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Sample records for state engineering purification

  1. Quantum state engineering, purification, and number-resolved photon detection with high-finesse optical cavities

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Muschik, Christine A.; Giedke, Geza

    2010-01-01

    We propose and analyze a multifunctional setup consisting of high-finesse optical cavities, beam splitters, and phase shifters. The basic scheme projects arbitrary photonic two-mode input states onto the subspace spanned by the product of Fock states |n>|n> with n=0,1,2,.... This protocol does no...... is especially attractive as a generalization to many modes allows for distribution and purification of entanglement in networks. In an alternative working mode, the setup allows for quantum nondemolition number resolved photodetection in the optical domain....

  2. Entanglement purification of multi-mode quantum states

    Clausen, J; Knoell, L; Welsch, D-G

    2003-01-01

    An iterative random procedure is considered allowing entanglement purification of a class of multi-mode quantum states. In certain cases, complete purification may be achieved using only a single signal state preparation. A physical implementation based on beam splitter arrays and non-linear elements is suggested. The influence of loss is analysed in the example of purification of entangled N-mode coherent states

  3. The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states

    Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can

    2002-01-01

    We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN

  4. Purification

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru’s second largest city, engineers work hard to control water flows and provide different sectors with clean and sufficient water. In 2011, only 10 percent of the totality of water used daily by Arequipa’s then close to 1 million people—in households, tourism, industry, and mining......—was treated before it was returned to the river where it continues its flow downstream towards cultivated fields and, finally, into the Pacific Ocean. It takes specialized knowledge and manifold technologies to manage water and sustain life in Arequipa, and engineers are central actors for making water flow...... of categories can be understood as practices of purification. However, a purely technical grip on water is never possible. Unruly elements, like weather, contamination, urban dwellers, and competing interests, interfere and make processes of intervention unstable. Water is never completely cleaned, and, equally...

  5. Modeling Xenon Purification Systems in a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine

    Hopkins, Ann; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) is a proposed method to employ fusion energy to produce electricity for consumers. However, before it can be built and used as such, each aspect of a LIFE power plant must first be meticulously planned. We are in the process of developing and perfecting models for an exhaust processing and fuel recovery system. Such a system is especially essential because it must be able to recapture and purify expensive materials involved in the reaction so they may be reused. One such material is xenon, which is to be used as an intervention gas in the target chamber. Using Aspen HYSYS, we have modeled several subsystems for exhaust processing, including a subsystem for xenon recovery and purification. After removing hydrogen isotopes using lithium bubblers, we propose to use cryogenic distillation to purify the xenon from remaining contaminants. Aspen HYSYS allows us to analyze predicted flow rates, temperatures, pressures, and compositions within almost all areas of the xenon purification system. Through use of Aspen models, we hope to establish that we can use xenon in LIFE efficiently and in a practical manner.

  6. Generation, concentration and purification for ionic entangled states

    Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2007-01-01

    In cavity QED, the atoms would be sent through the sequential arrays of cavities for the generation of multi-cavity entanglement, or several atoms would be sent into the same cavity mode one bye one for the generation of multi-atom entanglement. The complexity of these processes will impose limitations on the experimental feasibility of it. So, following our previous publication [International Journal Of Quantum Information 2, 231 (2004)] we will propose an alternative scheme for the preparation of multi-cavity W state via cavity QED, which uses the geometrical method to do what other authors have proposed previously using sequential arrays of cavities. Due to the impossibility that one quantum system can be isolated from the environment absolutely, the entanglement of the entangled objects will decrease exponentially with the propagating distance of the objects, and the practically available quantum entangled states are all non-maximally entangled states or the more general case--mixed states. Following our previous publications [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042307 (2005), ibid. 71, 012308 (2005)], we will propose an entanglement generation, concentration and purification scheme for atomic or ionic system, which is mainly based on Cavity QED and linear optical elements. This purification process avoids the controlled-NOT (C-NOT) operations needed in the original purification protocol, which simplifies the whole purification process

  7. Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  9. Solid-state laser engineering

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  10. Solid-state laser engineering

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  11. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  12. Efficient entanglement purification for polarization logic Bell state with the photonic Faraday rotation

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Logic-qubit entanglement is a promising resource in quantum information processing, especially in future large-scale quantum networks. In the paper, we put forward an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for nonlocal mixed logic entangled states with the bit-flip error in the logic qubits of the logic Bell state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity and atomic state measurement. Different from existing EPPs, this protocol can also purify the logic p...

  13. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  14. Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo

    2010-01-01

    Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.

  15. Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng

    2011-01-01

    We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.

  16. Engineering quantum hyperentangled states in atomic systems

    Nawaz, Mehwish; -Islam, Rameez-ul; Abbas, Tasawar; Ikram, Manzoor

    2017-11-01

    Hyperentangled states have boosted many quantum informatics tasks tremendously due to their high information content per quantum entity. Until now, however, the engineering and manipulation of such states were limited to photonic systems only. In present article, we propose generating atomic hyperentanglement involving atomic internal states as well as atomic external momenta states. Hypersuperposition, hyperentangled cluster, Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states are engineered deterministically through resonant and off-resonant Bragg diffraction of neutral two-level atoms. Based on the characteristic parameters of the atomic Bragg diffraction, such as comparatively large interaction times and spatially well-separated outputs, such decoherence resistant states are expected to exhibit good overall fidelities and offer the evident benefits of full controllability, along with extremely high detection efficiency, over the counterpart photonic states comprised entirely of flying qubits.

  17. Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states

    Pechen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.

  18. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  19. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  20. [Effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering].

    Ding, Jun-Ying; Meng, Qing-Ling; Guo, Min-Zhuo; Yi, Yao; Su, Qiu-Dong; Lu, Xue-Xin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering. Based on the colon preference of E. coli, the HDV small antigen original gene from GenBank was optimized. Both the original gene and the optimized gene expressed in prokaryotic cells, SDS-PAGE was made to analyze the protein expression yield and to decide which protein expression style was more proportion than the other. Furthermore, two antigens were purified by chromatography in order to compare the purity by SDS-PAGE and Image Lab software. SDS-PAGE indicated that the molecular weight of target proteins from two groups were the same as we expected. Gene optimization resulted in the higher yield and it could make the product more soluble. After chromatography, the purity of target protein from optimized gene was up to 96.3%, obviously purer than that from original gene. Gene optimization could increase the protein expression yield and solubility of genetic engineering HDV small antigen. In addition, the product from the optimized gene group was easier to be purified for diagnosis usage.

  1. Quantum state transfer and network engineering

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Jex, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Presents the basics of large-scale quantum information processing and networking. Covers most aspects of the problems of state transfer and quantum network engineering. Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Presents various theoretical approaches as well as possible implementations and related experiments. Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the engineering of quantum networks are discussed in the framework of various quantum optical and condensed matter systems, emphasizing the interdisciplinary character of the research area. Each chapter is a review of theoretical or experimental achievements on a particular topic, written by leading scientists in the field. The volume aims at both newcomers as well as experienced researchers.

  2. Quantum state transfer and network engineering

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M

    2013-01-01

    Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en

  3. Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering

    Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it

    2006-05-15

    We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.

  4. Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information

  5. Quantum Nanomechanics: State Engineering and Measurement

    Woolley, M. J.; Milburn, G. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    There has recently been a surge of interest in the study of mechanical systems near the quantum limit. Such experiments are motivated by both fundamental interest in studying quantum mechanics with macroscopic engineered systems and potential applications as ultra-sensitive transducers, or even in quantum information processing. A particularly promising system is a microwave cavity optomechanical system, in which a nanomechanical resonator is embedded within (and capacitively coupled to) a superconducting microwave cavity. Here we discuss two schemes for the generation and measurement of quantum states of the nanomechanical resonator. A quantum squeezed state may be generated via mechanical parametric amplification, while a number state may be conditionally generated via continuous measurement and feedback control mediated by a superconducting qubit.

  6. Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials

    Jacob, Z.; Kim, J.Y.; Naik, G.V.

    2010-01-01

    The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device such as a......The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device...... such as a microcavity or a bandgap structure like a photonic crystal. Here we show that nanostructured metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion can dramatically enhance the photonic density of states paving the way for metamaterial-based PDOS engineering....

  7. State-of-the-art technocology in blood purification at present

    Zhi-hong LIU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the recent advancement in clinical practices and studies on blood purification techniques,and to provide a guide for further studies on its application in military medicine.Methods Literature published in recent five years limited to blood purification field either in English or Chinese were retrieved by searching PubMed and CHKD.Analysis and summary were performed based on the literature.Results The advancements in blood purification in recent five years could be categorized into four fields,i.e.hemodialysis(HD,peritoneal dialysis(PD,continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT,and adsorption therapy.The development in HD was aimed at promoting the ability of removal of toxic elements producing uremia and online monitor techniques,and PD was aimed at improvement of patients’ general condition and intervention to reduce the risk factors affecting long-term outcomes,and preparation of new PD solutions to improve the efficacy of PD.In regard to CRRT,the current progress had been focused on initiation time,dose and proposal of new hypothesis for high-volume hemofiltration(HVHF application.Adsorption therapy was another choice of blood purification.Domestic military medicine progress in blood purification in our armed forces was focused on techniques that could be used in treatment of casualties in war,including the basic and clinical study of extracorporeal circuit intervention(ECI for treatment of critically ill patients,problems arising from anticoagulation in ECI for patients with trauma,chemical agents poisoning,and adsorption technique.Conclusions Recently,the main advancement of blood purification technique is combined application of series techniques such as dialysis,hemofiltration,adsorption,and plasma exchange in treatment of critically ill patients.Studies on blood purification in domestic military medicine should be updated continuously to follow closely to the latest achievement in world,and translate these latest

  8. Statistical and Judgmental Criteria for Scale Purification

    Wieland, Andreas; Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    of scale purification, to critically analyze the current state of scale purification in supply chain management (SCM) research and to provide suggestions for advancing the scale-purification process. Design/methodology/approach A framework for making scale-purification decisions is developed and used...

  9. FISH SKIN ISOLATED COLLAGEN CRYOGELS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS: PURIFICATION, SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Nimet Bölgen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims regenerating damaged tissues by using porous scaffolds, cells and bioactive agents. The scaffolds are produced from a variety of natural and synthetic polymers. Collagen is a natural polymer widely used for scaffold production in the late years because of its being the most important component of the connective tissue and biocompatibility. Cryogelation is a relatively simple technique compared to other scaffold production methods, which enables to produce interconnected porous matrices from the frozen reaction mixtures of polymers or monomeric precursors. Considering these, collagen was isolated in this study from fish skin which is a non-commercial waste material, and scaffolds were produced from this collagen by cryogelation method. By SEM analysis, porous structure of collagen, and by UV-Vis analysis protein structure was proven, and by Zeta potential iso-electrical point of the protein was determined, and,  Amit A, Amit B, Amit I, Amit II and Amit III characteristical peaks were demonstrated by FTIR analysis. The collagen isolation yield was, 14.53% for acid soluble collagen and 2.42% for pepcin soluble collagen. Scaffolds were produced by crosslinking isolated acid soluble collagen with glutaraldehyde at cryogenic conditions. With FTIR analysis, C=N bond belonging to gluteraldehyde reaction with collagen was found to be at 1655 cm-1. It was demonstrated by SEM analysis that collagen and glutaraldeyhde concentration had significant effects on the pore morphology, diameter and wall thickness of the cryogels, which in turned changed the swelling ratio and degradation profiles of the matrices. In this study, synthesis and characterization results of a fish skin isolated collagen cryogel scaffold that may be potentially used in the regeneration of damaged tissues are presented.

  10. 2012 national state safety engineers and traffic engineers peer-to-peer workshop.

    2013-11-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the : 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop on November 14 and 15, 2012, at the : Hyatt ...

  11. Modern state of the application of ionizing radiation for protection of environment. 1. Ionizing radiation sources. Purification of natural and drinking water (review)

    Pikaev, AK.

    2000-01-01

    Review of modern state of the application of ionizing radiations for protection of environment and natural and drinking water purification is presented. Building of installations with electron accelerators with summarized power of beam ∼0.6 MW signifies that application of ionizing radiation for ecological needs increase. It is pointed out that extensible application of electron accelerators is explained by their safety and efficiency as compared with gamma-sources. New information about ionizing radiation sources, radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and drinking water, mechanisms of processes taking place during treatment by ionizing radiations are generalized [ru

  12. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  13. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  14. Current state of purification, isolation and analysis of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Stankevičius, Mantas; Bimbiraitė-Survilienė, Kristina; Naujokaitytė, Gintarė; Šernienė, Loreta; Mulkytė, Kristina; Malakauskas, Mindaugas; Maruška, Audrius

    2017-02-01

    The scientific interest for the search of natural means of microbial inhibitors has not faded for several years. A search of natural antibiotics, so-called bacteriocins which are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gains a huge attention of the scientists in the last century, in order to reduce the usage of synthetic food additives. Pure bacteriocins with wide spectra of antibacterial activity are promising among the natural biopreservatives. The usage of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB as starter culture for the fermentation of some food products, in order to increase their shelf-life, when synthetic preservatives are not allowable, is also possible. There are a lot of studies focusing on the isolation of new bacteriocins from traditional fermented food, dairy products and other foods or sometimes even from unusual non-food matrices. Bacteriocins producing bacteria have been isolated from different sources with the different antibacterial activity against food-borne microorganisms. This review covers the classification of bacteriocins, diversity of sources of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB, antibacterial spectra of isolated bacteriocins and analytical methods for the bacteriocin purification and analysis within the last 15 years.

  15. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is first and foremost enrollment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrollment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and last and certainly not least that of determining the directions of our educational efforts in the future. These issues are examined in the paper. (author)

  16. Practical purification scheme for decohered coherent-state superpositions via partial homodyne detection

    Suzuki, Shigenari; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple protocol to purify a coherent-state superposition that has undergone a linear lossy channel. The scheme constitutes only a single beam splitter and a homodyne detector, and thus is experimentally feasible. In practice, a superposition of coherent states is transformed into a classical mixture of coherent states by linear loss, which is usually the dominant decoherence mechanism in optical systems. We also address the possibility of producing a larger amplitude superposition state from decohered states, and show that in most cases the decoherence of the states are amplified along with the amplitude

  17. Reverse Engineering Integrated Circuits Using Finite State Machine Analysis

    Oler, Kiri J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Carl H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, we present a methodology for reverse engineering integrated circuits, including a mathematical verification of a scalable algorithm used to generate minimal finite state machine representations of integrated circuits.

  18. Preparation and purification of four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state

    He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient scheme for the preparing and purifying of the four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state based on linear optics and postselection. First, we describe how to create a four-photon GHZ state in both polarization and spatial degrees of freedom from two pairs. Moreover, in the presence of depolarization noise our scheme is capable of purifying the desired state. In the regime of weak nonlinearity we design an indirect photon number-resolving detection to distinguish two states of the two pairs. At last, a fourfold coincidence detector click indicates the creation of a polarization-entangled four-photon GHZ state. (paper)

  19. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  20. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genetic engineering for the purification of the endogenous integrator complex from mammalian cells.

    Baillat, David; Russell, William K; Wagner, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    The Integrator Complex (INT) is a large multi-subunit protein complex, containing at least 14 subunits and a host of associated factors. These protein components have been established through pulldowns of overexpressed epitope tagged subunits or by using antibodies raised against specific subunits. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to introduce N-terminal FLAG epitope tags into the endogenous genes that encode Integrator subunit 4 and 11 within HEK293T cells. We provide specific details regarding design, approaches for facile screening, and our observed frequency of successful recombination. Finally, using silver staining, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS we compare the components of INT of purifications from CRISPR derived lines to 293T cells overexpressing FLAG-INTS11 to define a highly resolved constituency of mammalian INT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  2. Partial purification and characterization of amylase enzyme under solid state fermentation from Monascus sanguineus

    Padmavathi Tallapragada

    2017-06-01

    It can be concluded that the fungus M. sanguineus is a good source of amylase production under solid state fermentation. Application of amylase produced by M. sanguineus in detergent industry was also carried out and it was proven very effective in stain removal from the fabrics.

