WorldWideScience

Sample records for state environmental legislation

  1. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  2. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  3. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  4. Simplifying EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2014-01-01

    The recent review of the EIA Directive was launched as part of the ‘better regulation’ agenda with the purpose to simplify procedures and reduce administrative burdens. This was combined with an attempt to further harmonise procedures in order address shortcomings in the Directive and to overcome...... for different interpretations on core issues. This is likely to result in diverging practices in the Member States as well as in further litigation on EIA matters. It is argued that at least from the outset the review of the EIA Directive missed out on a more thorough discussion of fundamental issues linked...... to the character and scope of EIA such as the important distinction between the procedural functions of information gathering and participation as opposed to the substantive outcomes in terms of reducing or avoiding adverse effects. A careful discussion of the basics of EIA might have provided a better option...

  5. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  6. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  7. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  8. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  14. Environmental problems of construction wastes: State of the art. Legislation; Problematica medioambiental de los residuos de construccion. Situacion actual. Legislacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    1999-07-01

    In spite of their nature of inert, the Residuals of Construction and Demolition expounds grave environmental problems. It also represents an squander of reusable materials. This article tries to give a global vision of the environmental problem of the administration of these residuals, as well as the juridical instruments that exist in the material in Spain. (Author)

  15. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  16. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  18. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  19. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  20. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  1. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    regime in Nigeria given the scenario that several times burst oil pipelines have stayed for days ... understand the meaning of the term environmental protection. ..... of methods, materials and equipment for oil spill detection and response;.

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  3. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  6. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  7. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  8. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  10. Green energy laws and Republican legislators in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, Jonathan S.; Hess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The policy context for green energy laws in the United States has changed over the past few years, because the Republican Party has increasingly opposed renewable electricity and other green energy policies. In this study, we draw on a database of 6071 votes on RPS (renewable portfolio standards) and PACE (Property-Assessed Clean Energy) laws by individual state legislators in the United States to examine the circumstances shaping Republican votes for green energy laws from 2007–2011. We find that votes on these laws are indeed increasingly partisan, with Republicans supporting RPS laws especially less than Democrats. However, Republicans' support for these laws is higher in states with weaker fossil fuel industries. Furthermore, Republicans tend to support the laws where median household income is lower, environmental organizations are weaker, labor-environmental coalitions are absent, and the proportion of Democrats in the legislature is lower, suggesting a reactive effect against green energy policies in more progressive settings. - Highlights: ► We analyze Republican votes for state RPS and PACE laws from 2007–2011. ► Support for RPS laws declined, while support for PACE laws remained steady. ► Support for both laws is lower in states with strong fossil fuel industries. ► Support for both laws is lower in more Democratic legislatures.

  11. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  12. Brazilian agriculture and environmental legislation: status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Klug, Israel L F; Barretto, Alberto G O P

    2010-08-15

    Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) a large deficit in legal reserves and protected riparian zones on private farmland, and (iii) large areas of unprotected natural vegetation in regions experiencing agriculture expansion. Achieving full compliance with the environmental laws as they presently stand would require drastic changes in agricultural land use, where large agricultural areas are taken out of production and converted back to natural vegetation. The outcome of a full compliance with environmental legislation might not be satisfactory due to leakage, where pristine unprotected areas become converted to compensate for lost production as current agricultural areas are reconverted to protected natural vegetation. Realizing the desired protection of biodiversity and natural vegetation, while expanding agriculture to meet food and biofuel demand, may require a new approach to environmental protection. New legal and regulatory instruments and the establishment of alternative development models should be considered.

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE System...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  17. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  18. An analysis of state legislation on community trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy; Lankford, Tina; Chriqui, Jamie; Evenson, Kelly R; Kruger, Judy; Tompkins, Nancy; Voorhees, Carolyn; Zieff, Susan; Aytur, Semra; Brownson, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Trails provide opportunities for recreation, transportation and activity. The purpose of this article is to describe state legislation related to community trails, to analyze legislation content, and to evaluate legislation on inclusion of evidence-informed elements. State trail legislation from 2001 to 2008 was identified using online legislative databases. An analysis of evidence-informed elements included in the legislation was conducted. These elements included: funding, liability, accessibility, connectivity, and maintenance. Of the total 991 trail bills, 516 (52.0%) were appropriations bills, of which 167 (32.2%) were enacted. We analyzed 475 (48%) nonappropriation trail bills of which 139 (29.3%) were enacted. The percentage of enactment of appropriations bills decreased over time while enactment of nonappropriations trail bills increased. Over half of the nonappropriations trail bills included at least 1 evidence-informed element, most commonly funding. Few bills contained liability, connectivity, accessibility, or maintenance. There is opportunity for providing evidence-informed information to policy-makers to potentially influence bill content. The number of bills with a funding element demonstrates that fiscal support for trails is an important policy lever that state legislatures may use to support trails. Lastly, trails should be considered in over-all state-level physical activity legislation to provide opportunities for communities to be active.

  19. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  20. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  1. Evolution of the mining legislation in environmental component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    1999-01-01

    The concern for the rational and appropriate use of the renewable natural resources in the extraction processes, benefit, transformation of the minerals is recent, although there are dispositions from principles of the republic that refer to that relationship. Presently article is made a journey by such dispositions, it is explained how it should have restructured the executive branch of the public power to put on in consonance with the changes in environmental matter and like it has belonged the process of adaptation from the mining managers to those legislative changes

  2. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  3. Socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector. Effects of environmental legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, A.C.; Menezes, C.F.S.

    1993-01-01

    The great socio-environmental policies of Brazilian electric sector are presented, including the aspects of environmental legislation that affects the electric sector and the difficulties faced in order to adapting to this situation. The main problems that the electric sector has found to establishing its socio-environmental policies are also described. (C.M.)

  4. 43 CFR 46.445 - Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.445 Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement. When required under 40 CFR 1506.8, the Department must ensure that a legislative environmental impact statement is included as a part of the formal...

  5. Educational Policy Making in the State Legislature: Legislator as Policy Expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sue Wells; Geske, Terry G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legislator's role as education policy expert in the legislative policymaking process. In a study of Louisiana state legislators, analysis of variance was used to determine expert legislators' degree of influence in formulating educational policy, given differences in policy types, information sources, and legislators' work roles.…

  6. Observing environmental European legislation - strategic priority of SC Termoelectrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Ovidiu; Motiu, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    Defined as the main Romanian power producer, SC Termoelectrica is also a Company that faced over 50 years of experience and confrontations with different technical, economical and legislative problems. The measures of restructuring that were taken during the last years, also included a program of retiring of use of some inefficient and in excess units. That brought our company at its actual structure that consists in producing, repairs and services units, organized as commercial societies and subsidiaries of SC Termoelectrica. The activity of producing thermal and electric power using old power equipment (33.84% of them are over 30 years old, 46.54% are between 10-20 years old and only 0.64 % are under 10 years old) and without control pollution installations or having inefficient installations, led to the increasing of some environmental problems along the years. The paper has the following structure: - Introduction; - Actual situation; - The accession to the European Union - the control of industrial pollution (The abatement of atmospheric, water and soil pollution); - The mitigation of greenhouse gases. In conclusion one stresses that no matter which will be the way of organization the environmental approach at European or national level, these will become a strategic priority for SC Termoelectrica. The way these environmental problems will be solved will have a great influence on: - The company's thermal power plants work, while their impact upon the local, regional and global environment will be almost nonexistent; - The offer of electric power produced by thermal power plants in national and international transactions; - The fulfillment of the three objectives of a power producer: accessibility, availability and acceptability

  7. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  8. Recent Developments in EU Environmental Policy and Legislation (Sept, 2016 - March, 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva, Yelena M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the significant political initiatives and acts of legislation in the environmental field adopted in the period from September 2016 until March 2017. UHasselt clean energy for all Europeans (winter package); circular economy package; waste; forest law enforcement governance and trade (flegt); national emission ceilings directive; noise pollution report; legislative priorities for 2017; commission infringement decisions; sustainable development priorities; protecti...

  9. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  10. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act is held up both as an example of strict legislation working to guard biodiversity preservation (Yaffee, 1982) and an uneconomical law that creates perverse incentives that may actually reduce such preservation (Brown and Shogren, 1998; Lueck & Michael, 2003; List et...... al, 2006). Passage of the 1973 act itself, and that of the three earlier acts leading up to it in the 1960s, was not controversial; few congressmen wanted to vote against the preservation of endangered species! Yet controversy surrounding the law's restrictions on land and resource use extends far...

  11. 75 FR 17854 - Travel Expenses of State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... residence within the taxpayer's legislative district as the taxpayer's tax home. In addition, as a result of... section 162(h), a matter of Federal law. See Morgan v. Commissioner, 309 U.S. 78, 81 (1940) (``If it is... place of residence within the legislative district represented by the taxpayer is the taxpayer's home...

  12. Environmental juridical aspects of the mining legislation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Florez, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    From the international context at the regional level, the mining activity in Colombia is subject to the execution of norms of environmental character or environmental miner that define it in some way. This norma has suffered important transformations determined by the fundamental juridical changes that especially in the last ten years they have been given so much in the environmental sector as the mining sector, as well as for the jurisprudence especially of the constitutional court on these matters. These aspects were in their majority, analyzed in a combined way for the mining and environmental authorities, in the juridical forum of the environmental national system in that the proposal of the CDMB, Corantioquia and Corpouraba, it approaches this like discussion topic, likewise the technical documents that supported the expedition of the environmental guides miner, were fed by the combined work of mining and environmental authorities. These confluence points should be fundamentally disclosed and well-known inside the mining sector as of the environmental sector in order to that, not only has clear which is at the moment the environmental mining norma effective, but rather it is also had the necessary tools to give to this normative, the interpretation and appropriate application. The different implications that it introduced the law 685 of 2001 in environmental matter, will be analyzed by the light of the jurisprudence and the new norms settled down in environmental matter, such as the Sentences C-431 2000, C-336 2000, C-339 2002 and the Ordinances 2390 of 2002, 2653 of 2003, 1180 of 2003, among other, especially in connection with topics as the contents in the Chapter III of the Law 685 of 2001 reserved, excluded and restricted areas, the topic of the environmental licenses and that of the legalization of the mining in fact, making a priori in this analysis an evaluation from the point of view of the environmental authority in connection with the efficiency and

  13. Partisan Differences on Higher Education Accountability Policy: A Multi-State Study of Elected State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Andrew Q.

    2014-01-01

    Public institutions in the United States face a policy challenge to adapt to accountability expectations among a variety of stakeholders (Bogue & Hall, 2012; Thelin, 2004; Richardson & Martinez, 2009). Among the major stakeholders are state legislators who hold fiscal and policy influence over public institutions, but these leaders have…

  14. EC environmental legislation and the European oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    EUROPIA has 32 ordinary member companies which own and operate more than 95% of EC refining capacity, plus three associate member companies from EFTA countries. A large part of EUROPIA's efforts is devoted to environmental issues. Among its initial actions, EUROPIA developed Guiding Principles for environmental management which have been adopted by all member companies. This article can only highlight some of the key areas of EC environmental policy of interest to the oil industry. Most of the comments will refer to air pollution issues but, of course, water and ground pollution and waste are equally important subjects. (orig./HS)

  15. Patterns and predictors of state adult obesity prevention legislation enactment in US states: 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Villanti, Andrea C; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L; Rutkow, Lainie

    2015-05-01

    This study examined bill- and state-level factors associated with enactment of adult obesity prevention legislation in US states. A review of bills in the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity's legislative database identified 487 adult obesity prevention bills, or proposed legislation, introduced between 2010 and 2013. Multilevel models were constructed to examine bill- and state-level characteristics associated with enactment. From 2010 to 2013, 81 (17%) of obesity prevention bills introduced were enacted across 35 states and the District of Columbia. Bills introduced in 2010 were more likely to be enacted than in 2013 (OR=9.49; 95% CI: 2.61-34.5). Bills focused on access to healthy food, physical activity, general and educational programs, as well as modifying rules and procedures (e.g., preemption) had greater odds of enactment relative to food and beverage taxes (OR=8.18; 95% CI: 2.85-23.4 healthy food; OR=17.3; 95% CI: 4.55-65.7 physical activity; OR=15.2; 95% CI: 4.80-47.9 general; OR=13.7; 95% CI: 3.07-61.5 rules). The year of bill introduction and overall bill enactment rate were related to adult obesity prevention legislation enactment in states. This study highlights the importance of a bill's topic area for enactment and provides insights for advocates and policymakers trying to address enactment barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. National Conference of State Legislators Geothermal Project. Final report, February 1978-September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the National Conference of State Legislatures Geothermal Project in stimulating and assessing state legislative action to encourage the efficient development of geothermal resources, including the use of ground water heat pumps, are reviewed by state. (MHR)

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: PROACTIVE LEGISLATION FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. N. Pereira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental question is of complex nature. It involves knowledge of diverse subjects and makes possible the accomplishment of studies under the optics of different specialties. The philosopher Heller apud Carvalho (2001 contents that the world-wide civilization is in crisis, understands that the solution of the most serious problems is urgent, lest social and political chaos or even human self-destruction will result.Environmental Law is a science that appeared at a historical moment designated by the crisis. This science has been appraised as being a set of principles, norms and rules that have the objective of protecting the environment, maintain the ecological balance, conserve cultural assets and contribute to harmonic development and social justice. For the application of this concept, administrative and legal measures are used beyond repairing the actual damages to the environment and ecosystems (CARVALHO, 2001.The law itself is one of the tools used by the Science of Environmental Law. To command the social and cultural life in an effective process of adjustment in the light of the evolution of society is, in ample direction, the dynamics of the law. It can be observed that it also expresses the necessity of living beings to share one determined space of time and place, without the need for foreign orders devoid of adaptations.

  18. How Narrative Focus and a Statistical Map Shape Health Policy Support Among State Legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.

  19. Legislative framework for sediment management in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Garcia-Chevesich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediment erosion is a serious issue, with approximately 75 billion tons of soil is eroded annually around the world (Pimentel and Kounang, 1998. Although erosion is a natural process, it can accelerate due to human activity and land use changes. Increasing soil erosion beyond its natural threshold can result in significant environmental degradation and decreased economic productivity. Implementing sediment management laws and practices is critical to significantly decrease soil erosion and preserve environmental resources. In the United States, there is a comprehensive system of laws and regulations at national, state, county, and city level that govern erosion and sediment control. The laws and voluntary incentives outlined in our paper have significantly reduced the negative impacts of sediment carried in urban and storm-generated runoff, have reduced chemical and biological pollutants in sediment transported in aquatic ecosystems, and have improved the air quality in several cities with air pollution problems. Having a multi-faceted approach to monitoring erosion and improving soil management is important for a healthy, productive environment and economy.

  20. Teaching Environmental Ethics: Moral Considerations and Legislative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard J.; Buttrick, Hilary G.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the first business ethics textbook states, by way of observation, "Custom, convention and the accepted courtesies of a society are not the foundation of ethics even though they provide valuable hints as to what men think… Law enshrines many of the ethical judgments of a society, but it is not coextensive with ethics" (Garrett,…

  1. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.

  2. Development of the competitive business in the context of environmental legislation in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesić, Mirjana; Kalambura, Sanja; Bacun, Dubravka

    2014-03-01

    Environmental protection has a key role in the context of crisis management. It is not just about development of the industry of environmental protection and implementation of new ways of management in innovative solutions in solving problems. Important area of improvement is also revision of environmental legislation aiming at simplification and reduction of costs of procedures for the business. This paper discusses problems of business sector in Croatia related to transposition of demanding environmental EU regulation, it suggests improvements such as simplification of special waste management systems, of environmental impact assessments processes, environmental permitting etc. The paper considers revision of environmental protection not by lowering environmental standards, but by introducing transparent and compromising models between business and environmental protection, based on sustainable development, with control mechanisms which don't impact functioning of business sector (and its competitiveness), therefore allowing successful protection of environment and its renewable and non-renewable resources.

  3. Support for 3rd regulatory review on nanomaterials – environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broomfield, Mark; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Pelsy, Florent

    materials, and challenges for environmental legislation. Consultation with stakeholders was carried out by email and telephone, and a stakeholder workshop was held on 21 June 2016. At the workshop, the interim findings were presented, and stakeholder feedback and views were discussed. Following the workshop......, stakeholders provided feedback in writing. This feedback has been taken into account for the finalisation of the report...

  4. 75 FR 58370 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Extension of the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range Land... Riverside counties, California, for continued military use of the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range... addressing legislative alternatives and the effects of continued withdrawal. The CMAGR Draft L-EIS will...

  5. Environmental analysis for building legislation purposes. A challenge to science and policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Huppes, G.; Haes, H.A.U. de

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Government is cooperating with the building industry to prepare legislation for environmental performance requirements for dwellings and residential buildings. These requirements, also known as dubo-eisen (requirements for sustainable building) will have to apply to all newly built

  6. Racism in United States: Drug Legislation and the Trade-Off Behind It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligman, Avron C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to show that drug legislation in the United States has been the result of racial discrimination as rationalized by labeling specific target populations deviant. The author suggests that organized medicine can also be linked to the controlling measures of drug legislation. (Author)

  7. Environmental and legislative drivers for sustainable music festival management : why Finnish music festivals should "go green"

    OpenAIRE

    Okolo-Kulak, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate why Finnish music festivals should "go green". The research was conducted from the aspect of environmental and legal drivers for sustainability. Academic sources on event management, sustainability as well as sustainable event management (SEM) were used to collect information on the subject. Furthermore, secondary sources were used to grasp a deep understanding on the environmental issues as well as legislative drivers for sustainability. The r...

  8. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The STATE...

  9. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  10. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  11. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the Current State Legislative District (SLD) Lower Chamber State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — State Legislative Districts (SLDs) are the areas from which members are elected to State legislatures. The SLDs embody the upper (senate) and lower (house) chambers...

  12. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  13. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Reed, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  14. The Impact of State Legislation and Model Policies on Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the coverage of state legislation and the expansiveness ratings of state model policies on the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. Methods: The state-level prevalence of bullying in schools was based on cross-sectional data from the 2013 High School Youth Risk Behavior…

  15. The effects of sexual orientation on state legislators' behavior and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This article explores whether sexual orientation, surrogate representation, and political factors affect legislators' work on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) interests, and whether the latter explains away the influence of sexual orientation. A survey of openly GLB state legislators and their colleagues was conducted to measure legislators' campaign issues, legislative priorities, surrogate representation, and ambition. This information is supplemented with bill introduction and district data. The results indicate that legislators' sexual orientation strongly influences their work on GLB issues and although surrogate representation and electoral considerations also affect GLB work, they do not explain away the importance of sexual orientation. The implications of this for the relationship between descriptive and substantive representation are explored.

  16. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure. The...

  18. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  19. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption. The...

  20. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  1. [Development of legislation and standardization of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Dong; Hou, You-Juan; Meng, Fan-Hong; Chen, Shu-Juan; Wang, Yan-Yao; Jiang, Fan; Ding, Ming

    2012-06-01

    In the present article, the authors summarized the state of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America from 1) history and current state, 2) legislation and its contents, management system and introduction of health insurance system, and 3) standardization. Acupuncture therapy, as a complementary or alternative therapy, has been widely supported and approved by majority of states in the USA. The authors hold that due to differences between the oriental and western cultures and difficulties of Chinese medicine in quantitative and qualitative studies, the legislation on acupuncture therapy for approval of the American Parliament needs paying more efforts.

  2. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  3. Information report on state legislation. Volume 10, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, J.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a growing number of inquiries from State officials regarding alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) views on these technologies, the NRC convened a 2-day workshop at the Linden Hill Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, on May 2-3, 1984. Over 140 persons representing States, Compacts, industry, federal government, and public interest groups met to explore the pros and cons of shallow land burial and alternative disposal concepts for low-level radioactive waste

  4. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  5. Guidelines for the Review of Environmental-Related Legislation Regarding the Realisation of the Right to Access to Sufficient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO proposes a three-level strategy for the implementation of the right to food on a national legislative level, namely through: constitutional recognition, the implementation of a food framework law and the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation. This contribution focuses on the last level of legislative provisioning, namely the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation which influences, or possibly can, influence the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The right to access to sufficient food has multidimensional, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral characteristics and consequently various sectors are involved in the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this contribution is based on the reviewing of relevant environmental-related legislation only. The FAO does not make recommendations with regard to the specific aspects that need to be incorporated in environmental-related legislation to contribute to the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food (in other words the aspects against which environmental-related legislation can be evaluated. Therefore this

  6. Principles of environmental legislation in UN, EU and Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key turning point regarding to environmental protection was the United Nations Conference on the Human environment held in Stockholm, in1972. On the Conference was adopted the UN Declaration on the Human environment. On that occasion established fundamental principles of environmental protection. At the Conference, UNEP, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. has adopted the UN Declaration on the Environmental protection and sustainable development.. The Council of Europe has adopted a number of documents in which the central part is the protection of the environment. The Council of Europe adopted the following conventions: Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural habitats in 1979; Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment in 1993; Convention on the protection of Environment trough Criminal Law, in 1998; and European Landscape Convention in 2000. The Constitution of Republic of Serbia proclaims the right to a healthy environment, but also establishes the obligation of all, to conserve and improve it. The fundamental principles of environmental protection system in our county are regulated by the following. The Law on Environmental Protection, The Law on Environment Impact, The Law on Environment Strategic Impact and The Law on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. These Laws are aimed towards establishing an environmental management system and providing protection from natural balance degradation. With a great number of Laws in particular sectors of environmental protection, Republic of Serbia received modern legislation, which formed, a good basis for economic and social activities involved in environmental protection.

