profound changes in consciousness were observed after psilocybin, but surprisingly, only decreases in cerebral blood flow and BOLD signal were seen, and these were maximal in hub regions, such as the thalamus and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (ACC and PCC). Decreased activity in the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was a consistent finding and the magnitude of this decrease predicted the intensity of the subjective effects. Based on these results, a seed-based pharmaco-physiological interaction/functional connectivity analysis was performed using a medial prefrontal seed. Psilocybin caused a significant decrease in the positive coupling between the mPFC and PCC. These results strongly imply that the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs are caused by decreased activity and connectivity in the brain's key connector hubs, enabling a state of unconstrained cognition.

  11. Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Erritzoe, David; Williams, Tim; Stone, James M.; Reed, Laurence J.; Colasanti, Alessandro; Tyacke, Robin J.; Leech, Robert; Malizia, Andrea L.; Murphy, Kevin; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Feilding, Amanda; Wise, Richard G.; Nutt, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychedelic drugs have a long history of use in healing ceremonies, but despite renewed interest in their therapeutic potential, we continue to know very little about how they work in the brain. Here we used psilocybin, a classic psychedelic found in magic mushrooms, and a task-free functional MRI (fMRI) protocol designed to capture the transition from normal waking consciousness to the psychedelic state. Arterial spin labeling perfusion and blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI were used to map cerebral blood flow and changes in venous oxygenation before and after intravenous infusions of placebo and psilocybin. Fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned with arterial spin labeling and a separate 15 with BOLD. As predicted, profound changes in consciousness were observed after psilocybin, but surprisingly, only decreases in cerebral blood flow and BOLD signal were seen, and these were maximal in hub regions, such as the thalamus and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (ACC and PCC). Decreased activity in the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was a consistent finding and the magnitude of this decrease predicted the intensity of the subjective effects. Based on these results, a seed-based pharmaco-physiological interaction/functional connectivity analysis was performed using a medial prefrontal seed. Psilocybin caused a significant decrease in the positive coupling between the mPFC and PCC. These results strongly imply that the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs are caused by decreased activity and connectivity in the brain's key connector hubs, enabling a state of unconstrained cognition. PMID:22308440

  12. Protective effects of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 combination treatment on rats following cerebral ischemia are mediated via microglial microRNA‑155‑5p inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Dan; Hou, Jincai; Lei, Hongtao

    2018-02-01

    Geniposide, an active component of Gardenia, has been reported to protect against cerebral ischemia in animals. Ginsenoside Rg1, a component of Panax notoginseng, is usually administered in combination with Gardenia for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke; however, there are unknown effects of ginsenoside Rg1 that require further investigation. In the present study, the effects of geniposide and ginsensoide Rg1 combination treatment on focal cerebral ischemic stroke were investigated. For in vivo analysis, male rats were separated into three groups, including the (control), model and geniposide + ginsenoside Rg1 groups (n=8 per group). A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established as the model group. The treatment group was treated with geniposide (30 mg/kg, tail vein injection) + ginsenoside Rg1 (6 mg/kg, tail vein injection), and the model group received saline instead. Neurobehavioral deficits, infarct volume, brain edema, and the expression of microRNA (miR)‑155‑5p and CD11b by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, were assessed following 24 h of ischemia. For in vitro analysis, BV2 mouse microglial cells were cultured and exposed to geniposide (40 µg/ml) + ginsenoside Rg1 (8 µg/ml) during various durations of oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression levels of miR‑155‑5p, pri‑miR‑155 and pre‑miR‑155 were detected by RT‑qPCR. The results demonstrated that increases in brain infarct volume, edema volume, CD11b‑positive cells and miR‑155‑5p levels were alleviated following geniposide + ginsenoside administration in rats exposed to ischemia. Furthermore, geniposide + ginsenoside Rg1 treatment suppressed the miR‑155‑5p, pri‑miR‑155 and pre‑miR‑155 expression levels in OGD‑injured BV2 microglial cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that tail vein administration of geniposide in combination with ginsenoside Rg1

  13. Three fatalities associated with the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB, 5F-PB-22, and AB-CHMINACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, V; Jacobi, S; Franz, F; Auwärter, V; Pietsch, J

    2017-12-01

    The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use. Femoral blood concentrations of the synthetic cannabinoids were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The concentration of 5F-PB-22 in the first case was 0.37ng/mL, the concentration of AB-CHMINACA in the second case was approximately 4.1ng/mL (extrapolated) and the 5F-ADB concentration in the third case was 0.38ng/mL. Compared to other published cases the concentrations in the here presented cases seem to be in the lower range. However, taking into account the scene of death, the results of the forensic autopsy and the full toxicological analysis, the deaths can be explained as a direct consequence of consumption of synthetic cannabinoids, although in case one and two relevant amounts of ethanol were found, and in case three trimipramine and olanzapine were present in non-toxic concentrations. It has to be noted that concentrations of synthetic cannabinoids in femoral blood cannot directly be judged as toxic or lethal due to the possibility of postmortem redistribution and the development of tolerance after frequent use. Therefore, all available information has to be considered carefully before stating SC use as the cause of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorine-ion conductivity of different technological forms of solid electrolytes R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} (LaF{sub 3} Type ) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R Are Rare Earth Elements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, N. I., E-mail: nsorokin1@yandex.ru; Sobolev, B. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We have investigated the conductivity of some representatives of different technological forms of fluoride-conducting solid electrolytes R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R are rare earth elements) with an LaF{sub 3} structure: single crystals, cold- and hot-pressing ceramics based on a charge prepared in different ways (mechanochemical synthesis, solid-phase synthesis, and fragmentation of single crystals), polycrystalline alloys, etc. It is shown (by impedance spectroscopy), that different technological forms of identical chemical composition (R, M, y) exhibit different electrical characteristics. The maximum conductivity is observed for the single-crystal form of R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} tysonite phases, which provides (in contrast to other technological forms) the formation of true volume ion-conducting characteristics.

  15. Chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations, the Tutte upper bound and chromatic zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Tutte proved that if G pt is a planar triangulation and P(G pt , q) is its chromatic polynomial, then |P(G pt , τ + 1)| ⩽ (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5 )/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt . Here we study the ratio r(G pt ) = |P(G pt , τ + 1)|/(τ − 1) n−5 for a variety of planar triangulations. We construct infinite recursive families of planar triangulations G pt,m depending on a parameter m linearly related to n and show that if P(G pt,m , q) only involves a single power of a polynomial, then r(G pt,m ) approaches zero exponentially fast as n → ∞. We also construct infinite recursive families for which P(G pt,m , q) is a sum of powers of certain functions and show that for these, r(G pt,m ) may approach a finite nonzero constant as n → ∞. The connection between the Tutte upper bound and the observed chromatic zero(s) near to τ + 1 is investigated. We report the first known graph for which the zero(s) closest to τ + 1 is not real, but instead is a complex-conjugate pair. Finally, we discuss connections with the nonzero ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet on these families of graphs. (paper)

  16. Krav om målretning fører til tab af motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    stigende omfang også mistrives på deres studier. Ny forskning viser, at det politiske fokus på at få studerende til at målrette og planlægge deres uddannelsesforløb er med til at mindske de studerendes motivation for at uddanne sig. Samtidig gør kravet om målretning det svært for de studerende at gøre...

  17. İlköğretim Okulu Öğretmenlerinin Mesleki Tükenmişlik Düzeyleri İle Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları Arasındaki İlişki

    OpenAIRE

    SEZGİN, Ferudun; KILINÇ, Ali Çağatay

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, ilköğretim okulu öğretmenlerinin tükenmişlik düzeyleri ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları arasındaki ilişkileri incelemektir. Araştırmaya Kocaeli ili merkezinde yer alan 14 ilköğretim okulunda görevli 269 öğretmen katılmıştır. Öğretmenlerin tükenmişlik düzeylerinin belirlenmesi için “Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri” ve örgütsel vatandaşlık düzeylerinin belirlenmesi için “Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Pearson momentler çarpımı korelasyo...

  18. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum Sw. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L.M. Albiero

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo morfoanatômico dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum, visando a estabelecer características marcantes para a sua identificação e auxiliar estudos taxonômicos e farmacobotânicos. O material vegetal fresco e fixado foi estudado segundo as técnicas usuais de corte e coloração, incluindo análise em MEV. Piper hispidum é um arbusto com caule cilíndrico, nodoso, verde claro, com folhas alternas, ovadas, de cor verde-escura na face adaxial e verde claro na abaxial. Dentre as características anatômicas importantes para sua identificação destacam-se: parênquima cortical da raiz apresentando grupos de esclereídes. Córtex caulinar com faixas descontínuas de colênquima do tipo angular e tecido vascular organizado em dois círculos descontínuos de feixes colaterais. A folha é dorsiventral, hipoestomática, com estômatos tetracíticos. Hipoderme adaxial descontínua e abaxial frouxa com número variável de camadas; tricomas tectores e glandulares ocorrem nas duas faces. Epiderme uniestratificada e idioblastos oleíferos ocorrem em todos os órgãos.

  19. 2.4 μm diode-pumped Dy2+:CaF2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Papashvili, Alexander G.; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Batygov, Sergei H.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a cryogenic cooled, longitudinal diode-pumped Dy2+ :CaF2 laser was investigated for the first time. The temperature dependence of the spectroscopy and the laser properties of Dy2+ :CaF2 are presented. The tested Dy2+ :CaF2 crystal was a longitudinal pump in a near-IR region (926 nm) by laser diode radiation. The maximal mean output power and slope efficiency at 78 K during the pulse regime of the laser were 57.5 mW and 7%, respectively. Furthermore, the CW regime was successfully tested and a maximum output power of 0.37 W was obtained for the absorbed pumping power 5.7 W. The emission laser wavelength was 2367 nm.

  20. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  1. Potential pitfalls when denoising resting state fMRI data using nuisance regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Tench, Christopher R; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    In resting state fMRI, it is necessary to remove signal variance associated with noise sources, leaving cleaned fMRI time-series that more accurately reflect the underlying intrinsic brain fluctuations of interest. This is commonly achieved through nuisance regression, in which the fit is calculated of a noise model of head motion and physiological processes to the fMRI data in a General Linear Model, and the "cleaned" residuals of this fit are used in further analysis. We examine the statistical assumptions and requirements of the General Linear Model, and whether these are met during nuisance regression of resting state fMRI data. Using toy examples and real data we show how pre-whitening, temporal filtering and temporal shifting of regressors impact model fit. Based on our own observations, existing literature, and statistical theory, we make the following recommendations when employing nuisance regression: pre-whitening should be applied to achieve valid statistical inference of the noise model fit parameters; temporal filtering should be incorporated into the noise model to best account for changes in degrees of freedom; temporal shifting of regressors, although merited, should be achieved via optimisation and validation of a single temporal shift. We encourage all readers to make simple, practical changes to their fMRI denoising pipeline, and to regularly assess the appropriateness of the noise model used. By negotiating the potential pitfalls described in this paper, and by clearly reporting the details of nuisance regression in future manuscripts, we hope that the field will achieve more accurate and precise noise models for cleaning the resting state fMRI time-series. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of divalent impurities on some physical properties of LiF and NaF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laj, C.

    1969-05-01

    The ionic thermo-currents technique is applied to the study of impurity vacancy dipoles in LiF and NaF doped with several divalent cations. In LiF only one ITC band is observed whatever the impurity studied. In NaF on the contrary two ITC bands are present, one corresponding to the one observed in LiF, the other one, intense in the case of small impurities, at lower temperature. A parallel EPR study in the case of Mn 2+ doped samples shows that the band observed in LiF and the corresponding one in NaF are due to the relaxation of dipoles formed by the association of an impurity and a vacancy in the next nearest position. The knowledge of the properties of the dipoles allows to show that the room temperature ionic conductivity of LiF is conditioned by the equilibrium: M ++ □+ → M ++ + □+. It is also shown that the isolated cation vacancy originating from this dissociation is responsible for the enhancement of γ-ray coloration of LiF doped with divalent cation impurities. A paramagnetic center ascribed to the presence of Mn 0 isolated in the lattice is also studied. The value of the hyperfine interaction and its temperature dependence are in good agreement with both the theory and the other experimental results. Finally it is shown that the disappearance of dipoles by annealing is related to the formation of complexes involving OH - ions, probably of the M(OH) 2 type, with the two OH - ions occupying a single fluorine site. (author) [fr

  3. Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. The conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 generated Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and compound K although the reaction rates were low due to the low concentration. In enzymatic conversion, all of the ginsenoside Rb1 was converted to ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 after 24 h of incubation. The crude enzyme (β-glucosidase from A. niger KCCM 11239 hydrolyzed the β-(1→6-glucosidic linkage at the C-20 of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3. Our experimental demonstration showing that A. niger KCCM 11239 produces the ginsenoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase reflects the feasibility of developing a specific bioconversion process to obtain active minor ginsenosides.