  3. Nuclear engineering education in the United States: a status report

    Miller, D.W.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1986-01-01

    The executive summary of the White Paper entitled The Revitalization of Nuclear Energy Education in the United States is the major component of this paper. The White Paper was completed under the auspices of the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO). The presentation highlights events and program changes that have occurred in 1985-1986 following publication of the NEDHO White Paper. Many of these events provide optimism for the revitalization of nuclear engineering education

  4. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  5. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  6. LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION, PURIFICATION, AND 65CU SOLID STATE NMR OF AZURIN

    Gao, A.; Heck, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details a way to produce azurin with an effi ciency over 10 times greater than previously described and demonstrates the fi rst solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 65Cu(I) in a metalloprotein. A synthetic gene for azurin based upon the DNA sequence from Pseudomonas aeruginosa including the periplasmic targeting sequence was subcloned into a T7 overexpression vector to create the plasmid pGS-azurin, which was transformed into BL21 (DE3) competent cells. The leader sequence on the expressed protein causes it to be exported to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli. Bacteria grown in a fermentation unit were induced to overexpress the azurin, which was subsequently purifi ed through an endosmotic shock procedure followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 1,500 mg of azurin were purifi ed per liter of culture. 65Cu(II) was added to apo-azurin and then reduced. The 65Cu metal cofactor in azurin was observed with solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine any structural variations that accompanied copper reduction. This is the fi rst solid state NMR spectra of a copper(I) metalloprotein. Analysis of the NMR spectra is being used to complement hypotheses set forth by x-ray diffraction and computational calculations of electron transfer mechanisms in azurin.

  7. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  8. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  9. Engineering topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystal

    Yang, Bing; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Based on a perturbative approach, we propose a simple and efficient method to engineer the topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. The topological edge states in the microstructures can be constructed and varied by altering the parameters of the microstructure according to the field-energy distributions of the Bloch states at the related Bloch wave vectors. The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by exact numerical calculations through three concrete examples. Our method makes the topological edge states "designable."

  10. Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Li Pengbo; Li Fuli

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  12. EU member states' voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops

    Smart, Richard D.; Blum, Matthias; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Several authors suggest a gridlock of the European Union's (EU's) approval process for genetically engineered (GE) crops. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU Member States (MSs) for voting results from 2003 to 2015 on the approval of GE crops to test for a gridlock; no reliable data are

  13. Necessary and sufficient condition for distillability with unit fidelity from finite copies of a mixed state: The most efficient purification protocol

    Chen Pingxing; Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Huang Mingqiu

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that any entangled mixed state in 2x2 systems can be purified via infinite copies of the mixed state. But, can one distill a pure maximally entangled state from finite copies of a mixed state in any bipartite system by local operation and classical communication? This is more meaningful in practical application. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for this distillability. This condition requires that there exist distillable subspaces. According to this condition, one can judge easily whether a mixed state is distillable or not. We also analyze some properties of distillable subspaces, and discuss the most efficient purification protocol. Finally, we discuss the distillable enanglement of a two-qubit system for the case of finite copies

  14. State of Aircraft Turboshaft Engines by Means of Tribotechnical Diagnostic

    Mihalčová, Janka

    2018-03-01

    The contribution describes concrete example of application of tribotechnical methods for the determination of the bearing wear state in aircraft turboshaft engines. Tribotechnical methods, which will be mentioned, deal with qualitative and quantitative characterization of particles occurred in oil. Here belong method optical emission spectrometry method with rotating disc electrode for determination of chemical elements concentration in oil. Method of optical particles counting for detection of particles distribution according to their scale, determination of their number and ferrographic analysis. Exploitation of these methods make it possible to determine quickly and correctly the friction regime and wearing of friction pair that is washed by oil in observed engines.

  15. Status of nuclear engineering education in the United States

    Brown, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education in the United States is reflective of the perceived health of the nuclear electric power industry within the country. Just as new commercial reactor orders have vanished and some power plants have shut down, so too have university enrollments shrunk and research reactors closed. This decline in nuclear trained specialists and the disappearance of the nuclear infrastructure is a trend that must be arrested and reversed if the United States is to have a workforce capable of caring for a nuclear power industry to not only meet future electric demand but to ensure that the over 100 existing plants, their supporting facilities and their legacy in the form of high level waste and facility clean-up are addressed. Additionally, the United States has an obligation to support and maintain its nuclear navy and other defence needs. And, lastly, if the United States is to have a meaningful role in the international use of nuclear power with regard to safety, non-proliferation and the environment, then it is imperative that the country continues to produce world-class nuclear engineers and scientists by supporting nuclear engineering education at its universities. The continued support of the federal government. and industry for university nuclear engineering and nuclear energy research and development is essential to sustain the nuclear infrastructure in the United States. Even with this support, and the continued excellent operation of the existing fleet of nuclear electric power plants, it is conceivable that nuclear engineering as an academic discipline may fall victim to poor communications and a tarnished public image. What is needed is a combination of federal and industrial support along with the creativity of the universities to expand their offerings to include more than power production. The objective is a positive message on careers in nuclear related fields, and recognition of the important role of nuclear energy in meeting the country

  16. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  17. Water Purification Product

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  18. Tomorrow's engineers through teacher/student programs at Penn State

    Davidson, C.

    1992-01-01

    Interest in math and science increases when the problems and topics are current and socially relevant. A course that integrates various sciences requires a solid foundation in mathematics and an understanding that real life consists of an interaction of the basic sciences. One topical area that requires the understanding of math and science and affects our society is radiation. Although nuclear issues are prevalent in the news, very few secondary science educators receive much formal training in radiation and nuclear science. A strong push for educational programs on this topic by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and state departments of education began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Through this effort, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) developed the Nuclear Concepts Institute for secondary science teachers and has continued its involvement with educational programs in nuclear science for teachers and students. From discussions with teachers and students along with formal and informal surveys, the programs have had a positive impact on teachers' interest in learning more about nuclear science and on students' choices to enter nuclear engineering or a related field. The paper discusses the Nuclear Concepts Program; formation of the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association (ANSTA); ANSTA projects; other Penn State educational programs; and impact of education programs

  19. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  20. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  1. Engineering electronic states of periodic and quasiperiodic chains by buckling

    Mukherjee, Amrita; Nandy, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    The spectrum of spinless, non-interacting electrons on a linear chain that is buckled in a non-uniform, quasiperiodic manner is investigated within a tight binding formalism. We have addressed two specific cases, viz., a perfectly periodic chain wrinkled in a quasiperiodic Fibonacci pattern, and a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, where the buckling also takes place in a Fibonacci pattern. The buckling brings distant neighbors in the parent chain to close proximity, which is simulated by a tunnel hopping amplitude. It is seen that, in the perfectly ordered case, increasing the strength of the tunnel hopping (that is, bending the segments more) absolutely continuous density of states is retained towards the edges of the band, while the central portion becomes fragmented and host subbands of narrowing widths containing extended, current carrying states, and multiple isolated bound states formed as a result of the bending. A switching ;on; and ;off; of the electronic transmission can thus be engineered by buckling. On the other hand, in the second example of a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, imparting a quasiperiodic buckling is found to generate continuous subband(s) destroying the usual multifractality of the energy spectrum. We present exact results based on a real space renormalization group analysis, that is corroborated by explicit calculation of the two terminal electronic transport.

  2. Active control of a plasmonic metamaterial for quantum state engineering

    Uriri, S. A.; Tashima, T.; Zhang, X.; Asano, M.; Bechu, M.; Güney, D. Ö.; Yamamoto, T.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Wegener, M.; Tame, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the active control of a plasmonic metamaterial operating in the quantum regime. A two-dimensional metamaterial consisting of unit cells made from gold nanorods is investigated. Using an external laser, we control the temperature of the metamaterial and carry out quantum process tomography on single-photon polarization-encoded qubits sent through, characterizing the metamaterial as a variable quantum channel. The overall polarization response can be tuned by up to 33% for particular nanorod dimensions. To explain the results, we develop a theoretical model and find that the experimental results match the predicted behavior well. This work goes beyond the use of simple passive quantum plasmonic systems and shows that external control of plasmonic elements enables a flexible device that can be used for quantum state engineering.

  3. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  4. Strain engineering of magnetic state in vacancy-doped phosphorene

    Ren, Jie [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Zhang, Chunxiao, E-mail: zhangchunxiao@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Li, Jin [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Guo, Zhixin [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Xiao, Huaping, E-mail: hpxiao@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Zhong, Jianxin [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China)

    2016-09-23

    Inducing and manipulating the magnetism in two-dimensional materials play an important role for the development of the next-generation spintronics. In this letter, the effects of the biaxial strain on magnetic properties of vacancy-doped phosphorene are investigated using first-principles calculation. We find although only SV956 doping induces magnetism for unstrained phosphorene, the biaxial strain induces nonzero magnetic moment for SV5566 and DVa doped phosphorene. The biaxial strain also modulates the magnetic state for SV956, SV5566 and DVa doped phosphorene. The local magnetic moment derives from the spin polarization of the dangling bonds near the vacancy. The biaxial strain influences the local bonding configuration near the vacancy which determines the presence of dangling bonds, and then modulates the magnetic state. Our findings promise the synergistic effect of strain engineering and vacancy decoration is an effective method for the operation of phosphorene-based spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the magnetic moment of vacancy-doped phosphorene by DFT calculation. • The modulation of the magnetic moment by the biaxial strain. • The analysis of the bonding configuration with the biaxial strain. • The analysis of the electronic structures to explain the evolution of the magnetic moment. • The effects of the biaxial strain on the band gap and doping levels.

  5. Defect engineering: design tools for solid state electrochemical devices

    Tuller, Harry L.

    2003-01-01

    The interest in solid state electrochemical devices including sensors, fuel cells, batteries, oxygen permeation membranes, etc. has grown rapidly in recent years. Many of the same figures of merit apply to these different applications, the key ones being ionic conduction in solid electrolytes, mixed ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) in electrodes and permeation membranes, and gas-solid reaction kinetics in sensors and fuel cells. Optimization of device performance often relies on the careful understanding and control of both ionic and electronic defects in the materials that make up the key device components. To date, most materials in use have been discovered serendipitously. A key focus of this paper is on the tools available to scientists and engineers to practice 'defect engineering' for the purpose of optimizing the performance of such materials. Dopants, controlled structural disorder, and interfaces are examined in relation to increasing the conductivity of solid electrolytes. The creation of defect bands is demonstrated as a means for introducing high levels of electronic conductivity into a solid electrolyte for the purpose of creating a mixed conductor and thereby a monolithic fuel cell structure. Dopants are also examined as a means of reducing losses in a high temperature resonant sensor platform. The control of microstructure, down to the nano-scale, is shown capable of inverting the predominant ionic to an electronic charge carrier and thereby markedly modifying electrical properties. Electrochemical bias and light are also discussed in terms of creating defects locally thereby providing means for micromachining a broad range of materials with precise dimensional control, low residual stress and controlled etch rates

  6. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...specific cognitive states remains elusive, owing perhaps to limited crosstalk between the fields of neuroscience and engineering. Here, we report a

  7. Tissue engineering: state of the art in oral rehabilitation.

    Scheller, E L; Krebsbach, P H; Kohn, D H

    2009-05-01

    More than 85% of the global population requires repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. These defects range from simple tooth decay to radical oncologic craniofacial resection. Regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science and engineering technology. Identification of appropriate scaffolds, cell sources and spatial and temporal signals (the tissue engineering triad) is necessary to optimize development of a single tissue, hybrid organ or interface. Furthermore, combining the understanding of the interactions between molecules of the extracellular matrix and attached cells with an understanding of the gene expression needed to induce differentiation and tissue growth will provide the design basis for translating basic science into rationally developed components of this tissue engineering triad. Dental tissue engineers are interested in regeneration of teeth, oral mucosa, salivary glands, bone and periodontium. Many of these oral structures are hybrid tissues. For example, engineering the periodontium requires growth of alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament. Recapitulation of biological development of hybrid tissues and interfaces presents a challenge that exceeds that of engineering just a single tissue. Advances made in dental interface engineering will allow these tissues to serve as model systems for engineering other tissues or organs of the body. This review will begin by covering basic tissue engineering principles and strategic design of functional biomaterials. We will then explore the impact of biomaterials design on the status of craniofacial tissue engineering and current challenges and opportunities in dental tissue engineering.

  8. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  9. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  10. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards... requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new nonroad engines or vehicles. Section 209(e)(2... requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50...

  11. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  12. Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states

    Marani, Marco; Da Lio, Cristina; D’Alpaos, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marshes display impressive biogeomorphic features, such as zonation, a mosaic of extensive vegetation patches of rather uniform composition, exhibiting sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Although generally associated with the accretion processes necessary for marshes to keep up with relative sea level rise, competing environmental constraints, and ecologic controls, zonation is still poorly understood in terms of the underlying biogeomorphic mechanisms. Here we find, through observations and modeling interpretation, that zonation is the result of coupled geomorphological–biological dynamics and that it stems from the ability of vegetation to actively engineer the landscape by tuning soil elevation within preferential ranges of optimal adaptation. We find multiple peaks in the frequency distribution of observed topographic elevation and identify them as the signature of biologic controls on geomorphodynamics through competing stable states modulated by the interplay of inorganic and organic deposition. Interestingly, the stable biogeomorphic equilibria correspond to suboptimal rates of biomass production, a result coherent with recent observations. The emerging biogeomorphic structures may display varying degrees of robustness to changes in the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability, with implications for the overall resilience of marsh ecosystems to climatic changes. PMID:23401529

  13. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  14. Multipartite electronic entanglement purification with charge detection

    Sheng Yubo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Long Guilu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-17

    We present a multipartite entanglement purification scheme in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for electrons based on their spins and their charges. This scheme works for purification with two steps, i.e., bit-flip error correction and phase-flip error correction. By repeating these two steps, the parties in quantum communication can get some high-fidelity multipartite entangled electronic systems.

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the acceptance...

  16. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  17. Training of engineering support personnel at North Carolina State University

    Bohannon, J.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of planning for the development of curricula for engineering support personnel for the nuclear industry in general and nuclear facilities in particular have included the deliberate acquisition of inputs from employers, feedback from past students, and the critique of curricula by the industry, students, and faculty. As a result, three principal courses were developed in the Department of Nuclear Engineering, namely, Reactor Systems which deals in terms of the design engineer's and owner's concerns with regard to functional requirements, design criteria, and objectives of reactor systems; Reactor Operations which applies the student's basic engineering education to the role of an engineer in nuclear facilities, with particular attention to power plant operations; and Quality Assurance which provides the student with the bases, engineering implications and engineer's role in quality assurance during the design, construction, delivery and operation of nuclear and other complex facilities. A summary of the results to date of this trinity of courses is presented, with particular attention to its acceptance by the industry

  18. Water Purification

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  19. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  20. Perm State University HPC-hardware and software services: capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving

    Demenev, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present work is devoted to analyze high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving at Perm State University. We explore here the ability to develop new computational aeroacoustics methods/solvers for computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems to handle complicated industrial problems of engine noise prediction. Leading aircraft engine engineering company, including “UEC-Aviadvigatel” JSC (our industrial partners in Perm, Russia), require that methods/solvers to optimize geometry of aircraft engine for fan noise reduction. We analysed Perm State University HPC-hardware resources and software services to use efficiently. The performed results demonstrate that Perm State University HPC-infrastructure are mature enough to face out industrial-like problems of development CAE-system with HPC-method and CFD-solvers.