  7. Environmental assessment of microwaves and the effect of European energy efficiency and waste management legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-03-15

    More than 130 million microwaves are affected by European Union (EU) legislation which is aimed at reducing the consumption of electricity in the standby mode ('Standby Regulation') and at more sustainable management of end-of-life electrical and electronic waste ('WEEE Directive'). While legislation focuses on these two life cycle stages, there is little information on the environmental impacts of the entire life cycle of microwaves. To address this gap, this paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of microwaves and assesses the environmental implications of the Standby Regulation and the WEEE Directive at the EU level. The impacts are first considered at the level of individual appliances and then at the EU level, with the aim of evaluating the potential environmental implications of the full implementation of the above two EU regulations by 2020. The effects of the electricity decarbonisation and the expected increase in the number of microwaves in use have also been considered. The results suggest that implementation of the EU regulation by 2020 will reduce the environmental impacts considered by 4%-9% compared to the current situation. The majority of these reductions is due to the Standby Regulation, with the contribution of the WEEE Directive being small (~0.3%). However, the expected decarbonisation of electricity will result in much higher reductions (6%-24%) for most impact categories. The results also show that the materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life disposal are environmental hot-spots for several impacts, including depletion of abiotic elements. Therefore, efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of a future electricity mix should be combined with the development of specific eco-design regulations for microwaves that stipulate optimisation of resource consumption. Possible future trends, such as shorter lifetimes and limited availability of some resources, make the development of such

  8. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  9. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1996 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996. Thirteen bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The report also includes 10 New York bills introduced in 1995 that remained pending during this review period. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency response. Also summarized are a state legislative resolution and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  10. State Legislative Developments on Campus Sexual Violence: Issues in the Context of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Andrew; Sponsler, Brian A.; Fulton, Mary

    2015-01-01

    NASPA--Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education and Education Commission of the States (ECS) have partnered to address legislative developments and offer considerations for leaders in higher education and policy on two top-level safety issues facing the higher education community: campus sexual violence and guns on campus. The first in a…

  11. Chapter 28A.85 RCW Monitoring Guide. Washington State's Anti-Sex Discrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide was designed to assist in the assessment of the level of implementation of Washington State's anti-sex discrimination legislation in educational programs and activities. The monitoring guide contains two major sections: a monitoring standards check list and an on-site review packet. The check list provides an overview of the specific…

  12. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava; Nasvit, Oleg; German, Olga

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  13. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  14. Environmental impact assessment in the Fijian state sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, Jane

    2003-01-01

    For over 20 years, the South Pacific state of Fiji has required developers to conduct more than 70 environmental impact assessments (EIA), without specifying the environmental quality or impacts it considers (in)appropriate. It has ignored aspects of EIA to which agencies funding development have paid little attention--assessing alternatives, monitoring outcomes and enforcing consent conditions. This infers the Fijian state is not serious about using EIA to control environmental quality. Factors other than technical shortcomings are shaping the way the state constrains EIA practice. Unless these factors change, the comprehensive EIA system proposed in Sustainable Development legislation will not prevent environmental degradation

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  16. Some considerations regarding the reforms of nuclear liability legislation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von

    1980-01-01

    In the United States, as in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland, some thought is presently being given to reforms of nuclear liability legislation. In each case it was either triggered or influenced by the Three Mile Island incident of March 28, 1979. Some of the current thinking in the United States has already been incorporated in a number of draft bills now before Congress for deliberation and decision. Other draft bills on reforms of U.S. nuclear liability law have been announced. It is certain that this reform of nuclear liability legislation in the United States will be carried out not only with determination and the political will to improve the present situation, but also with the required caution and prudence, and that it will keep Congress busy not only for this term, but also next year. (orig.) [de

  17. The development of occupational, public and environmental radiation protection legislation in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.; Chandler, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In Great Britain, legislation to protect workers exposed to ionising radiation has developed separately from, but largely in parallel with, legislation to protect the public and the environment. Occupational radiation protection started from a narrow and industry specific base in 1947. Over the succeeding years, and partly in response to the obligations arising from the United Kingdom's accession to the European Community, this narrow base has broadened. As the nuclear power industry developed in Great Britain so did a separate and rigorous regulatory regime for nuclear installations, starting with the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959. The 1959 Act was amended by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. From 1974, all occupational health and safety legislation began to be brought under the umbrella of a new legal framework, the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, which for the first time adopted an across-the board approach to all work activities and goal-setting, rather than prescriptive, legislation. The purpose of the Act was to provide one comprehensive and integrated system of law concerning health and safety (including the self-employed) and also public safety, so far as it was affected by work activities. The Act also provided for consultation with all interested parties during the development of legislation. The first across the board occupational radiation protection legislation, covering all uses and users of ionising radiation (including, for the first time, exposure to natural radiation), arrived with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and supporting Approved Codes of Practice and non-statutory guidance. The need for some controls on the use of radioactive materials that went wider than simply the protection of workers was recognised in 1948, when the first Radioactive Substances Act was made. Although the 1948 Act was the first to mention radioactive waste specifically, it proved ineffective as a regulatory tool. The first

  18. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  19. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  20. Harmonisation of legislation and standards: views from a member State's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, A.

    2002-01-01

    Surely everyone will agree that harmonisation of legislation and standards should be a must for any science based branch of knowledge; this holds in particular for radiation protection with its manifold social implications. Probably, most will also recognise that radiation protection is characterised all over the world by standards that are well harmonised at a high degree, particularly in comparison with other science based branches of knowledge. For this, ICRP certainly deserves unreserved praise because the authoritative body of experts making up the Commission has been able over the years to elaborate a set of recommendations that the majority of other experts in the world recognise as being state of the art or, in other words, the best on the basis of the scientific information available at a given time. Besides, we must not forget the important role that other International Organisations play in this respect, among which the role of IAEA together with NEA, WHO etc is foremost; indeed, as soon as new basic recommendations are published by ICRP these bodies start a meritorious work of preparing standards, based on ICRP recommendations, in order to help Member States to have an updated and harmonised radiation protection legislation. In Europe, this harmonisation role is played by the organs of the European Union; in this respect, it is well known that within the Union harmonisation takes a binding nature, because standards recommended by the EU are usually issued as directives that Member States have an obligation to transpose in their national legislation. It is also well known that the last Euratom directives no. 29 of the 1996 and no 43 of 1997 were to be transposed by May 2000 into national legislation by member States

  1. A comparative analysis of major drivers for environmental management in SMEs: legislation, b2b relationships and stakeholder pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the study of Environmental Management and Small Medium Enterprises is not new area but research con Environmental Management in SMEs has a very little theoretical or empirical work on the topic. But now, due to the magnitude and growth in SMEs opportunities, the need for such studies has become very important. With regard to such research on the above topic, this research paper has identified some crucial research issues regarding the drivel and barriers of Environmental Management in SMEs. This paper reports on a study of Environmental Management, attitudes and perceptions of SMEs toward Environmental Management issues. As environmental initiatives in SMEs are, however, often inhibited by lack of resources, capacity and capability, an effort has been made in exploring the factors of such resources. Companies are facing increasing demand concerning the environmental performance of their products. The thinking of product life cycle requires the main contractors to be aware of environmental aspects of their products with in the whole value chain. This study will also focus on such value chains. In this paper, the tools are identified which small firms use to improve environmental performance. The paper also focuses on some crucial drivers and barriers for the uptake of Environmental Management tools just to identify the environmental impacts. In addition, it evaluates some threats such as trade, supply chain issues an legislation compliance in general. Moreover, this paper comprises on five major sections: First part is about the general discussion on Environmental Management, Second is about SMEs, its concept and its pertinent points towards Environmental Management, Third is regarding the integration of SMEs to Environmental Management tools, Fourth is mainly about the major drivers a legislation, business to business relationships and stakeholder pressures, Fifth part focuses on common characteristics of SMEs regarding environmental legislation to control

  2. The Voices for Healthy Kids and State Legislation to Prevent Childhood Obesity: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jesse C; Walters, Hannah J; Rutkow, Lainie

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study is to examine general time trends in childhood obesity legislative activity in all 50 states (overall and by health equity focus) and whether the Voices for Healthy Kids Campaign (Voices) was associated with increased legislative activity. LexisNexis State Capital was used to identify bills related to childhood obesity from 2012 to 2016. Linear and linear probability models were used to assess general time trends and regression-based difference-in-difference models to assess whether time trends differed for states that received a Voices grant. The data were analyzed in 2017. A total of 989 bills were introduced (Year 1=304, Year 2=364; Year 3=321), and a total of 93 bills were enacted (Year 1=34, Year 2=24, Year 3=35) after baseline. The mean number of bills introduced (baseline=4.3, Year 1=6.6, Year 2=7.3, Year 3=7.0, p=0.007), and the average state enactment rate (baseline=11%, Year 1=16%, Year 2=8%, Year 3=27%, p-trend=0.02) increased significantly. States with Voices grantees introduced 2.1 more bills than non-grantee states (p=0.04). The estimated difference over time in bill enactment and health equity focus did not differ by Voices grantee status. Childhood obesity bill introduction and enactment increased between 2013 and 2016. The evidence-based advocacy supported by Voices appears to be significantly associated with greater increases in state-level bill introduction, but not enactment of legislation to address childhood obesity. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. State insurance parity legislation for autism services and family financial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen; Rose, Roderick; Kilany, Mona; McConville, Robert

    2012-06-01

    We examined the association between states' legislative mandates that private insurance cover autism services and the health care-related financial burden reported by families of children with autism. Child and family data were drawn from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (N  =  2,082 children with autism). State policy characteristics were taken from public sources. The 3 outcomes were whether a family had any out-of-pocket health care expenditures during the past year for their child with autism, the expenditure amount, and expenditures as a proportion of family income. We modeled the association between states' autism service mandates and families' financial burden, adjusting for child-, family-, and state-level characteristics. Overall, 78% of families with a child with autism reported having any health care expenditures for their child for the prior 12 months. Among these families, 54% reported expenditures of more than $500, with 34% spending more than 3% of their income. Families living in states that enacted legislation mandating coverage of autism services were 28% less likely to report spending more than $500 for their children's health care costs, net of child and family characteristics. Families living in states that enacted parity legislation mandating coverage of autism services were 29% less likely to report spending more than $500 for their children's health care costs, net of child and family characteristics. This study offers preliminary evidence in support of advocates' arguments that requiring private insurers to cover autism services will reduce families' financial burdens associated with their children's health care expenses.

  4. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  5. State Legislators as Co-Pilots: Some "Helicopter Parents" Play Politics to Protect Their Children's Interests on Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2005-01-01

    The US state lawmakers are concerned with the budgets and management of public colleges, though with a little push from "helicopter parents" who hover over their college-age children and challenge administrative decisions, legislators are increasingly intervening in a range of student-life issues. Frequently, legislators who are parents…

  6. Supervision of compliance with the environmental legislation especially from the point of view of the Environmental Protection Act; Ympaeristoelainsaeaedaennoen laillisuusvalvonta - erityisesti ympaeristoensuojelulain naekoekulmasta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennanen, J. (ed.)

    2006-07-01

    The topic of the publication is the supervision of compliance with the environmental legislation. The publication presents the environmental enforcement bodies and the practical use of administrative sanctions. The environmental authorities may use voluntary or administrative means and also make an official report of an offence. The publication is aimed at the environmental authorities, inspectors and other authorities. The appendices show models for documents in supervision. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Special nuclear material; Source material; By-product material; Agreement state programmes); 4. Nuclear installations (Initial licensing; Operation and inspection, including nuclear safety; Operating licence renewal; Decommissioning; Emergency response); 5. Radiological protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 6. Radioactive waste management (High-level waste; Low-level waste; Disposal at sea; Uranium mill tailings; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - FUSRAP); 7. Non-proliferation and exports (Exports of source material, special nuclear material, production or utilisation facilities and sensitive nuclear technology; Exports of components; Exports of by-product material; Exports and imports of radiation sources; Conduct resulting in the termination of exports or economic assistance; Subsequent arrangements; Technology exports; Information and restricted data); 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC; Department of Energy - DOE; Department of Labor - DOL; Department of Transportation - DOT; Environmental Protection Agency - EPA); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: A. Cabinet-level departments (Department of

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities: Armenia, Brazil, Canada, France, Georgia, Greece, India, Ireland, Japan, Lithuania, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Armenia: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (Initiation of process relating to the life extension of nuclear power plant unit 2). Brazil: General legislation (Authorisation for the construction of nuclear submarines). Canada: Environmental protection (Changes to the federal environmental assessment law). France: Radioactive waste management (Changes to the National Plan for Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste). Georgia: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (New law on nuclear and radiation safety). Greece: Nuclear safety (Presidential decree on nuclear safety transposing European Council directive into national legislation); Emergency preparedness and response (Establishment of national plan for nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical threats). India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Pending invitation for the IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Services to conduct a peer review); Liability and compensation (Committee on Subordinate Legislation Report on the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Rules, 2011). Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (Adoption of revised regulations regarding radiological protection). Japan: Nuclear Regulation Authority Act (Structure, Functions, New Nuclear Emergency Preparedness System). Lithuania: General legislation (New laws affecting Visaginas nuclear power plant project implementation); Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Revised rules for issuing licenses and permits); Nuclear security (Revised physical protection requirements, New rules for the preparation of security plans); Radioactive waste management (Revised Rules of Procedure of Submission of Data on Activities Involving Radioactive Waste Disposal to the European Commission). Switzerland: General legislation (Draft energy strategy open for public comment until January 2013). Ukraine: Radioactive waste management (New law on development of a central repository); General legislation (Law providing for the location

  9. Why European Entrepreneurs in the Water and Waste Management Sector Are Willing to Go beyond Environmental Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Rabadán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in the water sector in Europe is a major concern, and compliance with the current legislation alone does not seem to be enough to face major challenges like climate change or population growth and concentration. The greatest potential for improvement appears when companies decide to take a step forward and go beyond environmental legislation. This study focuses on the environmental responsibility (ER of European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the water and waste management sector and analyzes the drivers that lead these firms to the adoption of more sustainable practices. Our results show that up to 40% of European SMEs within this industry display environmental responsibility. Market pull has a low incidence in encouraging ER, while values and the strategic decisions of entrepreneurs seem decisive. Policy makers should prioritize subsidies over fiscal incentives because they show greater potential to promote the adoption of environmental responsibility among these firms.

  10. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pharmacists' advancing roles in drug and disease management: a review of states' legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Alicia G; Thomason, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    To determine which states in the United States have provisions in place for pharmacist participation in drug and disease management programs and/or collaborative practice agreements and to provide comparison and discussion regarding such provisions. A secondary endpoint was the requirements of certification, credentialing, and registration with the specific state's rules and regulations. Information was gathered from states' statutes, rules, and regulations. Acquisition of each state's laws was achieved through various forms of electronic media. Data were accessed from January to March 2008. 19 states (38%) had specific provisions for disease management, 33 (66%) had provisions for drug therapy management, and 37 (74%) had provisions for collaborative practice. A total of 11 states (22%) specified that pharmacists receive specialized training to participate in such endeavors. Board approval or notification for collaborative practice agreements was required in 16 states (32%). With varying degrees of autonomy and restriction, pharmacists in certain states have the ability to develop disease management and/or collaborative practice programs. For pharmacists to take advantage of these new direct patient care opportunities, knowing the rules and requirements of their state's legislation is essential.

  12. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  13. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  14. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  15. Year of the Woman, Decade of the Man: trajectories of growth in women's state legislative representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Pamela; Painter, Matthew A; Hughes, Melanie M

    2009-03-01

    The expansion of women's political representation ranks among the most significant trends in American politics of the last 100 years. In this paper, we develop two longitudinal theories to explain patterns of growth and change in women's state legislative representation over time. Gender salience suggests that years in which women's absence from politics is problematized (e.g., 1992-the Year of the Woman) will demonstrate higher levels of growth. Political climate suggests that periods in which domestic issues are stressed (e.g., the 1990s) will produce higher levels of growth than periods in which international issues are stressed (e.g., post 9/11). Combinations of these two theories create four possible trajectories of growth in women's representation that may be observed over time. We use latent growth curve models to assess the four theoretical trajectories, using data on women's state legislative representation from 1982 to 2006. We find that while women achieved fleeting success in the Year of the Woman, further gains were limited in the remainder of the 1990s and average growth stalled completely after 2001. Our results show futher that gender salience and, to a lesser extent political, climate matter to growth and change in women's political power over time.

  16. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mingde [China Univ. of Political Science and Law, Peking (China). Climate Change and Natural Resources Law Center

    2014-07-01

    This essay summarizes Chinese experiences from environmental law relating to climate change legislation and puts forward certain constructive advices, by a comprehensive and systematic examination of China's laws and policies in addressing the issue of climate change, and evaluation on their legal effects. On the basis of analysis and empirical research of this essay, it could be found that, there are many successful institutions in the existing policy systems and practices of China in respect of greenhouse gas emission reduction, including the planning and scheduling institution, the target responsibility institution, and the compulsory standard institution. These institutions should be amended, confirmed and fixed down in the laws, so as to bring their functions into full play. Simultaneously, climate change legislation should bring in and focus on promoting new institutions such as the institution of climate change environmental impact evaluation on construction projects, planning and policy strategies, carbon capture and storage technology promotion institution, carbon sinks trading or indemnification institution. Local governments have urgent demand for climate change legislation as well as obvious limitations, as a result, it is imperative for the launch of state-level comprehensive mode of climate change legislation. The basic principles of legislation may incorporate policy principles and introduce specific principles in the field. Furthermore, building a perfect administrative system and nailing down the legal responsibilities for addressing climate change are crucial for safeguarding the smooth implementation of laws. This study aims at providing early-stage preparations for China's climate change legislation, and a research foundation for drafting climate change laws. Research findings of this study involve three aspects, i.e. laws, policies and practice, by studying more than thirty resolutions of the general assembly of the United Nations

  17. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Mingde

    2014-01-01

    This essay summarizes Chinese experiences from environmental law relating to climate change legislation and puts forward certain constructive advices, by a comprehensive and systematic examination of China's laws and policies in addressing the issue of climate change, and evaluation on their legal effects. On the basis of analysis and empirical research of this essay, it could be found that, there are many successful institutions in the existing policy systems and practices of China in respect of greenhouse gas emission reduction, including the planning and scheduling institution, the target responsibility institution, and the compulsory standard institution. These institutions should be amended, confirmed and fixed down in the laws, so as to bring their functions into full play. Simultaneously, climate change legislation should bring in and focus on promoting new institutions such as the institution of climate change environmental impact evaluation on construction projects, planning and policy strategies, carbon capture and storage technology promotion institution, carbon sinks trading or indemnification institution. Local governments have urgent demand for climate change legislation as well as obvious limitations, as a result, it is imperative for the launch of state-level comprehensive mode of climate change legislation. The basic principles of legislation may incorporate policy principles and introduce specific principles in the field. Furthermore, building a perfect administrative system and nailing down the legal responsibilities for addressing climate change are crucial for safeguarding the smooth implementation of laws. This study aims at providing early-stage preparations for China's climate change legislation, and a research foundation for drafting climate change laws. Research findings of this study involve three aspects, i.e. laws, policies and practice, by studying more than thirty resolutions of the general assembly of the United Nations, more than

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information File for the Current State Legislative District (SLD) Upper Chamber State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — State Legislative Districts (SLDs) are the areas from which members are elected to State legislatures. The SLDs embody the upper (senate) and lower (house) chambers...

  19. State Education Policy Formation: The Case of Arizona's English Language Learner Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This historical case study focuses on policy making at the state level by analyzing the development of a new policy for English language learners (ELLs) in Arizona. "New institutionalism" is used as a framework, with political culture and educational regimes acting as environmental factors affecting state policy choices. Key events…

  20. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  1. The implementation of national and European environmental legislation in Germany: three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueltmann, A.; Waetzold, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Oekonomie, Soziologie und Recht

    2000-07-01

    This report traces the implementation of the EMAS Regulation in Germany, i.e. it describes what kind of an institutional setting was chosen, in what way it was established and how it is working in practice. Moreover, the outcome of the implementation process is analysed in terms of efficiency and environmental effectiveness. To gain the relevant data and information we conducted expert interviews, reviewed the relevant literature and carried out a questionnaire survey. Chapter 2 provides some background information about EMAS, including the main contents of the EMAS Regulation and the political process that preceded the adoption of the EMAS Regulation and the implementation requirements imposed on the Member States. Chapter 3 describes the implementation of the EMAS Regulation and companies' motives to participate in the scheme. In chapter 4 the outcome of the implementation process is assessed in terms of the attainment of the Regulation's environmental goals and efficiency. To this end the criteria of efficiency (allocative, productive and administrative efficiency) and environmental effectiveness are adapted to the case of EMAS and indicators are developed for their assessment. Finally, data for the indicators are provided for Germany. Chapter 5 develops some hypotheses on how goal attainment and efficiency have been influenced by specific features of the implementation process. (orig.)

  2. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  3. Report on the Present Situation of the Environmental Legislation in Europe and Spain; Informe sobre la Situacion Actual de la Legislacion Ambiental en Europa y Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadoniga, M

    2006-07-01

    The normative system directed to the conservation and protection of the environment, guaranteeing a sustainable use of the natural resources and controlling the contamination, has a relatively recent origin, in the middle of the XXth century, but it has experienced a very fast growth due to the awareness on the part of the citizens and the administrations, of the damage that the human being causes to the environment and the serious consequences that this implies and that are being seen more and more often. The international standards are mainly based on Agreements and Programs without no legal entailment. The legislative frame of the European Union is based on the Programs of Communitarian Action, the last one published is the VI Program. The regulation of the different sectors is performed through Directives, that constitute the base for each group of sectorial norms. Spain, as member state of the European Union, must incorporate and transpose the communitarian norms that are promulgated. The environmental sectors and matters in which it is legislated are very varied, which implyis the existence of a profuse sectorial legislation, difficult to handle and apply. Therefore, the correct application and fulfillment of this norms constitute one of the greatest challenges for the industries and companies. (Author)

  4. Firearm legislation and firearm mortality in the USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Mobily, Matthew E; Keiser, Olivia; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-30

    In an effort to reduce firearm mortality rates in the USA, US states have enacted a range of firearm laws to either strengthen or deregulate the existing main federal gun control law, the Brady Law. We set out to determine the independent association of different firearm laws with overall firearm mortality, homicide firearm mortality, and suicide firearm mortality across all US states. We also projected the potential reduction of firearm mortality if the three most strongly associated firearm laws were enacted at the federal level. We constructed a cross-sectional, state-level dataset from Nov 1, 2014, to May 15, 2015, using counts of firearm-related deaths in each US state for the years 2008-10 (stratified by intent [homicide and suicide]) from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, data about 25 firearm state laws implemented in 2009, and state-specific characteristics such as firearm ownership for 2013, firearm export rates, and non-firearm homicide rates for 2009, and unemployment rates for 2010. Our primary outcome measure was overall firearm-related mortality per 100,000 people in the USA in 2010. We used Poisson regression with robust variances to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. 31,672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010 in the USA (10·1 per 100,000 people; mean state-specific count 631·5 [SD 629·1]). Of 25 firearm laws, nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality, nine were associated with increased firearm mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the three state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable IRR 0·39 [95% CI 0·23-0·67]; p=0·001), ammunition background checks (0·18 [0·09-0·36]; plaws are associated with reduced firearm mortality, and this evidence underscores the importance of focusing on

  5. Economic implications of the new legislation on environmental responsibility; Implicaciones economicas de la nueva legislacion en responsabilidad ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego Gomez, A.; Riera, P.