  4. The novel superacid systems HSO3F-Nb(SO3F)5 and HSO3F-Ta(SO3F)5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicha, W.V.; Aubke, F.

    1989-01-01

    The in situ oxidation of niobium and tantalum in HSO 3 F by bis(fluorosulfuryl) peroxide, S 2 O 6 F 2 , results in the formation of solvated Lewis acids M(SO 3 F) 5 , M = Nb or Ta. Both solutes behave as moderately strong, monoprotonic acids, based on electrical conductivity measurements over the concentration range 0-0.05 m and on conductometric titrations against KSO 3 F. These measurements suggest a general order of acidity, Au(SO 3 F) 3 > Ta(SO 3 F) 5 ≥ SbF 5 > Nb(SO 3 F) 5 > NbF 5 , all giving rise to monoprotonic acids. Supporting evidence comes from 1 H, 19 F, and 93 Nb NMR spectroscopy and the successful isolation and characterization of complexes of the type Cs n [M(SO 3 F) 5+n ], with M = Nb or Ta and n = 1 or 2, from these solutions

  5. Os conflitos do consentimento acerca da doação de órgãos post mortem no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYNARD, Lorena Oliveira Dantas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o refinamento das técnicas de cirurgias e imunogenética pela medicina nas últimas décadas e com os avanços na farmacoterapia, o transplante de órgãos e tecidos tornou-se uma possibilidade real e uma alternativa essencial ao prolongamento e à qualidade da vida humana. Este estudo objetivou analisar o consentimento para remoção de órgãos e tecidos post mortem na legislação brasileira, na perspectiva da autorização da família. Adotou-se, para tanto, estratégia metodológica qualitativa através de revisão de literatura e revisão legislativa, que permitem um aprofundamento no universo dos significados, dos motivos, das aspirações, das crenças, dos valores e das atitudes em relação ao tema. Os resultados apontam que, na atual Lei de Transplantes, os direitos da personalidade e o princípio da autonomia da vontade são institutos pouco homenageados em função da predominância do monopólio da decisão familiar na hipótese de um confronto entre a vontade do doador e a vontade da família. Frente ao problema da escassez de órgãos no país, a solução mais consentânea com a justiça seria uma adequação entre os dispositivos de lei do Código Civil e a Lei de Transplantes. Oportuno partir do texto já existente do artigo 4º da Lei n. 9.434/1997, para incluir a manifestação da vontade do doador em vida, devidamente documentada. É igualmente importante a informação e a conscientização popular sobre a natureza humanitária da doação de órgãos como medidas direcionadas à discussão do princípio da solidariedade para uma política de doação de órgãos.

  6. Functional connectivity of motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury after contralateral cervical nerve transfer: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Aihong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Liang, Wei; Bai, Rongjie [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Xicheng Qu, Beijing (China); Wang, Shufeng; Xue, Yunhao; Li, Wenjun [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls. The hand motor seed regions were defined as region of interests in the bilateral hemispheres. The seed-based functional connectivity was calculated in all the subjects. Differences in functional connectivity of the motor cortical network between patients and healthy controls were compared. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the M1 areas was increased in patients with BPAI compared with the controls. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the supplementary motor areas was reduced bilaterally. The resting-state inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the bilateral M1 areas is altered in patients after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, suggesting a functional reorganization of cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  7. Functional connectivity of motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury after contralateral cervical nerve transfer: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Aihong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Liang, Wei; Bai, Rongjie; Wang, Shufeng; Xue, Yunhao; Li, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls. The hand motor seed regions were defined as region of interests in the bilateral hemispheres. The seed-based functional connectivity was calculated in all the subjects. Differences in functional connectivity of the motor cortical network between patients and healthy controls were compared. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the M1 areas was increased in patients with BPAI compared with the controls. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the supplementary motor areas was reduced bilaterally. The resting-state inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the bilateral M1 areas is altered in patients after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, suggesting a functional reorganization of cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  8. Correlated Disruption of Resting-State fMRI, LFP, and Spike Connectivity between Area 3b and S2 following Spinal Cord Injury in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Chen, Li Min

    2017-11-15

    This study aims to understand how functional connectivity (FC) between areas 3b and S2 alters following input deprivation and the neuronal basis of disrupted FC of resting-state fMRI signals. We combined submillimeter fMRI with microelectrode recordings to localize the deafferented digit regions in areas 3b and S2 by mapping tactile stimulus-evoked fMRI activations before and after cervical dorsal column lesion in each male monkey. An average afferent disruption of 97% significantly reduced fMRI, local field potential (LFP), and spike responses to stimuli in both areas. Analysis of resting-state fMRI signal correlation, LFP coherence, and spike cross-correlation revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between deafferented areas 3b and S2. The degrees of reductions in stimulus responsiveness and FC after deafferentation differed across fMRI, LFP, and spiking signals. The reduction of FC was much weaker than that of stimulus-evoked responses. Whereas the largest stimulus-evoked signal drop (∼80%) was observed in LFP signals, the greatest FC reduction was detected in the spiking activity (∼30%). fMRI signals showed mild reductions in stimulus responsiveness (∼25%) and FC (∼20%). The overall deafferentation-induced changes were quite similar in areas 3b and S2 across signals. Here we demonstrated that FC strength between areas 3b and S2 was much weakened by dorsal column lesion, and stimulus response reduction and FC disruption in fMRI covary with those of LFP and spiking signals in deafferented areas 3b and S2. These findings have important implications for fMRI studies aiming to probe FC alterations in pathological conditions involving deafferentation in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By directly comparing fMRI, local field potential, and spike signals in both tactile stimulation and resting states before and after severe disruption of dorsal column afferent, we demonstrated that reduction in fMRI responses to stimuli is accompanied by weakened

  9. Association of decision-making in spinal surgery with specialty and emotional involvement-the Indications in Spinal Surgery (INDIANA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Morandell, Carmen; Albers, Lucia; Behr, Michael; Preuss, Alexander; Dinkel, Andreas; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-03-01

    Although recent trials provided level I evidence for the most common degenerative lumbar spinal disorders, treatment still varies widely. Thus, the Indications in Spinal Surgery (INDIANA) survey explores whether decision-making is influenced by specialty or personal emotional involvement of the treating specialist. Nationwide, neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons specialized in spine surgery were asked to answer an Internet-based questionnaire with typical clinical patient cases of lumbar disc herniation (DH), lumbar spinal stenosis (SS), and lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (SL). The surgeons were assigned to counsel a patient or a close relative, thus creating emotional involvement. This was achieved by randomly allocating the surgeons to a patient group (PG) and relative group (RG). We then compared neurosurgeons to orthopedic surgeons and the PG to the RG regarding treatment decision-making. One hundred twenty-two spine surgeons completed the questionnaire (response rate 78.7%). Regarding DH and SS, more conservative treatment among orthopedic surgeons was shown (DH: odds ratio [OR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-9.7, p = 0.001; SS: OR 3.9, CI 1.8-8.2, p emotional involvement (PG vs. RG) did not affect these results for any of the three cases (DH: p = 0.213; SS: p = 0.097; SL: p = 0.924). The high response rate indicates how important the issues raised by this study actually are for dedicated spine surgeons. Moreover, there are considerable variations in decision-making for the most common degenerative lumbar spinal disorders, although there is high-quality data from large multicenter trials available. Emotional involvement, though, did not influence treatment recommendations.

  10. Modafinil alters intrinsic functional connectivity of the right posterior insula: a pharmacological resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available Modafinil is employed for the treatment of narcolepsy and has also been, off-label, used to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In a previous study, we have reported that single dose administration of modafinil in healthy young subjects enhances fluid reasoning and affects resting state activity in the Fronto Parietal Control (FPC and Dorsal Attention (DAN networks. No changes were found in the Salience Network (SN, a surprising result as the network is involved in the modulation of emotional and fluid reasoning. The insula is crucial hub of the SN and functionally divided in anterior and posterior subregions.Using a seed-based approach, we have now analyzed effects of modafinil on the functional connectivity (FC of insular subregions.Analysis of FC with resting state fMRI (rs-FMRI revealed increased FC between the right posterior insula and the putamen, the superior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the modafinil-treated group.Modafinil is considered a putative cognitive enhancer. The rs-fMRI modifications that we have found are consistent with the drug cognitive enhancing properties and indicate subregional targets of action.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306.

  11. Pedigrees or markers: Which are better in estimating relatedness and inbreeding coefficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) and pairwise relatedness (r) are fundamental parameters in population genetics and have important applications in diverse fields such as human medicine, forensics, plant and animal breeding, conservation and evolutionary biology. Traditionally, both parameters are calculated from pedigrees, but are now increasingly estimated from genetic marker data. Conceptually, a pedigree gives the expected F and r values, FP and rP, with the expectations being taken (hypothetically) over an infinite number of individuals with the same pedigree. In contrast, markers give the realised (actual) F and r values at the particular marker loci of the particular individuals, FM and rM. Both pedigree (FP, rP) and marker (FM, rM) estimates can be used as inferences of genomic inbreeding coefficients FG and genomic relatedness rG, which are the underlying quantities relevant to most applications (such as estimating inbreeding depression and heritability) of F and r. In the pre-genomic era, it was widely accepted that pedigrees are much better than markers in delineating FG and rG, and markers should better be used to validate, amend and construct pedigrees rather than to replace them. Is this still true in the genomic era when genome-wide dense SNPs are available? In this simulation study, I showed that genomic markers can yield much better estimates of FG and rG than pedigrees when they are numerous (say, 10(4) SNPs) under realistic situations (e.g. genome and population sizes). Pedigree estimates are especially poor for species with a small genome, where FG and rG are determined to a large extent by Mendelian segregations and may thus deviate substantially from their expectations (FP and rP). Simulations also confirmed that FM, when estimated from many SNPs, can be much more powerful than FP for detecting inbreeding depression in viability. However, I argue that pedigrees cannot be replaced completely by genomic SNPs, because the former allows for

  12. Remarks on the Landau-Ginzburg potential and RG-flow for SU(2)-coset models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzban, C.

    1989-09-01

    The existence of a Landau-Ginzburg (LG)-field for the SU(2)-coset models is motivated and conjectured. The general form of the LG potential for the A-series is found, and the RG-flow pattern suggested by this is shown to agree with that found by other authors, thereby further supporting the conjecture. (author). 17 refs

  13. Admixtures of shell and cluster states in 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Toshimi; Nemoto, Fumiki; Nagata, Sinobu.

    1976-01-01

    The properties of the low-lying T=0 positive-parity levels in 18 F are shown to be well understood by considering admixtures of 2p shell-model states and ''4p-2h'' states with alpha-cluster structures. In order to represent the ''4p-2h'' states, α- 14 N cluster model is introduced. By this model, weak coupling features and coupling between shell and cluster states are well described. The binding energies of the ground 1 + and the lowest 3 + levels are reproduced by the couplings with the ''4p-2h'' cluster states. On the other hand, weak coupling features of ''4p-2h'' cluster states are disturbed to some extent. As a result, the energy spectrum, E2-transition rates and reduced α-widths of all T=0 positive-parity levels below 7 MeV excitation energy are systematically reproduced. (auth.)

  14. 75 FR 8741 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the control of Stephen F... of Oklahoma, which was under contract with Stephen F. Austin State University. In 1957, 15 cultural...