  1. A brief history of graduate distance education in nuclear engineering at Penn State Univ

    Hochreiter, L. E.; Zimmerman, D. L.; Brenizer Jr, J. S.; Stark, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University Nuclear Engineering Distance Education Program has a twenty year history of providing graduate level distance education in Nuclear Engineering. The Distance Education Program was initiated as a specific program which was developed for the Westinghouse Energy Systems Divisions in Pittsburgh. In 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) decided to terminate its small Nuclear Engineering Program. Up until that time, Westinghouse employees could enroll at CMU for graduate classes in Nuclear Engineering as well as other engineering disciplines and could obtain a masters degree or if desired, could continue for a Ph.D. degree. (authors)

  2. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  3. A second dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (Type A) of the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis: expression, purification, and steady-state kinetic mechanism.

    Marcinkeviciene, J; Jiang, W; Locke, G; Kopcho, L M; Rogers, M J; Copeland, R A

    2000-05-01

    We report the identification, expression, and characterization of a second Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase A) from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The enzyme consists of a polypeptide chain of 322 amino acids that shares 68% identity with the cognate type A enzyme from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. E. faecalis DHODase A catalyzed the oxidation of l-dihydroorotate while reducing a number of substrates, including fumarate, coenzyme Q(0), and menadione. The steady-state kinetic mechanism has been determined with menadione as an oxidizing substrate at pH 7.5. Initial velocity and product inhibition data suggest that the enzyme follows a two-site nonclassical ping-pong kinetic mechanism. The absorbance of the active site FMN cofactor is quenched in a concentration-dependent manner by titration with orotate and barbituric acid, two competitive inhibitors with respect to dihydroorotate. In contrast, titration of the enzyme with menadione had no effect on FMN absorbance, consistent with nonoverlapping binding sites for dihyroorotate and menadione, as suggested from the kinetic mechanism. The reductive half-reaction has been shown to be only partially rate limiting, and an attempt to evaluate the slow step in the overall reaction has been made by simulating orotate production under steady-state conditions. Our data indicate that the oxidative half-reaction is a rate-limiting segment, while orotate, most likely, retains significant affinity for the reduced enzyme, as suggested by the product inhibition pattern. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    2011-10-31

    ... are applicable to fleets comprised of four or more pieces of equipment powered by LSI engines... comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov...

  5. The state and perspective of Belarus power engineering

    Mikhalevich, A.A.; Molochko, F.I.

    1994-01-01

    The economy of the Republic of Belarus has a high fuel and power resource deficit. In according to the National power engineering programme the power balance must be achieved by means of reconstruction and development of the energetics system on the basis of difference modern technologies, as well as carrying out power saving programme, It is suggested the building of a nuclear power plant in Belarus. The power engineering development directions for Belarus is discussed. The structure and dynamics of a power balance of the economy is described. It was shown the electric and heat energetics perspectives for Belarus by using of difference power sources. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  6. HEPATIC TISSUE ENGINEERING (MODERN STATE OF THIS PROBLEM

    Y.S. Gulay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article it was discussed the problem of creation implanted hepatic tissue engineering designs as a modern stage of complex investigation for working out bioartifi cial liver support systems. It was determined that for the positive decision of numerous biological and technological problems it is necessary: to use matrices with determined properties, which mimic properties of hepatic extracellular matrix; to use technology for stereotype sowing of these matrices by both parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells and to improve the technologies for making and assembling of hepatic tissue-engineering designs.

  7. Quantum engineering. Confining the state of light to a quantum manifold by engineered two-photon loss.

    Leghtas, Z; Touzard, S; Pop, I M; Kou, A; Vlastakis, B; Petrenko, A; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M J; Reagor, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H

    2015-02-20

    Physical systems usually exhibit quantum behavior, such as superpositions and entanglement, only when they are sufficiently decoupled from a lossy environment. Paradoxically, a specially engineered interaction with the environment can become a resource for the generation and protection of quantum states. This notion can be generalized to the confinement of a system into a manifold of quantum states, consisting of all coherent superpositions of multiple stable steady states. We have confined the state of a superconducting resonator to the quantum manifold spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases and have observed a Schrödinger cat state spontaneously squeeze out of vacuum before decaying into a classical mixture. This experiment points toward robustly encoding quantum information in multidimensional steady-state manifolds. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS AND DAMS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    This report summarizes work conducted at the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Reduction...

  9. Power plant engineering: State of the art and perspectives

    Schilling, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Power station engineering has a great number of perspectives some of which project far into the future. While nuclear energy will be aimed long-term at further developments in the technology of both large and small-sized high-temperature nuclear reactors and breeder reactors, in the next decades coal-fired power station engineering is expected to undergo a lasting structural change, the beginning of which we are just witnessing. The first phase after World War II was characterized by the transition from bus bar to unit station engineering with its trend towards greater unit outputs and associated structural changes in plant, machinery and control technologies. The second phase is characterized by retrofitting the ending of which is expected by 1993 at the latest when old plants unsuitable for retrofitting will have been shut down. In parallel, measures for extending service lives in both nuclear and fossil fuel installations will increase. A third phase indicates a new generation of power stations which will be characterized by the technologies of fluidized-bed combustion and combined cycles with integrated coal gasification. Again, this phase has already begun and harbours considerable reserves for development. Long-term trends suggest that the vertical structure of energy generation engineering will be abandoned for integrated processes which will be dominated by high-temperature nuclear energy. This considerable potential opens up major perspectives for a lasting reduction of emissions, espec. CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  10. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  11. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    1997-01-01

    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  12. Optimization of Aero Engine Acceleration Control in Combat State Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2012-03-01

    In order to drastically exploit the potential of the aero engine and improve acceleration performance in the combat state, an on-line optimized controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for an aero engine. For testing the validity of the presented control method, detailed joint simulation tests of the designed controller and the aero engine model are performed in the whole flight envelope. Simulation test results show that the presented control algorithm has characteristics of rapid convergence speed, high efficiency and can fully exploit the acceleration performance potential of the aero engine. Compared with the former controller, the designed on-line optimized controller (DOOC) can improve the security of the acceleration process and greatly enhance the aero engine thrust in the whole range of the flight envelope, the thrust increases an average of 8.1% in the randomly selected working states. The plane which adopts DOOC can acquire better fighting advantage in the combat state.

  13. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Xylanase Produced by a New Species of Bacillus in Solid State Fermentation

    Rajashri D. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermoalkalophilic new species of Bacillus, similar to Bacillus arseniciselenatis DSM 15340, produced extracellular xylanase under solid state fermentation when wheat bran is used as carbon source. The extracellular xylanase was isolated by ammonium sulfate (80% precipitation and purified using ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of xylanase was ~29.8 ;kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 50°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme was active on birchwood xylan and little active on p-nitrophenyl xylopyranoside but not on Avicel, CMC, cellobiose, and starch, showing its absolute substrate specificity. For birchwood xylan, the enzyme gave a Km 5.26 ;mg/mL and Vmax 277.7 ;μmol/min/mg, respectively. In addition, the xylanase was also capable of producing high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides, which indicated its application potential not only in pulp biobleaching processes but also in the nutraceutical industry.

  14. Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Prefinished Engineered Wood Flooring in the Eastern United States

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacturing. However, environmental impacts of manufacturing some wood products—such as prefinished engineered wood flooring—have not been determined. This study examined prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States following the life-cycle inventory...

  15. CSIR contribution to the 2010 state of engineering infrastructure in South Africa report card

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE), utilising desktop research documentation prepared for this specific purpose by the CSIR, released the first ever “report card” of the state of engineering infrastructure in South...

  16. The Supply and Demand of Technology and Engineering Teachers in the United States: Who Knows?

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the supply and demand of technology and engineering teachers in the United States. Once gathered, the resulting data (that was available) was compared to previous studies to determine trends. The researcher reviewed the 2010-11 through 2015-16 Technology & Engineering Teacher Education Directories. To…

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's...

  18. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate.

    Neira-Vielma, Alberto A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Ilyina, Anna; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Carneiro-da-Cunha, María das Graça; Michelena-Álvarez, Georgina; Martínez-Hernández, José L

    2018-03-01

    In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa) and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a K m value of 220 μM and V max of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50%) by Ca ++ and was slightly inhibited (10%) by Ni ++ , K + , and Na + , at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg ++ , Mn ++ , Cu ++ , Cd ++ and Ba ++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  19. Purification and Properties of Polygalacturonase Produced by Thermophilic Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI-756 on Solid-State Fermentation

    Eduardo da Silva Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases are enzymes involved in the degradation of pectic substances, being extensively used in food industries, textile processing, degumming of plant rough fibres, and treatment of pectic wastewaters. Polygalacturonase (PG production by thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus on solid-state fermentation was carried out in culture media containing sugar cane bagasse and orange bagasse in proportions of 30% and 70% (w/w at 45°C for 4 days. PG obtained was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The highest activity was found between pH 4.5 and 5.5, and the enzyme preserved more than 80% of its activity at pH values between 5.0 and 6.5. At pH values between 3.0 and 4.5, PG retained about 73% of the original activity, whereas at pH 10.0 it remained around 44%. The optimum temperature was 60–65°C. The enzyme was completely stable when incubated for 1 hour at 50°C. At 55°C and 60°C, the activity decreased 55% and 90%, respectively. The apparent molecular weight was 29.3 kDa, Km of 1.58 mg/mL and Vmax of 1553.1 μmol/min/mg. The presence of Zn+2, Mn+2, and Hg+2 inhibited 59%, 77%, and 100% of enzyme activity, respectively. The hydrolysis product suggests that polygalacturonase was shown to be an endo/exoenzyme.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate

    Alberto A. Neira-Vielma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a Km value of 220 μM and Vmax of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50% by Ca++ and was slightly inhibited (10% by Ni++, K+, and Na+, at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg++, Mn++, Cu++, Cd++ and Ba++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  1. State-of-the-art in control engineering

    Štefan Kozák

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new trends in research, development and applications of advanced control methods and structures based on the principles of optimality, robustness and intelligence. Present trends in the complex process control design demand an increasing degree of integration of numerical mathematics, control engineering methods, new control structures based of distribution, embedded network control structure and new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, increasing problems with interactions, process non-linearities, operating constraints, time delays, uncertainties, and significant dead-times consequently lead to the necessity to develop more sophisticated control strategies. Advanced control methods and new distributed embedded control structures represent the most effective tools for realizing high performance of many technological processes. Main ideas covered in this paper are motivated namely by the development of new advanced control engineering methods (predictive, hybrid predictive, optimal, adaptive, robust, fuzzy logic, and neural network and new possibilities of their SW and HW realizations and successful implementation in industry.

  2. HEPATIC TISSUE ENGINEERING (MODERN STATE OF THIS PROBLEM)

    Y.S. Gulay; M.E. Krasheninnikov; M.Y. Shagidulin; N.A. Onishchenko

    2014-01-01

    In this article it was discussed the problem of creation implanted hepatic tissue engineering designs as a modern stage of complex investigation for working out bioartifi cial liver support systems. It was determined that for the positive decision of numerous biological and technological problems it is necessary: to use matrices with determined properties, which mimic properties of hepatic extracellular matrix; to use technology for stereotype sowing of these matrices by both parenchymal and ...

  3. Underlying finite state machine for the social engineering attack detection model

    Mouton, Francois

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available one to have a clearer overview of the mental processing performed within the model. While the current model provides a general procedural template for implementing detection mechanisms for social engineering attacks, the finite state machine provides a...

  4. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.

  5. State estimation of chemical engineering systems tending to multiple solutions

    N. P. G. Salau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-evaluated state covariance matrix avoids error propagation due to divergence issues and, thereby, it is crucial for a successful state estimator design. In this paper we investigate the performance of the state covariance matrices used in three unconstrained Extended Kalman Filter (EKF formulations and one constrained EKF formulation (CEKF. As benchmark case studies we have chosen: a a batch chemical reactor with reversible reactions whose system model and measurement are such that multiple states satisfy the equilibrium condition and b a CSTR with exothermic irreversible reactions and cooling jacket energy balance whose nonlinear behavior includes multiple steady-states and limit cycles. The results have shown that CEKF is in general the best choice of EKF formulations (even if they are constrained with an ad hoc clipping strategy which avoids undesired states for such case studies. Contrary to a clipped EKF formulation, CEKF incorporates constraints into an optimization problem, which minimizes the noise in a least square sense preventing a bad noise distribution. It is also shown that, although the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE provides greater robustness to a poor guess of the initial state, converging in less steps to the actual states, it is not justified for our examples due to the high additional computational effort.

  6. Laboratory of minerals purification

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  7. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  8. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-24

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  9. Human α1β3γ2L gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors: High-level production and purification in a functional state.

    Dostalova, Zuzana; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yinghui; Desai, Rooma; Forman, Stuart A; Miller, Keith W

    2014-02-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are the most important inhibitory chloride ion channels in the central nervous system and are major targets for a wide variety of drugs. The subunit compositions of GABA(A)Rs determine their function and pharmacological profile. GABAA Rs are heteropentamers of subunits, and (α1)2 (β3)2 (γ2L)1 is a common subtype. Biochemical and biophysical studies of GABA(A)Rs require larger quantities of receptors of defined subunit composition than are currently available. We previously reported high-level production of active human α1β3 GABA(A)R using tetracycline-inducible stable HEK293 cells. Here we extend the strategy to receptors containing three different subunits. We constructed a stable tetracycline-inducible HEK293-TetR cell line expressing human (N)-FLAG-α1β3γ2L-(C)-(GGS)3 GK-1D4 GABA(A)R. These cells achieved expression levels of 70-90 pmol [(3)H]muscimol binding sites/15-cm plate at a specific activity of 15-30 pmol/mg of membrane protein. Incorporation of the γ2 subunit was confirmed by the ratio of [(3)H]flunitrazepam to [(3)H]muscimol binding sites and sensitivity of GABA-induced currents to benzodiazepines and zinc. The α1β3γ2L GABA(A)Rs were solubilized in dodecyl-D-maltoside, purified by anti-FLAG affinity chromatography and reconstituted in CHAPS/asolectin at an overall yield of ∼ 30%. Typical purifications yielded 1.0-1.5 nmoles of [(3)H]muscimol binding sites/60 plates. Receptors with similar properties could be purified by 1D4 affinity chromatography with lower overall yield. The composition of the purified, reconstituted receptors was confirmed by ligand binding, Western blot, and proteomics. Allosteric interactions between etomidate and [(3)H]muscimol binding were maintained in the purified state. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  10. Health physics system scheme for the uranium purification plant

    Meyer, M.; Oliveira, E.C.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    After describing the two uranium purification processes used in the Chemical Engineerring Division of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, it is examined the possible hazards and methods to control or eliminate them. Since these purification process present several stages, in each one of them it is evaluated the hazards and tried to give adequate solutions to protect both, personnel and installations, from the potential radiation hazards

  11. Jackson State University (JSU)’s Center of Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education (CESTEME)

    2016-01-08

    Actuarial Science Taylor, Triniti Lanier Alcorn State University Animal Science Tchounwou, Hervey Madison Central Jackson State University Computer...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Jackson State University (JSU)’s Center of Excellence in Science , Technology, Engineering...Final Report: Jackson State University (JSU)’s Center of Excellence in Science , Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education (CESTEME) Report

  12. Exhaust purification of DI spark ignition engines by means of barrier discharge. Final report; Abgasreinigung von DI-Ottomotoren durch Barrierenentladungen. Abschlussbericht

    Wolters, P.; Lepperhoff, G.; Baumgarten, H.; Scharr, D.; Neff, W.; Trompeter, F.J.; Seiwert, S.; Kamp, J.; Pochner, K.