    2009-07-01

    The European Environmental Liability Directive borrows from the US legislation the equivalency analysis tool. It is a tool to calculate the necessary remediation to return the environment to its baseline situation, as if it had not suffered the damage. The equivalence between damage and remediation can be estimated in terms of services (hectares of wetlands, for instance) or resources (trout, cork oaks), but under some circumstances the law also provides for welfare equivalency (generally expressed in monetary units). This articles introduces the equivalency tools, analyzes them in a cost-benefit analysis framework, and discuses some related issues, like the time treatment or the organization of a habitat banking system. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985

  7. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985.

  8. Legislative situation of EEC member states and european provisions concerning preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, P.

    1977-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are excluded from the directives on pharmaceutical products and considerable gaps exist in the legislation of many countries. The pharmacopoeia provides standards and methods for the quality control of the final product. According to the same principles, it is proposed that special provisions, taking into consideration the very special nature of radiopharmaceuticals, might be introduced in the european economic community legislation, to secure that all radiopharmaceuticals used are safe and of an uniform quality

  9. The Identification of Xenobiotics in the New UK Context of Drinking Water Safety Planning and Related Environmental Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Keirle, R. S.; Lobley, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent European environmental legislation (the Water Framework Directive, the Environmental Liability Directive, and the REACH Regulation) should provide better protection of terrestrial water bodies but their focus is on the more conspicuous pollutants, as opposed to the large number of xenobiotic micro-pollutants that are increasingly being detected in the urban water cycle. The development of Drinking Water Safety Plans (DWSPs), as promoted by the World Health Organization, utilises a proactive risk assessment-risk management approach that necessarily should include micro-pollutants, although currently in the UK micro-pollutants have largely been ignored. The generic assessment of the risks posed by micro-pollutants is proposed and will require a consensus on analytical screening methods, sampling points and frequencies, and a method for prioritising concern, and would enable DWSPs to take fuller account of the risks posed

  10. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  11. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    maintain a balance between conservation of natural resources, land suitability and demand for food, especially for milk in these regions, which provide inputs for the dairy industry. The brazilian environmental legislation faces a turbulent period of change, but certainly it can contribute to increase carbon sequestration.

  12. Odors problem in the national and international environmental legislation. Prescriptions, limits and guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littarru, P.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper expounds the main Italian laws and some international laws and guidelines on the problem of environmental impact of odours, with the attempt to arrive to an odours disturbing criterion as objective and applicable as possible [it

  13. STATE MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, A WEAPON IN THE WAR ON POVERTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    CENSUS DATA SHOW THAT POVERTY IS OFTEN THE RESULT OF SERIOUS WAGE INADEQUACIES. IN 1964, NEARLY ONE-FIFTH OF THE MORE THAN 47.5 MILLION FAMILIES IN THE NATION HAD INCOMES UNDER $3,000. MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION HELPS TO ELIMINATE POVERTY BY SETTING A FLOOR FOR WAGES. FEWER THAN 30 MILLION OF THE MORE THAN 47 MILLION NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES IN…

  14. The effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the combustion of fossil fuel accounts for 97% of the carbon dioxide generated in the UK. The demand for primary energy over the 1970-1994 period has only marginally increased, however the demand for natural gas, which has a significantly lower carbon content per unit of energy than other fuels, accounts largely for the lowering of carbon dioxide emissions. The enactment UK/EU Environmental Legislation coupled with World Agreements accounts for a significant lowering of carbon dioxide emissions over this period. Future predictions suggest that a further downturn in carbon dioxide emissions will take place over the 1990-2000 period, followed by a pronounced increase over the 2000-2020 period. The expansion of the use of CCGT and/or the introduction of the IGCC and the SUPC in the power generating sector provides an opportunity for a further reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. (author)

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MINE WATER, CONSIDERING EUROPEAN WATER LEGISLATION. CASE STUDY OF MEGALOPOLIS MINES

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Vassiliou, E.; Tsangaratos, P.; Ilia, I.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activities causes many environmental problems to the surrounding areas, as other industrial activities do also. However mine water pollution, is considered a tough task to handle, as it requires specific regulations, quite distinct from those applicable to most other industrial processes. Even though there are several federal laws and regulations in Greece and in the European Union that influences the mining industry and mine water management, still certain factors complicates their im...

  16. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  17. Environmental impact assessment of undersea seismic surveys. Part 1.: Legislations and reference guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfredi, C.; Azzellino, A.; Vismara, R.

    2009-01-01

    Noise effects on marine ecosystems are an increasing concern to the public, research organizations and environmental management agencies. Recent observations of marine mammal strandings coincident with loud, anthropogenic sounds have focused attention on the potential impact of such sounds on sensitive species and populations. The sound sources that have been coincident with marine mammal strandings are air gun arrays, and military, mid-frequency (2-10 kHz) sonars, both of which are widely used throughout the world respectively for geophysical exploration and for surveillance and defence at sea. Alternative technologies are not readily available. Acoustic impacts on marine environment need to be addressed through a comprehensive and transparent management and regulatory system. Even if the underwater noise is now included in the E U Marine Directive (16976/06), specific laws about the management of underwater noise are not yet available in the European contest. As a first step is needed to adopt the basic mitigation procedures (guide-lines) suggested by international organisations (IWC, ACCOBAMS) and regulate the rules to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of sound producer activities. [it

  18. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  19. Criminal policy of the Colombian State and the rights of persons deprived of liberty: Legislative Analysis and Constitutional Court jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the entry into force of the 1991 Constitution, Colombia entered the era of fundamental rights as they catalog the Superior text is large and that the Constitutional Court has given scope beyond the simple meaning of the sentences that make each of these fundamental rights. In turn, it started the legislation has couple that were in effect prior to the new Charter and new rules are enacted. In this legislative development, the Colombian State has issued numerous rules that allow the restriction of personal freedom of the people living in the Colombian territory, whether of a temporary (security measures or has permanent level (custodial sentences. In that future legislation, the crisis within jails and prisons in the country worsened, today introduced massive violations of fundamental rights of persons deprived of liberty by court order. Overcrowding, lack of information necessary to meet the basic needs of prisoners, the absence of a criminal policy consonant with the reality of these detention centers are just some of the issues that shape the aforementioned rights violations. With the research carried seeks to make recommendations to the criminal policies in jail and prison, to enable the State to overcome this crisis.

  20. On the Improvement of the Legislation Regulating the Powers of Public Authorities in the Field of Procurement of Goods, Works and Services for State and Municipal Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Solomonov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a systematic analysis of the powers of public authorities, as well as legislation on contract system in the field of procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs, the Authors come to a conclusion about the need to improve the existing legislation in this field of public relations.

  1. Commercial, environmental and legislative factors that influence the implementation of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Bergman, Michael K.; Rodenhiser, Wendy

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells and other advanced electric-generation technologies have not experienced a record of successful commercialization efforts. To lower costs for these technologies, it requires substantial production volumes with a significant investment in manufacturing facilities, all dependent on developer confidence in the ultimate market. Yet, market acceptance by buyers requires an adequate demonstration of technical performance and an assurance that these lower costs can be reached. In addition to this fundamental commercialization challenge, there are significant external factors that are greatly influencing the market's (utility's) future implementation of new alternative energy-generating technologies. The factor that has possibly the greatest impact today is the public demand for environmentally benign and renewable resource technologies. There is a growing trend of involvement by consumers, regulators and intervenors in the business and utility industry that is shifting the economic playing field by which industries make resource decisions. Concerns over air pollution, global warming, acid precipitation, depletion of the ozone layer and the hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from power lines, have all led to more stringent regulations and environmental mandates. The utility business environment itself is rapidly changing. Higher public expectations from energy providers and increasing competition are leading to major changes in the American utility sector. Competitive requirements to reduce the cost of utility service is leading to business decisions that provide both opportunities and problems for increased use of alternative energy-generating technologies, like fuel cells, and/or renewables, such as wind and solar photovoltaics. Bringing new energy technologies to market is very expensive and this financial burden cannot be shouldered by the market, manufacturers or federal government alone. Further, for the market to assume a key position in early

  2. THE DECREASE OF AIRLINE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS. LEGISLATIVE AND MEDICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Andrusov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation is entering a new system of Occupational standards as norm of competence that people are ex- pected to achieve in their work, and the knowledge and skills they need to apply effectively. There may be conflicts in pro- fessional co-operation between the new system of Occupational standards and the old system of Managers, specialists and workforce qualification reference books. It may affect the common area of occupational environmental hazards. Employ- ees, who passed compulsory medical examination, can have poor health conditions. It affects the inability of the employees to perform their aircraft maintenance duties. It may be a particular occupational environment factor. A five-point scale of possible damage severity was proposed for this factor. It is known that a sick employee's duties are redistributed among the remaining employees. Redistributing of a sick employee's duties increases the task load of the remaining ones in terms of overtime work for instance. It, ultimately, may compromise normal operation of employees. The results can be used when taking management decisions in process organization of airlines, as well as in other industries.

  3. State plans to force companies to eliminate environmental burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Environment is preparing legislation aimed at forcing the state and especially private enterprises to map and eliminate tips, refuse from company premises and farmyards, and manure heaps. It is expected that the main burden will fall on private enterprises. The department is still working on the wording of this new Act on environmental burdens and so it is not yet clear whether it will be of assistance in the elimination of environmental burdens. The Ministry is aware that economic aspects must also be taken into account when exercising pressure on the companies. Closing down a company that cannot meet environmental criteria would result in redundancies and so the time schedule for the elimination of environmental burdens will be adjusted to fit the financial situation of the company involved. The ministry plans to first find companies responsible for environmental debts and then set a deadline for the preparation of a project to eliminate the environmental burden. The project would have to contain a description of elimination methods, in addition to a time schedule and cost assessment. If a private company does not report an environmental burden, the competent public authority will have the power to request access to the premises to undertake an inspection. (author)

  4. A qualitative case study of the legislative process of the hygienist-therapist bill in a large Midwestern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, Haley E; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2013-10-01

    Inequitable access to dental care contributes to oral health disparities. Midlevel dental provider models are utilized across the globe as a way to bridge the gap between preventive and restorative dental professionals and increase access to dental care. The purpose of this study was threefold: to examine lessons learned from the state legislative process related to creation of the hygienist-therapist in a Midwestern state, to improve understanding of the relationship between alternative oral health delivery models and public policy and to inform the development and passage of future policies aimed at addressing the unmet dental needs of the public. This research investigation utilized a qualitative research methodology to examine the process of legislation relating to an alternative oral health delivery model (hygienist-therapist) through the eyes of key stakeholders. Interview data was analyzed and then triangulated with 3 data sources: interviews with key stakeholders, documents and researcher participant field notes. Data analysis resulted in consensus on 3 emergent themes with accompanying categories. The themes that emerged included social justice, partnerships and coalitions, and the legislative process. This qualitative case study suggests that the creation of a new oral health workforce model was a long and arduous process involving multiple stakeholders and negotiation between the parties involved. The creation of this new workforce model was recognized as a necessary step to increasing access to dental care at the state and national level. The research in this case study may serve to inform advocates of access to oral health care as other states pursue their own workforce models.

  5. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. National legislative and regulatory activities: Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    (Changes to site evaluation reports); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Amendments to various laws relating to nuclear safety, Revised requirements relating to modifications of nuclear installations, New safety reporting requirements, New requirements relating to releases of radionuclides, New conditions for removal of items from regulatory control, New radiation protection requirements, New inspection procedure requirements, New procedure for compliance enforcement); Nuclear security (Establishment of a design basis threat review process). Moldova: General legislation (Co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency). Poland: General legislation (Amendments to the Atomic Law Act); Liability and compensation (New requirements for civil liability insurance); Organisation and structure (New advisory council established); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New requirements for employees working at nuclear power plants). Portugal: General legislation (Integration of the Nuclear Technological Institute into the Technical University of Lisbon); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Creation of the Regulatory Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). Romania: Environmental protection (Changes to fuel production regulations). Slovenia: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New rules governing worker qualification); Sweden: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New regulation on clearance from regulation). Ukraine: General legislation (New requirements relating to the purchase of fuel elements); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New plans for a comprehensive safety upgrade, New community outreach requirements, New transparency and information availability requirements); Nuclear security (Changes to the state-level physical protection regime); Radioactive waste management (New centralised repository planned) United States: Radioactive waste management (Status of the high-level waste repository programme, Issuance of the Final Report of

  8. Environmental politics in the US: a study of state sulfur dioxide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    2005-01-01

    What determines the environmental regulatory regime of a country or region? This paper addresses the question in detail, using the US and its widely varying environmental policies as the case study. What factors lead some US states to pass strict environmental regulations, while others are content with the baseline standards required at the national level? This work outlines the state environmental choice as a trade-off between the desires of consumers (who want better environmental quality) and of producers (who want less restrictive environmental standards). A rational state legislator maximises her chances of being re-elected by balancing these two competing forces when setting environmental policy. I test this model by directly analysing the state decision to adopt more restrictive sulfur dioxide regulations than those required by the federal government under the Environmental Protection Agency's ''National Ambient Air Quality Standards'' program. The statistical results suggest that legislators weigh the relative influence of consumer and producer groups when setting sulfur dioxide standards, in addition to accounting for meteorological influences that affect the cost of compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Limited evidence is also provided to support an inverted-U shaped relationship between income levels and environmental regulations. (author)

  9. Effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of the sulphur dioxide generated over the period 1970 to 1994 arose from the combustion of fossil fuels in the energy sector. The annual mass emission of sulphur dioxide has fallen by 58% over this period, due to the reductions in outputs from coal and petroleum fired plants. The influence of natural-gas power generation has played an important part in this reduction. Four major pieces of environmental legislation have been enacted to control sulphur-dioxide emissions: the Control of Pollution Act 1974, and three EEC Directives are discussed. The UK emissions in 1994 were 49% below the 1980 baseline and 9% ahead of the 1998 EU target level. The protocol on the reduction of sulphur-dioxide emissions, adopted in 1985, required a cut in the total SO 2 emissions of 30% by 1993, based on 1980 levels. The UK achieved a reduction of 37% by the end of 1993. Sulphur-dioxide emissions are predicted to fall according to the six scenarios in Energy paper 65 as a reference case. The predicted decline is in line with the UNECE targets set for 2010. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. The Purpose of State Level Textbook Adoption: What Does the Legislation Reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley, Michael A.; Farr, Roger

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of textbook adoption statutes of 22 states was undertaken to gain insight into the reasons behind state textbook adoption. Findings indicate the intent of state-level textbook adoption may be to control marketing practices of the publishing industry. (DF)

  11. When legislation precedes the state of the art in teacher training: problems and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymitz, B L

    1980-01-01

    Passage of Public Law 94-142, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act requires the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each handicapped child served. While administration are inclined to view the IEP as a document intended to monitor the provision of special services, teachers focused on the potential instructional value of the IEP. Professionals agree that this has been one of the most difficult components of the law to implement. Policymakers designing the law posited that training technology was adequate to support the instructional requirements outlined in the legislation. The present study challenges that assumption. It is also argued that studies which attempt to integrate multiple operations to clarify findings can provide more accurate and consequently more useful data of critical value in the beginning stages of policy formation. The multiple data collection strategies employed in this study yielded increasingly specific information on the status of present training technology--particularly in relation to teacher skills related to the instructional aspects of the IEP planning process. Teacher perceptions of their training needs were compared with actual skill performances on selected IEP tasks. Data reveal the inadequacy of essential skills in formulating required goal and objective statements. Special education and regular classroom teachers show similar patterns in specific skills which are problematic. Statements from teacher interviews corroborated deficits in past training. Suggestions for future training are offered as are emphases for needed research. Implications for implementation of the IEP are also discussed.

  12. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  13. Interactional dynamics of same-sex marriage legislation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how people form opinions and make decisions is a complex phenomenon that depends on both personal practices and interactions. Recent availability of real-world data has enabled quantitative analysis of opinion formation, which illuminates phenomena that impact physical and social sciences. Public policies exemplify complex opinion formation spanning individual and population scales, and a timely example is the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. Here, we seek to understand how this issue captures the relationship between state-laws and Senate representatives subject to geographical and ideological factors. Using distance-based correlations, we study how physical proximity and state-government ideology may be used to extract patterns in state-law adoption and senatorial support of same-sex marriage. Results demonstrate that proximal states have similar opinion dynamics in both state-laws and senators' opinions, and states with similar state-government ideology have analogous senators' opinions. Moreover, senators' opinions drive state-laws with a time lag. Thus, change in opinion not only results from negotiations among individuals, but also reflects inherent spatial and political similarities and temporal delays. We build a social impact model of state-law adoption in light of these results, which predicts the evolution of state-laws legalizing same-sex marriage over the last three decades.

  14. De Facto Language Policy in Legislation Defining Adult Basic Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…

  15. Delegation of Glucagon(r) in the school setting: a comparison of state legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Lori; Foley, Marie

    2011-06-01

    Delegation of nursing procedures and medication in school is fraught with legal and ethical concerns for the school nurse. Because nurses may be responsible for coordinating care for several school buildings, delegation of nursing care and medication administration has occurred out of necessity. Nurse Practice Acts in some states, but not all, allow for delegation of medication to unlicensed assistive personnel. This article explores Glucagon(®) delegation laws in the United States and presents an argument against such delegation in states where Nurse Practice Acts do not allow for delegation of medication to unlicensed assistive personnel.

  16. Digest of state alcohol-highway safety related legislation : current as of January 1, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with drunk driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 1999.

  17. Digest of state alcohol-highway safety related legislation : current as of January 1, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This Digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with drunk driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 1997.

  18. Sexting Legislation in the United States and Abroad: A Call for Uniformity

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Kimberly; Drouin, Michelle; Yergens, Nicholas; Newsham, Genni

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the sexting laws of 50 states in the United States (U.S.) and the District of Columbia, as well as five English-speaking international countries (Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, and South Africa). We also examined laws related to aggravated circumstances, such as in cases of revenge porn. Our analyses revealed considerable variation, both in U.S. and international law, with some jurisdictions relying on archaic child pornography statutes to prosecute teenag...

  19. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  1. State Student Data Privacy Legislation: What Happened in 2014, and What Is Next? Safeguarding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Growing state and district use of education data and increased public attention to the ways in which these data are collected, used, managed, and disclosed have sparked conversation on the value of data and how they are protected. Student data (e.g., demographics, transcripts, attendance, test scores, outcomes, etc.) are an important tool for…

  2. Delegation of Glucagon[R] in the School Setting: A Comparison of State Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Lori; Foley, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Delegation of nursing procedures and medication in school is fraught with legal and ethical concerns for the school nurse. Because nurses may be responsible for coordinating care for several school buildings, delegation of nursing care and medication administration has occurred out of necessity. Nurse Practice Acts in some states, but not all,…

  3. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  4. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  5. The Case For Space: A Legislative Framework For An Independent United States Space Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    example of an organization created by competing bureaucratic interests, ARPA hampered and muddled early service efforts to think clearly about space.12...change the way we think and prepare for that eventuality.”54 As aptly stated recently by Melissa de Zwart, Dean of Law at the University of Adelaide in...NASA Bets on Private Companies to Exploit Moon’s Resources,” Phys.org, 9 February 2014, https://phys.org/news/2014-02-nasa-private-companies-exploit

  6. Trends in State Financial Aid: Actions from the 2013 and 2014 Legislative Sessions. Financial Aid: Trends in the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes states gain from investing in postsecondary financial aid programs remain hotly debated, leading to great interest in developing programs that are both cost-effective and productive in helping states meet goals. In the 2012-13 academic year, states collectively provided approximately $11.2 billion in financial aid to students enrolled…

  7. Environmental Report Utah State Prison Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This environmental report assesses the potential impact of developing a geothermal resource for space heating at the Utah State Prison. Wells will be drilled on prison property for production and for injection to minimize reservoir depletion and provide for convenient disposal of cooled fluid. The most significant environmental concerns are the proper handling of drilling muds during well drilling and the disposal of produced water during well testing. These problems will be handled by following currently accepted practices to reduce the potential risks.

  8. Annual update of how each state stands on legislative issues affecting advanced nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L J

    1996-01-01

    The change from a free-for-service system to a system run by managed-care organizations has caused dramatic shifts in where and how health care is delivered. Within the managed-care systems, administrators need to show a good bottom line. Rapid restructuring of the system and the need for profit create many potential consequences (e.g., APNs squeezed out of participation on some provider panels; previously unattractive poor patients are now attractive because they can provide an ongoing revenue base; the use of more unlicensed personnel to provide patient services). Private businesses and the federal government like managed-care health care systems as an answer to the out-of-control escalating costs of health care. Managed care is likely to stay with us for a long while. Because political force comes from money and there is plenty of that in health care insurance corporations, managed care is likely to be with us for a long time. Regulations and control of these managed-care systems will probably be difficult. However, though big business has the money, APNs have the feet, hands and patience to seek further regulation of these huge corporations (e.g., antidiscrimination language to prevent exclusion from provider panels). With the reality of managed care, MDs are no longer in control of the health care system. The AMA's recent attempt to control other providers is tantamount to one ship officer attempting to control another on the Titanic's (i.e., fee-for-service system's) last evening. In a few states, fee-for-service is still predominant, but the majority of states are rapidly moving into megaconglomerate, finance-driven managed care run by business administrators. Things are getting so complex in today's world of corporate takeovers, managed-care megaconglomerates, and power-brokering politics that it is easy to understand why millions of Americans drown themselves in relatively simplistic good-versus-evil entertainment dramas. Huge changes in how the system

  9. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for

  10. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hideki; Khuong, Tuan A; Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-09-18

    Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for controlling tobacco consumption. The perceptions of negative implications

  11. Sexual Minority Women's Satisfaction with Health Care Providers and State-level Structural Support: Investigating the Impact of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Nondiscrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aleta M; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    Structural discrimination is associated with negative health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Recent changes to state-level and national legislation provide both the opportunity and the need to further explore the impact of legislation on the health indicators of sexual minorities. Using an ecosocial theory lens, the present research addresses the relationship between structural support or discrimination and satisfaction with one's health care provider among sexual minority women. Data were drawn from an online survey of sexual minority women's health care experiences. Using the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to operationalize the variables in our model, we examined the relationship between state-level nondiscrimination legislation and satisfaction with provider-a widely used measure of health care quality-through regression analysis. Participants in structurally supportive states (i.e., those with nondiscrimination legislation) were more likely to disclose their sexual identity to their providers and to report higher satisfaction with their providers. The absence of nondiscrimination legislation was associated negatively with satisfaction with providers. Results of our study show that the external environment in which sexual minority women seek health care, characterized by structural support or lack thereof, is related to perceived quality of health care. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring in Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Vasconcellos, N.V. de

    1991-01-01

    The results of environmental radiation monitoring that CETESB (Technological Company of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo) does in influence areas of radioactive materials store of Nuclemon Minero-Quimica S.A. in the municipality of Itu, Sao Paulo State, are presented. The data comprises the period of 1983-1990 with information about concentration levels of radium-225 in underground and superficial waters of the region. On March, 1989, was detected contamination in a well near of the stores. The levels observed, its implications in terms of health risks and possible causes of event are discussed too. The goals that CETESB intends to reach in terms of monitoring of environmental radiation in Sao Paulo State are also presented. (C.M.)