  15. The OsO(3)F(+) and mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)(+) cations: their syntheses and study by Raman and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and electron structure calculations and X-ray crystal structures of [OsO(3)F][PnF(6)] (Pn = As, Sb), [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)], and [OsO(3)F][Sb(3)F(16)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Michael; Dixon, David A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2002-01-28

    The fluoride ion donor properties of OsO(3)F(2) have been investigated. The salts [OsO(3)F][AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)], mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)[AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[SbF(6)], and [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)] have been prepared by reaction of OsO(3)F(2) with AsF(5) and SbF(5) in HF solvent and have been characterized in the solid state by Raman spectroscopy. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of [OsO(3)F][AsF(6)] (P2(1)/n, a = 7.0001(11) A, c = 8.8629(13) A, beta = 92.270(7) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0401 at -126 degrees C), [OsO(3)F][SbF(6)] (P2(1)/c, a = 5.4772(14) A, b = 10.115(3) A, c = 12.234(3) A, beta = 99.321(5) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0325 at -173 degrees C), [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)] (P2(1)/n, a = 5.1491(9) A, b = 8.129(2) A, c = 19.636(7) A, beta = 95.099(7) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0348 at -117 degrees C), and [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)] (Pc, a = 5.244(4) A, b = 9.646(6) A, c = 15.269(10) A, beta = 97.154(13) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0558 at -133 degrees C) have shown that the OsO(3)F(+) cations exhibit strong contacts to the anions and HF solvent molecules giving rise to cyclic, dimeric structures in which the osmium atoms have coordination numbers of 6. The reaction of OsO(3)F(2) with neat SbF(5) yielded [OsO(3)F][Sb(3)F(16)], which has been characterized by (19)F NMR spectroscopy in SbF(5) and SO(2)ClF solvents and by Raman spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state (P4(1)m, a = 10.076(6) A, c = 7.585(8) A, Z = 2, and R(1) = 0.0858 at -113 degrees C). The weak fluoride ion basicity of the Sb(3)F(16)(-) anion resulted in an OsO(3)F(+) cation (C(3)(v) point symmetry) that is well isolated from the anion and in which the osmium is four-coordinate. The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies of OsO(3)F(+), ReO(3)F, mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)(+), (FO(3)Os--FPnF(5))(2), and (FO(3)Os--(HF)(2)--FPnF(5))(2) (Pn = As, Sb) have been calculated using density functional theory methods.

  16. In vitro and in vivo comparison of binding of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Gunma Univ. School of Medicine; Oriuchi, N.; Inoue, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Kuroki, M.; Matsuoka, Y.; Tanada, S.; Murata, H.; Sasaki, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for radioimmunodetection (RAID) of murine anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (MAb) F33-104 labeled with technetium-99m (99m-Tc) by a reduction-mediated labeling method. Methods: The binding capacity of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA by means of in vitro procedures such as immunoradiometric assay and cell binding assay and the biodistribution of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 in normal nude mice and nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma LS180 tumor were investigated and compared with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26. Results: The in vitro binding rate of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA in solution and attached to the cell membrane was significantly higher than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/261 (31.4 ± 0.95% vs. 11.9 ± 0.55% at 100 ng/mL of soluble CEA, 83.5 ± 2.84% vs. 54.0 ± 2.54% at 10 7 of LS 180 cells). In vivo, accumulation of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 was higher at 18 h postinjection than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26 (20.1 ± 3.50% ID/g vs. 14.4 ± 3.30% ID/g). 99m-Tc-activity in the kidneys of nude mice bearing tumor was higher at 18 h postinjection than at 3 h (12.8 ± 2.10% ID/g vs. 8.01 ± 2.40% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104, 10.7 ± 1.70% ID/g vs. 8.10 ± 1.75% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26). Conclusion: 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 is a potential novel agent for RAID of recurrent colorectal cancer. (orig.) [de

  17. Biocompatible coated magnetosome minerals with various organization and cellular interaction properties induce cytotoxicity towards RG-2 and GL-261 glioma cells in the presence of an alternating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdous, Yasmina; Chebbi, Imène; Mandawala, Chalani; Le Fèvre, Raphael; Guyot, François; Seksek, Olivier; Alphandéry, Edouard

    2017-10-17

    Biologics magnetics nanoparticles, magnetosomes, attract attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize novel magnetosomes, which were extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, purified to produce apyrogen magnetosome minerals, and then coated with Chitosan, Neridronate, or Polyethyleneimine. It yielded stable magnetosomes designated as M-Chi, M-Neri, and M-PEI, respectively. Nanoparticle biocompatibility was evaluated on mouse fibroblast cells (3T3), mouse glioblastoma cells (GL-261) and rat glioblastoma cells (RG-2). We also tested these nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia treatment of tumor in vitro on two tumor cell lines GL-261 and RG-2 under the application of an alternating magnetic field. Heating, efficacy and internalization properties were then evaluated. Nanoparticles coated with chitosan, polyethyleneimine and neridronate are apyrogen, biocompatible and stable in aqueous suspension. The presence of a thin coating in M-Chi and M-PEI favors an arrangement in chains of the magnetosomes, similar to that observed in magnetosomes directly extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, while the thick matrix embedding M-Neri leads to structures with an average thickness of 3.5 µm 2 per magnetosome mineral. In the presence of GL-261 cells and upon the application of an alternating magnetic field, M-PEI and M-Chi lead to the highest specific absorption rates of 120-125 W/g Fe . Furthermore, while M-Chi lead to rather low rates of cellular internalization, M-PEI strongly associate to cells, a property modulated by the application of an alternating magnetic field. Coating of purified magnetosome minerals can therefore be chosen to control the interactions of nanoparticles with cells, organization of the minerals, as well as heating and cytotoxicity properties, which are important parameters to be considered in the design of a magnetic hyperthermia treatment of tumor.

  18. Role of mitochondrial calcium uptake homeostasis in resting state fMRI brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake influences both brain energy metabolism and neural signaling. Given that brain mitochondrial organelles are distributed in relation to vascular density, which varies considerably across brain regions, we hypothesized different physiological impacts of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake across brain regions. We tested the hypothesis by monitoring brain "intrinsic activity" derived from the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different functional networks spanning the somatosensory cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus and thalamus, in normal and perturbed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake states. In anesthetized rats at 11.7 T, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited or enhanced respectively by treatments with Ru360 or kaempferol. Surprisingly, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition by Ru360 and enhancement by kaempferol led to similar dose-dependent decreases in brain-wide intrinsic activities in both the frequency domain (spectral amplitude) and temporal domain (resting state functional connectivity; RSFC). The fact that there were similar dose-dependent decreases in the frequency and temporal domains of the resting state fMRI-BOLD fluctuations during mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition or enhancement indicated that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and its homeostasis may strongly influence the brain's functional organization at rest. Interestingly, the resting state fMRI-derived intrinsic activities in the caudate putamen and thalamic regions saturated much faster with increasing dosage of either drug treatment than the drug-induced trends observed in cortical and hippocampal regions. Regional differences in how the spectral amplitude and RSFC changed with treatment indicate distinct mitochondrion-mediated spontaneous neuronal activity coupling within the various RSFC networks determined by resting state fMRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Reduced topological efficiency in cortical-basal Ganglia motor network of Parkinson's disease: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Luqing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Long, Zhiliang; Wu, Guo-Rong; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by dopamine depletion of the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) motor circuit. Given that dopamine dysfunction could affect functional brain network efficiency, the present study utilized resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theoretical approach to investigate the topological efficiency changes of the CBG motor network in patients with PD during a relatively hypodopaminergic state (12 hours after a last dose of dopamimetic treatment). We found that PD compared with controls had remarkable decreased efficiency in the CBG motor network, with the most pronounced changes observed in rostral supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), caudal SMA (SMA-proper), primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), thalamus (THA), globus pallidus (GP), and putamen (PUT). Furthermore, reduced efficiency in pre-SMA, M1, THA and GP was significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores in PD patients. Together, our results demonstrate that individuals with PD appear to be less effective at information transfer within the CBG motor pathway, which provides a novel perspective on neurobiological explanation for the motor symptoms in patients. These findings are in line with the pathophysiology of PD, suggesting that network efficiency metrics may be used to identify and track the pathology of PD.

  20. M1 transitions between low-lying states in the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Robert; Werner, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei in the A=90 region have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. Collective symmetric structures appear when protons and neutrons are in phase, whereas mixed-symmetric structures occur when they are not. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetric state was identified from strong M1 transitions to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between higher-spin states, and are predicted by the shell model. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg Interacting Boson Model 2 in order to obtain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and results from first model calculations will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under grant number DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  1. Comparison of 99mTc-annexin A5 with 18F-FDG for the detection of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Zhao, Songji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Strauss, H.W.; Blankenberg, Francis G.

    2007-01-01

    99m Tc-annexin A5, a marker of ongoing apoptosis, and 18 F-FDG, a marker of the increased metabolism of inflammatory cells, are supposed to be useful in the detection of metabolically active atheroma. This study reports a comparison of the intralesional distribution of these tracers in relation to lesion development in ApoE-/- mice. Male ApoE-/- mice (n = 12-14/group) were maintained on a Western-type diet after the age of 5 weeks. At 25 weeks, 99m Tc-annexin A5 or 18 F-FDG was injected and the aortas were harvested for autoradiography (ARG) and Oil Red O staining. Regional radioactivity accumulation was compared in relation to the Oil Red O staining score (ranging from 0 to 3, a semiquantitative parameter for evaluating lesion development). Both 99m Tc-annexin A5 and 18 F-FDG showed preferential uptake into atherosclerotic lesions, with higher uptake levels for 18 F-FDG (mean, 56.07 %ID x kg/m 2 ) than for 99m Tc-annexin A5 (mean, 10.38 %ID x kg/m 2 ). The regional uptake levels of each tracer correlated with the Oil Red O staining score (r = 0.65, p 99m Tc-annexin A5; r = 0.56, p 18 F-FDG). The uptake ratios of advanced lesions (score >0.5) to early lesions (score 99m Tc-annexin A5 than for 18 F-FDG (f = 4.73, p = 0.03). Both 99m Tc-annexin A5 and 18 F-FDG accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and correlate with the severity of each lesion. The higher absolute uptake levels of 18 F-FDG may be advantageous for lesion detection, whereas the preferential uptake of 99m Tc-annexin A5 in advanced lesions may be a useful indicator of late-stage lesions or vulnerable plaque transformation. (orig.)

  2. Near-degeneracy in Excited Vibrational States of 207PbF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Nguyen, Alexander; Kim, Yongrak; Biekert, Andreas; Sears, Trevor; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Kudashov, A. D.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy studies of 207PbF have demonstrated the near-degeneracy of two levels of opposite parity. These have attracted attention for the study of parity violation effects and the variation of fundamental constants using 207PbF. Further theoretical work has improved our detailed understanding of both 207PbF and 208PbF, and furthermore recently indicated that the finely split +/- parity levels grow monotonically closer for higher vibrational states. Our experimental results for v = 0-3 confirm this, and are in excellent agreement with our extended theoretical calculations up to v = 4; both will be presented. TJS acknowledges support from Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences., as do RM, AB, YK, & AN from Pomona College & J-UG from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  3. Excited-state absorption and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+:KY3F10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, C.; Doualan, J. L.; Moncorgé, R.; Braud, A.; Camy, P.

    2018-05-01

    We report here on a complete investigation of the excited-state absorption and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ doped KY3F10 single crystals versus dopant concentrations and optical excitation conditions. Radiative and effective (including non-radiative relaxations) emission lifetimes and branching ratios are determined from a Judd-Ofelt analysis of the absorption spectra and via specific fluorescence experiments using wavelength selective laser excitations. Excited-state absorption and emission spectra are registered within seven spectral domains, i.e. 560 nm, 650 nm, 710 nm, 810 nm, 970 nm, 1550 nm and 2750 nm. A maximum gain cross-section of 0.93 × 10-21 cm2 is determined at the potential laser wavelength of 2.801 μm for a population ratio of 0.48. Saturation of fluorescence intensities and variations of population ratios versus pumping rates are registered and confronted with a rate equation model to derive the rates of the most important up-conversion and cross-relaxation energy transfers occurring at high dopant concentrations.