    2000-07-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge offers the advantage to excite and dissociate molecules in the exhaust gas stream. Those dissociated and excited species are oxidizing or reducing harmful exhaust gas components. The advantage of a plasma chemical system in comparison to a catalytic converter is the instantaneous activity at ambient temperature from the turn key of the engine. The investigations presented here focus on the plasma chemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas stream during cold start conditions. The article concerns the design and development of a plasma system in order to decrease the hydrocarbon emissions from engine start till catalyst light off. Vehicle results in the new European driving cycle show a hydrocarbon conversion of more than 43% in the first 11 seconds from engine start. In this period nearly all types of hydrocarbon were reduced. The exhaust back pressure of the sytem is comparable to the conventional muffler. Further system improvement can be achieved by an optimization of the disk electrode design. [German] Um die strengen zukuenftigen Schadstoffemissionsgrenzwerte von Ottomotoren in der EU oder den USA einhalten zu koennen, werden derzeit weltweit auch plasmachemische Methoden zur Abgasnachbehandlung in Betracht gezogen. Insbesondere nichtthermische Atmosphaerendruck-Gasentladungen, wie die Barrierenentladung, zeigen Chancen auf, die Betriebsbedingungen und Grenzen gegenwaertiger katalytischer Techniken zu erweitern. In diesem Vorhaben wurde die Barrierenentladung zur plasmachemischen Umsetzung von Schadstoffen im Abgas eines mager betriebenen Ottomotors im Serienautomobil untersucht, um das Potential zur Abgasreinigung zu bewerten und auszuweiten. (orig.)

  13. Engineering the Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene

    Babar, Rohit; Kabir, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    Correlated interaction between dilute localized impurity electrons and the itinerant host conduction electrons in metals gives rise to the conventional many-body Kondo effect below sufficiently low temperature. In sharp contrast to these conventional Kondo systems, we report an intrinsic, robust, and high-temperature Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene. While absorbed at a thermodynamically stable lattice defect, Cr impurity triggers an electronic phase transition in phosphorene to provide conduction electrons, which strongly interact with the localized moment generated at the Cr site. These manifest into the intrinsic Kondo state, where the impurity moment is quenched in multiple stages and at temperatures in the 40-200 K range. Further, along with a much smaller extension of the Kondo cloud, the predicted Kondo state is shown to be robust under uniaxial strain and layer thickness, which greatly simplifies its future experimental realization. We predict the present study will open up new avenues in Kondo physics and trigger further theoretical and experimental studies.

  14. Professional Training in Software Engineering: A Critical Need in the United States

    Jennifer Waldrow

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The software is related to almost every aspect of daily life: manufacturing, banking, travel, communications, defense, medicine, research, government, education, entertainment, law ... Is an essential part of military systems and is used in all civilian sectors, including safety and mission critical. Moreover, the complexity of many of these systems has increased exponentially in recent decades and the software has become an essential component for all of them. Unfortunately, the "systems of higher education", in almost all countries have not kept pace with these changes. The current science and engineering programs, both undergraduate and graduate, they need to incorporate more training in Software Engineering. It is especially true in areas such as aerospace engineering, because these systems are highly dependent on computer, information, communications and software. This article presents an analysis of the current situation of the United States in what has to do with software engineering training that receive and require the aerospace engineers.

  15. Engineering Ethics Education : Its Necessity, Objectives, Methods, Current State, and Challenges

    Fudano, Jun

    The importance of engineering ethics education has become widely recognized in the industrialized countries including Japan. This paper examines the background against which engineering ethics education is required, and reviews its objectives, methods, and challenges, as well as its current state. In pointing out important issues associated with the apparent acceptance and quantitative development of ethics education, especially after the establishment of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in 1999, the author stresses that the most serious problem is the lack of common understanding on the objectives of engineering ethics education. As a strategy to improve the situation, the so-called “Ethics-across-the-Curriculum” approach is introduced. The author also claims that business/organization ethics which is consistent with engineering ethics should be promoted in Japan.

  16. Research on Turbofan Engine Model above Idle State Based on NARX Modeling Approach

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    The nonlinear model for turbofan engine above idle state based on NARX is studied. Above all, the data sets for the JT9D engine from existing model are obtained via simulation. Then, a nonlinear modeling scheme based on NARX is proposed and several models with different parameters are built according to the former data sets. Finally, the simulations have been taken to verify the precise and dynamic performance the models, the results show that the NARX model can well reflect the dynamics characteristic of the turbofan engine with high accuracy.

  17. Engineering Complex Embedded Systems with State Analysis and the Mission Data System

    Ingham, Michel D.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Moncada, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer s intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering methodology called State Analysis, which provides a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using State Analysis and how these requirements inform the design of the system software, using representative spacecraft examples.

  18. Water purification in Borexino

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  19. Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams: Current State, Next Steps and a Vision for the Future

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Borden, Chester; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixteen years, government aerospace agencies and aerospace industry have developed and evolved operational concurrent design teams to create novel spaceflight mission concepts and designs. These capabilities and teams, however, have evolved largely independently. In today's environment of increasingly complex missions with limited budgets it is becoming readily apparent that both implementing organizations and today's concurrent engineering teams will need to interact more often than they have in the past. This will require significant changes in the current state of practice. This paper documents the findings from a concurrent engineering workshop held in August 2010 to identify the key near term improvement areas for concurrent engineering capabilities and challenges to the long-term advancement of concurrent engineering practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of a proposed vision for the evolution of these teams over the next decade.

  20. Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits

    Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.

    2016-03-01

    We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.

  1. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %.

  2. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  3. Simulating quantum state engineering in spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light

    Zhang, Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available range of pump beams for quantum state engineering and confirm that the results are in agreement with theory. Our approach offers high photon count rates, is quick to yield results and can easily be converted back to a SPDC setup. It is likely to be a...

  4. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...

  5. Trends in approval times for genetically engineered crops in the United States and the European Unio

    Smart, Richard D.; Blum, Matthias; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops are subject to regulatory oversight to Ensure their safety for humans and the environment. Their approval in the European Union (EU) starts with an application in a given Member State followed by a scientific risk assessment, and ends with a political

  6. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  7. Confining the state of light to a quantum manifold by engineered two-photon loss

    Leghtas, Z.; Touzard, S.; Pop, I. M.; Kou, A.; Vlastakis, B.; Petrenko, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M. J.; Reagor, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2015-02-01

    Physical systems usually exhibit quantum behavior, such as superpositions and entanglement, only when they are sufficiently decoupled from a lossy environment. Paradoxically, a specially engineered interaction with the environment can become a resource for the generation and protection of quantum states. This notion can be generalized to the confinement of a system into a manifold of quantum states, consisting of all coherent superpositions of multiple stable steady states. We have confined the state of a superconducting resonator to the quantum manifold spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases and have observed a Schrödinger cat state spontaneously squeeze out of vacuum before decaying into a classical mixture. This experiment points toward robustly encoding quantum information in multidimensional steady-state manifolds.

  8. 76 FR 38155 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    2011-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9426-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... toxic control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in... control measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in...

  9. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  10. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-10-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  11. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  12. Model-Based State Feedback Controller Design for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with an EGR System

    Tianpu Dong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the control of transient exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems. Firstly, a state space model of the air system is developed by simplifying a mean value model. The state space model is linearized by using linearization theory and validated by the GT-Power data with an operating point of the diesel engine. Secondly, a state feedback controller based on the intake oxygen mass fraction is designed for EGR control. Since direct measurement of the intake oxygen mass fraction is unavailable on the engine, the estimation method for intake oxygen mass fraction has been proposed in this paper. The control strategy is analyzed by using co-simulation with the Matlab/Simulink and GT-Powers software. Finally, the whole control system is experimentally validated against experimental data of a turbocharged diesel engine. The control effect of the state feedback controller compared with PID controller proved to be further verify the feasibility and advantages of the proposed state feedback controller.

  13. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  14. Universal Trade-Off between Power, Efficiency, and Constancy in Steady-State Heat Engines

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo

    2018-05-01

    Heat engines should ideally have large power output, operate close to Carnot efficiency and show constancy, i.e., exhibit only small fluctuations in this output. For steady-state heat engines, driven by a constant temperature difference between the two heat baths, we prove that out of these three requirements only two are compatible. Constancy enters quantitatively the conventional trade-off between power and efficiency. Thus, we rationalize and unify recent suggestions for overcoming this simple trade-off. Our universal bound is illustrated for a paradigmatic model of a quantum dot solar cell and for a Brownian gyrator delivering mechanical work against an external force.

  15. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  16. Electron beam silicon purification

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Standard forms and entanglement engineering of multimode Gaussian states under local operations

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the action of local unitary operations on multimode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states and single out the minimal number of locally invariant parameters which completely characterize the covariance matrix of such states. For pure Gaussian states, central resources for continuous-variable quantum information, we investigate separately the parameter reduction due to the additional constraint of global purity, and the one following by the local-unitary freedom. Counting arguments and insights from the phase-space Schmidt decomposition and in general from the framework of symplectic analysis, accompany our description of the standard form of pure n-mode Gaussian states. In particular, we clarify why only in pure states with n ≤ 3 modes all the direct correlations between position and momentum operators can be set to zero by local unitary operations. For any n, the emerging minimal set of parameters contains complete information about all forms of entanglement in the corresponding states. An efficient state engineering scheme (able to encode direct correlations between position and momentum operators as well) is proposed to produce entangled multimode Gaussian resources, its number of optical elements matching the minimal number of locally invariant degrees of freedom of general pure n-mode Gaussian states. Finally, we demonstrate that so-called 'block-diagonal' Gaussian states, without direct correlations between position and momentum, are systematically less entangled, on average, than arbitrary pure Gaussian states

  18. Effective Purification of Biogas by Condensing-Liquid Membrane

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Izák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 669-671 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas purification * condensing liquid * gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 12.730, year: 2010

  19. Modelling a water purification process for quality monitoring

    Meulen, van der F.H.; Luca, S.; Overal, G.; Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Jongbloed, G.; Dubbeldam, J.; Groenevelt, W.; Heemink, A.W.; Lahaye, D.; Meerman, C.; Meulen, van der F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a quality engineering problem introduced by ‘Waterlaboratorium Noord’ (WLN) situated at the Netherlands. In-terest lies in determining an optimal sampling frequency that provides suÿcient information on the water quality in a drinking water purifica-tion plant. The water

  20. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins.

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2015-04-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Suggested approach for establishing a rehabilitation engineering information service for the state of California

    Christy, L. F.; Kelton-Fogg, G.; Lizak, R.; Vahlkamp, C.

    1978-01-01

    An ever expanding body of rehabilitation engineering technology is developing in this country, but it rarely reaches the people for whom it is intended. The increasing concern of state and federal departments of rehabilitation for this technology lag was the stimulus for a series of problem-solving workshops held in California during 1977. As a result of the workshops, the recommendation emerged that the California Department of Rehabilitation take the lead in the development of a coordinated delivery system that would eventually serve the entire state and be a model for similar systems across the nation.

  2. Energy use and engineering audits at state-owned facilities in Minnesota

    Hirst, E.

    1980-01-01

    The contents and results of two large computerized data bases maintained by the Minnesota Department of Administration are described and analyzed. One contains information on monthly fuel use from 1972 through 1978 for 42 large state facilities: community colleges, state universities, hospitals, prisons, and office buildings. The second contains the results of detailed engineering audits performed at 41 such institutions. The audits cover 270 buildings and include 2010 individual energy conservation recommendations. Several data base management issues are discussed. These include errors and their identification, development of simple and consistent definitions for key terms, and collection of information on the major determinants of energy use and conservation potentials at these facilities.

  3. Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference

    Zhang, Yingwen; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas; Agnew, Megan; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability problems. An alternative strategy is to consider a lesser number of particles that exist in high-dimensional states. The spatial modes of light are one such candidate that provides access to high-dimensional quantum states, and thus they increase the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range of high-dimensional entangled states and implement precise quantum state filtering. We characterize the full quantum state before and after the filter, and are thus able to determine that only the antisymmetric component of the initial state remains. This work paves the way for high-dimensional processing and communication of multiphoton quantum states, for example, in teleportation beyond qubits. PMID:26933685

  4. [Purification of 67Cu]. Progress report

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents progress made in several areas of research and describes results which have not yet been published. These areas include: Purification of 67 Cu; Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules; Analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals; studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies

  5. Final report to DOE: Matching Grant Program for the Penn State University Nuclear Engineering Program

    Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Despite a serious decline in student enrollments in the 1980s and 1990s, the discipline of nuclear engineering remained important to the advancement of the mission goals of DOE. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the U.S. At Penn State, the Matching Grant Program played a critical role in the survival of the Nuclear Engineering degree programs. Funds were used in a variety of ways to support both undergraduate and graduate students directly. Some of these included providing seed funding for new graduate research initiatives, funding the development of new course materials, supporting new teaching facilities, maintenance and purchase of teaching laboratory equipment, and providing undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and wage payroll positions for students

  6. The Status of Technology and Engineering Education in the United States: A Fourth Report of the Findings from the States (2011-12)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2012-01-01

    Technology and engineering education continues to evolve as it becomes more apparent that students need this information to become more successful in college and careers. The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA ) has tracked the status of technology education in the United States in three separate studies over the…

  7. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-01-09

    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  8. Air/Water Purification

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  9. Gas purification project

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  10. The Viability of Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Stephen O. Hay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO air purification technology is reviewed based on the decades of research conducted by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC and their external colleagues. UTRC conducted basic research on the reaction rates of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The knowledge gained allowed validation of 1D and 3D prototype reactor models that guided further purifier development. Colleagues worldwide validated purifier prototypes in simulated realistic indoor environments. Prototype products were deployed in office environments both in the United States and France. As a result of these validation studies, it was discovered that both catalyst lifetime and byproduct formation are barriers to implementing this technology. Research is ongoing at the University of Connecticut that is applicable to extending catalyst lifetime, increasing catalyst efficiency and extending activation wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible wavelengths. It is critical that catalyst lifetime is extended to realize cost effective implementation of PCO air purification.

  11. Thermoacoustics of solids: A pathway to solid state engines and refrigerators

    Hao, Haitian; Scalo, Carlo; Sen, Mihir; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Thermoacoustic oscillations have been one of the most exciting discoveries of the physics of fluids in the 19th century. Since its inception, scientists have formulated a comprehensive theoretical explanation of the basic phenomenon which has later found several practical applications to engineering devices. To date, all studies have concentrated on the thermoacoustics of fluid media where this fascinating mechanism was exclusively believed to exist. Our study shows theoretical and numerical evidence of the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities in solid media. Although the underlying physical mechanism exhibits some interesting similarities with its counterpart in fluids, the theoretical framework highlights relevant differences that have important implications on the ability to trigger and sustain the thermoacoustic response. This mechanism could pave the way to the development of highly robust and reliable solid-state thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  12. Model Wind Turbine Design in a Project-Based Middle School Engineering Curriculum Built on State Frameworks

    Cogger, Steven D.; Miley, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that project-based active learning is a key part of engineering education at the middle school level. One project from a comprehensive middle school engineering curriculum developed by the authors is described to show how active learning and state frameworks can coexist. The theoretical basis for learning and assessment in a…

  13. Research and Development of Crystal Purification for Product of Uranium Crystallization Process

    Yano, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Uranium crystallization has been developed as a part of advanced aqueous reprocessing for FBR spent fuel. Although the purity of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) crystal from the crystallization process is supposed to meet a specification of FBR blanket fuel, an improvement of its purity is able to reduce the cost of fuel fabrication and storage (in case interim storage of recovered uranium is required). In this work, UNH crystal purification was developed as additional process after crystallization. Contamination of the crystal is caused by mother solution and solid state impurities. They are inseparable by washing and filtration. Mother solution on the surface of UNH crystals is removable by washing, but it is difficult to remove that in an obstructed part of crystalline aggregate by washing. Major elements of solid state impurities are cesium and barium. Cesium precipitates with tetravalent plutonium as a double nitrate, Cs{sub 2}Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Barium crystallizes as Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} because of its low solubility in nitric acid solution. It is difficult to separate their particle from UNH crystal by solid-liquid separation such as simple filtration. As a kind of crystal purification, there are some methods using sweating. Sweating is a phenomenon that a crystal melts partly below its melting point and it is caused by depression of freezing point due to impurity. It is considerably applicable for removal of mother solution. Concerning the solid state impurities, which has higher melting point than that of UNH crystal, it is supposed that they are separable by melting UNH crystal and filtration. The behaviors of impurities and applicability of sweating and melting-filtration operations to the purification for UNH crystal were investigated experimentally on a beaker and an engineering scale. With regard to behaviors of impurities, the conditions of cesium and barium precipitation were surveyed and it was clarified that there were most impurities on the

  14. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...