  14. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  15. Attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and county prosecutors in Michigan regarding enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, L B; Johnson-Ifearulundu, Y J; Kaneene, J B

    1997-12-15

    To determine attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and country prosecutors in Michigan toward enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation and to identify factors associated with whether veterinarians would report suspected cases of animal cruelty. Survey. Questionnaires were sent to 1,146 Michigan Veterinary Medical Association member veterinarians, 139 animal control directors, and 83 county prosecutors in Michigan. 740 (65%) veterinarians, 70 (50%) animal control directors, and 43 (52%) prosecutors responded. Six hundred forty six of 735 (88%) veterinarians reported having treated an animal that they believed had been a victim of animal cruelty, but only 192 of 719 (27%) had ever reported a case of animal cruelty, and only 217 of 734 (30%) had ever testified in an animal cruelty case. Logistic regression analysis of responses revealed that the only factor associated with whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty was the potential reactions of the involved clients to the accusation of animal cruelty. Veterinarians who rated reaction of the involved client as important, very important, or essential to their decision whether to report a case of animal cruelty were less likely to report such cases than were veterinarians who rated potential client reaction as somewhat important or unimportant. Concern about potential client reaction was the most important factor in whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty.

  16. Progressing quality control in environmental impact assessment beyond legislative compliance: An evaluation of the IEMA EIA Quality Mark certification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Fischer, Thomas B, E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Fothergill, Josh, E-mail: j.fothergill@iema.net [Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is contingent on a number of control mechanisms: procedural; judicial; evaluative; public and government agency; professional; and development aid agency. If we assume that procedural and judicial controls are guaranteed in developed EIA systems, then progressing effectiveness towards an acceptable level depends on improving the performance of other control mechanisms over time. These other control mechanisms are either absent, or are typically centrally controlled, requiring public finances; this we argue is an unpopular model in times of greater Government austerity. Here we evaluate a market-based mechanism for improving the performance of evaluative and professional control mechanisms, the UK Institute of Environmental Management and Assessments' EIA Quality Mark. We do this by defining dimensions of effectiveness for the purposes of our evaluation, and by identifying international examples of the approaches taken to delivering the other control measures to validate the approach taken in the EIA Quality Mark. We then evaluate the EIA Quality Mark, when used in combination with legal procedures and an active judiciary, against the effectiveness dimensions and use time-series analysis of registrant data to examine its ability to progress practice. We conclude that the EIA Quality Mark has merit as a model for a market-based mechanism, and may prove a more financially palatable approach for delivering effective EIA in mature systems in countries that lack centralised agency oversight. It may, therefore, be of particular interest to some Member States of the European Union for ensuring forthcoming certification requirements stemming from recent amendments to the EIA Directive. - Highlights: • Quality control mechanisms in EIA are identified. • Effectiveness of EIA is conceptualised for evaluation purposes. • The UK IEMA EIA Quality Mark is introduced as a market-based mechanism. • The

  17. Progressing quality control in environmental impact assessment beyond legislative compliance: An evaluation of the IEMA EIA Quality Mark certification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Fischer, Thomas B; Fothergill, Josh

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is contingent on a number of control mechanisms: procedural; judicial; evaluative; public and government agency; professional; and development aid agency. If we assume that procedural and judicial controls are guaranteed in developed EIA systems, then progressing effectiveness towards an acceptable level depends on improving the performance of other control mechanisms over time. These other control mechanisms are either absent, or are typically centrally controlled, requiring public finances; this we argue is an unpopular model in times of greater Government austerity. Here we evaluate a market-based mechanism for improving the performance of evaluative and professional control mechanisms, the UK Institute of Environmental Management and Assessments' EIA Quality Mark. We do this by defining dimensions of effectiveness for the purposes of our evaluation, and by identifying international examples of the approaches taken to delivering the other control measures to validate the approach taken in the EIA Quality Mark. We then evaluate the EIA Quality Mark, when used in combination with legal procedures and an active judiciary, against the effectiveness dimensions and use time-series analysis of registrant data to examine its ability to progress practice. We conclude that the EIA Quality Mark has merit as a model for a market-based mechanism, and may prove a more financially palatable approach for delivering effective EIA in mature systems in countries that lack centralised agency oversight. It may, therefore, be of particular interest to some Member States of the European Union for ensuring forthcoming certification requirements stemming from recent amendments to the EIA Directive. - Highlights: • Quality control mechanisms in EIA are identified. • Effectiveness of EIA is conceptualised for evaluation purposes. • The UK IEMA EIA Quality Mark is introduced as a market-based mechanism. • The

  18. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  19. Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from legislative information contained in the Legislative Data Base (LDB), a comprehensive interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The annotated citations alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Six indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale index, bill number index, title word index (permuted), sponsor index, transport restriction index (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode index (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword index. This report updates the information contained in Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period ending September 30, 1983, ORNL/TM-8860 (TTC-0485), published in June 1984

  20. The Results of the Development of Balneal Care Provision and the State of the Czech Spa Industry in Connection with the Changes in Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrečková Eva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the development of balneal care provision and its current state in the Czech spa industry in connection with the changes in legislation. In particular, the period of 2000–2015 is specified, including the survey of positive and negative changes resulting from the changes in legal norms regulating the balneal care provision. Special attention is paid to two turning points in the balneal care provision: the turn of 2012 and 2013 and the turn of 2014 and 2015, which were significantly affected by the changing legislation.

  1. Abortion legislation, maternal healthcare, fertility, female literacy, sanitation, violence against women and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in 32 Mexican states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Chireau, Monique; Pliego, Fernando; Stanford, Joseph; Haddad, Sebastian; Calhoun, Byron; Aracena, Paula; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Thorp, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether there is an association between abortion legislation and maternal mortality outcomes after controlling for other factors thought to influence maternal health. Design Population-based natural experiment. Setting and data sources Official maternal mortality data from 32 federal states of Mexico between 2002 and 2011. Main outcomes Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), MMR with any abortive outcome (MMRAO) and induced abortion mortality ratio (iAMR). Independent variables Abortion legislation grouped as less (n=18) or more permissive (n=14); constitutional amendment protecting the unborn (n=17); skilled attendance at birth; all-abortion hospitalisation ratio; low birth weight rate; contraceptive use; total fertility rates (TFR); clean water; sanitation; female literacy rate and intimate-partner violence. Main results Over the 10-year period, states with less permissive abortion legislation exhibited lower MMR (38.3 vs 49.6; pabortion hospitalisation ratio (β=−0.566 to −0.962), clean water (β=−0.048 to −0.730), sanitation (β=−0.052 to −0.758) and intimate-partner violence (β=0.085 to 0.755). TFR showed an inverse association with MMR (β=−14.329) and MMRAO (β=−1.750) and a direct association with iAMR (β=1.383). Altogether, these factors accounted for (R2) 51–88% of the variance among states in overall mortality rates. No statistically independent effect was observed for abortion legislation, constitutional amendment or other covariates. Conclusions Although less permissive states exhibited consistently lower maternal mortality rates, this finding was not explained by abortion legislation itself. Rather, these differences were explained by other independent factors, which appeared to have a more favourable distribution in these states. PMID:25712817

  2. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  3. The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in five states post-menu labelling legislation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    1) Explore the availability and accessibility of fast food energy and nutrient information post-NSW menu labelling legislation in states with and without menu labelling legislation. 2) Determine whether availability and accessibility differed compared with pre-menu labelling legislation in NSW. We visited 210 outlets of the five largest fast food chains in five Australian states to observe the availability and accessibility of energy and nutrient information. Results were compared with 197 outlets surveyed pre-menu labelling. Most outlets (95%) provided energy values, half provided nutrient values and 3% provided information for all menu items. The total amount of information available increased post-NSW menu labelling implementation (473 versus 178 pre-implementation, pFast food chains surveyed had voluntarily introduced menu labelling nationally. However, more nutrient information was available in-store in 2010, showing that fast food chains are able to provide comprehensive nutrition information, yet they have stopped doing so. Menu labelling legislation should compel fast food chains to provide accessible nutrition information including nutrient values in addition to energy for all menu items in-store. Additionally, public education campaigns are needed to ensure customers can use menu labelling. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  5. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  7. Legislation on food irradiation adopted in member states in the period of 31/12/71-31/12/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides information complementary to that contained in Annex A to the 1972 Report by a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation. It reviews legislation on food irradiation in several IAEA Member countries, namely Austria, Brazil, France, Japan, South Africa, Thailand and the United Kingdom. (NEA) [fr

  8. Abortion legislation, maternal healthcare, fertility, female literacy, sanitation, violence against women and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in 32 Mexican states

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Elard; Chireau, Monique; Pliego, Fernando; Stanford, Joseph; Haddad, Sebastian; Calhoun, Byron; Aracena, Paula; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebasti?n; Thorp, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether there is an association between abortion legislation and maternal mortality outcomes after controlling for other factors thought to influence maternal health. Design Population-based natural experiment. Setting and data sources Official maternal mortality data from 32 federal states of Mexico between 2002 and 2011. Main outcomes Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), MMR with any abortive outcome (MMRAO) and induced abortion mortality ratio (iAMR). Independent variables Abo...

  9. Analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning at Federal, State, and private facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is a summary of an analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) at Federal, State and private facilities. It is submitted pursuant to Appendix A of subcontract 9-X62-0785E-1, dated July 27, 1992, between the Regents of the University of California and Van Ness, Feldman ampersand Curtis

  10. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krolikowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  11. 75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National... Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the harvest of glaucous-winged gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in...

  12. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7417] Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest...

  13. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8339] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fourth meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the...

  14. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7873] Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest Sector...

  15. Abortion legislation, maternal healthcare, fertility, female literacy, sanitation, violence against women and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in 32 Mexican states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Chireau, Monique; Pliego, Fernando; Stanford, Joseph; Haddad, Sebastian; Calhoun, Byron; Aracena, Paula; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Thorp, John

    2015-02-23

    To test whether there is an association between abortion legislation and maternal mortality outcomes after controlling for other factors thought to influence maternal health. Population-based natural experiment. Official maternal mortality data from 32 federal states of Mexico between 2002 and 2011. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), MMR with any abortive outcome (MMRAO) and induced abortion mortality ratio (iAMR). Abortion legislation grouped as less (n=18) or more permissive (n=14); constitutional amendment protecting the unborn (n=17); skilled attendance at birth; all-abortion hospitalisation ratio; low birth weight rate; contraceptive use; total fertility rates (TFR); clean water; sanitation; female literacy rate and intimate-partner violence. Over the 10-year period, states with less permissive abortion legislation exhibited lower MMR (38.3 vs 49.6; ppermissive states. Multivariate regression models estimating effect sizes (β-coefficients) for mortality outcomes showed independent associations (p values between 0.001 and 0.055) with female literacy (β=-0.061 to -1.100), skilled attendance at birth (β=-0.032 to -0.427), low birth weight (β=0.149 to 2.166), all-abortion hospitalisation ratio (β=-0.566 to -0.962), clean water (β=-0.048 to -0.730), sanitation (β=-0.052 to -0.758) and intimate-partner violence (β=0.085 to 0.755). TFR showed an inverse association with MMR (β=-14.329) and MMRAO (β=-1.750) and a direct association with iAMR (β=1.383). Altogether, these factors accounted for (R(2)) 51-88% of the variance among states in overall mortality rates. No statistically independent effect was observed for abortion legislation, constitutional amendment or other covariates. Although less permissive states exhibited consistently lower maternal mortality rates, this finding was not explained by abortion legislation itself. Rather, these differences were explained by other independent factors, which appeared to have a more favourable distribution in these

  16. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  17. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  18. Postindustrialization and Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dana R.; Freudenburg, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Existing sociological analyses express differing expectations about state control over economic actors and the political feasibility of environmental regulation. Recent literature on the environmental state sees environmental protection as becoming a basic responsibility of postindustrial states, with economic actors no longer having the autonomy…

  19. Legislative Proceedings beyond the Parliament in Authoritarian States: a comparative analysis between the 1930 Italian and 1940 Brazilian Criminal Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nunes

    2016-12-01

    out by the Italian fascism and the Brazilian “Estado Novo”, to understand the constitutional legitimacy for the parliament’s dismissal and the collaboration of renowned lawyers for codemaking, but without the ultimate control of popular representation. Analyzing the historical documents as the code-drafts and the criminal historiography, this paper concludes that in Italy, the parliament itself has abdicated its competence by a delegation of powers to the government and in Brazil, the 1937 coup d’État imposed a new constitution in which the x legislative competence fully to the Executive Power. Furthermore, both the regimes used intellectual legitimacy by jurists.

  20. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  1. Countering abuses at the granting of additional measures of state support to families with children: the possibilities of the legislator and law enforcement practice experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg S. Kurchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is abuses at the granting of additional measures of state support to families with children and measures of its preventionThe purpose of the article is to analyze legal rules governing the provision of additional measures of state support for families with children, to determine their completeness and adequacy for countering abuses in this area.Characteristic of the problem field. The implementation of the legislation on additional measures of state support for families with children, has proved to be connected with widespread attempts to use the maternity (family capital by the persons who do not have the right, or to use it contrary to the restrictions established by law. Analyzed legislation has shortcomings that create the conditions for illegal actions.Methodology. Both general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, description and special scientific methods (comparative-legal and formal-legal methods were used in the research process .Results. Countering abuses requires improvement (changes and additions of the law governing the provision of additional measures of state support for families with children. Refinement and extension of powers of the Pension Fund’s of the Russian Federation bodies in this area, however, inevitably entails an increase in the number of organizational actions performed by these bodies when considering applications of the entitled persons. The flip side of strengthening the fight against illegal actions in this sphere can also be the limitation of the possibilities of the entitled persons and the extension of discretion of authorized bodies. When the effective legislative means are absent the judicial practice plays a prominent role in preventing the illegal use of maternity (family capital. In particular, the qualification of improvement of housing conditions as a necessary result of the contract of purchase and sale of real estate became one of the obstacles to illegal receipt of

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  4. Data for Summary of the Development the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) Using Data from Nine Multigenerational Medaka Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to various legislative mandates the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which...

  5. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  6. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  7. The legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States Congress has only recently become interested in the issue of ballistic missile proliferation. It was primarily as a result of the outcome of the debate over chemical weapons legislation that Congress joined the issue of ballistic missile proliferation in the matter of restraints on foreign countries, particularly those based in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) countries. This paper addresses the following questions: Is it Congress's place to enforce compliance with international agreements? More importantly, will such measures have the desired effect?

  8. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...

  9. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    in natural resource use by analyzing roll call votes over the past century with a Random Utility Model (Manski, 1977) and conclude that economics mattered. So did ideology, but not uniformly. After World War II, the pro-environment vote which had been conservative shifted to being liberal. All these votes...... involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long-term consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated...

  10. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91... that any state, local, or tribal environmental impact review requirements similar to the Federal NEPA...

  11. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-04-01

    One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  13. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Legislative Districts, Rhode Island Senate Districts; risen07; State legislature district boundaries for the RI State Senate as determined in 2002 and revised in 2004 as designated in Rhode Island General Law 17-11. Corrected for renumbering of districts 9,12,24,and 32 in 2007, Published in 2007, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Rhode Island Senate Districts; risen07; State legislature district boundaries for the RI State Senate as determined...

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  16. The impact of environmental regulations on United States crude oil supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Biglarbigi, K.

    1991-01-01

    A number of legislative and regulatory initiatives being considered to protect the environment could affect the economics of oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) in the Unites States. This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive assessment of the potential cumulative energy and economic impacts of environmental regulatory initiatives on United States crude oil supplies. The results of the analysis clearly will determine the level of impact, but the results show that significant impacts are felt over a wide range of regulations, over a wide range of crude oil prices, and at two levels of development for extraction technologies. The regulations evaluated all have an impact on all resource categories analyzed in the study

  17. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  18. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. ENER-IURE Project. Analysis of the legislation regarding renewable energy sources in the E.U. member states. Phase II. Fiscal measures and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.; Janka, P.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the ENER-IURE project is to contribute towards a better knowledge of the legal, juridical and administrative barriers that renewable energy sources face today. The legislation of the different member states has been analysed during 1998 - 1999 focusing in four main aspects (a) Financial (Fiscal and subsidies measures) (b) Electricity, (c) Planning and Environment (d) Agriculture and Biomass. The report concerning fiscal measures and subsidies in Finland is divided into three parts: the basis report, the analysis report and the conclusion part. The basis report includes taxation, subsidies granted for energy investments, projects and energy conservation as well as subsidies for forestry operations. The analysis report includes energy taxation, investment aid and energy research. The Act on the Excise Tax Levied on Electricity and on Certain Fuels, issued in Helsinki on 30 December 1996 is included as an appendix in the report

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  1. Model Legislation for GAAP and GASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by all state and local governments may require legislation. Findings from a survey of states to get data on current accounting and financial reporting practices are summarized. Model legislation to provide uniformity in accounting and reporting is presented. (MLF)

  2. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  3. A legislative program to plan energy strategies for the 21st century and to demonstrate the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Blitz, P.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1989, the State Legislative Leaders Foundation and Arizona State University presented a national program, Energy Strategies for the 21st Century. Participants included state legislative leaders and key committee chairs from across the nation. The purpose of this program was to give legislative leaders an opportunity to examine and discuss many of the critical issues that will shape future energy policy. The participants were actively involved in developing realistic energy strategies. The scenarios had to use available and realistic future energy technologies. Their solutions were required to be both economically and environmentally compatible and acceptable to their constituents

  4. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  5. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  7. Environmental Finance Center Serving EPA's Region 8 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.

  8. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  9. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  10. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Survey of legislation applicable in Germany for implementation of the EC Directive on environmental audits; Ueberblick ueber die in Deutschland fuer die Ausfuehrung der EG-Umwelt-Audit-Verordnung geltenden Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The brochure presents a comprehensive survey of the relevant legislation applicable in Germany to implementation of the EC Directive on environmental auditing. Readers interested in performing such auditing at one glance will find in this compiulation all relevant laws and regulations in full text that are to be observed for implementation of this novel environmental auditing instrument. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Diese Broschuere vermittelt einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber die in Deutschland fuer die Ausfuehrung der EG-Umwelt-Audit-Verordnung geltenden Rechtsvorschriften. Damit wird fuer alle Interessenten ein rascher Zugriff auf die Rechtstexte, die zur praktischen Anwendung des neuartigen Umwelt-Audit-Instruments notwendig sind, ermoeglicht. (orig./RHM)

  12. Swiss legislation on radioactive waste management. Obligations under the state treaty; national legal regulations; roles of the players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    On December 23, 1959, the Swiss Parliament adopted the ''Federal Act on Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection.'' The Nuclear Power Act of March 21, 2003 constitutes a comprehensive legal regime on radioactive waste. The article outlines the obligations incurred by Switzerland under the state treaty in the ''Joint Agreement on the Safety of Management of Spent Fuel Elements and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management'' as well as their practical implementation. For the management of radioactive waste, the Nuclear Power Act envisages the concept of underground geologic storage to be transferred into a repository after a phase of observation. The underground geologic store requires a framework permit to be issued by the Federal Council and approved by Parliament. In Switzerland, framework permits are subject to facultative referenda, i.e., there is the possibility of a plebiscite. Article 5 of the Nuclear Power Ordinance regulates the competences in the procedure to build a repository: ''The Federation, in a substantive plan, lays down the objectives and criteria for storing radioactive waste in underground geologic stores in a way binding on the authorities.'' The structure and the duties and obligations of the players involved as set out in the ''Underground Geologic Storage'' plan establish a credible basis of the ongoing site selection procedure and further steps to be taken in building an underground store in Switzerland. (orig.)

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  14. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  15. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  16. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... friendly environmental technology and pollution management techniques; (2) participating in regional... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7943] Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Environmental Cooperation AGENCY: Department of State...

  17. Environmental framework for renewable energy. Environmentally oriented curricula and legislation of importance to the development of renewable energy projects; Miljoerammer for fornybar energi. Miljoerettede rammeplaner og lover av betydning for utvikling av prosjekter for fornybar energi.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaulow, Haakon; Barkved, Line Johanne; Selvig, Eivind

    2011-07-01

    The following environmental curricula / laws are considered: Samlet plan, Conservation Plan for water resources (Verneplan for vassdrag), Water management plans for water directive, the National Plan for fishing salmon / salmon fjords, Biodiversity Act, Non- areas-(interference-free areas), County plans for power plants, County plans for wind, Planning and building Act, County and municipal climate and energy plans. Assessments include: general description - purpose and goals, the formal legislation and management, activity, scope and planning, relationship with licensing / privacy audit and relations with the implementation of renewable energy. Plans / laws / activities are divided into three groups: sector-specific, sector-neutral and protective oriented, all considered in relation to each other and to licensing. Important for National Curriculum importance is the appliance and quality, good knowledge base, and regular revision and updating. The licensing system is dominant and will still be there when decisions must be made about energy systems. Concessions will yield better decisions with better conditions in terms of an approved energy and climate policy, and it will improve policies and guidelines for assessments and the development of academic curricula.(eb)

  18. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  19. National States, Environmental Conflicts and Mining in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Scotto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The work asks about possible factors that may explain the vertiginous increase, in the last decade, of social conflicts around mining in all Latin American countries that have mining activities. Is it possible to talk about "regional trends" in terms of blooming and development of these conflicts along the continent? If this is the case, which would be the trends? I aim to show that, beyond the consequences of great increase of external investments in mining sector, it is fundamental to look at the role of national states and analyze some of the main changes which occurred in national legislation dedicated to "rule" the property, access and exploitation of mineral resources.

  20. Current environmental situation in the new Federal States. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Information on Environment' organised the first part of a seminar for jounalists on the present environmental situation in the now federal states in Berlin on the 3rd and 4th of December. More than 50 participants from radios, TV, daily and special press attended this ninth event of 'Information on Environment' in Berlin. Leading scientists from research institutes of the former GDR, the Federal Environmental Agency and the GSF-research centre for environment and heath gave papers on the predominant environmental problems in the new federal states. This first part deals with water pollution, waste water treatment, drinking water supply, environmental problems of lignite mining, radiation pollution in the Erzgebirge; forest damage research and special armament wastes and waste problems in general. (orig.) [de

  1. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  2. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  3. Electronic Democracy and Environmental Governance: A Survey of the States

    OpenAIRE

    Beierle, Thomas; Cahill, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Just as information technology is rapidly changing how we work, shop, and play, it is changing how we practice democracy. This paper focuses on one area where the Internet is broadening public participation in governance: the administration of environmental laws and regulations. It describes a survey of how each of the 50 states is using the Internet to provide citizens with environmental information, gather public input on agency decisions, and foster networks of interested citizens. As "lab...