  4. Dual-color fluorescence imaging to monitor CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 and HepaRG cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Tsuji

    Full Text Available Human adult hepatocytes expressing CYP3A4, a major cytochrome P450 enzyme, are required for cell-based assays to evaluate the potential risk of drug-drug interactions caused by transcriptional induction of P450 enzymes in early-phase drug discovery and development. However, CYP3A7 is preferentially expressed in premature hepatoblasts and major hepatic carcinoma cell lines. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepaRG possesses a high self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into hepatic cells similar to human adult hepatocytes in vitro. Transgenic HepaRG cells, in which the expression of fluorescent reporters is regulated by 35 kb regulatory elements of CYP3A4, have a distinct advantage over human hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion, which are unstable in culture. Thus, we created transgenic HepaRG and HepG2 cells by replacing the protein-coding regions of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and DsRed reporters, respectively, in a bacterial artificial chromosome vector that included whole regulatory elements. The intensity of DsRed fluorescence was initially high during the proliferation of transgenic HepaRG cells. However, most EGFP-positive cells were derived from those in which DsRed fluorescence was extinguished. Comparative analyses in these transgenic clones showed that changes in the total fluorescence intensity of EGFP reflected fold changes in the mRNA level of endogenous CYP3A4. Moreover, CYP3A4 induction was monitored by the increase in EGFP fluorescence. Thus, this assay provides a real-time evaluation system for quality assurance of hepatic differentiation into CYP3A4-expressing cells, unfavourable CYP3A4 induction, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-mediated enrichment of CYP3A4-expressing hepatocytes based on the total fluorescence intensities of fluorescent reporters, without the need for many time-consuming steps.

  5. Use of mass spectral method for plotting P-T and T-x pro ection of state diagram of LiF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    T-x and P-T projections of the state diagram for the system LiF-ZrF 4 were constructed. The Knudsen effusion technique with the mass-spectral analysis of the evaporation products was employed to determine the vapor composition and pressure. LiF, LiF 2 , Li 3 F 3 , ZrF 4 , LiZrF 5 , Li 2 ZrF 6 , LiZrF 9 molecules were found in the saturated vapor of the system. Heats of evaporation of the molecules and their partial pressures depending on the melt composition were determined. Dissociation enthalpies of the complex molecules were calcuted

  6. Coexistence of spin frozen state and persistent spin dynamics in NaSrCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} as probed by μSR and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengre, Shanu; Sarkar, Rajib; Braeuninger, Sascha Albert; Brueckner, Felix; Materne, Philipp; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Krizan, Jason W.; Cava, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Luetkens, Hubertus; Baines, Chris [Laboratory for Muon-Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    {sup 23}Na -and {sup 19}F NMR, and μSR experiments are performed to explore the microscopic properties of NaSrCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}, which is a newly discovered magnetically frustrated pyrochlore with weak bond disorder and with a frustration index of f = 42. While {sup 23}Na and {sup 19}F NMR experiments clearly suggest the presence of quasi static field distribution below ∝3 K as reflected in the huge NMR line broadening and wipe out effect of NMR signal intensity, μSR experiments on the other hand remains passive to this spin frozen state. Both NMR and μSR results indicate the slowing down of the magnetic (spin) fluctuations upon cooling towards the NMR spin frozen state. μSR relaxation rate increases slightly below ∝ 3 K, and remains not only constant down to 20 mK, but also stands independent in longitudinal magnetic field upto 4000 G implying that the spin fluctuations are dynamic. These observations suggest the coexistence of partial spin frozen state and persistent spin dynamics in NaSrCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}.

  7. Programa de actividad física en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple.

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Dueso, Esther

    2014-01-01

    El siguiente proyecto tiene como objetivos valorar la efectividad de la práctica de un programa de ejercicios físicos dirigidos a pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM), evaluando la flexibilidad, coordinación y su calidad de vida, estado de ánimo y autonomía. La intervención se llevará a cabo mediante la creación de una guía práctica de diferentes ejercicios físicos según partes afectadas. La EM es una enfermedad del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en el que se diferencian dos ...

  8. Alkali metal and ammonium fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates M'[ M''3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3], where M' = Li, Na, K, NH4, Rb, or Cs and M'' = Ni or Co. Synthesis and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, D. S.; Morozov, I. V.; Boltalin, A. I.; Karpova, E. V.; Glazunova, T. Yu.; Troyanov, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    A series of fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates were synthesized by crystallization from solutions in trifluoroacetic acid containing nickel(II) or cobalt(II) nitrate hydrates and alkali metal or ammonium fluorides: Li[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3](CF3COOH)3 ( I), M'[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3] ( M' = Na ( II), NH4 ( IV), Rb ( V), and Cs ( VI)), NH4[Co3(μ3-F) (CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3] ( III), and Cs[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3](CF3COOH)0.5 ( VII). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All structures contain triangular trinuclear complex anions [ M 3″(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3]- ( M″ = Ni, Co) structurally similar to trinuclear 3d metal oxo carboxylate complexes. The three-coordinated F atom is located at the center of the triangle formed by Ni(II) or Co(II) atoms. The metal atoms are linked in pairs by six bridging trifluoroacetate groups located above and below the plane of the [ M″3 F] triangle. The oxygen atoms of the axial CF3COOH molecules complete the coordination environment of M″ atoms to an octahedron.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT评价非霍奇金淋巴瘤骨髓浸润%18F-FDG PET for evaluation on bone marrow involvement in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 王荣福; 范岩; 付占立; 张旭初; 廖栩鹤; 王彦福

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨18 F-FDG PET/CT评价非霍奇金淋巴瘤(NHL)骨髓浸润的临床应用价值,并与骨髓活检(BMB)及流式细胞分析(FCM)进行比较.方法 回顾性分析89例经病理证实且未经治疗的NHL患者18 F-FDG PET/CT资料,其中侵袭性NHL76例,惰性NHL13例.所有患者均在18 F-FDG PET/CT检查2周内接受BMB及FCM,对18F-FDG PET/CT显示骨髓局灶性18 F-FDG摄取增高而BMB及FCM阴性患者,根据PET/CT所示骨髓异常部位再次行BMB确定骨髓是否受累.结果 89例NHL患者中,根据BMB、FCM及PET/CT引导下再次BMB结果,共检出骨髓浸润26例,检出率为29.21%(26/89),PET/CT检出率为21.35%(19/89).PET/CT诊断骨髓浸润的灵敏度为73.08%(19/26),特异度为96.83%(61/63),准确率为89.89%(80/89),阳性预测值为90.48%(19/21),阴性预测值为89.71%(61/68).BMB及FCM检出率均为19.10%(17/89),PET/CT较BMB、FCM骨髓浸润检出率稍高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).将PET/CT、FCM及BMB三种方法联合诊断骨髓浸润,其检出率高于其中任意一种方法(P<0.05).PET/CT对侵袭性NHL骨髓浸润的检出率22.37%(17/76)高于对惰性NHL骨髓浸润的检出率15.38%(2/13,P<0.05).结论 18F-FDG PET/CT在诊断NHL骨髓浸润中有较高的应用价值.对局灶性骨髓浸润患者,PET/CT有助于引导BMB部位,提高骨髓浸润的检出率.PET/CT未检出骨髓浸润的惰性NHL患者,应进一步行BMB及FCM检查.推荐PET/CT、FCM及BMB三种方法联合应用判断NHL骨髓浸润,从而更准确地进行分期、治疗及判断预后.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of "F-FDG PET/CT for detection of bone marrow involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and to compare it with bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and flow cytometry (FCM). Methods Eighty-nine patients with pathologically proven NHL including 76 aggressive NHL and 13 indolent NHL underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. All patients underwent BMB and FCM within 2 weeks of 18F-FDG PET/CT scan

  10. Triaxiality and alternating M1 strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabor, S L; Johnson, T D; Holcombe, J W; Womble, P C; Doring, J; Nazarewicz, W [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of alternating patterns in B(M1) strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei is surveyed. The M1 alternations in a sequence of N= 41 isotones, in conjunction with particle-rotor model calculations, is shown to provide information about changing {gamma} deformation. In addition to other odd-A nuclei, several odd-odd nuclei are shown to exhibit alternating B(M1) values and signature inversion. alternations have also been reported in a 4 quasiparticle band in {sup 86}Zr, where they have been interpreted in terms of the interacting boson model. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. TMEM16F Regulates Spinal Microglial Function in Neuropathic Pain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Batti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a widespread chronic pain state that results from injury to the nervous system. Spinal microglia play a causative role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain through secretion of growth factors and cytokines. Here, we investigated the contribution of TMEM16F, a protein that functions as a Ca2+-dependent ion channel and a phospholipid scramblase, to microglial activity during neuropathic pain. We demonstrate that mice with a conditional ablation of TMEM16F in microglia do not develop mechanical hypersensitivity upon nerve injury. In the absence of TMEM16F, microglia display deficits in process motility and phagocytosis. Moreover, loss of GABA immunoreactivity upon injury is spared in TMEM16F conditional knockout mice. Collectively, these data indicate that TMEM16F is an essential component of the microglial response to injury and suggest the importance of microglial phagocytosis in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.

  12. Relação entre dor e antecedentes de adoecimento físico ocupacional: um estudo entre músicos instrumentistas Relationship between pain and antecedents of occupational illness: a study among musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Branquinho Oliveira Fragelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina possíveis relações entre os sintomas de dor e os antecedentes físicos (carga física e ambiente físico de trabalho e psicossociais (carga cognitiva, carga psíquica, organização do trabalho de tais sintomas em um grupo de músicos instrumentistas. O trabalho constitui uma pesquisa exploratória envolvendo dados quantitativos e qualitativos e busca compreender aspectos relacionados aos fatores antecedentes do adoecimento muscular segundo a percepção dos músicos. A amostra foi composta por 46 músicos do estado de Goiás e do Distrito Federal, com idades entre 14 e 45 anos, que responderam a um questionário desenvolvido para este estudo. A análise quantitativa realizada por meio do coeficiente de correlação ρ de Spearman indicou uma relação entre a dor e a carga física de trabalho percebida pelo respondente. Os resultados da análise qualitativa confirmaram esta relação entre percepção de dor e carga física. Os resultados são discutidos apontando a necessidade de disseminar a idéia de que o músico deve atentar para sinais de desarmonia do próprio corpo.This paper examines possible relationships between the presence of symptoms of pain and their physical antecedents (physical load and physical environment of work and psychosocial antecedents (cognitive load, psychical load, work organization of these symptoms in musicians. It constitutes an exploratory study involving quantitave and qualitative data that aim to understand aspects related to antecedents factors in the muscular infirmity according to musicians' perceptions. The sample was composed by 46 musicians from the State of Goiás and the Federal District in Brazil, aged 14 through 45, which answered a questionnaire developed for the study. The quantitative analysis, done with Spearman ρ correlation, indicated a relationship between pain and physical work load perceived by the respondents. The qualitative analysis confirmed this relationship

  13. rgız Atasözlerinin Cümle Yapısı Üzerinde Bazı Gözlemler Some Observations On The Sentence Structures of The Kirghiz Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirghiz Turks have a rich treasure of folklore. Their proverbs, the numbers of which are given in some litery works over ten thousands, build an essential part of this treasure. We explore 97 Kirghiz proverbs,most of them chosen from Bir Miñ Kırgız Eliniñ Makal-Lakaptarı (BM,published in Kirghizstan and Kırgız Atasözleri (KA, published inTurkey, regarding their sentence structure in our article. Kirghizproverbs are classified according to their sentence structure: 1. simple,2. complex: a. coordinated, b. proverbs presenting a subordinatedsentence structure having infinitive verb forms such as infinitives,participials or gerundial forms, c. conditional, d. proverbs presentingcomplex sentence structures with a direct quote and 3. proverbs havinga mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-10 are classifiedaccording to their meaning as: declarative sentences and imperativesentences. Coordinated sentences (11-25 are also studied according totheir word order as sentences presenting regular turkic word order withpredicates placed at the end of the sentence in question and sentenceswith diversed word order. Conditional clauses (26-44 are examinedaccording to their functions as adverbials, subject clauses, concessiveclauses etc. Direct quote (45-55 embedded in main sentences arestudied regarding their functions as object clauses or relative clausesbuilded by degen. We study subordinated clauses formed by infinitiveverb forms such as infinitives, participials or gerundials (56-78 and tryto determine their functions in the main sentences they take part in.Sentences comprising two or more independent clauses, at least one ofwhich has one conditional clause or a clause builded by infinitive verbforms mentioned above are definited as mixed sentences (79-97. Kırgız Türkleri zengin bir folklor hazinesine sahiptir. Bu hazinenin önemli bir bölümünü de bazı çalışmalarda sayısı on bini aşan atasözleri oluşturmaktadır. Biz bu