  15. Admissions and Plebe Year Data as Indicators of Academic Success in Engineering Majors at the United States Naval Academy

    Kristof, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    This research analyzes the relationship between academic success in high school and at the freshman collegiate level and academic performance in engineering majors at the United States Naval Academy (USNA...

  16. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds through solid-state foaming of immiscible polymer blends

    Zhou Changchun; Li Wei; Ma Liang; Yao Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer-blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20 to 70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  17. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1048.505 Section 1048.505 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1048.505 How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles... some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these...

  18. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  19. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  20. IN-CYLINDER MASS FLOW ESTIMATION AND MANIFOLD PRESSURE DYNAMICS FOR STATE PREDICTION IN SI ENGINES

    Wojnar Sławomir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a simple model of the intake manifold dynamics of a spark ignition (SI engine and its possible application for estimation and control purposes. We focus on pressure dynamics, which may be regarded as the foundation for estimating future states and for designing model predictive control strategies suitable for maintaining the desired air fuel ratio (AFR. The flow rate measured at the inlet of the intake manifold and the in-cylinder flow estimation are considered as parts of the proposed model. In-cylinder flow estimation is crucial for engine control, where an accurate amount of aspired air forms the basis for computing the manipulated variables. The solutions presented here are based on the mean value engine model (MVEM approach, using the speed-density method. The proposed in-cylinder flow estimation method is compared to measured values in an experimental setting, while one-step-ahead prediction is illustrated using simulation results.

  1. Nuclear engineering education in the United States: The first 50 years

    Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss recent trends in the nuclear engineering education infrastructure in the United States. In the last several years political, economic and technical issues have been addressed and nuclear technology appears poised to resume growing again. It is in this new environment that there has been a confluence of industry, government and academic interests to see that nuclear engineering education retains its vitality and ability to provide technological leadership and a well-educated workforce. In order to understand the current situation it is important to give a brief historical perspective covering the six decades since the inception of 'Atoms for Peace' in 1953. The passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established the Atomic Energy Commission and the declassification of much nuclear technology and scientific material. There was an understandable optimistic outlook as to the potential for nuclear technology in the areas of power, medicine and other industrial and scientific applications. There were commercial concepts for using nuclear energy to power ships, planes, rockets, and cars. But the must successful application, by far was in the area of electric power production. In only a few years demonstration nuclear power plants were built and the infamous quote - 'two cheap to meter' was reported. In the following decade much progress was made and commercial plant orders increased substantially in number and in size. There were going to light water reactors, gas cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, reprocessing, waste buried in salt mines. There was going to be 'a 1000 reactors in the year 2000'. This was the picture in the United States in the 50's and 60's. And it was in this environment that nuclear engineering education was birthed and grew. The first nuclear engineering academic programs and university research reactors were established in the 1950's at such places as North Carolina State, MIT, Penn State and others

  2. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  3. The State and Factors of the Economic Dynamics of Mechanical Engineering Enterprises in Ukraine

    Stadnyk Valentyna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic dynamics of mechanical engineering enterprises in Ukraine is considered. Steady negative trends in the volumes of production and sales of mechanical engineering products are revealed. The analysis of the export capabilities of the mechanical engineering industry in the context of the main commodity groups showed an increase in the exports of products of the third technological mode, which indicates a decrease in its science intensity. The study of the impact on the state of the industry of general macroeconomic trends, which are reflected in the changes in the Global Competitiveness Index of Ukraine in 2014-2016, demonstrated some improvements in the indicators characterizing the conditions of business management and the results of their innovation activities. With the purpose of assessing the conformity of the directions in innovation activities of enterprises in the industrial sector of Ukraine to the objectives of increasing their innovative potential, there conducted an analysis of the structure of innovation costs, which showed a significant predominance of costs on acquiring equipment, while the implementation of new technologies is carried out mainly on the basis of resource saving and not flexibility; the introduction of product innovations in the market, especially of fundamentally new ones, decreases. The examination of organizational forms of innovation management in mechanical engineering enterprises indicated the lack of complementarity of innovation management and quality management systems, as well as a low level of staff involvement in these improvement processes. The necessity of eliminating these deficiencies in management for increasing the innovative potential of enterprises and achieving cognitive self-sufficiency is underlined. It is noted that the principles underlying modern quality management systems can be used to solve these problems.

  4. Robust quantum state engineering through coherent localization in biased-coin quantum walks

    Majury, Helena [Queen' s University, Centre for Secure Information Technologies (CSIT), Belfast (United Kingdom); Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Boutari, Joelle [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); O' Sullivan, Elizabeth [Queen' s University, Centre for Secure Information Technologies (CSIT), Belfast (United Kingdom); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2018-12-15

    We address the performance of a coin-biased quantum walk as a generator for non-classical position states of the walker. We exploit a phenomenon of coherent localization in the position space - resulting from the choice of small values of the coin parameter and assisted by post-selection - to engineer large-size coherent superpositions of position states of the walker. The protocol that we design appears to be remarkably robust against both the actual value taken by the coin parameter and strong dephasing-like noise acting on the spatial degree of freedom. We finally illustrate a possible linear-optics implementation of our proposal, suitable for both bulk and integrated-optics platforms. (orig.)

  5. Future of antibody purification.

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  6. Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: from quantum engines to refrigerators.

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Kurizki, G

    2014-08-01

    We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios.

  7. Biochemistry engineering

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  8. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  9. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  10. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  11. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  12. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    2013-08-19

    ... Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine Engine and Boat Regulations... emission standards; enhanced evaporative emission controls for high performance sterndrive/inboard engines... requirement relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction...

  13. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  14. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    Acosta, Eduardo; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Chocron, Mauricio; Goya, Hector E.; Ortega, Daniel A.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  15. Implementation of Microelectronics Track in Electronics Engineering in a Philippines State University

    Gil B. Barte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolving trends in electronics continuous to attract students to take upElectronics Engineering.However, it also adds to discipline implementation complexities.Institutions of Higher Learning offering this program must adapt to this realities to avoid obsolescence. This paper looked at Batangas State University, in the Philippines,ongoingimplementation of the Microelectronics track under the Electronics Engineering (ECEProgram. It describes the restructuring done to the ECE curriculum to overcome the enormous complexity inherent in microelectronics design and the teaching pedagogy adopted to promote active learning. The ongoing program has produced encouraging outcomes:1students were able to design, and simulate complex gate CMOS circuits using EDA tools, in the four(4 course electives identified for the track; 2 the culture of independent learning among students improvement in students soft skills, communication skills, time-management and teamwork skill,; 3. useof free and web-based tools overcome the issue of high cost of license for EDA tools and seminar/training for continuous upgrading of faculty. Another encouraging outcome was the acceptance of the student-centered teaching approach used, Problem-Based Learning (PBL,in enhancing the students learning experience.

  16. Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Dejiang; Fei, Lixun; Huang, Yue; Wu, Fang; Sun, Yiling; Shi, Jiayuan; Xiang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

  17. The effect of the purity and of the materials used for adapters on the purification of yttrium by solid state electrotransport

    Nikoforova, T.V.; Volkov, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of tantalum, molybdenum and zirconium adapters on the efficiency of the solid state electrotransport process is investigated with a view to increasing the quality and purity of yttrium. The degree and direction of metallic impurity electromigration in the given metals were studied. The impurities in question were shown to move in different directions depending on the type of adapter. Recommendations for the application of adapters according to their purity are given. The application of high purity tantalum as anode and cathode adapters in three-stage solid state electrotransport enabled us to obtain yttrium single crystals with a ratio of resistance at room temperature to that at helium temperatures of 1200. (orig.)

  18. Water Purification Systems

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  19. Liquid metal purification device

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  20. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Second Series - Report No. 4 - 1976 Chevrolet 85 CID (1.4 Liters), IV.

    1978-05-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1976 Chevrolet 85 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The objective of the program...

  1. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : First Series - Report No. 20 - 1975 Chevrolet 350 CID (5.7 Liters) ...

    1978-05-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1975 Chevrolet 350 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The objective of the progra...

  2. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States, Third Series - Report No. 5, 1978 Chevrolet, 200 CID (3.3 Liter), 2V

    1979-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1978 Chevrolet 200 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the progra...

  3. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the different redox states of the catalytic cysteines in four crystallographic structures of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp L. vannamei highlights their reactivity and corroborates the existence of a structural dimer mediated by an interface of 12 residues which includes a disulfide bridge between the Cys73 residues of each monomer. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100 K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00 Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88 Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3 2 12, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5 (4), b = 57.5 (4), c = 118.1 (8) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 2.31 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a

  5. Purification and general properties of pectin methyl esterase from Curvularia inaequalis NRRL 13884 in solid state culture using orange peels as an inducer.

    Afifi, A F; Fawzi, E M; Foaad, M A

    2002-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) [E.C.3. 1.1.11] production by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn NRRL 13884 was investigated using solid-state culture. The highest level of extracellular pectin methyl esterase was detected with orange peels as an inducing substrate and as a sole carbon source. The enzyme was partially purified using Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. It was purified about 40 fold with optimum activity at pH 4.4 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme was activated by Co++, Mg++, Na+, whereas it was slightly activated in the presence of Cu++, K+, Mn++, Zn++. On the other hand Ag++, Ca++ and Hg++ inhibited the activity of the enzyme. The Km was calculated to be 0.52 mM.

  6. Power reactor services provided by the Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    Voth, M.H.; Jester, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The power reactor industry emerged from extensive research and development performed at nonpower reactors (NPRs). As the industry matures, NPRs continue to support and enhance power reactor technology. With the closure of many government and private industry NPRS, there is an increasing call for the 33 universities with operating research reactors to provide the needed services. The Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) includes a 1-MW pool-type pulsing TRIGA reactor, a neutron beam laboratory with real-time neutron radiography equipment, hot cells with master-slave manipulators for remote handling of radioactive materials, a gamma-ray irradiation pool, a low-level radiation monitoring laboratory, and extensive equipment for radiation monitoring, dosimetry, and material properties determination. While equipment is heavily utilized in the instructional and academic research programs, significant time remains available for service work. Cost recovery for service work generates income for personnel, equipment maintenance, and facility improvements. With decreasing federal and state funding for educational programs, it is increasingly important that facilities be fully utilized to generate supplementary revenue. The following are examples of such work performed at the RSEC

  7. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    Zhang Shuai-Shuai; Shu Qi; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2017-01-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. (paper)

  8. State of radiotracer application at the Division of Environmental Engineering, CDTN, NUCLEBRAS

    Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.; Bandeira, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The history and working phylosophy of the NUCLEBRAS division of environmental engineering are reported. Some aspects of tracer applications and of the tasks performed by the division of environmental engineering are described. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. A low inventory adsorptive process for tritium extraction and purification

    Keefer, B.; Bora, B.; Chew, M.; Rump, M.; Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    The fuel cycles of future fusion power systems present a diverse spectrum of challenges to gas separation technology, for extraction, concentration, purification and confinement of tritium in fusion fuel cycles. Economic and safety factors motivate process design for minimum tritium inventory, functional simplicity, and overall reliability. A new gas separation process with some features of interest to fusion has been demonstrated under the auspices of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project. This process (Thermally Coupled Pressure Swing Adsorption or 'TCPSA') is potentially applicable to several fusion applications for separation purification of hydrogen, notably for tritium extraction from breeder blanket purge helium. Recent experimental tests have been directed toward fusion applications, primarily extraction and concentration of tritium-rich hydrogen from the blanket purge helium stream, and also considering purification of this and other hydrogen isotope streams such as the plasma exhaust. For example, hydrogen at 0.1% concentration in helium has been extracted in a TCPSA module operating at 195 K, with the process performed in a single working space to achieve simultaneous high extraction and concentration of the hydrogen. With methane or carbon oxides as the impurities, substantially complete separation is achieved by the same apparatus at ambient temperature. Engineering projections for scale-up to ITER blanket purge extraction and purification applications indicate a low working inventory of tritium

  10. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  11. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  12. Distance Learning and Skill Acquisition in Engineering Sciences: Present State and Prospects

    Potkonjak, Veljko; Jovanovic, Kosta; Holland, Owen; Uhomoibhi, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an improved concept of software-based laboratory exercises, namely a Virtual Laboratory for Engineering Sciences (VLES). Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of distance learning and e-learning in engineering sciences (such as Mechanical and Electrical Engineering) is still far behind…

  13. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  14. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification.

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Produced by Mixed Solid State Fermentation of Wheat Bran and Marigold Flower by Penicillium notatum NCIM 923

    Saswati Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 in mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower in the ratio 4 : 1 was purified from the cell-free extract broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. Tannase was purified by 19.89-fold with yield of 11.77%. The specific activity of crude tannase was found to be 1.31 U/mg protein while that of purified tannase was 22.48 U/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme is dimeric with one major band of molecular mass 97 kDa and a very light band of molecular mass 43 kDa. Temperature of 35 to 40°C and pH 5 were optimum for tannase activity. The enzyme retained more than 60% of its stability at 60°C and 40% stability at pH 3 and 8, respectively. Km was found to be 0.33×10-2 M and Vmax=40 U/mg. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food processing industry.

  16. Purification and characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase produced by mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower by Penicillium notatum NCIM 923.

    Gayen, Saswati; Ghosh, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 in mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower in the ratio 4 : 1 was purified from the cell-free extract broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. Tannase was purified by 19.89-fold with yield of 11.77%. The specific activity of crude tannase was found to be 1.31 U/mg protein while that of purified tannase was 22.48 U/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme is dimeric with one major band of molecular mass 97 kDa and a very light band of molecular mass 43 kDa. Temperature of 35 to 40°C and pH 5 were optimum for tannase activity. The enzyme retained more than 60% of its stability at 60°C and 40% stability at pH 3 and 8, respectively. K m was found to be 0.33 × 10(-2) M and V max = 40 U/mg. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food processing industry.

  17. Particles from a Diesel ship engine: Mixing state on the nano scale and cloud condensation abilities

    Lieke, K. I.; Rosenørn, T.; Fuglsang, K.; Frederiksen, T.; Butcher, A. C.; King, S. M.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Transport by ship plays an important role in global logistics. Current international policy initiatives by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are taken to reduce emissions from ship propulsion systems (NO and SO, primarily). However, particulate emissions (e.g. soot) from ships are yet not regulated by legislations. To date, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the global and local effects of the particulate matter emitted from ships at sea. Particles may influence the climate through their direct effects (scattering and absorption of long and shortwave radiation) and indirectly through formation of clouds. Many studies have been carried out estimating the mass and particle number from ship emissions (e.g. Petzold et al. 2008), many of them in test rig studies (e.g. Kasper et al. 2007). It is shown that particulate emissions vary with engine load and chemical composition of fuels. Only a few studies have been carried out to characterize the chemical composition and cloud-nucleating ability of the particulate matter (e.g. Corbett et al. 1997). In most cases, the cloud-nucleating ability of emission particles is estimated from number size distribution. We applied measurements to characterize particulate emissions from a MAN B&W Low Speed engine on test bed. A unique data set was obtained through the use of a scanning mobility particle sizing system (SMPS), combined with a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter and a thermodenuder - all behind a dilution system. In addition, impactor samples were taken on nickel grids with carbon foil for use in an electron microscope (EM) to characterize the mineral phase and mixing state of the particles. The engine was operated at a series of different load conditions and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was applied. Measurements were carried out before and after the EGR system respectively. Our observations show significant changes in number size distribution and CCN activity with varying conditions

  18. The various sodium purification techniques

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  19. Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease ...