  4. The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...

  5. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  6. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G. O.; Ebeniro, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental degradation due to oil activities in the oil rich Niger Delta of Nigeria is daily approaching a non-tolerance level. Pollutants come from various aspects of operation ranging from seismic operations through drilling to the refinery stage. Gas flared daily by Oil Companies constitute a major health hazard in this country. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State is hereby reported. Surface temperature-distance variations were investigated for both dry (March) and rainy (June) seasons. Physical and chemical properties of the rainwater from the areas were also measured and analysed. The results show a surface temperature elevation of about 4.1 Celsius above the mean normal diurnal temperature within a 3.00 km. radius. An average pH 4.25 was recorded thus showing the acidic nature of the environmental rainwater from the area. All other measured parameters showed serious deviations from standards. This temperature elevation and increased acidity of the rainwater have enormous influence on socio-economic lives and the activities of the populace especially on their source of income which is mainly small scale farming. It is therefore necessary that Government agencies empowered to monitor environment especially FEPA should implement all the existing legislation on gas flaring and be more involved in the design and location of gas flaring stacks. These stacks should be located at least 2 km. from towns and villages

  7. ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation “ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges” at ORD’s State Coordination Team Meeting will highlight the role that ORD science and technical expertise in helping t...

  8. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  9. Tradition and change in power industry legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.; Boerner, B.; Friauf, K.H.; Salzwedel, J.; Selmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    On September 24-25, 1985 the 15th conference of the Institute for Energy Law took place in Cologne. This book contains five of the lectures held at the conference. They deal with the following subjects: Constitutional restrictions of autonomous energy policy of the Land governments; compulsory connection to and use of district heating; is there any necessity for amending the anti-trust law for reasons of energy policy; environmental law - planning law - gaps in the legislation concerning the energy sector; Energy Industry Law - are there legislative deficiencies, or is it an adequate, correct legislative instrument. (HSCH) [de

  10. The Emerging Legislative Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the capacity, internal distribution of power, habits of work, and composition of state legislators have increased their involvement and assertiveness in educational policy formation, oversight, and control. (Author/MLF)

  11. The "déjà vu effect:" evaluation of United States medical device legislation, regulation, and the Food and Drug Administration's contentious 510(k) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    With the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, Congress granted FDA authority to regulate medical devices by implementing a risk-based regulatory framework. Several years prior to this legislation, the Cooper Committee reviewed the medical device regulatory landscape and uncovered weaknesses that could be detrimental to public health. However, only after several high-profile incidents involving unsafe medical devices did Congress respond with strong legislation. Since 1976, additional medical device legislative revisions have been enacted to address deficiencies highlighted by various groups representing Congress, FDA, and industry. A repetitive conclusion from these groups has been that the 510(k) program is incapable of serving as a premarket evaluation of safety and effectiveness under the existing statutory framework. However, these legislative revisions did not change the statutory framework despite these repeated findings. In 2009, CDRH convened separate groups to again review the 510(k) program. While more comprehensive than previous initiatives, the observed deficiencies and the proposed recommendations are remarkably similar to those identified by their predecessors. This cyclical review of the medical device regulatory landscape whereby the same observations and recommendations are repeated yet the output of such review does not yield major legislative revision of the existing statutory framework can be described as the "déjà vu effect." This will continue unless Congress enacts legislation that implements a new statutory framework with a different standard other than substantial equivalence. In the past, Congress has implemented major legislation only after a public health crisis. Hopefully this will not be the driving force in the future.

  12. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  13. Response planning and environmental risk analysis, state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, E.R.; Marben, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), a multitasked study was undertaken to determine the relative risk of noncrude oil transport (including marine and freshwater), the status of spill response capability in the state, and the need and most appropriate locations for siting spill response deposits. The project used multidisciplinary transport and environmental data analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS) to enable various scenarios and data changes to be easily visualized. The evaluation concerned (a) designation of significant environmental risk areas, (b) environmentally sensitive areas and fish and wildlife likely to be affected, (c) the level of response capability appropriate for protecting the environment, (d) the adequacy of current capabilities for noncrude vessels, (e) the feasibility of establishing one or more response cooperatives for use by multiple carriers, and (f) other steps that could be taken to reduce the risk of a spill and facilitate control and cleanup

  14. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  15. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  16. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Rudisill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years, sexes, races (White, African American, or other, ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban, and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Methods Data from the 2008–2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states’ cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. Results When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, <0.0001 and regions (p-value, 0.0003. Compared to states without universal hand-held cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55 for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38 for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72 in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66 in the South. Conclusions The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  17. State environmental reports of the Slovak Republic on Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanianska, R.; Fabricius, A.; Marcinatova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Slovak Environmental Agency under supervision of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic (SR) prepare yearly different types of reports with evaluation of state of environment of the Slovak Republic on the basis of verified statistical data which come from records of Statistical Office of the SR, Ministry of Environment of the SR, professional organisation of departments of environment, as well as from data bases of others central executive administration and their special organisations. Single report varies by form, content, structure and scope, for which were designed. They made available for public on the internet web-site http://www.enviroportal.sk/, eventually on the web-site of the Slovak Environmental Agency http://www.sazp.sk/. The following types of reports are published by the Slovak Environmental Agency: State of the Environment Reports of the Slovak Republic; State of the Environment Reports according to the D-P-S-I-R structure (where (Pressure - P, State - S, (Response - R, Driven forces - D, and Impact - I, indicators of the OECD); Report about impacts of economic sectors on the environment of the SR; Sustainable development indicators of the SR on national level. The form of presentation of individual indicators makes it possible to obtain information about present state, trends and fixing of these problems in strategic documents with possibility of their international comparison and access to relevant information on Internet

  18. Monitoring the implementation of the State-Regional Council agreement 03/02/2005 as to the management of acute stroke events: a comparison of the Italian regional legislations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Donata; Spallazzi, Marco; Rota, Eugenia; Morelli, Nicola; Immovilli, Paolo; Toni, Danilo; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Polizzi, Bianca M; Ferro, Salvatore; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Access to effective acute stroke services is a crucial factor to reduce stroke-related death and disability, but is limited in different parts of Italy. Our study addresses this inequality across the Italian regions by examining the regional legislations issued to adopt and implement the State-Regional Council agreement 03/02/2005 as to the acute stroke management. All decrees and resolutions as to acute stroke were collected from each region and examined by the means of a check list including quantitative and qualitative characteristics, selected in accordance with the recommendations from the State-Regional Council document. Each completed check list was then sent to each regional reference person, who filled in the section on the implementation of the indications and compliance, with the collaboration of stroke specialists if necessary. The study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2010. The documents and information were collected from 19 regions. Our survey revealed disparities both in terms of number of decrees and resolutions and of topics covered by the regional legislations about stroke care. Most legislations lacked practical and economical details. This feedback from national and regional stroke regulations revealed a need of more concrete indications. Involvement of various stakeholders (legislators, consumers, providers) might possibly ensure that policies are actually adopted, implemented and maintained. Although considerable challenges are present to the development of standard and optimal stroke care more widely across Italian regions, the potential gains from such developments are substantial.

  19. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  20. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  1. The interplay between research, research-based advice and the development of the Greenlandic Governmental environmental legislation and practices in respect to EIA and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders

    Government decides to grant licensees for oil exploration the operators have to develop specific EIAs for all major activities. The activities shall be based on BEP (Best Environmental Practice) and BAT (Best Environmental Technology) principles, and operators shall conduct supplementary environmental...... studies as needed, before each activity can be approved. The EIA is the key tool for environmental protection in the approval process. However, the authorities have in some cases to deal with large uncertainties due to lack of basic knowledge. Focusing on two case studies, (seismic surveys in Baffin Bay...

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    the activities of nuclear power facilities; New regulation on recognition of qualifications for regulated professions); Portugal (New obligations for nuclear operators); Slovak Republic (Amendment to the 2004 Atomic Act); Slovenia (Resolution on Nuclear and Radiation Safety); Ukraine (Ratification of co-operation agreement with Norway; Cooperation arrangement between the regulatory authorities of Ukraine and Belarus); United States (Issuance of Proposed Waste Confidence Rule and Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for public comment; Issuance of Final Rule Updating Part 51 and Final License Renewal Generic Environmental Impact Statement Update; Inflation adjustment to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations); Uruguay (Law 19.056 on Radiological Protection of 4 January 2013)

  4. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  5. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level

  6. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  7. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  8. Environmental Security: What Environmental Issues Impact Regional Stability and Affect United States Foreign Policy with Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    extraregional sponsor of Alianza para el Desarrollo Sostenible (Sustainable Development Alliance - ALIDES), along with United States and Canada. ALIDES is...more stable the government the better the country will be able to solve its environmental problems. 42 Glossary ALIDES Alianza para el Desarrollo ... Sostenible (Sustainable Development Alliance) C Centigrade CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons BECC Border Environment Cooperation Commission BNC Binational

  9. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  10. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  11. Evolving impact of environmental laws on cross-border power between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, J.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing concern among some United States (US) residents that the increasing number of merchant power plants planned for the Mexican side of the US/Mexican border could contribute to increased air pollution and the misuse of finite water resources in the border region. The case of Border Power Plant Working Group v. DOE, et al. is examined in this paper, providing a focus for a discussion of the border region's future as US merchant power producers continue to position themselves to provide electricity in California. One of the factors in the push to develop power generation on the Mexican side of the border was California's electricity crisis of 2000-2001, and plans have been drawn up to build 22 plants between Mexicali and Ciudad Juarez. A history of the Border Power Plant Working Group (BPPWG) was presented, along with details of the government's granting of permits for the power plants after environmental assessments. By suing the government BPPWG hoped to set a standard for future power plant development in the area. The lawsuit addressed the following 4 primary concerns: air emissions; emission offsets; water cooling; and wastewater discharge. BPPWG aimed to achieve the 3 following results: protective legislation in the 4 U.S. border states that would preclude the use of massive amounts of water in border power plant cooling systems; a critical area designation with pollution limits set low enough to require catalytic control systems; and an overarching annex to the La Paz Agreement that would create a formal bi-national agreement governing the above actions for both countries. A review of environmental law in both countries was presented, along with a description of the proposed plants. A complete review of the lawsuit was provided, along with eventual rulings against the BPPWG. It was concluded that the case showed that power developers had proved that although the plants would contribute to the environmental degradation of the region, the

  12. State environmental regulation and economic development: Are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1992-01-01

    An underlying assumption of the partial preemption approach is the belief that minimum federal standards contribute to the prospective decentralization of environmental protection programs by removing or reducing industry incentives to shop around for states with a more lenient regulatory stance. This assumption was examined through a survey of chiev executive officers of pollution-generating firms. The data suggest that corporate officials see regulatory climate as an important component of overhead costs. The author concludes that the desire to retain industries within state boundaries does inhibit the promulgation of strict environment regulations by public officials. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  13. The United States Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, P.; Lehr, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates a large industrial complex which includes various production, processing, testing, and research and development installations across the country. This complex has generated, and continues to generate, significant quantities of radioactive, hazardous, and mixtures of radioactive and hazardous (mixed) waste. Over the past 40 + years of operation, the waste generated by this complex has been managed to then-current standards of technology and regulation. However, some of these waste management practices have subsequently been proven to be inadequate for long-term environmental protection. To improve these practices, DOE must first manage the tasks of characterizing and remediating waste sites and facilities at more than 120 locations in 34 states and one location in Puerto Rico. To accomplish this mission, DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established in 1989, when DOE's top priority changed from nuclear weapons production to environmental cleanup. The ER Program was created to ensure that risks to human health and the environment posed by DOE's past operations are eliminated or reduced to prescribed, safe levels. This paper gives details on the philosophy of the Environmental Restoration Program. It includes information on how the Department is managing this Program to assure cost efficiency and good stewardship of the taxpayer's dollars

  14. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  15. 10 CFR 1.41 - Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Management Programs. (a) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management...) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs— (1) Plans and directs... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental...

  16. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  17. Working with Your Legislative Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to work with legislative delegation to get positive legislation passed. Most school districts have a person who is responsible for working with the legislators and informing them of the district's position on bills and issues that arise in each legislative session. Even if one has a full-time or part-time…

  18. Beyond DAPA and DACA: Revisiting Legislative Reform in Light of Long-Term Trends in Unauthorized Immigration to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Warren

    2015-02-01

    exceeded the number who entered across the southern land border without inspection (EWIs in each year from 2008 to 2012.While the CMS estimates are based on sample data and assumptions that are subject to error, these trends are consistent with the best empirical information available.In November 2014 the Obama Administration announced an unprecedented set of executive action initiatives. At this writing, the Deferred Action for Parental Accountability (DAPA program and the expanded Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program, which would provide work authorization and temporary reprieve from removal to eligible persons, have been preliminarily enjoined. The temporary injunction, which the US Department of Justice plans to appeal to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, comes in response to a legal challenge to the two programs by 26 states under Article II, section 3 of the US Constitution which requires the president to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” and under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA. In addition, the Republican majorities of the 114th Congress have vowed to prevent the implementation of these programs. However, the administration has expressed confidence that it will ultimately prevail in court and in its battle with Congress over these programs. Meanwhile, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs, and others continue to plan intensively for the DAPA and DACA programs, as well as for other executive action initiatives.This paper provides estimates of those who are potentially eligible for DAPA and DACA. However, it also looks beyond DAPA and DACA to make the case for broad legislative reform in light of long-term trends in unauthorized migration to the United States and the unauthorized resident population. In particular, it argues that substantial declines in the unauthorized population—a goal shared by partisans on both sides of the immigration debate—will require reform of the legal

  19. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  20. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  1. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  2. Environmental legislation as a tool for improvement on the natural gas market; Legislacao ambiental como ferramenta de implementacao do mercado do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterno, Nadia Taconelli [Iqara Energy Services Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao de Meio Ambiente

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to present the terms of the environmental law that may positively purport the use of natural gas. The work contains a historical overview, followed by the current policy that will most likely guide the nowadays and future trends. Some legal provisions were included in the work for reference purposes only. (author)

  3. On the Formation of Philosophical Environmental Ethics : A Brief History of Environmental Ethics in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakenaka, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to survey the history of philosophical environmental ethics in the United States of America. The backgrounds of the birth of environmental ethics are (a) traditional movement of environmental protection, (b) scientific research on ecosystem and ecology movements, and (c) warnings of global environmental crisis by natural scientists. Environmental ethics as philosophy was formed in the early 1970s against the background of these. From the mid-1980s to the present ti...

  4. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  5. Environmental protection uranium recovery issues in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peake, R.T.; Cherepy, A.; Rosnick, R.; Schultheisz, D.; Setlow, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium recovery activities in the United States were at a standstill just a few years ago. Demand for processed uranium yellowcake has increased, as has its price, though the price is down since the Fukushima reactor accident. Interest in producing uranium has increased, too. Currently the most preferred, low-cost uranium extraction method in the United States is in-situ leach (ISL) recovery where the geohydrology is conducive to injection, mobilization and pumping. A number of applications for new ISL and conventional mills have recently been submitted or are expected to be submitted for licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings under the authority of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). These standards are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192). The NRC develops implementing regulations for 40 CFR Part 192 and then NRC or delegated States enforce the NRC and EPA regulations. Facilities regulated under 40 CFR Part 192 include conventional uranium and thorium mills as well as in-situ leach operations, which are considered to be 'milling underground' for regulatory purposes. However, there are no explicit standards for ISL operations in 40 CFR Part 192. In addition, EPA has determined that portions of the operations at uranium recovery operations, specifically the radon emissions from tailings impoundments, are covered by Section 112 of the Clean Air Act as a source of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA addresses these operations in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W. EPA is in the process of reviewing both 40 CFR Part 192 and 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W for possible revision. This paper presents some of the issues related to uranium recovery that are being considered in the current regulatory review. (author)

  6. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  9. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK), which grants electricity production licences; the Turkish Electricity Distribution Company (TEDAS), involved in electricity distribution and trade 'in accordance with principles of productivity and profitableness'; the Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company Inc. (TETAS), which engages in trading and contracting during the period of transition to an electricity market system; the state-owned Electricity Generation Company (EUAS), which was established 'to generate electricity in compliance with the energy and economic policies of the state and in accordance with the principles of efficiency and profitability' and with the 'mission... to generate reliable, economical, environmentally friendly energy by using the resources in our country efficiently so as to increase the public welfare'; and the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) which, since 2001, deals with transmission facilities in the country and carries out the planning of load dispatch and operation services 'acting in compliance with the new market structure depending upon the transmission license obtained from Electricity Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA/EPDK) on 13 March 2003'. An Energy Stock Exchange is being developed in Turkey. Turkey, having published for public viewing for the first time its report of a CNS review meeting on 5 August 2013, is proceeding with the completion and consolidation of its nuclear legislation. In particular, the draft 'Nuclear Energy and Radiation Law', is expected for submission to the Prime Minister by the end of December 2013, and is an important step forward. This draft will address in detail the extent to which Turkey complies with the CNS today and in the near future. With regard to the regulatory body, no specific explanation of possible future legislation or restructuring is provided in the sixth review meeting report. Moreover, the structure of Turkish nuclear legislation and consequently the interaction of

  10. Environmental health indicators of climate change for the United States: findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Paul B; Sinclair, Amber H; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-11-01

    To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity.

  11. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  12. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  13. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  14. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the United States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts

  15. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the Unites States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third, the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts. This paper briefly outlines some of the liabilities surrounding environmental contracting and ways to minimize risks

  16. Narażenie zawodowe i środowiskowe na azbest w świetle obowiązujących aktów prawnych = Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in the light of applicable legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2015-09-01

    Anna Kowalczyk1, Ewelina Kozłowska2, Jolanta Pacian3   1. Studenckie Koło Naukowe Zdrowia Publicznego, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 2. Samodzielna Pracownia Epidemiologii, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 3. Katedra Zdrowia Publicznego, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie   Autor do korespondencji / Author for correspondence lic. Anna Kowalczyk e-mail: annakowalczyklublin@gmail.com   STRESZCZENIE Azbest stwarza ogromne zagrożenie zdrowotne. Jest szczególnie niebezpieczny w procesie wydobywania i produkcji, podczas obróbki, eksploatacji, usuwania,  w wyniku uszkodzeń lub korozji wyrobów zawierających azbest. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie regulacji prawnych dotyczących środowiskowego i zawodowego narażenia na azbest. Przedmiotem analizy są akty prawne dotyczące: zakazu stosowania azbestu, bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w narażeniu na azbest, gospodarki i transportu odpadów azbestowych, budownictwa oraz szeroko pojętej ochrony środowiska przed szkodliwym działaniem azbestu. W pracy szczegółowo omówiono zasady ochrony zdrowia pracowników i byłych pracowników narażonych na azbest. Przybliżono podstawowe założenia programu wieloletniego pt. „Program Oczyszczania Kraju z Azbestu na lata 2009-2032”. Zastosowaną metodą była metoda dogmatyczna oraz prawno-porównawcza polegająca na analizie aktów prawnych oraz dostępnej literatury.   Słowa kluczowe: azbest, narażenie zawodowe, narażenie środowiskowe, akty prawne.       ABSTRACT Asbestos creates a huge threat. It is particularly dangerous in the process of extraction and production, while processing, use, disposal or as a result of damage or corrosion of products containing asbestos. An aim of the work is to present regulations concerning environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos. The subject of analysis are legislative acts relating: prohibition of asbestos use, health and safety at work in

  17. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  18. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  19. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  20. Particle (Soot Pollution in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria—Double Air Pollution Burden? Understanding and Tackling Potential Environmental Public Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhumode H. Yakubu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Residents of Port Harcourt in Rivers State, Nigeria, and its environs have since the last quarter of 2016 been experiencing adverse environmental impacts of particle (soot pollution. This “double air pollution burden”—the unresolved prevailing widespread air pollution and the “added” emergence of particle pollution considered an environmental health threat, led to protests against government inaction in some parts of the state. In February 2017, several months following the onset of the pollution, the government declared an Emergency, and set up a Task Force to investigate and find a solution to the problem. Global research suggests that particle pollution correlates positively with a range of morbidities and an increased risk of mortality among exposed populations. This underscores the need for rigorous implementation of existing environmental legislations established to protect the environment and public health. Nigeria’s rapid response to the 2014–2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD and successful prevention of its spread provides some lessons for addressing such environmental health emergencies—strategic action, including effective environmental risk communication, environmental audit, and monitoring is key. Epidemiological studies of the affected population is imperative. A concerted effort by the Rivers State Ministries of Environment and Health, as well as academia and private organizations is required. Public service campaign in terms of government providing up to date information on the existing situation is required.

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  2. Participation and environment: The realization of environmental public audiences in the United States, Quebec and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer de Lemos, Chelen

    2001-01-01

    This article examines three experiences accomplishment of environmental public hearings as mechanisms of society participation in discussion and decision-making concerning the environmental problems: the United States experience, the Quebec experience and the Brazil experience. The analysis focuses the most significant aspects of the citizen participation for the state environment management and effective resolution of the environmental problems

  3. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  4. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  5. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  6. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author) [de

  7. Legislative impacts on Savannah River waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Today everyone has to be prepared to meet the challenges presented by new legislative actions. The Savannah River Plant is also impacted by this legislation as the exclusive nature of the Atomic Energy Act slowly erodes. This paper discusses the management of three types of radioactive waste from the production of defense nuclear materials and the impacts of major environmental legislation on the handling of these wastes. The paper briefly discusses the major environmental statutes, covers the statutes impact on the technical processes and, finally, considers the nontechnical impact of the statutes

  8. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  9. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  10. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 6889] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for...) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the...

  11. INAA: environmental studies in Minas Gerais State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Arantes, Irene Albernaz; Cabaleiro, Henrique L.; Almeida, Marcus Ronan M.G.; Severo, Maria Izabel

    2005-01-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil bring out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also occurs in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic a nervous disease, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and was applied to determine several elements in environmental samples. The irradiation characteristics are chosen to determine the isotopes in the best conditions. In this work the INAA, was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 (CDTN/CNEN).. The obtained results show that the contaminated water, sediment and forage with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km. (author)

  12. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  13. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  14. 12 CFR 411.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 411.200 Section 411.200 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.200 Agency and legislative liaison. (a) The prohibition on the use of...