  14. O órgão odorífero do macho de Athysania hesione Dry: (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1957-12-01

    Full Text Available O órgão odorífero de Athysania hesione (e outras espécies próximas está situado na face externa da segunda tíbia e compõe-se de uma região estreita tomada de células glandulares, situada no bordo posterior da tíbia cuja superfície externa forma um sulco longitudinal. Na parte proximal do núcleo insere-se um grande pincel distribuidor, cujas cerdas estão deitadas no sulco, onde entram em contato com as escamas odoríferas. Em virtude do enchimento de um saco traqueal, situado no interior da tíbia a pressão da hemolinfa aumenta, causando uma deformação da área de inserção do pincel que, por sua vez, sai do sulco, abrindo-se a fim de possibilitar a evaporação da secração. Depois da função, o pincel volta à posição de repouso graças à elasticidade da cutícula da área de inserção. O órgão é protegido por meio de séries de escamas protetoras de grandes superfícies. A célula glandular, excepcionalmente volumosa, localiza-se entre o sincício da hipoderme e a membrana basal (fig. 5. As células tricogêneas das cerdas do pincel distribuidor e das escamas protetoras possuíram, em épocas filogenéticas, função glandular; encontra-se, ainda hoje, no interior das primeiras, um aparelho excretor (fig. 9, sendo porém o seu núcleo e protoplasma completamente inativos, dando aos mesmo um aspecto de degenração.

  15. Whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens EK007-RG4, a promising biocontrol agent against a broad range of bacteria, including the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several...

  16. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  17. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinoni, C; Amaro, E; Cendes, F; dos Santos, A C; Salmon, C E G

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a 'resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs). Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced "silent" pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent) counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal), while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  18. ICA-based artifact removal diminishes scan site differences in multi-center resting-state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feis (Rogier A.); S.M. Smith (Stephen); N. Filippini (Nicola); G. Douaud (Gwenaëlle); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); V. Heise (Verena); A.J. Trachtenberg (Aaron J.); J.C. van Swieten (John); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); C.E. Mackay (Clare E.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has shown considerable promise in providing potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and drug response across a range of diseases. Incorporating R-fMRI into multi-center studies is becoming increasingly popular, imposing technical challenges on data

  19. Synthesis and characterization of dinuclear complexes containing the Fe(III)-F...(H2O)M(II) motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiladi, M; Jensen, K.B.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1999-01-01

    .818(2), 1.902(2) Å) and one of them is strongly hydrogen bonded to the water molecule on the adjacent Cu atom (F-H...O 2.653(4) Å). The metal ions in the aquafluoride complexes [(bpbp)Fe(F)2M(H2O)2][BF4]2, M=Fe or Co, are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled (J=-8 and -10 cm-1 respectively) and in [(bpbp...

  20. Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

    2012-05-01

    Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

  1. Assigning the Cerium Oxidation State for CH2CeF2 and OCeF2 Based on Multireference Wave Function Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooßen, Oliver; Dolg, Michael

    2016-06-09

    The geometric and electronic structure of the recently experimentally studied molecules ZCeF2 (Z = CH2, O) was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and wave function-based ab initio methods. Special attention was paid to the Ce-Z metal-ligand bonding, especially to the nature of the interaction between the Ce 4f and the Z 2p orbitals and the possible multiconfigurational character arising from it, as well as to the assignment of an oxidation state of Ce reflecting the electronic structure. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations were performed, followed by orbital rotations in the active orbital space. The methylene compound CH2CeF2 has an open-shell singlet ground state, which is characterized by a two-configurational wave function in the basis of the strongly mixed natural CASSCF orbitals. The system can also be described in a very compact way by the dominant Ce 4f(1) C 2p(1) configuration, if nearly pure Ce 4f and C 2p orbitals are used. In the basis of these localized orbitals, the molecule is almost monoconfigurational and should be best described as a Ce(III) system. The singlet ground state of the oxygen OCeF2 complex is of closed-shell character when a monoconfigurational wave function with very strongly mixed Ce 4f and O 2p CASSCF natural orbitals is used for the description. The transformation to orbitals localized on the cerium and oxygen atoms leads to a multiconfigurational wave function and reveals characteristics of a mixed valent Ce(IV)/Ce(III) compound. Additionally, the interactions of the localized active orbitals were analyzed by evaluating the expectation values of the charge fluctuation operator and the local spin operator. The Ce 4f and C 2p orbital interaction of the CH2CeF2 compound is weakly covalent and resembles the interaction of the H 1s orbitals in a stretched hydrogen dimer. In contrast, the interaction of the localized active orbitals for OCeF2 shows ionic character. Calculated vibrational Ce

  2. Proposed Revisions to MIL-F-8785C Related to Flight Safety of Augmented Aircraft. Volume 2. Appendices A through F, References

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    matrices described in Section F.l.2, Equation F7 . These were derived from the aerodynamic coefficients, see Section C.4.4. They are in stability-body...actuator and 6 e is the elevator output. The time histories used the state models of Table C-8, corres- ponding to Equation F7 given in Section F.1.2...40 a c o 0Oa - a ~ ~ 4 -9c -C -9mu * 0 #b4 C 000 0 00, 0a-a-- a~~a.c cc * a -ic* . anlalugaus LAOlla umsila 0 4iO ’ an am am om .a -m , M ~ - . acca

  3. A reversion of an IL2RG mutation in combined immunodeficiency providing competitive advantage to the majority of CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Taco W; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; Barendregt, Barbara H; Klarenbeek, Paul; aan de Kerk, Daan J; Baars, Paul A; Jansen, Machiel H; de Vries, Niek; van Lier, René A W; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in the common gamma chain (γc, CD132, encoded by the IL2RG gene) can lead to B(+)T(-)NK(-) X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, as a consequence of unresponsiveness to γc-cytokines such as interleukins-2, -7 and -15. Hypomorphic mutations in CD132 may cause combined immunodeficiencies with a variety of clinical presentations. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a 6-year-old boy with normal lymphocyte counts, who suffered from recurrent pneumonia and disseminated mollusca contagiosa. Since proliferative responses of T cells and NK cells to γc -cytokines were severely impaired, we performed IL2RG gene analysis, showing a heterozygous mutation in the presence of a single X-chromosome. Interestingly, an IL2RG reversion to normal predominated in both naïve and antigen-primed CD8(+) T cells and increased over time. Only the revertant CD8(+) T cells showed normal expression of CD132 and the various CD8(+) T cell populations had a different T-cell receptor repertoire. Finally, a fraction of γδ(+) T cells and differentiated CD4(+)CD27(-) effector-memory T cells carried the reversion, whereas NK or B cells were repeatedly negative. In conclusion, in a patient with a novel IL2RG mutation, gene-reverted CD8(+) T cells accumulated over time. Our data indicate that selective outgrowth of particular T-cell subsets may occur following reversion at the level of committed T progenitor cells.

  4. Doação de órgãos: é preciso educar para avançar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    Full Text Available O estudo refere-se a uma das principais dificuldades encontradas no processo de doação de órgãos: a deficiência de educação continuada específica para doação por parte da população e dos profissionais de saúde. Teve como objetivo enfatizar como a educação influi positivamente nas estatísticas de doações de órgãos. Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica, incluindo artigos de periódicos eletrônicos e obras literárias. Existe uma grande diferença entre o número de pessoas esperando transplante e o número de doadores. Medidas de educação contínua e políticas de saúde pública que incentivem as pessoas a manifestar o desejo de serem doadoras são estratégias importantes para amenizar esse problema.

  5. The Benguela Current: An ecosystem of four components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hutchings, L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Plase, D. Louwe, A. Kreinere, M. Ostrowskif, Q. Fidelg, R.G. Barlowa, T. Lamonta, h, J. Coetzeea, F. Shillingtonh, J. Veitchh, J.C. Curriec, P.M.S. Monteiroi a Marine and Coastal Management, Pvt Bag X2, Rogge Bay, Cape Town 8012, South Africa b...

  6. Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme, Örgütsel Bağlılık ve İşten Ayrılma Eğilimi Arasındaki İlişki

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Nilgün; KÜÇÜKUSTA, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı, konaklama işletmelerinde örgütsel öğrenmenin, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma eğilimi üzerindeki etkilerini analiz etmektir. Çeşme'de faaliyet gösteren 5 adet beş yıldızlı otel araştırmaya dahil edilmiştir. Alan araştırması kapsamında, literatürden elde edilen bilgiler ışığında oluşturulan yapılandırılmış anket tekniği kullanılmış, elde edilen veriler SPSS 13.0 (Statistical Program for Social Sciences) programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmada öncelikle geçerlik ve g...

  7. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  8. Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições ...

  9. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  10. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  11. 99mTc labeling of the scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, D.S.; Nunan, E.A.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Moraes-Santos, T.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    F(ab') 2 is the fragment involved in the immunotherapy for scorpion stings and it would be convenient to label it with 99m Tc for organ distribution and pharmacokinetics studies. The aim of the present study was to label scorpion antivenom F(ab') 2 with 99m Tc keeping its biological activity, integrity and stability. High labeling yield was obtained using stannous chloride and sodium borohydride. Stability, immunoreactivity and integrity of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 was preserved. It was not observed any difference between potencies of unlabeled and labeled antivenom. 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 can be a useful tool for use in biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on the evaluation of the efficacy of the antivenom against scorpion envenomation. (author)

  12. Thermal stability of the F centre in KC1 between 80 and 300 K; Estabilidad termica del centro F' en KC1 entre 80 y 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Codovila, C

    1974-07-01

    After shining an F spark light of high intensity upon a coloured sample of KC1, the annealing of the induced F1 band and the decay of the induced luminescence are observed. This luminescence is produced by the electrons returning to the anion vacancies through the F* state. From the annealing characteristics of the F1 band between 80 and 300 K, we conclude that at least six thermally activated processes ase involved. The luminescence decay curves also show evidence of six the thermally activated processes which correlate quite wall in magnitude with those from the F1 band anneal. We conclude that the luminescence and annealing of the F1 band are aspects of the same process, and some explanations are suggested involving the interaction of F1 centres and electron traps. (Author) 41 refs.

  13. Selective-field-ionization dynamics of a lithium m=2 Rydberg state: Landau-Zener model versus quantal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerre, M.; Hansen, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The selective-field-ionization (SFI) dynamics of a Rydberg state of lithium with magnetic quantum number m=2 is studied in detail based on two different theoretical models: (1) a close coupling integration of the Schroedinger equation and (2) the multichannel (incoherent) Landau-Zener (MLZ) model. The m=2 states are particularly interesting, since they define a border zone between fully adiabatic (m=0,1) and fully diabatic (m>2) ionization dynamics. Both sets of calculations are performed up to, and above, the classical ionization limit. It is found that the MLZ model is excellent in the description of the fully diabatic dynamics while certain discrepancies between the time dependent quantal amplitudes appear when the dynamics become involved. Thus, in this region, the analysis of experimental SFI spectra should be performed with care

  14. 78 FR 24803 - Hilco SP Rail, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-RG Steel Railroad Holding, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35734] Hilco SP Rail, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--RG Steel Railroad Holding, LLC Hilco SP Rail, LLC (Hilco), a noncarrier... Holding, LLC, and operate as a common carrier over an approximately 12-mile line of railroad in Sparrows...

  15. Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.