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced ...

  20. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  1. Agroindustrial Wastes as Alternative for Lipase Production by Candida viswanathii under Solid-State Cultivation: Purification, Biochemical Properties, and Its Potential for Poultry Fat Hydrolysis

    Alex Fernando de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to establish improved conditions for lipase production by Candida viswanathii using agroindustrial wastes in solid-state cultivation and to purify and evaluate the application of this enzyme for poultry fat hydrolysis. Mixed wheat bran plus spent barley grain (1 : 1, w/w supplemented with 25.0% (w/w olive oil increased the lipase production to 322.4%, compared to the initial conditions. When olive oil was replaced by poultry fat, the highest lipase production found at 40% (w/w was 31.43 U/gds. By selecting, yeast extract supplementation (3.5%, w/w, cultivation temperature (30°C, and substrate moisture (40%, w/v, lipase production reached 157.33 U/gds. Lipase was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, presenting a molecular weight of 18.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The crude and purified enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C and at pH 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. The estimated half-life at 50°C was of 23.5 h for crude lipase and 6.7 h at 40°C for purified lipase. Lipase presented high activity and stability in many organic solvents. Poultry fat hydrolysis was maximum at pH 4.0, reaching initial hydrolysis rate of 33.17 mmol/L/min. Thus, C. viswanathii lipase can be successfully produced by an economic and sustainable process and advantageously applied for poultry fat hydrolysis without an additional acidification step to recover the released fatty acids.

  2. Materials for Molybdenum 99 purification

    Wilkinson, M. Victoria; Mondino, Angel V.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) produces fission Mo 99, an isotope of wide use in nuclear medicine. In order to simplify the current Mo 99 production process, to shorten its duration and reduce impurities in the final product, alternative methods for purification steps were looked for. In this work a variety of new materials for the purification columns were designed, all of them with carbon. These materials were studied and a material which contribute with the best results for molybdenum retention, was selected. The preparation procedure and the working conditions were determined. (author)

  3. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  4. 75 FR 2463 - Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers...

    2010-01-15

    ... be considered a breach of contract and shall not entitle the Contractor to a price adjustment under... constitute a breach of this contract and shall not entitle the Contractor to any price adjustment under the... Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers Clauses...

  5. Development and Validation of Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument for Sustainable Job Security in Yobe State

    Adamu, Gishua Garba; Dawha, Josphine Musa; Kamar, Tiamiyu Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument (METSAI) is aimed at determining the extent to which students have acquired practical skills before graduation that will enable them get employment for sustainable job security in Yobe state. The study employed instrumentation research design. The populations of the study were 23 mechanical…

  6. Compton suppression system at Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    Cetiner, N.Oe.; Uenlue, K.; Brenizer, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    A Compton suppression system is used to reduce the contribution of scattered gamma-rays that originate within the HPGe detector to the gamma ray spectrum. The HPGe detector is surrounded by an assembly of guard detectors, usually NaI(Tl). The HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors are operated in anti-coincidence mode. The NaI(Tl) guard detector detects the photons that Compton scatter within, and subsequently escape from the HPGe detector. Since these photons are correlated with the partial energy deposition within the detector, much of the resulting Compton continuum can be subtracted from the spectrum reducing the unwanted background in gamma-ray spectra. A commercially available Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS) was purchased from Canberra Industries and tested at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Penn State University. The PSU-CSS includes a reverse bias HPGe detector, four annulus NaI(Tl) detectors, a NaI(Tl) plug detector, detector shields, data acquisition electronics, and a data processing computer. The HPGe detector is n-type with 54% relative efficiency. The guard detectors form an annulus with 9-inch diameter and 9-inch height, and have a plug detector that goes into/out of the annulus with the help of a special lift apparatus to raise/lower. The detector assembly is placed in a shielding cave. State-of-the-art electronics and software are used. The system was tested using standard sources, neutron activated NIST SRM sample and Dendrochronologically Dated Tree Ring samples. The PSU-CSS dramatically improved the peak-to-Compton ratio, up to 1000 : 1 for the 137 Cs source. (author)

  7. [Solid state isotope hydrogen exchange for deuterium and tritium in human gene-engineered insulin].

    Zolotarev, Yu A; Dadayan, A K; Kozik, V S; Gasanov, E V; Nazimov, I V; Ziganshin, R Kh; Vaskovsky, B V; Murashov, A N; Ksenofontov, A L; Haribin, O N; Nikolaev, E N; Myasoedov, N F

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of high temperature solid state catalytic isotope exchange in peptides and proteins under the action of catalyst-activated spillover hydrogen was studied. The reaction of human gene-engineered insulin with deuterium and tritium was conducted at 120-140° C to produce insulin samples containing 2-6 hydrogen isotope atoms. To determine the distribution of the isotope label over tritium-labeled insulin's amino acid residues, oxidation of the S-S bonds of insulin by performic acid was performed and polypeptide chains isolated; then their acid hydrolysis, amino acid analysis and liquid scintillation counts of tritium in the amino acids were conducted. The isotope label was shown to be incorporated in all amino acids of the protein, with the peptide fragment FVNQHLCGSHLVE of the insulin β-chain showing the largest incorporation. About 45% of the total protein isotope label was incorporated in His5 and His10 of this fragment. For the analysis of isotope label distribution in labeled insulin's peptide fragments, the recovery of the S-S bonds by mercaptoethanol, the enzymatic hydrolysis by glutamyl endopeptidase from Bacillus intermedius and HPLC division of the resulting peptides were carried out. Attribution of the peptide fragments formed due to hydrolysis at the Glu-X bond in the β-chain was accomplished by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry analysis data of the deuterium-labeled insulin samples' isotopomeric composition showed that the studied solid state isotope exchange reaction equally involved all the protein molecules. Biological studying of tritium-labeled insulin showed its physiological activity to be completely retained.

  8. Engineering Topological Surface State of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Lian, Ruqian; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    External electric field control of topological surface states (SSs) is significant for the next generation of condensed matter research and topological quantum devices. Here, we present a first-principles study of the SSs in the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field. The charge transfer, electric potential, band structure and magnetism of the pure and Cr doped Bi2Se3 film have been investigated. It is found that the competition between charge transfer and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) will lead to an electrically tunable band gap in Bi2Se3 film under external electric field. As Cr atom doped, the charge transfer of Bi2Se3 film under external electric field obviously decreases. Remarkably, the band gap of Cr doped Bi2Se3 film can be greatly engineered by the external electric field due to its special band structure. Furthermore, magnetic coupling of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 could be even mediated via the control of electric field. It is demonstrated that external electric field plays an important role on the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 film. Our results may promote the development of electronic and spintronic applications of magnetic topological insulator.

  9. The development of performance-based practical assessment model at civil engineering workshop in state polytechnic

    Kristinayanti, W. S.; Mas Pertiwi, I. G. A. I.; Evin Yudhi, S.; Lokantara, W. D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment is an important element in education that shall oversees students’ competence not only in terms of cognitive aspect, but alsothe students’ psychomotorin a comprehensive way. Civil Engineering Department at Bali State Polytechnic,as a vocational education institution, emphasizes on not only the theoretical foundation of the study, but also the application throughpracticum in workshop-based learning. We are aware of a need for performance-based assessment for these students, which would be essential for the student’s all-round performance in their studies.We try to develop a performance-based practicum assessment model that is needed to assess student’s ability in workshop-based learning. This research was conducted in three stages, 1) learning needs analysis, 2) instruments development, and 3) testing of instruments. The study uses rubrics set-up to test students’ competence in the workshop and test the validity. We obtained 34-point valid statement out of 35, and resulted in value of Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.977. In expert test we obtained a value of CVI = 0.75 which means that the drafted assessment is empirically valid within thetrial group.

  10. Engineering a Robust Quantum Spin Hall State in Graphene via Adatom Deposition

    Conan Weeks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 discovery of quantized conductance in HgTe quantum wells delivered the field of topological insulators (TIs its first experimental confirmation. While many three-dimensional TIs have since been identified, HgTe remains the only known two-dimensional system in this class. Difficulty fabricating HgTe quantum wells has, moreover, hampered their widespread use. With the goal of breaking this logjam, we provide a blueprint for stabilizing a robust TI state in a more readily available two-dimensional material—graphene. Using symmetry arguments, density functional theory, and tight-binding simulations, we predict that graphene endowed with certain heavy adatoms realizes a TI with substantial band gap. For indium and thallium, our most promising adatom candidates, a modest 6% coverage produces an estimated gap near 80 K and 240 K, respectively, which should be detectable in transport or spectroscopic measurements. Engineering such a robust topological phase in graphene could pave the way for a new generation of devices for spintronics, ultra-low-dissipation electronics, and quantum information processing.

  11. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  13. State of the Art : Integrated Management of Requirements in Model-Based Software Engineering

    Thörn, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the background and future of research concerning integrated management of requirements in model-based software engineering. The focus is on describing the relevant topics and existing theoretical backgrounds that form the basis for the research. The report describes the fundamental difficulties of requirements engineering for software projects, and proposes that the results and methods of models in software engineering can help leverage those problems. Taking inspiration...

  14. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  15. Surfing for suicide methods and help: content analysis of websites retrieved with search engines in Austria and the United States.

    Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The Internet provides a variety of resources for individuals searching for suicide-related information. Structured content-analytic approaches to assess intercultural differences in web contents retrieved with method-related and help-related searches are scarce. We used the 2 most popular search engines (Google and Yahoo/Bing) to retrieve US-American and Austrian search results for the term suicide, method-related search terms (e.g., suicide methods, how to kill yourself, painless suicide, how to hang yourself), and help-related terms (e.g., suicidal thoughts, suicide help) on February 11, 2013. In total, 396 websites retrieved with US search engines and 335 websites from Austrian searches were analyzed with content analysis on the basis of current media guidelines for suicide reporting. We assessed the quality of websites and compared findings across search terms and between the United States and Austria. In both countries, protective outweighed harmful website characteristics by approximately 2:1. Websites retrieved with method-related search terms (e.g., how to hang yourself) contained more harmful (United States: P search engines generally had more protective characteristics (P search engines. Resources with harmful characteristics were better ranked than those with protective characteristics (United States: P < .01, Austria: P < .05). The quality of suicide-related websites obtained depends on the search terms used. Preventive efforts to improve the ranking of preventive web content, particularly regarding method-related search terms, seem necessary. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Power Burst Facility (PER-620) Final End State and PBF Vessel Disposal

    B. C. Culp

    2007-05-01

    Preparation of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (DOE and EPA 1995) which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time critical removal action process as an approach for decommissioning. The scope of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is to evaluate alternatives and recommend a preferred alternative for the final end state of the PBF and the final disposal location for the PBF vessel.

  17. 3-D steady state thermomechanical analysis of a piston of a direct injection diesel engine

    Abid, M.; Bannikov, M.G.; Ali, H.

    2005-01-01

    Piston of internal combustion engine is subjected to the coupled action of the thermal and the mechanical loads. Piston distortion due to temperature nonuniformities has a significant impact on the piston component of the engine friction. In regions of high heat flux, thermal stresses can reach levels that would cause fatigue cracking. Any change of engine design and/or operating conditions resulting in an increased heat flux through the piston may cause engine performance deterioration and even engine failure. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a piston of a high power direct injection diesel engine. The goal of such analysis was the prediction of the piston behavior in conditions of the increased brake mean effective pressure and engine speed. Thermal and mechanical loads required for analysis were obtained from the engine cycle simulation. Thermal boundary conditions were determined in the form of the cycle averaged temperature of combustion chamber content and cycle averaged spatially distributed heat transfer coefficients. Mechanical load was represented by the combined gas pressure and inertia forces. Using ANSYS software temperature and stress distributions within the piston body as well as piston deformation were obtained. Analysis was performed for separate as well as combined load. It was shown that contribution of mechanical load is insignificant and can be neglected. Main emphasis is given to scuffing and strength analysis of the piston. Results obtained at various thermal loads are discussed. (author)

  18. Development and testing of a HD diesel engine with two-state turbocharging

    Sturm, W.L.; Kruithof, J.

    2000-01-01

    A research project was carried out in which a DAF engine was equipped with a two-stage turbocharging system. Objectives were to investigate an engine concept with very high BMEP (25-30 bars), maintaining acceptable emissions and fuel consumption, while concentrating on the control system and

  19. The Stock of Science and Engineering Master's Degree-Holders in the United States. Special Report.

    Dumas, Neil S.; And Others

    Statistical information dealing with the employment of scientists and engineers with master's degrees is provided within this report. Findings are summarized of a research effort aimed at developing estimates of the size of the population with master's degrees in science and engineering fields by sex and field for the period 1960-1978. Also…

  20. Systems and methods for separation and purification of products

    Weiss, Michael Joseph; Gilliam, Ryan J.; Self, Kyle; Mariansky, Gal; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Shipchandler, Riyaz Mohammed; Nagar, Jacob

    2017-11-28

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with an unsaturated hydrocarbon and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products. Separation and/or purification of the products as well as of the metal ions in the lower oxidation state and the higher oxidation state, is provided herein.

  1. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using piston cooling for a GDCI engine

    Roth, Gregory T; Husted, Harry L; Sellnau, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of nozzles, at least one nozzle per cylinder, with each nozzle configured to spray oil onto the bottom side of a piston of the engine to cool that piston. Independent control of the oil spray from the nozzles is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the oil spray onto the piston in that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in in a cylinder of the engine and controlling an oil spray targeted onto the bottom of a piston disposed in that cylinder is also presented.

  2. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    U. Schumann

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  3. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    U. Schumann

    Full Text Available Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  4. A comparison of safety culture associated with three engineered systems in Japan and the United States

    Tokuhiro, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The internationally reported nuclear criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura, Japan has further eroded public confidence in nuclear energy, its related facilities and the (Japanese) government's ability to handle such a crisis. The JCO accident marked the sixth nuclear-related incident since 1995. The existing state of 'safety culture' is being questioned and re-evaluated at a national level. In this work the safety culture associated with engineered systems (ES) such as the automobile, commercial airplane and nuclear power plants (NPP) are evaluated based on a scale-analysis (SA), via proposition of two fundamental parameters called eigenmetrics. The identified eigenmetrics are time- (τ) and number-scales (N) describing both ES and human factors, at the individual and/or societal levels. The SA approach is appropriate because human perception of risk (POR), perception of benefit (POB) and level of (technology) acceptance (LOA) are inherently subjective, therefore 'fuzzy' and rarely quantifiable in exact magnitude. POR expressed in terms of the psychometric factors 'dread risk' and 'unknown risk', contain both time- and number-scale elements. The JCO accident, as well as auto-fatalities, commercial airline accidents and hypothetical NPP accidents are characterized in terms of τ, N and two additional derived parameters of relevance, Nτ and N/τ. We contend that LOA infers a POB at least two orders of magnitude larger than POR. The 'amplification' influence of mass-media is also deduced as being 100 to 1000 fold the actual number of fatalities/serious injuries in a nuclear-related accident. (author)

  5. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  6. Supply of science and engineering graduates for the United States nuclear industry

    Baker, J.G.; Blair, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concern in the USA about the adequacy of supply of new graduate scientists and engineers to meet technical employment needs, is particularly acute within the nuclear field because of declines in the number of education programs and number of students in nuclear engineering, health physics, and radiochemistry. The decline in the number of new graduates is assessed in comparison to current and projected future employment needs. Currently, supplies of new graduates are just meeting employment needs in nuclear engineering and are less than adequate in health physics and radiochemistry. If the number of graduates does not increase these inadequacies of supply are likely become more severe in the future. 5 figs

  7. State-of-the-art protein engineering approaches using biological macromolecules: A review from immobilization to implementation view point.