  15. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  16. Photogrammetric methods in surveying environmental state and changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Various types of maps prepared by means of photogrammetry are reviewed. So-called orthophotomaps, showing air, land or water pollution and their sources on the background of ground, vegetation and various surface objects are characterized. Methods of interpreting orthophotomaps showing environmental effects of mining coal, coal combustion and other pollution sources are reviewed. Role of statistical data in evaluation of pollution and the general environmental impact of mines or power stations are discussed. A comprehensive system of describing the condition of the natural environment, observed environmental changes, and forecasting environmental effects of coal mining, combustion and other pollution sources is described. It is called environmental monitoring. Role of photogrammetry in environmental monitoring is stressed: air photography, satellite data, and infrared photography of vegetation. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  17. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  18. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  19. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  20. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  1. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  2. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  3. From pricing regulations of the feed-in scheme (EEG) through to financial security under the Atomic Energy Act (AtG): the German legal system for the energy sector in the context of EC legislation on state aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehling, J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is a comprehensive analysis of EC law on state aid and resulting possible impacts on the German legal system for the energy sector. The analysis reveals that, depending on the legal interpretation of Art. 87 of the EC Treaty, further non-compliance issues such as that currently under debate in connection with German legislation supporting market penetration of electricity from renewable energy sources, may arise in the future. Further examples referred to are the German system of liability reserves for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the system of third party liability for nuclear power plant operators. The author addresses various problem areas and uses characteristic examples in explaining conceivable matters of conflict. (orig./CB) [de

  4. 1975 Legislative Activity Progress Report on Postsecondary Collective Negotiations Bills. Special Report No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet, Thomas A.; Ross, Doris

    The extent of legislative activity in the area of postsecondary collective bargaining throughout the states is outlined. Specific legislative document numbers needed to request copies from the various legislative houses are included. The states are grouped in three categories: (1) those not having educational employee public sector collective…

  5. An Analysis of the Content of Stories Published for Children by Environmental Organizations in Arab States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarini, Moh'd S.; Haddad, Afaf S.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed are 21 environmental stories published for children by national and regional environmental organizations. Findings indicate that, although these stories are in compliance with suggested environmental attitudes for children, they also conform to conventional sex role behavior in Arab States. (Author/CW)

  6. EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE STATE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY OF THE POPULATION OF KYIV ON THE LEVEL OF MORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Kirova

    2017-08-01

    Fundamentals of National Security of Ukraine" to the priorities of the national interests of Ukraine (Article 6. The environment is considered safe when its state meets the criteria, standards, limits and norms, established in the legislation, concerning its purity (non-contamination, resource intensity (non-extinction, environmental sustainability, sanitary requirements, species diversity, and ability to satisfy citizens' interests. Today there is an increase in anthropogenic impact on the atmosphere, which is manifested mainly due to its pollution, and therefore inevitably affects the state of ecosystems and human health. That is why the study of problems associated with atmospheric air pollution - an extremely important natural component of human life and human life - is now becoming particularly acute and urgent. At present, the total air pollution in the large and medium-sized cities of Ukraine is 2-4 times higher than the permissible level and is dangerous for the health of the population. Consequently, the problems of ensuring environmental safety for the population of Kyiv, as many large cities of Ukraine, are very relevant. In connection with this, the article establishes a direct relationship between the increase in the concentration of harmful substances in the air of the contaminated area and the increase in the incidence of the population in the context of environmental safety.

  7. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  8. Environmental administration in the state petroleum company of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C Jaime F

    1999-01-01

    Taking the specific case of Ecopetrol a system of environmental management is shown as an administrative tendency to achieve, by means of a self-management responsible with sustainability approach, a balance between the managerial function and the environmental and social systems. politics's principles are commented that they should be completed by all activity in this company and a system of administration indicators is presented, for four critical areas, like a tool of monitoring the acting of this system

  9. Yearbook of environmental and engineering law 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1990-01-01

    The yearbook 1990 again contains individual contributions on German, foreign, and international environmental and engineering law. Beginning with this volume, there will always be a detailed report on previous year developments in environmental and engineering law in order to master the continuously increasing legal material. Some contributions - there are others - deal with the following subjects: Legislative need to act in matters of genetic engineering; ethics commissions and constitutional law; nature's own rights; legal protection of local government against brown coal plans; mining laws; sports and air-traffic noise; questions of nuclear waste management; removal of long-standing multi-party liability in environmental law; waste and restoration of abandoned industrial sites; technological development and liability insurance; problems of legislation coming into effect in pollution abatement procedures; Dutch air pollution abatement fund; environmental absolute liability in Austria; EC environmental legislation and solo actions by individual member states. (HSCH) [de

  10. Origins and framework of environmental law in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, N A

    1975-11-01

    A sensitivity for protecting the environment has opened a new field of Environmental Law, backed by government allocations, legal and administrative procedures, and public involvement. Environmental laws, however, remain responsive to new scientific and technological discoveries and expanding public pressures for both environmental protection and energy. Prior to the 1960s, there were laws to regulate resource exploitation, preserve natural areas, correct past damage, protect public health, control land use, and preserve common law and equity. Since then environmental concerns have become laws, agencies, and part of the law school curriculum. New regulations requiring accountability from the private sector, local governments, and public corporations (e.g., utilities) tend to cut across jurisdictions and require changes in governmental relationships. The legal tools available for protecting the environment include (1) regulation, such as permit and licensing systems and allocations; (2) procedural innovations, such as environmental impact analysis and reporting; (3) direct action, such as imposed air and water quality standards; (4) taxation; (5) government spending and contracting, as in solid waste disposal; (6) grants-in-aid and loans; (7) court enforcement; (8) coordinated land use; and (9) research. Citizen participation in the use of these tools has been vital to the momentum of an environmental protection concept. (150 references) (DCK)

  11. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  12. STATE INSPECTION METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY ACTIVITY FOCUSED ON THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniey Quiala Armenteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Environmental Regulatory Activity has on the Environmental State Inspection an instrument for control and monitoring of compliance of current legal standards regarding environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. In this research, a design methodology for effective implementation of environmental regulatory activity in Cuba directed to processes is proposed; based on the life cycle assessment and the applicable environmental management standards, including new performance indicators, which form a new tool based on scientific criterions for the Center of Environmental Inspection and Control.

  13. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  14. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  15. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  16. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  17. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  18. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  19. Stated environmental preferences in a Romanian rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This article uses random utility theory to analyse the economic and environmental trade-offs at farm level in a Romanian rural area confronting water pollution on the basis of survey data. To underline the impact of socio-economic variables in the decision-making process at farm level as regards environmental choices, a binary logit model is estimated that includes socio-economic variables in addition to the attributes in the choice set. The study shows that heterogeneity in tastes is partial...

  20. Reflections on the State of Research: Indoor Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Corsi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    that with parallel research and writing efforts culminating with internal review and revision cycles. In this paper, we present our choices for the most important research findings on indoor environmental quality from the past three decades followed by a discussion of the most important research questions in our......More than 30 years after the First International Indoor Climate Symposium, ten researchers from the USA, Slovakia, Sweden, and Denmark gathered to review the current status of indoor environmental research. We initiated our review with discussions during the 1-day meeting and followed...

  1. Legislative coalitions with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Laver, Michael

    2017-03-14

    In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions typically make the "common knowledge" assumption that the preferences of all politicians are public information. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to investigate which legislative coalitions form when politicians' policy preferences are private information, not known with certainty by the other politicians with whom they are negotiating over what policies to implement. The model we develop has distinctive implications. It suggests that legislative coalitions should typically be either of the center left or the center right. In other words our model, distinctively, predicts only center-left or center-right policy coalitions, not coalitions comprising the median party plus parties both to its left and to its right.

  2. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-06-01

    of: Koper, Izola, Piran and Portorož, nautical tourism with marines, naval traffic and the port activity of the Luka Koper. The pressures on the marine ecosystem due to the human activities are still increasing, both on the mainland and in the sea, despite some measures to reduce the pollution. According to the assessment of the Mediterranean action plan (UNEP-MAP, Slovenian coastal sea is, due to its oceanographic characteristics and the economic activities influence, ranked among the most sensitive and endangered parts of the Mediterranean. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea will try to be presented through the DPSIR model or the amended Integral Model of Geographical Study of the Environment and its Components.

  3. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-01-01

    of: Koper, Izola, Piran and Portorož, nautical tourism with marines, naval traffic and the port activity of the Luka Koper. The pressures on the marine ecosystem due to the human activities are still increasing, both on the mainland and in the sea, despite some measures to reduce the pollution. According to the assessment of the Mediterranean action plan (UNEP-MAP, Slovenian coastal sea is, due to its oceanographic characteristics and the economic activities influence, ranked among the most sensitive and endangered parts of the Mediterranean. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea will try to be presented through the DPSIR model or the amended Integral Model of Geographical Study of the Environment and its Components.

  4. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  6. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  7. Petroleum Legislation and Administration: Past, Present, Future and Impact on Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofurhie, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The need to exploit the vast petroleum resources of the country in an optimally efficient manner demands a versatile, responsive, workable legislation and its administration.Therefore, Government enacted the Mineral Oils Act of 1914, which regulates the right to search and develop mineral oil efficiently. Specifically, Section 6 (1) (a) provided that Shell Darcy, a British company, had the sole right to operate the Nigerian province as its concession thereby disqualifying other non-British companies from exploration opportunities.The 1914 Act was modified in 1958 to accommodate non-British companies to compete for acreage. Thus, exploration activities increased thereby generating more reserves. Furthermore, exploration activities improved in the frontier areas because government granted the operators incentives, which expensed one exploratory and two appraisal wells as an offset against PPT.The Government promulgated the Petroleum Act of 1969 to ensure good management of the abundant petroleum resources found in the Niger Delta basin. The Act vests the ownership and control of all petroleum resources in the state. The marginal fields legislation strives to encourage more participation by indigenous companies, while at the same time boosting national producible reserves through a farm-in arrangement with concessionaires. Legislations on deep-water exploration have encouraged exploration activities in that terrain though it poses a great challenge to technology. Government's desire to eradicate environmental pollution and improve revenue has led it to enact legislations that would properly position Nigerian gas to compete favourably in the world market. Joint studies by government and operators in viable options for utilizing uncommitted gas through projects such as Gas-to Liquid, NGL and IPP are on-going.Although many of the Legislations have not changed by a large margin, their dynamic administration accommodates their reviews to match increasingly difficult safety

  8. An analysis of physician antitrust exemption legislation: adjusting the balance of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, F J; Young, G J

    2001-07-04

    Current antitrust law restricts physicians from joining together to collectively negotiate. However, such activities may be approved by state laws under the so-called state action immunity doctrine and by federal legislation under an explicit antitrust exemption. In 1999, Texas became the first state to pass physician antitrust exemption legislation allowing physicians, under certain defined circumstances, to collectively negotiate fees with health plans. Last year, similar legislation was introduced in the US Congress, in 18 state legislatures, and in the District of Columbia. This legislation was passed only in the District of Columbia where its implementation was blocked by the city's financial control board. Nonetheless, legislation permitting physicians to collectively negotiate fees with managed care plans has been introduced in 10 state legislatures this year, and there is continued interest in introducing similar legislation in the US Congress. This analysis examines the basic features of this legislation and its potential impact on the balance of power between physicians and managed care plans.

  9. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... possible in the assessment process whether the project falls under the requirements of the State NEPA. If... assessment cannot be completed until the State's impact statement requirements have been fulfilled by the... determination will then be executed based upon the assessment and the statement. (c) It should be emphasized...

  10. Reform and Harmonization of Legislation concerning Environment and Spatial Planning towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to achieve of state responsibility, national development carried out by all components of the nation. National development formulated and established by the government through a system of national development planning. In the implementation of development activities that use natural resources, legislation in the field of environment and spatial planning is an important aspect as the legal basis, in which the substance and purpose of the rules is not only derived from legal aspect, but also derived from sciences field environment and spatial planning. This research uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes a study of the principles of law, an inventory study of positive law and legal research on systematic. Regulatory issues in the field of environment and spatial planning in Indonesia in the context of sustainable development was originally rooted in the process of establishing legislation. In terms of the substance of which is set to have a tendency no longer rooted in the sciences that underlie environmental law and spatial. Concept of reform and harmonization of legislation field of environment and spatial planning in Indonesia in the context of sustainable development must be assessed in terms of the scientific approach to the whole holistic, inter and multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral to harmonize science related to the environment and spatial planning with the principles, theory and philosophy in Legal studies.

  11. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  12. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  13. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  14. Environmental aspects of nuclear power: state- of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Y.M.; Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power is an environmentally benign source, as it does not contribute either to global warming or acid rains.However, nuclear power plants do release radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents, and dispose solid wastes. Nuclear power currently provides 6% of global energy and about 16% of global electricity supply. Up to March 2006 there were 441 nuclear power reactors in operation representing a total capacity of more than 368 gigawatt electricity .World Energy Council projects growth of global use of electricity will increase from 1990 levels by 50% to 75% by the year 2020. At the same time, there are indications that the continued use of traditional fissile fuel will have undesirable impacts on the world climate Nuclear power will have to play an increasingly impact role in long-term energy of the world to achieve the objectives of sustainable develop .This paper presents the recent environmental aspects of nuclear power

  15. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  16. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  17. Environmental Assessment: Permanent Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Salix sp., Populus sp., Lemna minor , Cyperus sp. Delta Green Ground Beetle The Delta Green Ground Beetle, Elaphrus viridis Horn, 1878 is a...and the SCLA. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time. None of...environmental effects on adjacent populations. Therefore, no disproportionately high and adverse effects will occur to minority and low-income

  18. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  19. Health state of population as a criterion of harmfulness of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacatrian, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Valuation of children's health state living in an industrial city, in different microdistricts of which environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes takes place, is done. Investigation results established essential distinctions in health state of children's contingent under examination in dependence upon microdistrict of their permanent living in the given city which is connected with the environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes. The received data allow to examine the health state of population as an integral indicator of ecological situation in the region, and also as a criterion of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes. (au)

  20. Austria's environmental law in comparison with the environmental law of the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantscher, S.H.

    1991-11-01

    The thesis describes and compares the environmental legislation in Austria and the EC. A short introduction into structure and organization of EC-institutions and EC-legislation in followed by an examination of the constitutional foundations of environmental policy in Austria and the EC respectively. After the adoption for the Single European Act, the EEC-Treaty provides for objectives, orientation criteria and instruments regarding environmental protection. These provisions constitute a valid basis for environmental action. The adoption of a constitutional law does equally declare environmental protection as an objective of the state in Austria, however, its significance is regarded as rather controversial. Some provinces ('Laender') have shown a higher degree of sensitivity in their constitutions . The distribution of powers between the EC and its member stated in the field of environmental protection is of particular interests. It is shown, that the principle of subsidiarity and the safeguard-clauses leave discretion to the member states. Much will be determined by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) . Main emphasis has been placed on the description and comparison of Austria's and the EEC-environmental legislation. Environmental legislation of Austria as well as the EC is outlined sector by sector (i.e. water, air, chemicals, waste, soil, fauna and flora) and subsequently the object of a detailed comparison. Criteria, such as - preventiveness -stringency - focus, depth and comprehensiveness - clearness and legal force of the regulations have been applied. For most of the mentioned sectors it is correct to state, that Austria's legislation is more preventive, advanced, comprehensive and stringent (especially regulations related to water, waste, chemicals, also air) . However, there are particular areas (e.g. air quality objectives, noise limits for construction plants) where Austria' s legislation may well get a fresh impetus

  1. New Swedish nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As of February 1, 1984, a new Act on nuclear activities is in effect in Sweden, following a decision taken in Governement and Parliament. The Act defines the division of responsibility between the State and the nuclear industry to meet security demands and Sweden's international commitments in areas such as nuclear non-proliferation. Great importance has been attached to provisions governing the management of nuclear waste as well as research in this area, and the financing of the waste disposal. The publication in hand offers a translation into English of the new Act as well as the amended Act on the financing of future measures for the disposal of spent fuel. The general argumentation for the new nuclear Act is also included. (author)

  2. Environmental geology in the United States: Present practice and future training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lawrence

    Environmental geology as practiced in the United States confronts issues in three large areas: Threats to human society from geologic phenomena (geologic hazards); impacts of human activities on natural systems (environmental impact), and natural-resource management. This paper illustrates present U.S. practice in environmental geology by sampling the work of 7 of the 50 state geological surveys and of the United States Geological Survey as well. Study of the work of these agencies provides a basis for identifying avenues for the training of those who will deal with environmental issues in the future. This training must deal not only with the subdisciplines of geology but with education to cope with the ethical, interdisciplinary, and public-communication aspects of the work of the environmental geologist.

  3. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  4. Environmental assessment of the Guaratiba region - Rio de Janeiro state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, F.N.C. de; Coelho, M.J.; Amorim, A.S. de; Oliveira, E.P. de

    1994-01-01

    The Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) is located in the region of Guaratiba, adjacent to the Restinga de Marambaia, Baia de Sepetiba and Serra do Mar. As the mangrove vegetation is the most important in this area, it was decided to investigate this rich ecosystem. For such purpose a task force was created including the Instituto de Projetos Especiais (IPE/CTEx) and the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) in order to access the bio ecological aspects of the most abundant species of the region. The results will be incorporated to the Environmental Monitoring Program of the Institute. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  5. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  6. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  7. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and suscepti

  8. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 20 years, federal, state, and local authorities as well as many foreign nations have enacted a diverse array of environmental incentive mechanisms. This report presents one of the most comprehensive surveys available of these mechanisms.

  9. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives to Control Environmental Pollution (1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 20 years, federal, state, and local authorities as well as many foreign nations have enacted a diverse array of environmental incentive mechanisms. This report presents one of the most comprehensive surveys available of these mechanisms.

  10. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  11. After the Conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The principles of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The realization of the Slovak Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. These principles are reviewed

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the State of New Jersey. One of th...

  13. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... and suggestions to both: (1) Rachel Kastenberg, Office of Environmental Quality and Transboundary... number: DOS-2013-0022. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rachel Kastenberg, Telephone (202) 736-7111 or... Parties otherwise agree. If you would like to attend the public session, please notify Rachel Kastenberg...

  14. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... granting or money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is....-Peru Environmental Cooperation Work Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department invites... persons, to submit written comments or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new Work Program for...

  15. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... granting of money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is....S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department... interested persons, to submit written comments or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work...

  16. Responsabilidade civil do Estado por omissão estatal Civil liability of the State for environmental neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haide Maria Hupffer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Constituição Federal de 1988 é um divisor de águas ao assumir-se como Constituição Ambiental, provocando uma ruptura em relação ao conceito de responsabilidade civil. Partindo de uma abordagem qualitativa, dialética e jurisprudencial, este artigo analisa o Princípio Responsabilidade desenvolvido por hans jonas e realiza um diálogo com o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, identificando, com apoio na legislação constitucional e infraconstitucional, as controvérsias doutrinárias acerca da natureza da responsabilidade estatal (objetiva ou subjetiva frente a casos de omissão da administração pública e à ocorrência de dano ambiental. Conclui-se que o Superior Tribunal de Justiça assume uma dimensão mais alargada do conceito de responsabilidade civil do Estado, demonstrando uma tendência pela responsabilidade civil objetiva com base no risco. Assim, o Brasil, salvo algumas divergências doutrinárias, adota a responsabilidade civil objetiva do Estado pela teoria do risco administrativo alicerçada no ato ilícito e na aceitação do risco.The Federal Constitution of 1988 is a 'water divisor' since it assumes the role of Environmental Constitution, causing a rapture of the concept of civil liability. Starting from a qualitative, dialectical and jurisprudential approach, this article analyzes the Principle of Liability according to Hans Jonas in order to dialogue with the Institute of Civil Environmental Liability, identifying, with the support of the constitutional and infraconstitutional legislation, the doctrinary controversies about the nature of state liability (objective or subjective towards cases of neglect by the public administration and the event of environmental damage. It is possible to conclude that the Higher Court of Justice assumes a larger dimension of the civil liability of the State, thus showing the tendency towards the objective civil liability based on the risk. Therefore, Brazil, regarded some

  17. Environmental State and Trends at Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Søren; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper is part of the ECCOCAMPUS-project. It first describes some students projects investigating energy consumption patterns, etc. The main part of the paper illustrates by tables and graphs the energy and environmental situation at the Technical University of Denmark, such as the consumption...... of electricity, heat, and water, as well as the waste production. These data are provided for the period from 1980-1995, and normalized by floor space, number of students, number of employes and by annual budget. These data indicate a significant growth in the energy consumption, especially marked per capita......, because the number of students has declined by 25%. Finally are very briefly outlined, how the University Administration is now giving higher priority to saving electricity....

  18. Environmental Displacements: The Case of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. Martins Mattar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The human displacement caused by adverse weather conditions is, and has been for a long time, a natural strategy to adapt to environmental changes. However, the frequency of natural disasters and the negative impact of climate change have increased significantly affecting a growing number of people. Internal and external tensions caused by large-scale displacements, conflicts generated by resource scarcity, increased spread of diseases and geopolitical reordering are among the consequences linked to this phenomenon. The case of the small island nations that will be submerged by the sea level rise is an extreme example that raises fascinating questions. This article aims at analyzing the links of climate change on the dynamics of migration and exploring legal and political implications and possible solutions, in particular, for the populations from small island nations.

  19. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  20. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  1. Decree No 524 of 8 June 1982 of the President of the Republic implementing CEC. Directive No 77/576 for standardization of Member States' legislative, regulatory and administrative provisions on safety signs in workplaces and CEC Directive No 79/640 amending the Annexes of the latter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Decree implements at national level Directive No 77/576 of 27 July 1977 of the Commission of the European Communities, as amended by Directive No 79/640 of 21 June 1979. The Directive provides for the standardization by Member States of their legislative, regulatory and administrative provisions concerning safety signs in workplaces, including radioactivity symbols. (NEA) [fr

  2. Sonora Legislators and their Constitution, 1857-1861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Trejo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the members of the Sonora constituent congress (1857-61, and analyzes the debates they held regarding the project for the state's Constitution, which would follow the lines estblished by the 1857 Federal Constitution. It also points out the relations between each legislator's trajectory and politicial affiliation (as far as available sources allow for this, and the proposals he presented during the legislative debates that gave place to the 1861 Constitution of Sonora.