  16. Phase-synchronization-based parcellation of resting state fMRI signals reveals topographically organized clusters in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravel, Nicolás G; Harvey, Ben M; Renken, Remco K; Dumoulin, Serge O; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2018-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI is widely used to study brain function and connectivity. However, interpreting patterns of resting state (RS) fMRI activity remains challenging as they may arise from different neuronal mechanisms than those triggered by exogenous events. Currently, this limits the use of RS-fMRI

  17. Effective connectivity within the default mode network: dynamic causal modeling of resting-state fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim eSharaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Default Mode Network (DMN is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of BOLD (Blood-oxygen-level dependent activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e. effective connectivity, however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex PCC, left and right intraparietal cortex LIPC and RIPC. For this purpose fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078–0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are significant and symmetrical in strength (p<0.05. Connections between mPFC and PCC are bidirectional, significant in the group and weaker than connections originating from bilateral IPC. In general, all connections from LIPC/RIPC to other DMN regions are much stronger. One can assume that these regions have a driving role within the DMN. Our results replicate some data from earlier works on effective connectivity within the DMN as well as provide new insights on internal DMN relationships and brain’s functioning at resting state.

  18. Involvement of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztaou, Samira; Maurice, Nicolas; Camon, Jeremy; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne; Liberge, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2016-08-31

    Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal

  19. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Songhie; Nam, Kihoon; Choi, Sunghyun; Bai, Cheng Z; Lee, Yan; Park, Jong-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model. The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG) by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4). Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of .40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining. The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%-40%) in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of apoptin in tumor cells.

  20. Asymmetrical hippocampal connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence from resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, is often caused by hippocampal sclerosis (HS. Patients with HS usually present memory dysfunction, which is material-specific according to the hemisphere involved and has been correlated to the degree of HS as measured by postoperative histopathology as well as by the degree of hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Verbal memory is mostly affected by left-sided HS, whereas visuo-spatial memory is more affected by right HS. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the network in which individual hippocampus takes part. Functional connectivity can play an important role to understand how the hippocampi interact with other brain areas. It can be estimated via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI resting state experiments by evaluating patterns of functional networks. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity patterns of 9 control subjects, 9 patients with right MTLE and 9 patients with left MTLE. Results We detected differences in functional connectivity within and between hippocampi in patients with unilateral MTLE associated with ipsilateral HS by resting state fMRI. Functional connectivity resulted to be more impaired ipsilateral to the seizure focus in both patient groups when compared to control subjects. This effect was even more pronounced for the left MTLE group. Conclusions The findings presented here suggest that left HS causes more reduction of functional connectivity than right HS in subjects with left hemisphere dominance for language.

  1. Two hexagonal series of lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride selenides.: M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3} (M = La - Nd) and M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se (M = Nd, Sm, Gd - Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Dirk D.; Grossholz, Hagen; Wolf, Sarah; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Mueller, Alexander C. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Textilchemie und Chemiefasern, Denkendorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Two hexagonal series of lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride selenides with similar structure types can be obtained by the reaction of the components MF{sub 3}, M{sub 2}O{sub 3}, M, and Se in sealed niobium tubes at 850 C using CsI as fluxing agent. The compounds with the lighter and larger representatives (M = La - Nd) occur with the formula M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3}, whereas with the heavier and smaller ones (M = Nd, Sm, Gd - Ho) their composition is M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se. For both systems single-crystal determinations were used in all cases. The compounds crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system (space group: P6{sub 3}/m) with lattice parameters of a = 1394-1331 pm and c = 403-372 pm (Z = 2 for M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3} and Z = 6 for M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se). The (M1){sup 3+} cations show different square antiprismatic coordination spheres with or without an extra capping fluoride anion. All (M2){sup 3+} cations exhibit a ninefold coordination environment shaped as tricapped trigonal prism. In both structure types the Se{sup 2-} anions are sixfold coordinated as trigonal prisms of M{sup 3+} cations, being first condensed by edges to generate trimeric units and then via faces to form strands running along [001]. The light anions reside either in threefold triangular or in fourfold tetrahedral cationic coordination. For charge compensation, both structures have to contain a certain amount of oxide besides fluoride anions. Since F{sup -} and O{sup 2-} can not be distinguished by X-ray diffraction, bond-valence calculations were used to address the problem of their adjunction to the available crystallographic sites. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  3. Impact of the Valence Charge of Transition Metals on the Cobalt- and Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Indenamines, Indenols, and Isoquinolinium Salts: A Catalytic Cycle Involving MIII/MV [M = Co, Rh] for [4+2] Annulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Mong-Feng; Jayakumar, Jayachandran; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Chuang, Shih-Ching

    2018-06-13

    Reaction mechanisms for the synthesis of indenamines, indenols, and isoquinolinium salts through cobalt- and rhodium-catalysis were investigated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the valence charge of transition metals dramatically influences the reaction pathways. Catalytic reactions involving lower-oxidation-state transition metals (M I /M III , M = Co and Rh) generally favor a [3+2] cyclization pathway, whereas those involving higher oxidation states (M III /M V ) proceed through a [4+2] cyclization pathway. A catalytic cycle with novel M III /M V as a crucial species was successfully revealed for isoquinolinium salts synthesis, which highly valent M V was not only encountered in the [RhCp*]-catalysis but also in the [CoCp*]-catalysis.

  4. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  5. Disrupted functional connectivity of the hippocampus in patients with hyperthyroidism: Evidence from resting-state fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Liu, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun6.liu@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: yi.zhang.0833@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Hou, Jingming, E-mail: jingminghou@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); He, Mei, E-mail: sunnusunny0105@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Psychology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cai, Ping, E-mail: pingc_ddd@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Objective: The hippocampus expresses high levels of thyroid hormone receptors, suggesting that hippocampal functions, including cognition and regulation of mood, can be disrupted by thyroid pathology. Indeed, structural and functional alterations within the hippocampus have been observed in hyperthyroid patients. In addition to internal circuitry, hippocampal processing is dependent on extensive connections with other limbic and neocortical structures, but the effects of hyperthyroidism on functional connectivity (FC) with these areas have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible abnormalities in the FC between the hippocampus and other neural structures in hyperthyroid patients using resting-state fMRI. Methods: Seed-based correlation analysis was performed on resting-state fMRI data to reveal possible differences in hippocampal FC between hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the strength of FC in regions showing significant group differences and clinical variables. Results: Compared to controls, hyperthyroid patients showed weaker FC between the bilateral hippocampus and both the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as between the right hippocampus and right medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Disease duration was negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC and PCC. Levels of depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC. Conclusion: Decreased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and bilateral ACC, PCC, and right mOFC may contribute to the emotional and cognitive dysfunction associated with hyperthyroidism.

  6. Disrupted functional connectivity of the hippocampus in patients with hyperthyroidism: Evidence from resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lingheng; Hou, Jingming; Chen, Bing; He, Mei; Cai, Ping; Lii, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampus expresses high levels of thyroid hormone receptors, suggesting that hippocampal functions, including cognition and regulation of mood, can be disrupted by thyroid pathology. Indeed, structural and functional alterations within the hippocampus have been observed in hyperthyroid patients. In addition to internal circuitry, hippocampal processing is dependent on extensive connections with other limbic and neocortical structures, but the effects of hyperthyroidism on functional connectivity (FC) with these areas have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible abnormalities in the FC between the hippocampus and other neural structures in hyperthyroid patients using resting-state fMRI. Methods: Seed-based correlation analysis was performed on resting-state fMRI data to reveal possible differences in hippocampal FC between hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the strength of FC in regions showing significant group differences and clinical variables. Results: Compared to controls, hyperthyroid patients showed weaker FC between the bilateral hippocampus and both the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as between the right hippocampus and right medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Disease duration was negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC and PCC. Levels of depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC. Conclusion: Decreased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and bilateral ACC, PCC, and right mOFC may contribute to the emotional and cognitive dysfunction associated with hyperthyroidism

  7. Disrupted functional connectivity of the hippocampus in patients with hyperthyroidism: evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lingheng; Hou, Jingming; Chen, Bing; He, Mei; Cai, Ping; Lii, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    The hippocampus expresses high levels of thyroid hormone receptors, suggesting that hippocampal functions, including cognition and regulation of mood, can be disrupted by thyroid pathology. Indeed, structural and functional alterations within the hippocampus have been observed in hyperthyroid patients. In addition to internal circuitry, hippocampal processing is dependent on extensive connections with other limbic and neocortical structures, but the effects of hyperthyroidism on functional connectivity (FC) with these areas have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible abnormalities in the FC between the hippocampus and other neural structures in hyperthyroid patients using resting-state fMRI. Seed-based correlation analysis was performed on resting-state fMRI data to reveal possible differences in hippocampal FC between hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the strength of FC in regions showing significant group differences and clinical variables. Compared to controls, hyperthyroid patients showed weaker FC between the bilateral hippocampus and both the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as between the right hippocampus and right medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Disease duration was negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC and PCC. Levels of depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with FC strength between the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ACC. Decreased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and bilateral ACC, PCC, and right mOFC may contribute to the emotional and cognitive dysfunction associated with hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resting-state fMRI study of patients with fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanova, E.; Petrovskiy, E.; Savelov, A.; Yudkin, D.; Tulupov, A.

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to assess the neural activity of different brain regions in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and the healthy volunteers by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a 1.5 T MRI Achieva scanner (Philips). Results: The fMRI study showed a DMN of brain function in patients with FXS, as well as in the healthy volunteers. Furthermore, it was found that a default mode network of the brain in patients with FXS and healthy volunteers does not have statistically significant differences (p>0.05), which may indicate that the basal activity of neurons in patients with FXS is not reduced. In addition, we have found a significant (pright inferior parietal and right angular gyrus in the resting state in patients with FXS. Conclusion: New data of functional status of the brain in patients with FXS were received. The significant increase in the resting state functional connectivity within the right inferior parietal and right angular gyrus (p<0.001) in patients with FXS was found.

  9. Study of compoisiton of saturated vapor of MF-CuF2 systems, where M=K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.V.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation into composition of saturated vapor of MF-CuF 2 systems where M=K, Rb, Cs is conducted using high-temperature mass-spectrometry. Existence of MCuF 3 molecules in gas phase is determined. MCuF 3(r) dissociation enthalpies are calculated using the first law-of thermodynamics and are compared with theoretically determined values. Value Δ D G 0 944 (CsCuF 3(r) =105.6±6.3 kj/mol is determined

  10. Chalcogen- and halogen-bonds involving SX2 (X = F, Cl, and Br) with formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lixin; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xueying; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of SX2 (X = F, Cl, and Br) to engage in different kinds of noncovalent bonds was investigated by ab initio calculations. SCl2 (SBr2) has two σ-holes upon extension of Cl (Br)-S bonds, and two σ-holes upon extension of S-Cl (Br) bonds. SF2 contains only two σ-holes upon extension of the F-S bond. Consequently, SCl2 and SBr2 form chalcogen and halogen bonds with the electron donor H2CO while SF2 forms only a chalcogen bond, i.e., no F···O halogen bond was found in the SF2:H2CO complex. The S···O chalcogen bond between SF2 and H2CO is the strongest, while the strongest halogen bond is Br···O between SBr2 and H2CO. The nature of these two types of noncovalent interaction was probed by a variety of methods, including molecular electrostatic potentials, QTAIM, energy decomposition, and electron density shift maps. Termolecular complexes X2S···H2CO···SX'2 (X = F, Cl, Br, and X' = Cl, Br) were constructed to study the interplay between chalcogen bonds and halogen bonds. All these complexes contained S···O and Cl (Br)···O bonds, with longer intermolecular distances, smaller values of electron density, and more positive three-body interaction energies, indicating negative cooperativity between the chalcogen bond and the halogen bond. In addition, for all complexes studied, interactions involving chalcogen bonds were more favorable than those involving halogen bonds. Graphical Abstract Molecular electrostatic potential and contour map of the Laplacian of the electron density in Cl2S···H2CO···SCl2 complex.

  11. Att öka mottagligheten för branded content genom hyper-personalisering : En användarstudie mot målgruppen för digitala tidskrifter inom populärkultur.

    OpenAIRE

    Sombo, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    I denna studie utreder jag om hur branded content mottas av målgruppen för digitala tidskrifter inom populärkultur genom en framträdande teknik in webb-personalisering, hyper-personalisering. Målgruppen för denna studie är unga opinionsbildare som konsumerar innehåll från digitala tidskrifter som exempelvis Nöjesguiden. Branded content, sponsrat innehåll, är innehåll som skapas för att ett varumärke skall förknippas med en kreatörs målgrupp. Alltså kan ett varumärke be Nöjesguiden skapa redak...