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Guo, Shuqi; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2018-03-01

    Over the past years, technological and scientific advances have proven biocatalysis as a sustainable alternative than traditional chemical catalysis including organo- or metallocatalysis. In this context, immobilization based approaches represent simple but effective routes for engineering enzyme catalysts with higher activities than wild-type derivatives. Many enzymes including oxidoreductases have been engineered by rational and directed evolution, to realize the catalytic activity, enantioselectivity, and stability attributes which are essential for their biotechnological exploitation. Induce yet stable activity in enzyme catalysis offer new insights and motivation to engineer efficient catalysts for practical and commercial purposes. It has now become possible to envisage substrate accessibility to the catalytic site of the enzyme by current computational capabilities that reduce the experimental work related to the enzyme selection, screening, and engineering. Herein, state-of-the-art protein engineering approaches for improving enzymatic activities including chemical modification, directed evolution, and rational design or their combination methods are discussed. The emphasis is also given to the applications of the resulting tailored catalysts ranging from fine chemicals to novel pharmaceutical compounds that use biocatalysts as a vital step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of crude filtered vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines state of the art: Literature review

    Sidibe, S.S.; Azoumah, Y. [Institut Internationale d' ingenierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement (2iE), rue de science 01 Ouagadougou 01 BP 594 (Burkina Faso); Blin, J. [Institut Internationale d' ingenierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement (2iE), rue de science 01 Ouagadougou 01 BP 594 (Burkina Faso); Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), UPR Biomasse energie, TA B-42/16, 73 rue JF Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Vaitilingom, G. [Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), UPR Biomasse energie, TA B-42/16, 73 rue JF Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-12-15

    Many studies have been published on vegetable oil use in diesel engines. The different authors unanimously acknowledge the potential and merits of this renewable fuel. Typically, Straight Vegetable Oils (SVOs) produced locally on a small scale, have proven to be easy to produce with very little environmental impact. However, as their physico-chemical characteristics differ from those of diesel oil, their use in diesel engines can lead to a certain number of technical problems over time. In bibliography, there is substantial disagreement between authors regarding the advanced phenomena linked to this problems and the recommended solutions. Some of these publications treat options individually without any real comparison between them. Another observation is that the literature rarely tackles problems linked to vegetable oil quality. This paper sets out to review the state of the art for SVO use as fuel in diesel engines, based on a bibliographic study (literature review). The first section of the document examines the influence of the type and quality of vegetable oils for fuel use in diesel engines. The second section discusses the advantages and disadvantages of two options recommended for SVO use in diesel engines: dual fuelling and blending with diesel fuel. (author)

  9. 2005 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina Levee Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic data were collected for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by a helicopter-mounted LiDAR sensor over the New Orleans Hurricane Protection Levee...

  10. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    2010-02-23

    ... life.\\12\\ At that time, CARB also provided for implementation flexibility for post-manufacture marinizers and optional reduced- emission standard labeling requirements for ``Blue Sky Series'' CI engines...

  11. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  12. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1975

    1977-11-01

    The pursuit of a vigorous research and development program to provide renewable and other resources to meet U. S. energy needs in the next century is an important objective of President Carter's National Energy Plan. A highly educated and motivated pool of engineers and scientists must be available for energy research and development if this objective is to be achieved. This report provides, for the first time, information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data for the year 1975 will become part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information is provided for employment in the following fields: mathematics; physics/astronomy; chemistry; Earth, Environment, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Psychology; Social Sciences; Arts and Humanities; and Education and Business.

  13. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  14. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. Extraction and purification of plutonium by a tertiary amine; Extraction et purification du plutonium par une amine tertiaire

    Trentinian, M de; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses, Section de Chimie des Actimides (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Trilaurylamine diluted with a paraffinic solvent (dodecane) was studied as part of the research dealing with the separation and purification of plutonium. The physical properties (solubility of nitrates in the amine as a function of temperature) and the resistance to radiations of this substance were examined. The extraction characteristics of nitric solutions of plutonium, uranium and certain fission products are given as a function of the following factors: concentration of the various ions in solution, valency states. A method of plutonium purification based on these results is presented. (author) [French] La trilaurylamine diluee par un solvant paraffinique (dodecane) a ete etudiee dans le cadre des recherches concernant la separation et la purification du plutonium. Une etude des caracteres physiques (solubilite des nitrates dans l'amine en fonction de la temperature) s'ajoute a celle de la tenue aux radiations de ce corps. Les caracteristiques d'extraction de solutions nitriques de plutonium, uranium, et certains produits de fission, sont donnes en fonction des facteurs suivants: concentration des differents ions en solution, etats de valence. On presente une methode de purification du plutonium basee sur ces resultats. (auteur)

  17. The bubble method of water purification

    Smirnov, B. M.; Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.; Panov, V. A.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    The processes of water purification from admixture molecules are analyzed. The purification rate is limited due to a low diffusion coefficient of the admixture molecules in water. At non-small concentrations of the admixture molecules, the water purication can proceed through association of molecules in condensed nanoparticles which fall on the bottom of the water volume. The rate of association may be increased in an external electric field, but in reality this cannot change significantly the rate of the purification process. The bubble method of water purification is considered, where air bubbles formed at the bottom of the water volume, transfer admixture molecules to the interface. This method allows one to clean small water volumes fast. This mechanism of water purification is realized experimentally and exhibits the promises of the bubble purification method.

  18. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  19. Decisional tool to assess current and future process robustness in an antibody purification facility.

    Stonier, Adam; Simaria, Ana Sofia; Smith, Martin; Farid, Suzanne S

    2012-07-01

    Increases in cell culture titers in existing facilities have prompted efforts to identify strategies that alleviate purification bottlenecks while controlling costs. This article describes the application of a database-driven dynamic simulation tool to identify optimal purification sizing strategies and visualize their robustness to future titer increases. The tool harnessed the benefits of MySQL to capture the process, business, and risk features of multiple purification options and better manage the large datasets required for uncertainty analysis and optimization. The database was linked to a discrete-event simulation engine so as to model the dynamic features of biopharmaceutical manufacture and impact of resource constraints. For a given titer, the tool performed brute force optimization so as to identify optimal purification sizing strategies that minimized the batch material cost while maintaining the schedule. The tool was applied to industrial case studies based on a platform monoclonal antibody purification process in a multisuite clinical scale manufacturing facility. The case studies assessed the robustness of optimal strategies to batch-to-batch titer variability and extended this to assess the long-term fit of the platform process as titers increase from 1 to 10 g/L, given a range of equipment sizes available to enable scale intensification efforts. Novel visualization plots consisting of multiple Pareto frontiers with tie-lines connecting the position of optimal configurations over a given titer range were constructed. These enabled rapid identification of robust purification configurations given titer fluctuations and the facility limit that the purification suites could handle in terms of the maximum titer and hence harvest load. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Identification of the actual state and entity availability forecasting in power engineering using neural-network technologies

    Protalinsky, O. M.; Shcherbatov, I. A.; Stepanov, P. V.

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of severe accidents in RF call for the need to develop a system that could prevent emergency situations. In a number of cases accident rate is stipulated by careless inspections and neglects in developing repair programs. Across the country rates of accidents are growing because of a so-called “human factor”. In this regard, there has become urgent the problem of identification of the actual state of technological facilities in power engineering using data on engineering processes running and applying artificial intelligence methods. The present work comprises four model states of manufacturing equipment of engineering companies: defect, failure, preliminary situation, accident. Defect evaluation is carried out using both data from SCADA and ASEPCR and qualitative information (verbal assessments of experts in subject matter, photo- and video materials of surveys processed using pattern recognition methods in order to satisfy the requirements). Early identification of defects makes possible to predict the failure of manufacturing equipment using mathematical techniques of artificial neural network. In its turn, this helps to calculate predicted characteristics of reliability of engineering facilities using methods of reliability theory. Calculation of the given parameters provides the real-time estimation of remaining service life of manufacturing equipment for the whole operation period. The neural networks model allows evaluating possibility of failure of a piece of equipment consistent with types of actual defects and their previous reasons. The article presents the grounds for a choice of training and testing samples for the developed neural network, evaluates the adequacy of the neural networks model, and shows how the model can be used to forecast equipment failure. There have been carried out simulating experiments using a computer and retrospective samples of actual values for power engineering companies. The efficiency of the developed

  1. Influence of the drying method in chitosans purification step

    Fonseca, Ana C.M.; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Bettega, Antonio; Lima, Nelson B. de

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the study of extracellular biopolymers properties has received prominence for being easy extraction and purification. Chitosan has been an attractive proposition for applications in various fields such as engineering, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. For such applications, it is necessary purification of chitosan to obtain a product more concentrated and free of undesirable impurities. However, at this stage of the process of obtaining the biopolymer may occur morphological and physicochemical changes. This study evaluated the influence of the drying process after purification of a commercial chitosan sample and the importance of this step and its cost/benefit in applications requiring a high degree of purity. The method of drying influenced in the organoleptic properties and in the main characteristics of material. Analysis of the crystal structure by X-ray diffraction showed that the degree of crystallinity, X (%), in the purified chitosan samples was lower when compared with the unpurified sample. The degree of acetylation, DA (%), was analyzed by spectroscopy infrared with no significant changes on the three drying methods assessed, unlike the viscosimetric molecular weight, M_v, determined by capillary viscometry. (author)

  2. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  3. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  4. Purification of zirconium concentrates

    Brown, A.E.P.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial grade ZrO 2 and an ammonium uranate (yellow cake) are obtained from the caldasito ore processing. This ore is found in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caldasito is an uranigerous zirconium ore, a mixture of zircon and baddeleyite and contains 60% ZrO 2 and 0,3% U 3 O 8 . The chemical opening of the ore was made by alkaline fusion with NaOH at controlled temperature. The zirconium-uranium separation took place by a continuous liquid-liquid extraction in TBP-varsol-HNO 3 -H 2 O system. The raffinate containing zirconium + impurities (aluminium, iron and titanium) was purified by an ion exchange operation using a strong cationic resin [pt

  5. Volterra-series-based nonlinear system modeling and its engineering applications: A state-of-the-art review

    Cheng, C. M.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear problems have drawn great interest and extensive attention from engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most real systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. To model and analyze nonlinear systems, many mathematical theories and methods have been developed, including Volterra series. In this paper, the basic definition of the Volterra series is recapitulated, together with some frequency domain concepts which are derived from the Volterra series, including the general frequency response function (GFRF), the nonlinear output frequency response function (NOFRF), output frequency response function (OFRF) and associated frequency response function (AFRF). The relationship between the Volterra series and other nonlinear system models and nonlinear problem solving methods are discussed, including the Taylor series, Wiener series, NARMAX model, Hammerstein model, Wiener model, Wiener-Hammerstein model, harmonic balance method, perturbation method and Adomian decomposition. The challenging problems and their state of arts in the series convergence study and the kernel identification study are comprehensively introduced. In addition, a detailed review is then given on the applications of Volterra series in mechanical engineering, aeroelasticity problem, control engineering, electronic and electrical engineering.

  6. Application of limit state design to outdoor important civil engineering reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plant

    1992-01-01

    As for the basic concept and the procedure of the aseismatic design of nuclear power structures, it is the present state to verify the safety by allowable stress design method, but the necessity of considering the limit state in the safety verification of these structures has been pointed out. For the purpose of clarifying the technique and procedure when limit state design method is applied to the aseismatic design of important civil engineering structures in outdoors of nuclear power stations and contributing to the rationalization of aseismatic design, aiming at completing the safety verification manual for designers, as the research on the standardization of the aseismatic design of A class civil engineering structures considering the limit state, the deliberation of the contents of research has been carried out. The outline of the manual expected to be published soon is described. The items of research, the constitution of the manual, the features of the manual, the basic concept of safety verification, the calculation of design seismic load, the method of verification for reinforced concrete structures and the verifying experiment are described. (K.I.)

  7. Experimental study on an IC engine in-cylinder flow using different steady-state flow benches

    M. El-Adawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In-cylinder air flow structures are known to strongly impact on the performance and combustion of internal combustion engines (ICE. Therefore the aim of this paper is to experimentally study an IC engine in-cylinder flow under steady-state conditions. Different methods can be used to characterize the in-cylinder flow which are optical engines and laser diagnostics, computational fluid dynamic and steady-state flow bench. Here we are concentrating on two different types of flow benches. The first (Ricardo uses the impulse torque meter method while the other (FEV uses the paddle wheel technique. The experiments were carried out on the same cylinder head and the same pressure difference across the inlet valves of 600 mmH2O in order to compare the results. The experimental results are presented in terms of the measured air flow rate, flow coefficient, discharge coefficient and non-dimensional rig tumble. Moreover, number of modifications were conducted on the FEV flow bench in order to apply particle image velocimetry measurements on the vertical tumble plane, which passing through the middle of the cylinder at different valve lifts. The results show that a reasonably good level of agreement can be achieved between both methods, providing the methods of calculations of the various parameters are consistent. Keywords: In-cylinder flow, Flow bench, Tumble motion, Flow coefficient, Particle image velocimetry

  8. Nuclear methods in constructing engineering - present state, tendencies, education and in-service training

    Baumbach, H.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation and status of nuclear methods in the field of civil engineering are pointed out. Exemplary remarks are made out neutron small-angle scattering and on field gradient-impulse NMR method for studies of hydration of cement concrete. Moreover, the application of radioisotopes in gas concrete production, gamma radiography and gamma tomography are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Preparing Your Students for Careers in Science and Engineering: How Is Your State Doing?

    White, Susan; Cottle, Paul

    2011-10-01

    With one glance at the starting salaries of new bachelor's degree recipients in Fig. 1, a teacher or parent can see the career fields to which their high school students interested in the best economic opportunities might aspire: several engineering fields (chemical, electrical, mechanical), computer science, physics, and mathematics.

  10. State-of-the-art WEB -technologies and ecological safety of nuclear power engineering facilities

    Batij, V.G.; Batij, E.V.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    Prospects of web-technologies using in the field of improvement radiation safety level of nuclear power engineering facilities is seen. It is shown that application of such technologies will enable entirely using the data of all information systems of radiation control

  11. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    2011-06-29

    ... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...

  12. Deformation and fracture of solid-state materials field theoretical approach and engineering applications

    Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a comprehensive theory of deformation and fracture to engineers and applied scientists. The author explains the gist of local symmetry (gauge invariance) intuitively so that engineers and applied physicists can digest it easily, rather than describing physical or mathematical details of the principle. Applications of the theory to practical engineering are also described, such as nondestructive testing, in particular, with the use of an optical interferometric technique called ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry). The book provides information on how to apply physical concepts to engineering applications. This book also: ·         Describes a highly original way to reveal loading hysteresis of a given specimen ·         Presents a fundamentally new approach to deformation and fracture, which offers potential for new applications ·         Introduces the unique application of Electric Speckle-Pattern Interferometry—reading fringe patterns to connect...

  13. A Novel Emergent State Control Law for an Integrated Helicopter/Turboshaft Engine System

    Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Deng, S.

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer robust control scheme is proposed to get a better response ability for emergency maneuvers of helicopter. Note that the power used in ascending flight is the main coupling between helicopter and its turboshaft engines; therefore vertical flight control is separated from conventional

  14. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    2012-02-21

    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... section 209 proceeding is to: Consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... regulations also set forth in- use performance standards applicable to non-new yard and non-yard trucks. To...

  15. Computer simulations for state-of-the-art engineering design of a commercial building in Prague

    Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.; Schwarzer, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the computer simulation work, which was carried out to support the engineering design team of the Luxembourg Plaza building development in Prague. The simulations for this study were based on (1) energy balance models covering the whole building for heating and cooling load

  16. Projected progress in the engineering state-of-the-art. [for aerospace

    Nicks, O. W.