  3. Right to access to justice in environmental matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gračan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals of the Republic of Croatia for the following period is its access to the European Union. In order to fulfill it, the Republic of Croatia has in October 2001 signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement and thus overtaken the obligation to strengthen co-operation with European Union member states in struggle against environmental devastation and in promotion of environmental sustainability (Article 103 of Agreement. With the acceptance of the Agreement the process began of the Croatian legislation adjustment to the European Union legal acquirements, and thus of the implementation of numerous European Union Acts into its own legislation. In the area of environmental protection, a large number of regulations, directives, and decisions resolving the objectives regarding further protection were carried out by the competent bodies of the European Union, which the Republic of Croatia must implement in its own legislation during its process of accessing EU. Sure enough, one of the most important questions of environmental protection is the right to approach the legislation on environmental issues by all stakeholders. This paper brings the authors' elaboration on the right to access to justice in matters of environmental protection, its standardizing characteristics, similarities, and differences from the aspect of the Convention on Environmental Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, European Union Acts, and Croatian legislation.

  4. 75 FR 78338 - Meeting of the United States-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7261] Meeting of the United States-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Oman Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation and...

  5. ACHP | News | Legislation Passes Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton. "Bipartisan approval of this legislation by an overwhelming margin reflects the Bingaman, former Senator Pete Domenici, and Senators Hillary Clinton and Richard Burr." At a Capitol , who introduced the House version; Sen. Hillary Clinton and former Sen.Pete Domenici, who introduced

  6. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  7. The Impact of FEP Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arvil

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, had three express focuses: (1) on urban poverty among blacks in the non-south; (2) on the enforcement of Fair Employment Practice (FEP) legislation and its effect on the economic position of blacks and other minority groups; and, (3) on guidelines…

  8. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  9. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  10. [Environmental protection techniques used in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Zelimira

    2006-09-01

    Within the framework of the programme "Partnership for Sustainable Development" The Ministry of Environment of the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg has come up with a project "Study Visit--Environmental Protection Techniques". It was intended as a three-week study visit for environmental protection experts from Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to learn about the environmental protection techniques used in this federal state. Visits were paid to companies producing, applying or installing plants based on the state-of-the-art environmental protection techniques. The project started in 2005 and will last five years. The first visit to Baden-Württemberg was scheduled for 25 September-14 October 2005 for 12 experts from 12 countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine.

  11. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  12. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights the issues to be dealt with during the 96th Congress including the establishment of a Department of Education, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and related programs, and funding for fiscal 1980 and 1981. (JMF)

  13. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  14. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... granting of money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program and Plan of... Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department invites the public, including NGOs, educational institutions... regarding items for inclusion in the first Work Program for implementing the United States--Korea...

  15. The environmental state of Lake Ladoga sediments, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, J.; Ristola, T.; Kukkonen, J.; Leppaenen, M.; Hoof, P.L. van; Robbins, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors collected sediments in the summer 1993 from Lake Ladoga for chemical analyses and toxicity tests to assess the state of the lake. The sediments were analyzed for heavy metals, fluorides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and certain radionuclides related to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, the concentrations of toxic chemicals were low. Most chemicals were below the limit of detection. The range of the total concentration of 17 PCB congeners was from 6 to 30 ng/kg dw; the highest value was at the pulp and paper mill located in the northeastern shore of the lake (Pitkaeranta). The highest concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb were 10, 42, 46, 36, 188, and 143 μg/g dw, respectively. Arsene was not detected at all and Cd only at one out of 12 sites studied. The toxicological testing with larvae of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and Daphnia magna resulted in only slight effects which may in part be related to different physical characteristics of the sediments rather than to toxic effects. The highest mortality was 75% at the deepest part of the lake (close to Valamo Island) which was believed to be the least polluted. The highest heavy metal concentrations and slow development of the larvae were observed for the same site. In the south of the lake at the Volhov Bay which receives effluents from forest and aluminum industry, the mortality was 10--50%

  16. Sign Language Legislation as a Tool for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabsch, Annika

    2017-01-01

    This article explores three models of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social) and identifies characteristics of a sustainable community necessary to sustain the Deaf community as a whole. It is argued that sign language legislation is a valuable tool for achieving sustainability for the generations to come.

  17. Information system of authorities of environment, legislative resources and conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlhosova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents structure, legislative basis and conception of the Information system of authorities of environment (ISAE) in the Slovak Republic. The ISAE is a component part of the information system of the Slovak Environmental Agency and Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. Using of new technologies is discussed

  18. Environmental governance in China: Interactions between the state and "nonstate actors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Dan; Young, Oran; Jing, Yijia; Bramble, Barbara; Bu, Maoliang; Chen, Carmen; Furst, Kathinka; Hu, Tao; Li, Yifei; Logan, Kate; Liu, Lingxuan; Price, Lydia; Spencer, Michael; Suh, Sangwon; Sun, Xiaopu; Tan, Bowen; Wang, Harold; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeidan, Rodrigo

    2018-08-15

    In the West, limited government capacity to solve environmental problems has triggered the rise of a variety of "nonstate actors" to supplement government efforts or provide alternative mechanisms for addressing environmental issues. How does this development - along with our efforts to understand it - map onto environmental governance processes in China? China's efforts to address environmental issues reflect institutionalized governance processes that differ from parallel western processes in ways that have major consequences for domestic environmental governance practices and the governance of China "going abroad." China's governance processes blur the distinction between the state and other actors; the "shadow of the state" is a major factor in all efforts to address environmental issues. The space occupied by nonstate actors in western systems is occupied by shiye danwei ("public service units"), she hui tuanti ("social associations") and e-platforms, all of which have close links to the state. Meanwhile, international NGOs and multinational corporations are also significant players in China. As a result, the mechanisms of influence that produce effects in China differ in important ways from mechanisms familiar from the western experience. This conclusion has far-reaching implications for those seeking to address global environmental concerns, given the importance of China's growing economy and burgeoning network of trade relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  20. Moral autonomy in Australian legislation and military doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian legislation and military doctrine stipulate that soldiers ‘subjugate their will’ to government, and fight in any war the government declares. Neither legislation nor doctrine enables the conscience of soldiers. Together, provisions of legislation and doctrine seem to take soldiers for granted. And, rather than strengthening the military instrument, the convention of legislation and doctrine seems to weaken the democratic foundations upon which the military may be shaped as a force for justice. Denied liberty of their conscience, soldiers are denied the foundational right of democratic citizenship and construed as utensils of the State. This article critiques the idea of moral agency in Australian legislation and military doctrine and is concerned with the obligation of the State to safeguard the moral integrity of individual soldiers, so soldiers might serve with a fully formed moral assurance to advance justice in the world. Beyond its explicit focus on the convention of Australian thought, this article raises questions of far-reaching relevance. The provisos of Australian legislation and doctrine are an analogue of western thinking. Thus, this discussion challenges many assumptions concerning military duty and effectiveness. Discussion will additionally provoke some reassessment of the expectations democratic societies hold of their soldiers.

  1. Non-state global environmental governance : the emergence and effectiveness of forest and fisheries certification schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing scholarly interest in the role and function of non-state actors in global governance. A number of non-state governance schemes have been created in recent years to set environmental and social standards for the certification of private companies and producers. This thesis focuses on certification schemes in the forestry and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these two sectors arguably represent the most advanced cases of non-state rulemaking and governance in the environmen...

  2. New Ontario power legislation aims to protect consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    New legislation designed to improve regulation of the electricity sector in Ontario was introduced by the provincial government in June 2000, the first such legislation since the government mandated an open electricity market with the Energy Competition Act of 1998. The new legislation is described as narrowly focused on putting limits on local power rate increases. The legislation was introduced in combination with a directive to the Ontario Energy Board, and is designed to ensure that the Board approves municipal electric utility rates only when certain conditions are met. The Energy Minister was at great pains to point out that the legislation should not be interpreted as the government interfering in the marketplace, it is merely to help the utility wires side of the business during a two-year transition period. Municipal authorities reacted unfavorably to the legislation because it appears to require them to return significant assets to their utilities, assets that they considered as theirs under municipal restructuring. Energy Probe, an environmental advocacy group, suggested an alternative to the legislation, i. e., the government should allow the price increases requested by the municipal utilities to go through, but to leave consumers whole, it should impose a windfall profits tax on municipal governments, use the proceeds to reduce debt retirement taxes in the electricity bill, a leftover from Ontario Hydro's debt and stranded nuclear waste liabilities, and eliminate the province's own electricity tax on consumers. No direct reaction has been received from the Minister to date. If the legislation is passed in its present form it will prevent municipalities from using windfall profits from their utilities to justify rate hikes.

  3. Optimising invasive fish management in the context of invasive species legislation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darragh J. Woodford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa hosts a large number of non-native freshwater fishes that were introduced for various industries. Many of these species are now listed under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA Alien and Invasive Species (A&IS lists and regulations, though the practical options available to conservation agencies to effectively manage these fishes vary greatly among species and regions. Objectives & methods: We assessed the history and status of national legislation pertaining to invasive freshwater fishes, and the practical implications of the legislation for managing different species with contrasting distributions, impacts and utilisation value. Results: The smallmouth bass, despite being a potential conflict-generating species, is fairly straightforward to manage based on current legislation. Two species of trout, which remain absent from the NEM:BA A&IS lists because of ongoing consultation with stakeholders, continue to be managed in regions like the Western Cape province using existing provincial legislation. To maximise the limited capacity for management within conservation agencies, we proposed a decision-support tool that prioritises invasive fish populations that represent high environmental risk and low potential for conflict with stakeholders. Using three case studies, we demonstrated how the tool can be used to set management goals of ‘eradicate’, ‘manage against impacts and further spread’ and ‘continue to monitor population’ as the most pragmatic solutions given the state of an invasion, its socio-economic impact and the capacity of the responsible agency to act. Conclusion: By choosing a pragmatic management strategy, conservation agencies can maximise the effective deployment of limited resources, while minimising avoidable conflicts with stakeholders.

  4. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-09-01

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  5. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    for the renovation of the Cannon House Office Building and the condition of the Rayburn building, the effect of the sequester on overtime work, plans...provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177...Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation , the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2012

  6. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites

  7. Assessment and prognosis of environmental state and development of environmentally effective technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, A.; Polichtchouk, Y.; Ivanov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Despite of the decrease in oil production in Russia, the negative effects of the oil industry wastes on the environment still remain. The authors examine the main sources of the environmental pollution and suggest the assessment of technogenic impact which requires large volumes of ecological, cartographic and other data through the application of geographic information systems (GIS). Suggested technology includes software means for simulating the technogenic impact on natural environment. By overlapping the zones of technogenic impact on the landscape map using GIS, the relative areas of the polluted landscape complexes can be calculated. A developed method for oil product containment in water surface based on natural and synthetic fibrous adsorbents is presented. The isotherms of adsorption of oil, diesel fuel and gasoline are given. The efficiency of water purification from the oil products in solutions depends of their initial concentrations. The efficiency of adsorption from the microemulsions, however, increases with increasing adsorbent-solution ratio. The efficiency of the purification of oily sewage may be evaluated using the data in the Table obtained for oil products adsorption on multilayered adsorbents. (YU-INIS Centre)

  8. [The physiological classification of human thermal states under high environmental temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A F; Kuznets, E I

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the physiological classification of human thermal states in a hot environment. A review of the basic systems of classifications of thermal states is given, their main drawbacks are discussed. On the basis of human functional state research in a broad range of environmental temperatures the system of evaluation and classification of human thermal states is proposed. New integral one-dimensional multi-parametric criteria for evaluation are used. For the development of these criteria methods of factor, cluster and canonical correlation analyses are applied. Stochastic nomograms capable of identification of human thermal state for different intensity of influence are given. In this case evaluation of intensity is estimated according to one-dimensional criteria taking into account environmental temperature, physical load and time of man's staying in overheating conditions.

  9. Texas Employee Health and Fitness Program. An Example of Unique Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Donald F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Texas State Employee Health Fitness and Education Act of 1983 enables state agencies and educational institutions to finance employee health and fitness programs. This legislation is discussed and an example of the state-supported program is given. (MT)

  10. Ensuring safety in autonomous vehicle legislation in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The states of Michigan, California, Nevada, and Florida, along with the District of Columbia, have : recently passed legislation to allow the use of autonomous motor vehicles on public roads in : their states under restricted conditions. Other states...

  11. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  12. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  13. Right-to-Know legislation and the chemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburg-Rinn, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. It sought a fundamental change environmental problem solving. Frustrated by the lack of progress achieved through regulation, Congress decided to give information directly to the people, hoping for change. AND HAS CHANGE COME exclamation point Major chemical manufacturers have promised drastic reductions in their releases. State right-to-known and pollution prevention legislation has been passed. The CMA has called for a major shift in the way the chemical industry has approached its business. In the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 it is stated that there are significant opportunities for industry to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. The Administrator of EPA has called for a 50% reduction in the releases of 17 major chemicals over the next several years. To achieve these national goals and requirements the chemist will play an essential role. And don't expect this push to die down. Already there are calls for more information dissemination, more public access exclamation point

  14. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  15. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5.

  16. State environmental review of a proposed utility independent spent fuel storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabel, G.; Halstead, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental review process which was applied by the State of Minnesota to a proposed dry cask storage facility. An environmental analysis of the proposed project is summarized, as are alternatives including other dry storage technologies, increased in-pool storage, transhipment, reprocessing, use of higher burnup fuel and conservation. Public comments and concerns included potential cask failures, health impacts, and the possibility of the site becoming a open-quotes permanentclose quotes storage facility. State intervention in the federal license process is also described

  17. 'Pivotal politics' in US energy and climate legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodvin, Tora

    2010-01-01

    In the 110th Congress (2007-2008) legislation related to climate change was introduced at a faster pace than in any previous Congress, yet it did not result in a corresponding increase in enacted climate-related laws. A pertinent example of the political infeasibility of climate policy change in the 110th Congress is the case of tax credit extensions for production of renewable energy. While this issue in itself was uncontroversial, the extensions were only adopted in the 11th hour, after innumerable failed attempts. With an analytical point of departure in Krehbiel's theory of pivotal politics, this paper seeks to identify pivotal legislators in the case of the tax credit extensions and discusses how changes in the composition of pivotal legislators in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) may impact the prospects of moving climate legislation more generally. The analysis indicates that a majority of the legislative pivots in the case of tax credit extensions were Republican senators representing coal-producing states. In the case of climate change, however, the regional dimension is likely to be more significant for Democratic voting behaviour. Thus, the opportunity space for climate legislation in the 111th Congress remains narrow even with a reinforced Democratic majority in Congress.

  18. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  19. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  20. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

  1. Plea for European Price Anderson legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    The paper analyses the essential features and the basic differences in nuclear liability and coverage in the United States where the problem is governed by the Price-Anderson legislation, and the Member States of the European Community which adhere to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The paper undertakes to show that it is possible to introduce into the European Community certain elements of the American regime, in particular the solidarity of nuclear operators and the retroactive premium coverage without violating the basic principles of the Paris Convention. Consequently the paper advocates the adoption of such rules in Europe as a step towards harmonisation of nuclear coverage and safety and a means to reduce government interference. (author)

  2. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  3. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recycling and disposal, environmental considerations in land use, Environmental Impact Statements (EIS's... and guidelines, develop agreements for undertaking specific activities or projects of national... projects of multistate significance and mutual advantage. (3) The state conservationist will: (i) Obtain...

  4. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  5. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  6. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  7. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  8. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  9. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  10. Assessing the edible city: Environmental implications of urban agriculture in the Northeast United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    signicant action in research, design and practice. In the Northeast United States, where per capita diets are amongst the most environmentally intensive globally, there is a growing interest in local food production as a way to reduce the ecological burdens of food demand. Urban farms and pro-urban...... literature, leaving a number of lingering questions surrounding urban agriculture's environmental performance. In a Northern context, it remains to be seen whether the benets of reducing distance from farm to fork are outweighed by the energy demanded by yearround growing systems. Even if urban agriculture...... does provide leaner resource intensities at the farm scale, do these add up to meaningful shifts in a city's environmental footprint at the urban scale? The aim of this project was to begin removing these uncertainties using the Northeast United States as a case study, since cities within that region...

  11. Study on Environmental Fiscal Reform Potential in 14 EU Member States: Main Report & Appendices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Elliott, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Environment Agency between 2010 and 2013 on the potential for environmental fiscal reform in four EU Member States affected by the economic crisis. As with the last study for the European Commission, the intention of this study is to indicate where this potential may lie, and to demonstrate the order...

  12. Relationship of a lichen species diversity indicator to environmental factors across the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Mark J. Ambrose; Randall S. Morin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated relationships between one simple indicator of lichen species diversity and environmental variables in forests across the coterminous United States. We want to know whether this indicator can help quantify the influence that factors such as climate and air quality have on lichen biodiversity at large scales and whether it will be useful in...

  13. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  14. Influence of environmental factors on fish production in Ogun-State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated environmental factors influencing fish farming in Ijebu - Ode Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun-state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 50 respondents selected from 10 ponds in the area of study. Respondents were selected for the study using random sampling technique while the ponds ...

  15. Environmental Inequality and Pollution Advantage among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Nawrotzki, Raphael J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental inequality scholarship has paid little attention to the disproportional exposure of immigrants in the United States (U.S.) to unfavorable environmental conditions. This study investigates whether new international migrants in the U.S. are exposed to environmental hazards and how this pattern varies among immigrant subpopulations (e.g., Hispanics, Asian, European). We combine sociodemographic information from the American Community Survey with toxicity-weighted chemical concentrations (Toxics Release Inventory) to model the relationship between toxin exposure and the relative population of recent immigrants across Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs, n=2,054) during 2005-2011. Results from spatial panel models show that immigrants tend to be less exposed to toxins, suggesting resilience instead of vulnerability. This pattern was pronounced among immigrants from Europe and Latin America (excluding Mexico). However, our results revealed that Mexican immigrants are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards in wealthy regions.

  16. Environmental risk of mesothelioma in the United States: An emerging concern-epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown. Individual-based methods cannot be used, and new approaches need to be found. To better understand the most recent trends of mesothelioma in the United States, all mesothelioma deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 1999-2010 were analyzed. Among all mesothelioma deaths in the United States, the 1920s birth cohort significantly predominated, and the proportion of younger cohorts constantly decreased with time, suggesting a decline in occupational exposure in these cohorts. The M:F mesothelioma sex ratio fell with time, suggesting an increased proportion of environmental cases. Environmental exposures occur in specific geographic areas. At the large scale of a state, mesotheliomas related to environmental exposure are diluted among occupational cases. The spatial analysis at a smaller scale, such as county, enables detection of areas with higher proportions of female and young mesothelioma cases, thus indicating possible environmental exposure, where geological and environmental investigations need to be carried out.

  17. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This section gathers several amendments, rules and acts published in 2010 and sorted by country: 1 - Bulgaria: Amendment to the Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (2010); 2 - France: Law on the new organisation of the electricity market (2010); 3 - Germany: Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants (2010); Amendment to the Reliability Assessment Ordinance (2010); Amendment to the Ordinance on Persons Responsible for Nuclear Safety and on Reportable Events (2010); Amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (2010); 4 - Greece: Decree transposing European Council Directive 2006/117/EURATOM (2010); 5 - India: Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010); 6 - Romania: Amendment to Article 35 of Law 111/1996 regarding new tasks of CNCAN (2010); Order approving norms regarding the radiological monitoring or recyclable metal materials (2010); 7 - Serbia: Establishment of the Agency for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2009); 8 - Slovenia: Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities (2009); Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors (2009); Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (2010); 9 - Sweden: Abolishment of the Act on phasing out of nuclear energy (2010); Act on Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2010); 10 - United States: Final rule on the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel (2010); Status of the high-level waste repository programme (2010); Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (2010); Final rule on the export and import of nuclear equipment and material (2010)

  18. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyssen, Peter J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

  19. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  20. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  1. Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of high-strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of high-strength steels has been separated and extracted using thermal desorption analysis (TDA) and slow strain rate test (SSRT). The high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at low temperature (peak 1), as determined by TDA, decreases in maximum stress and plastic elongation with increasing occlusion time of peak 1 hydrogen. Thus the trapping state of peak 1 hydrogen is directly associated with environmental degradation. The trap activation energy for peak 1 hydrogen is 23.4 kJ/mol, so the peak 1 hydrogen corresponds to weaker binding states and diffusible states at room temperature. In contrast, the high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at high temperature (peak 2), by TDA, maintains the maximum stress and plastic elongation in spite of an increasing content of peak 2 hydrogen. This result indicates that the peak 2 hydrogen trapping state is innocuous to environmental degradation, even though the steel occludes a large amount of peak 2 hydrogen. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen is 65.0 kJ/mol, which indicates a stronger binding state and nondiffusibility at room temperature. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen suggests that the driving force energy required for stress-induced, diffusion during elastic and plastic deformation, and the energy required for hydrogen dragging by dislocation mobility during plastic deformation are lower than the binding energy between hydrogen and trapping sites. The peak 2 hydrogen, therefore, is believed to not accumulate in front of the crack tip and to not cause environmental degradation in spite of being present in amounts as high as 2.9 mass ppm. (author)

  2. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental protection and penal law in Greece - a comparison with the German penal code on environmental matters. Der strafrechtliche Umweltschutz in Griechenland unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Deutschen Umweltstrafrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanidis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chapter outlines the ecological situation of Greece, while the second chapter presents the legal foundations of environmental protection in Greece. Secondary laws are mentioned, as these are generally the laws in which penal liabilities are stated. The present environmental protection regulations are found to be unsatisfactory and unfit for preventing environmental damage. A new legislative structure is proposed on the basis of German environmental protection standards. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, J.A.; Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1994-07-01

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  5. School Violence: 10 Things Legislators Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomerson, Julie

    In the wake of increasing concern regarding school safety, state lawmakers will be faced with difficult decisions regarding statewide policies and the funding of local programs. To assist lawmakers with this process, this report provides an overview of the most prominent issues legislators may face, as well as a framework within which to address…

  6. Legislative prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: are they justified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years the headscarf has been described as a symbol of Islam's oppression of women and simultaneously of terrorism. As the debate regarding the acceptability of the headscarf in the modern world continues, an increasing number of states have legislated to ban the wearing of the headscarf. This article critically ...

  7. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-04-01

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  8. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  9. Local Government Capacity to Respond to Environmental Change: Insights from Towns in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lincoln R; Lauber, T Bruce; Kay, David L; Cutts, Bethany B

    2017-07-01

    Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62). Our analysis focused on towns' progression through three key stages of the environmental policy process (issue awareness and salience, common goals and agenda setting, policy development and implementation) and the factors that affect this progression and overall capacity for environmental governance. We found that-when compared to towns addressing open space development and natural gas development-towns confronted with climate change were at a much earlier stage in the policy process and were generally less likely to display the essential resources, social support, and political legitimacy needed for an effective policy response. Social capital cultivated through collaboration and networking was strongly associated with towns' policy response across all regions and could help municipalities overcome omnipresent resource constraints. By comparing and contrasting municipal responses to each issue, this study highlights the processes and factors influencing local government capacity to address a range of environmental changes across diverse management contexts.