  12. Thermal stability of the F centre in KC1 between 80 and 300 K; Estabilidad termica del centro F' en KC1 entre 80 y 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Codovila, C.

    1974-07-01

    After shining an F spark light of high intensity upon a coloured sample of KC1, the annealing of the induced F1 band and the decay of the induced luminescence are observed. This luminescence is produced by the electrons returning to the anion vacancies through the F* state. From the annealing characteristics of the F1 band between 80 and 300 K, we conclude that at least six thermally activated processes ase involved. The luminescence decay curves also show evidence of six the thermally activated processes which correlate quite wall in magnitude with those from the F1 band anneal. We conclude that the luminescence and annealing of the F1 band are aspects of the same process, and some explanations are suggested involving the interaction of F1 centres and electron traps. (Author) 41 refs.

  13. A chimeric 18L1-45RG1 virus-like particle vaccine cross-protects against oncogenic alpha-7 human papillomavirus types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC, a subset of cervical cancer (CxC. Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7 includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18 targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1 of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1. Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent

  14. Interference Tolerant Functional Near Infrared Spectrometer (fNIRS) for Cognitive State Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in the brain with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising technique for monitoring cognitive state...

  15. Opinião e conhecimento da população da cidade de curitiba sobre doação e transplante de órgãos Opinion and knowledge of the population of a brazilian city about organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a opinião e o conhecimento, de uma amostra da população da cidade de Curitiba, sobre doação e transplante de órgãos. MÉTODOS: A opinião e o conhecimento sobre doação e transplante de órgãos de mil pessoas, com idade superior a 18 anos, foram determinados através de um questionário de 20 perguntas. Os entrevistados avaliados tinham uma distribuição similar em idade, sexo e padrão socioeconômico, e escolaridade à população brasileira, determinada pelo IBGE. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos entrevistados (87,8% era favorável à doação de órgãos. Não houve diferença na percentagem da população favorável à doação de órgãos com a relação a sexo, estado civil, religião e rendimentos. Os principais motivos para serem favoráveis à doação de órgãos foram para salvar vida, ajudar o próximo e doar vida. Os principais motivos para não serem favoráveis à doação foram falta de confiança na medicina ou no sistema de captação e distribuição de órgãos, por haver comércio de órgãos e temor de mutilação do corpo. A maioria dos entrevistados respondeu que os ricos tinham mais chances de serem transplantados do que os pobres, que existe venda de órgãos no Brasil e que existe possibilidade de erro no diagnóstico de morte encefálica estabelecido pelo médico. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria da população deste estudo é favorável à doação de órgãos e tem um bom conhecimento sobre doação e transplante de órgãos. A maioria demonstrou não confiar no sistema de distribuição de órgãos e no diagnóstico de morte encefálica.OBJECTIVE: To determine the opinion and knowledge of the population of Curitiba about organ donation and transplantation. METHODS: The opinion and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation of 1,000 subjects over 18 years of age were determined. The subjects responded to a questionnaire of 20 queries. Respondents had age, gender, social-economic, and education

  16. Discovery of 4ms and 7 MS Pulsars in M15 (F & H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, J.

    1992-12-01

    Observations of M15 taken during Oct. 23-Nov. 1 1991 with the Arecibo 305-m telescope at 430 MHz, which were analyzed using 2-billion point Fourier transforms on supercomputers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, reveal two new ms pulsars in the globular cluster, M15. The sixth and fastest yet discovered in this cluster, M15F, has a spin rate of 248.3 Hz, while the eighth and latest to be discovered in this cluster has a spin rate of 148.3 Hz, the only one known so far in the frequency interval of 100-200 Hz. Further details and implications of these discoveries will be discussed.

  17. Exposure and Tumor Fn14 Expression as Determinants of Pharmacodynamics of the Anti-TWEAK Monoclonal Antibody RG7212 in Patients with Fn14-Positive Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulendijks, Didier; Lassen, Ulrik N; Siu, Lillian L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The TWEAK-Fn14 pathway represents a novel anticancer target that is being actively investigated. Understanding the relationship between pharmacokinetics of anti-TWEAK therapeutics and tumor pharmacodynamics is critical. We investigated exposure-response relationships of RG7212, an anti...... changes in tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in paired pre- and posttreatment tumor biopsies. The objectives of the analysis were to define exposure-response relationships and the relationship between pretreatment tumor Fn14 expression and pharmacodynamic effect. Associations between changes in TWEAK-Fn14...... longer time on study was observed with high versus low RG7212 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RG7212 reduced tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in a systemic exposure-dependent manner. In addition to higher exposure, relatively high Fn14 expression might be required for pharmacodynamic effect of anti-TWEAK monoclonal...

  18. Effect of divalent impurities on some physical properties of LiF and NaF; Influence des impuretes divalentes sur quelques proprietes physiques du LiF et du NaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laj, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The ionic thermo-currents technique is applied to the study of impurity vacancy dipoles in LiF and NaF doped with several divalent cations. In LiF only one ITC band is observed whatever the impurity studied. In NaF on the contrary two ITC bands are present, one corresponding to the one observed in LiF, the other one, intense in the case of small impurities, at lower temperature. A parallel EPR study in the case of Mn{sup 2+} doped samples shows that the band observed in LiF and the corresponding one in NaF are due to the relaxation of dipoles formed by the association of an impurity and a vacancy in the next nearest position. The knowledge of the properties of the dipoles allows to show that the room temperature ionic conductivity of LiF is conditioned by the equilibrium: M{sup ++} {open_square}+ {yields} M{sup ++} + {open_square}+. It is also shown that the isolated cation vacancy originating from this dissociation is responsible for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray coloration of LiF doped with divalent cation impurities. A paramagnetic center ascribed to the presence of Mn{sup 0} isolated in the lattice is also studied. The value of the hyperfine interaction and its temperature dependence are in good agreement with both the theory and the other experimental results. Finally it is shown that the disappearance of dipoles by annealing is related to the formation of complexes involving OH{sup -} ions, probably of the M(OH){sub 2} type, with the two OH{sup -} ions occupying a single fluorine site. (author) [French] La technique des thermocourants ioniques est appliquee a l'etude des dipoles lacune-impurete dans LiF et NaF dopes avec plusieurs cations divalents. Dans LiF on met en evidence un seul pic de thermocourant quelle que soit l'impurete consideree. Dans NaF au contraire deux pics de thermocourants sont presents, l'un correspondant a celui observe dans LiF, l'autre, dominant dans le cas des impuretes de petite taille, a plus basse temperature. Une etude parallelle

  19. Effect of divalent impurities on some physical properties of LiF and NaF; Influence des impuretes divalentes sur quelques proprietes physiques du LiF et du NaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laj, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The ionic thermo-currents technique is applied to the study of impurity vacancy dipoles in LiF and NaF doped with several divalent cations. In LiF only one ITC band is observed whatever the impurity studied. In NaF on the contrary two ITC bands are present, one corresponding to the one observed in LiF, the other one, intense in the case of small impurities, at lower temperature. A parallel EPR study in the case of Mn{sup 2+} doped samples shows that the band observed in LiF and the corresponding one in NaF are due to the relaxation of dipoles formed by the association of an impurity and a vacancy in the next nearest position. The knowledge of the properties of the dipoles allows to show that the room temperature ionic conductivity of LiF is conditioned by the equilibrium: M{sup ++} {open_square}+ {yields} M{sup ++} + {open_square}+. It is also shown that the isolated cation vacancy originating from this dissociation is responsible for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray coloration of LiF doped with divalent cation impurities. A paramagnetic center ascribed to the presence of Mn{sup 0} isolated in the lattice is also studied. The value of the hyperfine interaction and its temperature dependence are in good agreement with both the theory and the other experimental results. Finally it is shown that the disappearance of dipoles by annealing is related to the formation of complexes involving OH{sup -} ions, probably of the M(OH){sub 2} type, with the two OH{sup -} ions occupying a single fluorine site. (author) [French] La technique des thermocourants ioniques est appliquee a l'etude des dipoles lacune-impurete dans LiF et NaF dopes avec plusieurs cations divalents. Dans LiF on met en evidence un seul pic de thermocourant quelle que soit l'impurete consideree. Dans NaF au contraire deux pics de thermocourants sont presents, l'un correspondant a celui observe dans LiF, l'autre, dominant dans le cas des impuretes de petite taille, a plus basse temperature

  20. 78 FR 69778 - Adjustments to Limitations on Designated School Official Assignment and Study by F-2 and M-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... to attract the best and brightest international students to study in our schools. Access of F-2 or M... change existing regulations allowing full-time study by children in elementary or secondary school... best and brightest international students to study in our schools. The ability of F-2 or M-2...

  1. Interaction of xenon difluoride with the fluorocomplexes of lanthanides and rubidium of the Rb/sub 3/M/sup 3/F/sub 6/ composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachenkov, S.A.; Fadeeva, N.E.; Kiselev, Yu.M.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    The possibility of preparing rubidium fluorocomplexes of tetravalent lanthanides of the Rb/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ composition from Rb/sub 3/M/sup 3/F/sub 6/ (M/sup 3/=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) with XeF/sub 2/ has been studied. By the DTA method it is shown that Ce and Pr salts are fluorinated respectively at approximately 100 and approximately 235 deg C with a noticeable exoeffect. Tb and Dy salts fluorination proceeds with considerable kinetic difficulties. The fluorination products composition, Rb/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ (M/sup 4/=Ce, Pr, Tb, Dy) is confirmed by the methods of chemical, IR-spectroscopic and X-ray phase analyses. XeF/sub 2/ interaction with Rb/sub 3/M/sup 3/F/sub 6/ salts of other lanthanides up to 400 deg C has not been observed.

  2. Lider-Üye Etkileşiminin İşgören Performansına Etkisinde Çalışanların Örgütsel Adalet Algılarının Rolü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TURGUT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, lider-üye etkileşiminin çalışanların örgütsel adalet algıları ile performansları üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemek ve örgütsel adaletin, lider-üye etkileşimi ile işgören performansı arasındaki ilişkide aracılık rolünün bulunup bulunmadığını araştırmaktır. Bu amaçla Çorum’da bulunan orta öğretim seviyesindeki 20 farklı okulda görevli 471 öğretmenin katılımı ile bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; lider üye etkileşiminin, örgütsel adalet boyutlarını (dağıtım, işlemsel, kişilerarası, bilgisel ve işgören performansını, işlemsel, kişilerarası ve bilgisel adaletin de işgören performansını anlamlı ve pozitif yönde etkilediği görülmüş, ayrıca işlemsel, kişilerarası ve bilgisel adaletin lider üye etkileşimi ile işgören performansı ilişkisinde tam aracılık rollerinin bulunduğu belirlenmiştir.

  3. "Pulp Fiction" + "Linnupuur"? / L. L.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    L. L.