  10. Strategic Environmental Education Plan for the State of Sinaloa (SEEPSIN), Mexico, 2011-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    SEEPSIN is based on the principles of action research (Kurt Lewin), a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action. It was designed and implemented by the Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Mexico, for the Human and Social Development Secretariat (SEDESHU) with funding from SEMARNAT and Sinaloa State. The objective of SEEPSIN is to foster an environmental culture of the population living in the catchment - subject to intervention - through non-formal educational process, using the model of environmental education developed by Torrecillas et al 2008. Non-formal education and continuing education are factors that should be in constant development, evolving along with all the changes that are occurring in the context, thus they are a suitable instrument to promote change and improve the cultural, social, economic and environmental well-being of the population. In turn this contributes to the development of skills in children, youth and the general public considering the watershed and community involvement as central to restoring the balance of man and nature, based on the implementation of sustainable development models. The tools and program for SEEPSIN include: dissemination of the project; acquisition of a mobile environmental education unit; developing and distributing educational materials including books, pamphlets, brochures, manuals, calendars, posters, guides and CD's; installation in the webpage of the State Government through a specially designed software to provide access for all Sinaloa; forming a network of trainers and promoters, including staff of the 18 municipalities and students at all levels; media intervention; creation of a State Environmental Education Forum and evaluation/analysis of the results. Training is provided through

  11. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  12. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  13. The Control of Hazardous Wastes and the Role of Environmental Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortner, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at hazardous waste issues which are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and state governments. Particular attention is given to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A case study of an abandoned acres superfund site is included with two related student…

  14. Health Policy, Ethics, and the Kansas Legislative Health Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Gina; Schrandt, Suzanne; Soderquist, Chris; Steffensmeier, Tim; St. Peter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We describe a unique program, the Kansas Legislative Health Academy, that brings together state legislators from across the political spectrum to build their capacity in advancing policies that can improve the health of Kansans. To that end, the academy helps legislators develop new skills to deliberate the ethics of health policy, use systems thinking to understand the long- and short-term effects of policy action and inaction, and engage in acts of civic leadership. The academy also seeks to foster an environment of respectful open dialogue and to build new cross-chamber and cross-party relationships. Among the most important outcomes cited by program participants is the value of sustained, personal interaction and problem solving with individuals holding differing political views. PMID:25607945

  15. Health policy, ethics, and the Kansas Legislative Health Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Maree, Gina; Schrandt, Suzanne; Soderquist, Chris; Steffensmeier, Tim; St Peter, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We describe a unique program, the Kansas Legislative Health Academy, that brings together state legislators from across the political spectrum to build their capacity in advancing policies that can improve the health of Kansans. To that end, the academy helps legislators develop new skills to deliberate the ethics of health policy, use systems thinking to understand the long- and short-term effects of policy action and inaction, and engage in acts of civic leadership. The academy also seeks to foster an environment of respectful open dialogue and to build new cross-chamber and cross-party relationships. Among the most important outcomes cited by program participants is the value of sustained, personal interaction and problem solving with individuals holding differing political views.

  16. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries. All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices. At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format. Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted. The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  17. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries.All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices.At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format.Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted.The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  18. The conflicts between labor and environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the German-language short version of a book by the same author titled 'The Conflicts between Labor and Environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States' published by Gower, Aldershot, England and St. Martin's Press, New York in the summer 1985. It discusses the evolution of the relationship between organized labor and environmentalism in both countries since the mid-1960s. Five explanations for this relationship are examined: (1) The perceptions of the interdependencies between employment and environmental protection by both groups, (2) the demographic and socio-economic composition of both groups, (3) internal will-formation and decision-making, (4) the overall institutional and political frameworks, and (5) the historical and ideological backgrounds of both groups. (orig.) [de

  19. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  20. Legislators' beliefs on tobacco control policies in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nancy L; Pritsos, Chris A; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Nevada legislators' views on comprehensive smoke-free (SF) policy development. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) is a weak law that prohibits smoking in most indoor public places, excluding stand-alone bars and casino gaming areas. Nevada's state senators and assembly members were contacted to participate in the study. A literature review guided modifications of an instrument previously used to measure county-level officials' policy views in Kentucky. Descriptive statistics were conducted for selected variables, while independent t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences between various groups. 23 of 63 legislators participated. Even though the majority of officials recognized smoking as a health hazard and nicotine as addictive, there was not overwhelming support for strengthening the NCIAA, raising cigarette excise taxes or providing cessation benefits to citizens. Officials believed that the NCIAA was having a negative economic impact on smaller gaming businesses, but not on the casino industry. Democrats were more likely than Republicans to agree that raising the excise tax by $1 is important for needed state revenues. 63% of legislators believed that they would be persuaded to strengthen the NCIAA regardless of its financial impact on small businesses, if their constituents supported such a move. No other state relies on gaming revenues as much as Nevada. Given that legislators are strongly influenced by their constituents' views, policy advocates need to establish grassroots support for strengthening the current NCIAA and also tobacco control laws in general.

  1. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  2. Environmental Impact Study - Impact Report on the Environment: analysis of the present legislation and the perspectives. An approach related to the electric sector; EIA - RIMA : analise atual legislacao e as perspectivas. Uma abordagem relativa ao setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Alessio Bento [Secretaria de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    The present work analyze the present legal structure for environment protection considering the impacts to which the nature is submitted as consequence of the electric power generation transmission and distribution. The work evaluate the the legal directives for elaboration of environmental impact study, as far the pertinence and applicability related to the objectives to be attained is concerned.

  3. Environmental performance evaluation of an advanced-design solid-state television camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The development of an advanced-design black-and-white solid-state television camera which can survive exposure to space environmental conditions was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element buried-channel CCD is utilized as the image sensor to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included: (1) component and circuit sensitivity to temperature; (2) circuit board thermal and mechanical design; and (3) CCD temperature control. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into the final design for two deliverable solid-state TV cameras. One of these cameras was subjected to environmental tests to determine stress limits for exposure to vibration, shock, acceleration, and temperature-vacuum conditions. These tests indicate performance at the design goal limits can be achieved for most of the specified conditions.

  4. Environmental restoration technology programs at Mesa State College: A strategic look at manpower needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.J.; Emilia, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental cleanup of Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the next 30 years requires strategic planning to ensure adequate manpower is available when needed. Manpower needs projections within DOE have been based on analyses of current industry trends that indicate a substantial shortage of scientists and engineers. This paper explores the idea that the manpower requirements of DOE's environmental restoration program are not yet fully realized by most sites, which are currently in the predecisional work phase. Experience at the Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), which has had environmental restoration as it primary mission for about 10 years, shows that in the postdecisional phases the manpower need for scientists and engineers decreases while the manpower need for technologists in technical, management, and support roles increases. The GJPO, with Mesa State College in Grand Junction, Colorado, has developed an Environmental Restoration Associate degree program based on a strategic look at its manpower needs. This program receives start-up funding from DOE and has received donations in the million dollar range from various industry and state government partners

  5. Environmental induced renormalization effects in quantum Hall edge states due to 1/f noise and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, A; Ferraro, D; Sassetti, M; Carrega, M; Magnoli, N

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general mechanism for the renormalization of the tunnelling exponents in edge states of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Mutual effects of the coupling with out-of-equilibrium 1/f noise and dissipation are considered for both the Laughlin sequence and the composite co- and counter-propagating edge states with Abelian or non-Abelian statistics. For states with counter-propagating modes, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed mechanism in the so-called disorder-dominated phase. Prototypes of these states, such as ν = 2/3 and ν = 5/2, are discussed in detail, and the rich phenomenology induced by the presence of a noisy environment is presented. The proposed mechanism could help justify the strong renormalizations reported in many experimental observations carried out at low temperatures. We show how environmental effects could affect the relevance of the tunnelling excitations, leading to important implications, in particular for the ν = 5/2 case. (paper)

  6. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  7. Environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Program in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL), specially for the State of Rio de Janeiro. Two distinct phases of the Programme were analyzed: production and consumption. For the former, priority was given to the industrial process, trying to identify the main pollutants and their quantities which are dropped into the rivers and launched to the atmosphere. In the same manner, we try to identify the main pollutants and their quantities for the consumption phase. (author)

  8. Solid state nuclear track detectors and their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1993-09-01

    Passive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are electrically non conductive solids, mainly used for the registration of α-particles and neutron induced recoils. The stability of the particle tracks in the solid allow longer integration periods, what is essential for the measurement of small, time variant radiation exposures. This report gives an overview on non-photographic track detectors, their processing, dosimetric properties and examples for their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  9. A Comparative Study Environmental and Radiological Causes Of Cancer In River Nile State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Eyad; Khair, Hatim

    The causes of cancer in River Nile state are differ between environmental and radiological, this paper tried to make comparison between the two causes, to determine the real cause behind the large rising of cancer cases in this state, considering the daily habits for the patients and the possible contamination in the natural resources around them. The noticeable thing that most of cancer cases are might be due to the high concentration of nitrate pollutant detected in natural resources such as drinking water; also by looking to the radioactive elements we see there's high concentration of some radioactive elements specially the K-40 which found in Portulaca Oleracea.

  10. State partnership in environmental health and safety phase of Plowshare projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsman, S [California State Department of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    When experiments on projects involving Plowshare devices are conceived, the state chosen for the project should be invited to participate in planning the health and safety aspects and be prepared to actively participate in the D-Day phase as well as the post-detonation activity. In California nuclear science technology and competence have preceded the social acceptance and use of nuclear devices for large scale Plowshare projects. However, the environmental surveillance program of the Bureau of Radiological Health in the State Department of Public Health has established an operative program which will be ready and able to function as an active participant or in a support role in environmental health phases of nuclear projects scheduled in the State. A description of our present program will be included in this paper. This will enable the attendees and readers to realize capabilities which will be activated for participation and/or support roles during Plowshare activities in the State or in a neighboring state if the need arises. (author)

  11. State partnership in environmental health and safety phase of Plowshare projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsman, S.

    1969-01-01

    When experiments on projects involving Plowshare devices are conceived, the state chosen for the project should be invited to participate in planning the health and safety aspects and be prepared to actively participate in the D-Day phase as well as the post-detonation activity. In California nuclear science technology and competence have preceded the social acceptance and use of nuclear devices for large scale Plowshare projects. However, the environmental surveillance program of the Bureau of Radiological Health in the State Department of Public Health has established an operative program which will be ready and able to function as an active participant or in a support role in environmental health phases of nuclear projects scheduled in the State. A description of our present program will be included in this paper. This will enable the attendees and readers to realize capabilities which will be activated for participation and/or support roles during Plowshare activities in the State or in a neighboring state if the need arises. (author)

  12. Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

  13. On the preparation of environmental impact statements in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James E.

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) requires that an Environmental Impact Statement (FIS) be prepared whenever a federal action is considered that could result in a significant impact on the environment. Such actions include the issuance of construction or operating licenses for nuclear facilities and power plants, hydroelectric dams, or the diversion of water from rivers and lakes. An EIS is usually required if federal funds are involved. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Council for Environmental Quality have developed guidelines and regulations for the preparation of an EIS. An EIS is not a scientific report. It is a legal document whose primary function is its use by decision-making agencies in approving or not approving the proposed federal action. The EIS is also used to inform the public and other government agencies of the environmental impacts of the proposed facility. The NEPA process allows public input into the decision-making process. An EIS should be short and concise, analytical, conclusory, be written for a non-technical audience, discuss the pros and cons of the proposed facility, and examine the impacts of all alternatives to the proposed action. The EIS should identify all adverse environmental impacts that cannot be avoided. The conclusions reached in the EIS should be clearly stated and supported by discussions and data in the text and by references to show that the agency has made the necessary analyses. The paper discusses the purpose and contents of these documents and the environmental procedures used in the U.S.A., especially as they relate to nuclear power plants.

  14. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  16. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  17. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities – A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-01-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. - Highlights: • The index provides a new framework for analyzing the overall urban environmental quality. • The index scores are calculated based on environmental standards and desired optimum benchmark values. • The paper demonstrates the gap between the state of existing urban environmental quality and the desired goals. - Introducing a multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index, which measures urban environmental quality related to environmental benchmarks.

  18. Implications of prescription drug monitoring and medical cannabis legislation on opioid overdose mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elyse; Gazmararian, Julie

    To determine whether specific state legislation has an effect on opioid overdose mortality rates compared to states without those types of legislation. Ecological study estimating opioid-related mortality in states with and without a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and/or medical cannabis legislation. Opioid-related mortality rates for 50 states and Washington DC from 2011 to 2014 were obtained from CDC WONDER. PDMP data were obtained from the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, and data on medical cannabis legislation from the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. The relationship between PDMPs with mandatory access provisions, medical cannabis legislation, and opioid-related mortality rates. Multivariate repeated measures analysis performed with software and services. Medical cannabis laws were associated with an increase of 21.7 percent in mean age-adjusted opioid-related mortality (p cannabis (p = 0.049) and 5.8 percent for states with a PDMP (p = 0.005). Interaction between both types of legislation produced a borderline significant decrease of 10.1 percent (p = 0.055). For every year states had both types of legislation, interaction resulted in a 0.6 percent decrease in rate (p = 0.013). When combined with the availability of medical cannabis as an alternative analgesic therapy, PDMPs may be more effective at decreasing opioid-related mortality.

  19. Legislative Provisions Underlying Trade Unions' Right to Define Their Organizational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobchenko, Victoria V.; Penov, Yury V.; Safonov, Valery A.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of constitutional and other legislative provisions that ensure a trade union's right to define its own administrative structure in European states. The aim of the study is to reveal the management's problems of European trade unions, declarative and empirical mass-character legislative provisions, which…

  20. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  1. The United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management's Progress and Challenges in Environmental Remediation and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Program (EM) is responsible for managing the world largest environmental cleanup program comprised of unparalleled scope, complexity, diversity of facilities and contaminants and technical challenges. Established in 1989, EM mission is the safe and successful cleanup of the Cold War legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Within this mission, EM is responsible for radioactive liquid wastes, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, solid radioactive waste, contaminated soils and groundwater and contaminated facilities located in 14 States, on over 2,000,000 acres of land and over 4500 facilities requiring decommissioning. Since 1989 EM has, and continues to evolve into a true project management oriented organization with world-class engineering and technology capabilities, and as the National Academy of Public Administration has concluded, a with the changes underway, EM is on a solid path to becoming a high performing organization. Not only has EM grown and matured as a functional organization, but it has also achieved some remarkable on the ground accomplishments in environmental remediation, deactivation and decommissioning and waste management/nuclear material stabilization. These accomplishments have been made within a context of having to work with some of the most dangerous substances known to humanity; of having to perform first of a kind tasks in highly hazardous environments; and of having to design, construct and operate first of a kind technology and facilities to solve problems that once seemed unsolvable. In addition, EM accomplishments have been made with the highest priority and focus given to safety and risk reduction. In October 2006, and with a life cycle cost of $6.7 Billion, cleanup/D and D was completed at the 800+ facility 6200 acre former nuclear weapons complex at Rocky Flats (Denver, Colorado). Today

  2. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  3. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  4. Using research data to impact consumer protection legislation: lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerster, Katherine D; Mayer, Joni A

    2013-09-01

    The Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Youth (CITY100) project evaluated individual, built-environmental, and policy correlates of indoor tanning by adolescents in the 100 most populous US cities. After CITY100's completion, the research team obtained supplemental dissemination funding to strategically share data with stakeholders. The primary CITY100 dissemination message was to encourage state-level banning of indoor tanning among youth. We created a user-friendly website to broadly share the most relevant CITY100 data. Journalists were a primary target audience, as were health organizations that would be well positioned to advocate for legislative change. CITY100 data were used to pass the first US state law to ban indoor tanning among those under 18 (CA, USA), as well as in other legislative advocacy activities. This paper concludes with lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination activities that we hope will encourage more health researchers to proactively address policy implications of their data and to design relevant, effective dissemination strategies.

  5. Changing social policy: Grassroots to legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiska, Liz; McCann, Eileen M; Mancuso, Margaret

    2002-05-01

    Health care in the United States has evolved into a multimillion dollar business. As the health care industry has grown, so too has government regulation and involvement. As both insurers and patients vie to get the most for their health care dollars, federal and state governments attempt to mediate, prevent fraud and abuse, and protect all parties involved. Consumers feel the effects of this "tug of war" in the form of higher copayments, premiums, and out-of-pocket costs, as well as denial of coverage. This denial of coverage sparked a very successful grassroots effort to stop commercial insurers in the state of Connecticut from defining ostomy supplies as cosmetic and thus denying reimbursement. A tremendous amount of collaboration between Connecticut WOC nurses, state legislators, local American Cancer Society advocates, United Ostomy Association chapter members, and health care providers resulted in a powerful mobilization and support for House Bill No. 5120. This bill went beyond defining ostomy supplies as medically necessary but also set a minimum rate for reimbursement. Social policy changed, improving the lives of Connecticut citizens with an ostomy. Although many people fear they do not have the power to make necessary changes in government, this experience proved otherwise. The collaboration that occurred was patient advocacy at its best. This article describes the process that allowed this successful collaboration to take place with the hope that others will be inspired to get involved with patient advocacy through political involvement. It is the intention of this work to capture the essence of dedication of a grassroots campaign involving a small group of well-organized, highly focused participants who were responsible for changing public health care policy in the state of Connecticut.

  6. The application of DPSIR model in analyzing the space and environmental state on Murter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lončar

    Full Text Available The aim of the author has been to analyze the natural and socio-geographical components of Murter Island in order to get familiar with their characteristics which would be the basis for evaluating the current state of the environment and development possibilities of the Island. An integrated research model DPSIR (driving forces – pressures – states – impacts – responses designed by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 1999 was used to analyze the environment. The model consists of driving forces (D, pressures (P, states (S, impacts (I and responses (R on the current state of the environment, and enables the analysis and synthesis of causal relationships between human activities and environment, as well as impacts and responses to the environmental changes. Population and tourism have been selected as the main driving forces, but also as the major pressures on the environment. The pressure is reflects in the concentration of the population in the coastal zone, the number of tourists, the amount of waste, pollution of the sea and beaches during the tourist season in overloading the electrical networks et al.

  7. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  8. Environmental Sustainability: Study an Institution of Higher Education Public of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kalynka Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the general objective of analyzing the environmental sustainability of an Institution of Higher Education (IHE Public of the State of Santa Catarina. To meet this objective has to reach the specific objectives: to check the number of IHEs in Brazil and Santa Catarina; to identify the number of public and private institutions and to propose a management model 5W2H to deficit sustainability criteria. The methodology and the objectives considered descriptive, with the technical procedures has the case study and the approach problem qualitative. The methodology is divided into three phases: the first phase it is the theoretical basis, it approaches social and environmental responsibility; environmental management and environmental management system. In the second phase it is the analysis of the results where first there was the amount of IHE and distribution in administrative categories. In the third phase, it has been the purpose of responding to a checklist of 154 questions developed by Pieri et al (2011 and Environmental Management Plan Summary (5W2H. In the end it is concluded that the institution submitted a global sustainability index of 32 %, being regarded as weak, proposing with the 5W2H tool, an action for each criterion, as the inclusion of recyclable products in acquisitions; recycling of waste; accessibility to the handicapped; and creating actions that approximates the IHE to the society. It is hoped that the proposed actions that the institution to put them into practice, increase the environmental sustainability index, benefiting society and the environment.

  9. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  10. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  11. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  12. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  13. California Attorney General opines: California's nuclear legislation unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabin, V.

    1979-01-01

    The California Attorney General found three sections of the state's nuclear regulation code to be in violation of Federal authority and the State Constitution. Legislation and court cases since 1946 are quoted to support the Attorney General's position. The Warren--Alquist Act, which requires a demonstrated technology for reprocessing fuel rods or disposing of high-level wastes before a nuclear plant can be licensed, is unconstitutional because it usurps Federal control and allows the state to permanently block nuclear facility construction and certification. States' rights in the area of radiological health and safety are supplanted by the Federal government

  14. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  15. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  16. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  17. Environmental diagnoses from landscape units in the northwest area from the State of Rio Grande do Sul in the period from 1984 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Holzschuh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Big Rio of the South, the use and the occupation of the soil was always associated the aggressive practices to the environment. Development at any cost can bring irreversible consequences for the ecosystems, the landscapes, the biosphere and its biological diversity. With the growing demand for natural resources the periodic diagnosis of the use of the soil becomes a fundamental aspect for the understanding of the patterns of organization of space, which are rarely permanent, in function of the high dynamics of anthropic activities . In this context, the derived information of orbital sensor, to gether with the geoprocessamento techniques, have been an efficient tool the characterization of elements of the landscape and in identification studies and maping of the natural resources. This work objectifies, then, the characterization and the environmental diagnosis of five microbasins of the Northwest area of the State of Big Rio of the South. The use of GIS was essential for obtaining the information related to the structural elements of the landscape as: hipsometria, clinografia, hidrografia, uses of the soil, risk areas and areas of permanent preservation. Agriculture represents the main occupation of the soil in the area, being necessary to promote the control and the accompaniment of the use of natural resources, mainly in the areas of permanent preservation, facilitating the execution of the environmental legislation. The available cartographic base for the making of precise thematic letters is limitante. This problem is not just local, the shortage of cartographic information is general Brazil as a whole.

  18. AEC authorizing legislation, fiscal year 1975. Part 3. Hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session on Physical Research and Regulatory, February 28, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains testimony on the proposed budget for the physical research program presented at public hearings of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy on the proposed AEC authorizing legislation for fiscal year 1975. Atomic Energy Commission witnesses were Commissioner William O. Doub; Director of Regulation L. Manning Muntzing; Dr. Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Director, SLAC; Dr. John M. Teem, Assistant General Manager for Physical Research and Laboratory Coordination; and Dr. Robert R. Wilson, Director, NAL. Other witnesses included B. James Porter, Donald C. Gilbert, Hon. Sterling Cole, and Wyatt M. Rogers, Jr. Prepared statements, questions and answers, a letter from AEC Chairman Ray, and the report of the ad hoc panel on heavy-ion facilities are included. (U.S.)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  20. Opinion Formation on Environmental Protection: Understanding the Origins of Attitudes toward Resource Enhancement and Protection in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Farnall, Olan; Geske, Joel; Peterson, Jane W.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 483 Iowa citizens and state legislators found that self-interest had the strongest effect on formation of opinions toward environmental protection; sociotropic and symbolic politics models were also effective. Results indicate that campaign messages must stress the benefits of environmental protection to the individual. (JOW)