    2005-01-01

    rg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005

  4. Resting-State fMRI in MS: General Concepts and Brief Overview of Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sbardella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain functional connectivity (FC is defined as the coherence in the activity between cerebral areas under a task or in the resting-state (RS. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, RS FC shows several patterns which define RS brain networks (RSNs involved in specific functions, because brain function is known to depend not only on the activity within individual regions, but also on the functional interaction of different areas across the whole brain. Region-of-interest analysis and independent component analysis are the two most commonly applied methods for RS investigation. Multiple sclerosis (MS is characterized by multiple lesions mainly affecting the white matter, determining both structural and functional disconnection between various areas of the central nervous system. The study of RS FC in MS is mainly aimed at understanding alterations in the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain and their role in disease progression and clinical impairment. In this paper, we will examine the results obtained by the application of RS fMRI in different multiple sclerosis (MS phenotypes and the correlations of FC changes with clinical features in this pathology. The knowledge of RS FC changes may represent a substantial step forward in the MS research field, both for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

  5. Effect of 0.4 mT power frequency magnetic field on F-actin assembly of CHL cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Keping; Cai Zhiyin; Zhang Yukun; Xia Nuohong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field on the microfilament (F- actin) assembly of Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Methods: F-actin were marked with immunohistochemical method, then observed under a confocal microscope. The content of ECFRs in the preparation of the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton was measured with Western-blotting. Results: The stress fiber's of CHL cells decreased after exposure to 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field for 30min, as well as after treatment with epidermal growth factor (ECF) of 50nM. Filopodias appeared at the periphery after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. The EGF receptor mass associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton increased after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. Conclusion: 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field induced assembly of F-actin in CHL cells. The change induced by magnetic field would be related to clustering of EGFR induced by magnetic field and passing the signal down. (authors)

  6. Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Han, Junwei; Nguyen, Vinh T; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV) derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

  7. “Hak Temelli” Sosyal Politikadan “Hayırseverlik Temelli” Sosyal Politikaya Geçişte Sivil Toplum Örgütlerinin Rolü / Roles of NGOs in the Transition from “Rights-Based” Social Policy to “Charity-Based” Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğa Başar SARIİPEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sosyal politikanın geleceğini tartışmak, aslında sosyal politika kurumlarının geleceğini ve aralarındaki işbölümünün niteliğini tartışmaktır. Nitekim devlet, aile, piyasa ve sivil toplum örgütleri şeklinde sayabileceğimiz bu kurumlar arasındaki ilişkinin niteliği, aslında her toplumun sosyal koruma rejimini de belirlemektedir. Bu kurumlar arası ilişkide asli ve değişmez olması gereken aktör devlettir. Yani devletsiz bir sosyal politika düşünmek mümkün değildir. Devletin bu değişmezliği içinde diğer kurumların rolü ise onu tamamlamaktır. Ancak son yıllarda neoliberal düşüncelerin başını çektiği bir dizi değişimle birlikte, devlet temelli refahtan, çoğulcu refah düzenine geçişin önü açılmaya çalışılmakta ve sivil toplum örgütlerinin rol ve sorumluluğu da yeniden tanımlanmaktadır. Bu süreçte, sosyal politika kurumları arasındaki geleneksel birbirini “tamamlama” ilişkisi, “ikame” ilişkisine dönüştürülmeye çalışılmakta ve devletin sorumluluğu diğer kurumlara devredilmeye çabalanmaktadır. Sosyal korumaya sadece maliyet penceresinden bakan ve sosyal harcamaları azaltmayı tek hedef olarak belirleyen bu bakış açısı, iddia ettiğinin aksine sosyal politikanın değişen toplum koşullarına uyarlanması ve geleceğinin güvence alınması değil, aksine “hak temelli sosyal politika” yaklaşımından uzaklaşıp, “hayırseverlik temelli sosyal politika” yaklaşımına geçiş anlamına gelmektedir. Sivil toplum örgütlerinin bizzat devlet tarafından güçlendirilmesiyle koşut yürütülmeye çalışılan bu süreç, kesin olarak vatandaşların sosyal politika haklarında bir gerilemeye işaret etmekte ve sivil toplum örgütlerinin geleneksel olarak üstlendiği bireylerin sosyal koruma rol ve sorumluluğunun da içini boşaltmaktadır. / Discussion of the future of social policy cannot be managed without referring to its institutions

  8. Identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease using resting-state fMRI and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Study of brain network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided promising results to investigate changes in connectivity among different brain regions because of diseases. Graph theory can efficiently characterize different aspects of the brain network by calculating measures of integration and segregation. In this study, we combine graph theoretical approaches with advanced machine learning methods to study functional brain network alteration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Support vector machine (SVM) was used to explore the ability of graph measures in diagnosis of AD. We applied our method on the resting-state fMRI data of twenty patients with AD and twenty age and gender matched healthy subjects. The data were preprocessed and each subject's graph was constructed by parcellation of the whole brain into 90 distinct regions using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas. The graph measures were then calculated and used as the discriminating features. Extracted network-based features were fed to different feature selection algorithms to choose most significant features. In addition to the machine learning approach, statistical analysis was performed on connectivity matrices to find altered connectivity patterns in patients with AD. Using the selected features, we were able to accurately classify patients with AD from healthy subjects with accuracy of 100%. Results of this study show that pattern recognition and graph of brain network, on the basis of the resting state fMRI data, can efficiently assist in the diagnosis of AD. Classification based on the resting-state fMRI can be used as a non-invasive and automatic tool to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  9. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyao Xie; Baixiao Niu; Yunming Long; Gousi Li; Jintao Tang; Yaling Zhang; Ding Ren; Yao-Guang Liu; Letian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding.

  10. Chondroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 in  Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes and a Rat Model  of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendan Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and reduces articular cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA. Gene expression and protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP‐13 and cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2 were determined in vitro by quantitative real‐time‐polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 amounts in the culture medium were determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. For in vivo assessment, a rat model of OA was generated by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT. Four weeks after ACLT, Rg1 (30 or 60 mg/kg or saline was administered by gavage once a day for eight consecutive weeks. Joint damage was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited Interleukin (IL‐1β‐induced chondrocyte gene and protein expressions of MMP‐13, COX‐2 and PGE2, and prevented type II collagen and aggrecan degradation, in a dose‐dependent manner. Administration of Ginsenoside Rg1 to OA rats attenuated cartilage degeneration, and reduced type II collagen loss and MMP‐13 levels. These findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg1 can inhibit inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes in vitro and reduce articular cartilage damage in vivo, confirming the potential therapeutic value of Ginsenoside Rg1 in OA.

  11. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  12. Derin suda dairesel silindir arkasında meydana gelen akış yapısının örgü teller ile kontrol edilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Oğuz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada amaç derin su içerisine yerleştirilen silindire (bacalar, yüksek binalar vb. ve arkasındaki bir cisme veya cisimlere girdap kopması sonucu etki eden daimi olmayan yüklerin etkisinin ve şiddetinin azaltılması ve optimum değerlerin (tel kalınlığı ve geçirgenlik oranı, β belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla çapı D=50 mm olan dairesel silindir etrafına sarılan farklı kalınlık ve geçirgenlik oranına sahip örgü tellerin etkisi Re_D=5000 değerinde araştırılmıştır. Geçirgenlik oranları β=0.5-0.8 aralığında 0.1 artımlarla dört farklı değerdedir. Silindir üzerine sarılmış tellerin kalınlıkları b=1 mm, 2 mm, 3mm ve 4mm’dir. Silindir arkasında meydana gelen akış yapısı, silindir etrafına sarılan örgü tellerle kontrol edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Deneyler PIV (parçacık görüntülemeli hız ölçme tekniği kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. Tüm geçirgenlik oranlarında, Türbülans Kinetik Enerji (TKE ve Reynolds kayma gerilmesi değerleri b=1 mm ve 2 mm tel kalınlıklarında, örgüsüz silindirin değeri ile kıyaslandığında artmakta fakat b=3 mm ve 4 mm kalınlıklarında azalmaktadır. Geçirgenlik oranı, β=0.6 değerinde ve tel kalınlığı b=4 mm durumunda TKE ve Reynolds kayma gerilmesi değerleri, örgü tellerinin silindir arkasında meydana gelen akışı kontrol ettiğini göstermektedir. Frekans değerlerinin sonuçları da örgü tellerin, silindir arkasındaki akışı, geçirgenlik oranı β=0.6 ve b=4 mm tel kalınlığında en iyi kontrolü sağladığını net bir şekilde açıklamaktadır

  13. The anti-(+-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody mAb7F9 attenuates acute (+-methamphetamine effects on intracranial self-stimulation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Harris

    Full Text Available Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against (+-methamphetamine (METH is being evaluated for the treatment of METH addiction. A human/mouse chimeric form of the murine anti-METH mAb7F9 has entered clinical trials. This study examined the effects of murine mAb7F9 on certain addiction-related behavioral effects of METH in rats as measured using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS. Initial studies indicated that acute METH (0.1-0.56 mg/kg, s.c. lowered the minimal (threshold stimulation intensity that maintained ICSS. METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c. also blocked elevations in ICSS thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior during spontaneous withdrawal from a chronic METH infusion (10 mg/kg/day x 7 days. In studies examining effects of i.v. pretreatment with mAb7F9 (at 30, 100, or 200 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg blocked the ability of an initial injection of METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c. to reduce baseline ICSS thresholds, but was less capable of attenuating the effect of subsequent daily injections of METH. MAb7F9 (200 mg/kg also produced a small but significant reduction in the ability of METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c. to reverse METH withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. These studies demonstrate that mAb7F9 can partially attenuate some addiction-related effects of acute METH in an ICSS model, and provide some support for the therapeutic potential of mAb7F9 for the treatment of METH addiction.

  14. Use of F.M.E.A. for reliability analysis of safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbet, J.F.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the framework of the French nuclear power plant program, reliability studies of safety systems have been carried out at the Electricite de France since 1975. The main results of the studies are examined; about the methodological aspects it appears useful to develop an inductive approach such as the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (F.M.E.A.). The method is described with its advantages and limitations; the possibilities of use of F.M.E.A. to solve specific safety problems are investigated. To conclude, the future trends of research and development in this field at Electricite de France are pointed out [fr

  15. Some solid state properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL-materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokert, K [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Georgia). Inst. of Radiation Protection

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes some investigations of solid state characteristics of a LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminofor. The investigations were carried out with LiF:Mg,Cu,P-thermoluminescence (TL)-material prepared by the chemical institute of the Moscow State University in form of powder and sintered pellets. Following methods were used: (1) Studies of the chemical composition was carried out by x-ray fluorescence analysis with `SPECTRO-X-LAB`-equipment with Rh-anode, B{sub 4}C-polarizator, LN{sub 2}-cooled 30 mm{sup 2} Si(Li)-detector with Be-window (energy resolution 155 keV for Mn-k{sub {alpha}}-radiation). The software of the equipment permits a qualitative and quantitative determination of elements with atomic numbers >10; (2) investigations of the crystal structure were taken by x-ray-diffractometry with a SIEMENS-diffractometer D 500 using Cu-k{sub {alpha}}-radiation. The integrated software permits to analyze the crystalline phases using the data of the measured material by comparison with standards spectra of various pure substances. The results of determination of the chemical composition and the crystal structure show that in the thermoluminofor LiF:Mg,Cu,P, besides the basic material LiF also Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}- and Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}-crystal regions exists. The occurrence of the two lithium phosphate phases follow from the high ammonium phosphate content in the mixture for the thermoluminofor production. The formation of the various lithium phosphates depends from state of dehydration of phosphoric acids, created by thermal decomposition of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} before their reactions with LiF start. Therefore the content of these compounds can differ if thermoluminofors are prepared under various conditions. The maintenance of the needed equilibrium of special structures in the material depends on the preparation procedure, on the reading and annealing methods. Typically for such an equilibrium is its poor thermal stability. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  17. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  18. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanqiang; Feng, Zhiyan; Xu, Junling; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Shi, Dapeng; Qin, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several functional imaging studies have investigated the regional effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on impaired brain function; however, potential changes in the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres after SD are not well understood. In this study, we used a recently validated approach, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to directly examine the changes in interhemispheric homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) after SD. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 28 participants both after rest wakefulness (RW) and a total night of SD. An interhemispheric RSFC map was obtained by calculating the Pearson correlation (Fisher Z transformed) between each pair of homotopic voxel time series for each subject in each condition. The between-condition differences in interhemispheric RSFC were then examined at global and voxelwise levels separately. Significantly increased global VMHC was found after sleep deprivation; specifically, a significant increase in VMHC was found in specific brain regions, including the thalamus, paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. No regions showed significantly reduced VMHC after sleep deprivation. Further analysis indicates that these findings did not depend on the various sizes of smoothing kernels that were adopted in the preprocessing steps and that the differences in these regions were still significant with or without global signal regression. Our data suggest that the increased VMHC might reflect the compensatory involvement of bilateral brain areas, especially the bilateral thalamus, to prevent cognitive performance deterioration when sleep pressure is elevated after sleep deprivation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of interhemispheric correlation changes after SD and contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of SD.

  19. Effective Connectivity within the Default Mode Network: Dynamic Causal Modeling of Resting-State fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaev, Maksim G; Zavyalova, Viktoria V; Ushakov, Vadim L; Kartashov, Sergey I; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2016-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e., effective connectivity), however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), left and right intraparietal cortex (LIPC and RIPC). For this purpose functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one) was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM) on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078-0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are signific