    1978-01-01

    Projected advances in discipline areas associated with aerospace engineering are discussed. The areas examined are propulsion and power, materials and structures, aerothermodynamics, and electronics. Attention is directed to interdisciplinary relationships; one example would be the application of communications technology to the solution of propulsion problems. Examples involving projected technology changes are presented, and technology integration and societal effects are considered.

  17. Engineering geological mapping in Wallonia (Belgium) : present state and recent computerized approach

    Delvoie, S.; Radu, J.-P.; Ruthy, I.; Charlier, R.

    2012-04-01

    An engineering geological map can be defined as a geological map with a generalized representation of all the components of a geological environment which are strongly required for spatial planning, design, construction and maintenance of civil engineering buildings. In Wallonia (Belgium) 24 engineering geological maps have been developed between the 70s and the 90s at 1/5,000 or 1/10,000 scale covering some areas of the most industrialized and urbanized cities (Liège, Charleroi and Mons). They were based on soil and subsoil data point (boring, drilling, penetration test, geophysical test, outcrop…). Some displayed data present the depth (with isoheights) or the thickness (with isopachs) of the different subsoil layers up to about 50 m depth. Information about geomechanical properties of each subsoil layer, useful for engineers and urban planners, is also synthesized. However, these maps were built up only on paper and progressively needed to be updated with new soil and subsoil data. The Public Service of Wallonia and the University of Liège have recently initiated a study to evaluate the feasibility to develop engineering geological mapping with a computerized approach. Numerous and various data (about soil and subsoil) are stored into a georelational database (the geotechnical database - using Access, Microsoft®). All the data are geographically referenced. The database is linked to a GIS project (using ArcGIS, ESRI®). Both the database and GIS project consist of a powerful tool for spatial data management and analysis. This approach involves a methodology using interpolation methods to update the previous maps and to extent the coverage to new areas. The location (x, y, z) of each subsoil layer is then computed from data point. The geomechanical data of these layers are synthesized in an explanatory booklet joined to maps.

  18. Engineering an all-optical route to ultracold molecules in their vibronic ground state

    Koch, Christiane P.; Moszynski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We propose an improved photoassociation scheme to produce ultracold molecules in their vibronic ground state for the generic case where non-adiabatic effects facilitating transfer to deeply bound levels are absent. Formation of molecules is achieved by short laser pulses in a Raman-like pump-dump process where an additional near-infrared laser field couples the excited state to an auxiliary state. The coupling due to the additional field effectively changes the shape of the excited state pote...

  19. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  20. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Second Series - Report No. 6 - 1976 Nissan Diesel 198 CID (3.2 Liters), F.I.

    1978-05-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1976 Nissan diesel engine, Model SD-33 CN6-33, to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The object...

  1. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Second Series - Report No. 2 - 1976 Chevrolet 305 CID (5.0 Liters), 2V

    1978-04-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1976 Chevrolet 305-CID V-8 engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The objective of the pr...

  2. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  3. 40 CFR 1039.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1039.505 Section 1039.505 Protection of Environment... duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an...

  4. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  5. Drinking water purification in the Czech Republic and worldwide

    Krmela, Jan; Beckova, Vera; Vlcek, Jaroslav; Marhol, Milan

    2012-06-01

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Legislative (hygienic) requirements for technologies applied to drinking water purification with focus on uranium elimination; (ii) Technological drinking water treatment processes (settling, filtration, precipitation, acidification, iron and manganese removal) ; (iii) State Office for Nuclear Safety requirements for the operation of facilities to separate uranium from drinking water and for the handling of saturated ionexes from such facilities; (iv) Material requirements for the operation of ionex filters serving to separate uranium from drinking water; (v) Effect of enhanced uranium concentrations in drinking waters on human body; (vi) Uranium speciation in ground waters; (vii) Brief description of technologies which are used worldwide for uranium removal; (viii) Technologies which are usable and are used in the Czech Republic for drinking water purification from uranium; (ix) Inorganic and organic ion exchangers and sorbents. (P.A.)

  6. United States Air Force Civil Engineering Additive Manufacturing Applications: Tools and Jigs

    2016-03-24

    Its Potential Impact on Biotechnology and the Chemical Sciences. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 86, 3240-3253. Halterman, T. (2014, August 28). 3D...2015). 3D Printing Makes Explosive Headway at AFIT. Civil Engineer Magazine , 23(1), 34-35. Smiths Detection. (2015). LCD 3.2E Handheld CWA & TIC...the Fleet’ Program. National Defense Magazine . Tan, A. (2014, Summer). Advanced Ordnance Teaching Materials. The Journal of ERW and Mine Action, 39

  7. Some engineering aspects of the steam generator system for the United States LMFBR demonstration plant

    Tippets, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the main design features of the steam generator system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and the engineering approach being employed for some of the critical elements of this system, including in particular the sodium-steam/water boundary, the efforts to have this boundary be of highest integrity, and the system features to safely accommodate any failure of the boundary. (author)

  8. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps.

    Hischier, Roland; Walser, Tobias

    2012-05-15

    The use of engineered nanomaterials offers advantages as well as disadvantages from a sustainability perspective. It is important to identify such points as early as possible in order to be able to build on existing strengths, while counteracting disadvantages. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. But so far studies applying LCA to the area of nanotechnology have been scarce. One reason might be that the LCA framework has a whole list of issues that need further precision in order to be applicable to nanotechnologies: system boundaries and a functional unit have to be chosen in a way that allows one to do a comparison of equal functionalities; adequate and comprehensive life cycle inventory data for engineered nanomaterials are the key on the level of inventory analysis; and the impact assessment step requires a clear definition of the degree of detail on the level of nanoparticle emissions. The LCA studies existing thus far in the area of nanotechnology have barely begun to cover all these aspects. Thus, in order to improve the current situation, the authors propose to go ahead in each of the LCA stages as far as scientific advances allow. For the inventory modelling this means e.g. that comprehensive, transparently documented and quality ensured data of the most important engineered nanomaterials should be collected and made available in a widely-accepted format. Concerning nanoparticle emissions, as many parameters as possible have to be collected pertaining to the production, use, and the disposal phase of these engineered nanomaterials. Furthermore, on the level of impact assessment, relevant physical characteristics have to be identified for a toxicity assessment of nanoparticles and a consensus has to be found for a limited but sufficient number of independent parameters influencing toxicity to be collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. History of the United States Army Engineer District Far East 1957 to 1975

    1976-01-01

    property to the Ministry of De- fense was growing among Korean land owners for several reasons. Compensation monies from the ROK were usu- ally tardy or...work in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Marshall Islands to the Army Corps of Engineers, and that in the Philippine Islands... tardiness in ordering materials from the US, Mitsubishi finished the center in December 1967 in- stead of September as planned. The US Government

  10. Steady-state and dynamic analysis of a jet engine, gas lubricated shaft seal

    Shapiro, W.; Colsher, R.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic response of a gas-lubricated, jet-engine main shaft seal was analytically established as a function of collar misalignment and secondary seal friction. Response was obtained by a forward integration-in-time (time-transient) scheme, which traces a time history of seal motions in all its degrees of freedom. Results were summarized in the form of a seal tracking map which indicated regions of acceptable collar misalignments and secondary seal friction. Methodology, results and interpretations are comprehensively described.

  11. Some engineering aspects of the steam generator system for the United States LMFBR demonstration plant

    Tippets, F E

    1975-07-01

    This paper describes the main design features of the steam generator system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and the engineering approach being employed for some of the critical elements of this system, including in particular the sodium-steam/water boundary, the efforts to have this boundary be of highest integrity, and the system features to safely accommodate any failure of the boundary. (author)

  12. Adipose tissue engineering: state of the art, recent advances and innovative approaches.

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Farè, Silvia

    2009-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a highly specialized connective tissue found either in white or brown forms, the white form being the most abundant in adult humans. Loss or damage of white adipose tissue due to aging or pathological conditions needs reconstructive approaches. To date, two main strategies are being investigated for generating functional adipose tissue: autologous tissue/cell transplantation and adipose tissue engineering. Free-fat transplantation rarely achieves sufficient tissue augmentation owing to delayed neovascularization, with subsequent cell necrosis and graft volume shrinkage. Tissue engineering approaches represent, instead, a more suitable alternative for adipose tissue regeneration; they can be performed either with in situ or de novo adipogenesis. In situ adipogenesis or transplantation of encapsulated cells can be useful in healing small-volume defects, whereas restoration of large defects, where vascularization and a rapid volumetric gain are strict requirements, needs de novo strategies with 3D scaffold/filling matrix combinations. For adipose tissue engineering, the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (both adipose- and bone marrow-derived stem cells) or of preadipocytes is preferred to the use of mature adipocytes, which have low expandability and poor ability for volume retention. This review intends to assemble and describe recent work on this topic, critically presenting successes obtained and drawbacks faced to date.

  13. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date

  14. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 1

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and U S Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  15. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  16. Quantum state engineering and reconstruction in cavity QED. An analytical approach

    Lougovski, P.

    2004-01-01

    The models of a strongly-driven micromaser and a one-atom laser are developed. Their analytical solutions are obtained by means of phase space techniques. It is shown how to exploit the model of a one-atom laser for simultaneous generation and monitoring of the decoherence of the atom-field ''Schroedinger cat'' states. The similar machinery applied to the problem of the generation of the maximally-entangled states of two atoms placed inside an optical cavity permits its analytical solution. The steady-state solution of the problem exhibits a structure in which the two-atom maximally-entangled state correlates with the vacuum state of the cavity. As a consequence, it is demonstrated that the atomic maximally-entangled state, depending on a coupling regime, can be produced via a single or a sequence of no-photon measurements. The question of the implementation of a quantum memory device using a dispersive interaction between the collective internal ground state of an atomic ensemble and two orthogonal modes of a cavity is addressed. The problem of quantum state reconstruction in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics is considered. The optimal operational definition of the Wigner function of a cavity field is worked out. It is based on the Fresnel transform of the atomic inversion of a probe atom. The general integral transformation for the Wigner function reconstruction of a particle in an arbitrary symmetric potential is derived

  17. Truly quasi-solid-state lithium cells utilizing carbonate free polymer electrolytes on engineered LiFePO_4

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Cíntora-Juárez, Daniel; Pérez-Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, José L.; Ahmad, Shahzada; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonate free truly quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. • Simple and easy up scalable preparation by solvent free thermal curing. • LiFePO_4 cathode engineered by PEDOT:PSS interphase at the current collector. • Direct polymerization over the engineered electrode surface in one pot. • Stable lithium polymer cells operating in a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Stable and safe functioning of a Li-ion battery is the demand of modern generation. Herein, we are demonstrating the application of an in-situ free radical polymerisation process (thermal curing) to fabricate a polymer electrolyte that possesses mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, improved interfacial and ion transport characteristics along with stable cycling at ambient conditions. The polymer electrolyte is obtained by direct polymerization over the electrode surface in one pot starting from a reactive mixture comprising an ethylene oxide-based dimethacrylic oligomer (BDM), dimethyl polyethylene glycol (DPG) and lithium salt. Furthermore, an engineered cathode is used, comprising a LiFePO_4/PEDOT:PSS interface at the current collector that improves the material utilization at high rates and mitigates the corrosive effects of LiTFSI on aluminium current collector. The lithium cell resulting from the newly elaborated multiphase assembly of the composite cathode with the DPG-based carbonate-free polymer electrolyte film exhibits excellent reversibility upon prolonged cycling at ambient as well as elevated temperatures, which is found to be superior compared to previous reports on uncoated electrodes with polymer electrolytes.

  18. Natural marine sponges for bone tissue engineering: The state of art and future perspectives.

    Granito, Renata Neves; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2017-08-01

    Marine life and its rich biodiversity provide a plentiful resource of potential new products for the society. Remarkably, marine organisms still remain a largely unexploited resource for biotechnology applications. Among them, marine sponges are sessile animals from the phylum Porifera dated at least from 580 million years ago. It is known that molecules from marine sponges present a huge therapeutic potential in a wide range of applications mainly due to its antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic effects. In this context, this article reviews all the information available in the literature about the potential of the use of marine sponges for bone tissue engineering applications. First, one of the properties that make sponges interesting as bone substitutes is their structural characteristics. Most species have an efficient interconnected porous architecture, which allows them to process a significant amount of water and facilitates the flow of fluids, mimicking an ideal bone scaffold. Second, sponges have an organic component, the spongin, which is analogous to vertebral collagen, the most widely used natural polymer for tissue regeneration. Last, osteogenic properties of marine sponges is also highlighted by their mineral content, such as biosilica and other compounds, that are able to support cell growth and to stimulate bone formation and mineralization. This review focuses on recent studies concerning these interesting properties, as well as on some challenges to be overcome in the bone tissue engineering field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1717-1727, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ethanol production from xylose in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Current state and perspectives

    Matsushika, Akinori; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Hiroshima (JP). Biomass Technology Research Center (BTRC); Kodaki, Tsutomu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2009-08-15

    Bioethanol production from xylose is important for utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials. The research on yeast conversion of xylose to ethanol has been intensively studied especially for genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the last 20 years. S. cerevisiae, which is a very safe microorganism that plays a traditional and major role in industrial bioethanol production, has several advantages due to its high ethanol productivity, as well as its high ethanol and inhibitor tolerance. However, this yeast cannot ferment xylose, which is the dominant pentose sugar in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass. A number of different strategies have been applied to engineer yeasts capable of efficiently producing ethanol from xylose, including the introduction of initial xylose metabolism and xylose transport, changing the intracellular redox balance, and overexpression of xylulokinase and pentose phosphate pathways. In this review, recent progress with regard to these studies is discussed, focusing particularly on xylose-fermenting strains of S. cerevisiae. Recent studies using several promising approaches such as host strain selection and adaptation to obtain further improved xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae are also addressed. (orig.)

  20. Prehistory and state of catalytic exhaust gas detoxification of vehicle engines

    Pischinger, F

    1985-01-01

    The application of catalyst techniques to exhaust gas detoxification of car engines has a prehistory of about 60 years. There were important attempts at further development in the 1940's and 1950's in connection with efforts to comply with the legal measures in California caused by the smog problem in Los Angeles. The technical difficulties had been overcome by the mid-1970's, so that catalytic converters could be introduced into mass production of cars in the USA. Their function was first mainly limited to oxidation of noxious substances in the exhaust gas. Catalysts were first used to reduce nitrogen oxide emission in 1977. The 3 way catalyst now used in mass production in the USA permits the simultaneous reduction of all three important types of noxious substances emitted from petrol engines. In order to ensure the most favourable composition of the exhaust gas for this purpose, the 3 way catalyst is combined with electronic control of the formation of the mixture. The catalytic converter for cars represents by far the most economically important industrial application of catalyst techniques today. There is not other alternative for achieving the low emission of noxious substances which can be reached by this technique. (HW).

  1. Engineering design framework for a shape memory alloy coil spring actuator using a static two-state model

    An, Sung-Min; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Ryu, Junghyun; Cho, Maenghyo

    2012-01-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA) coil spring actuator is fabricated by annealing an SMA wire wound on a rod. Four design parameters are required for the winding: the wire diameter, the rod diameter, the pitch angle and the number of active coils. These parameters determine the force and stroke produced by the actuator. In this paper, we present an engineering design framework to select these parameters on the basis of the desired force and stoke. The behavior of the SMA coil spring actuator is described in detail to provide information about the inner workings of the actuator and to aid in selecting the design parameters. A new static two-state model, which represents a force–deflection relation of the actuator at the fully martensitic state (M 100% ) and fully austenitic state (A 100% ), is derived for use in the design. Two nonlinear effects are considered in the model: the nonlinear detwinning effect of the SMA and the nonlinear geometric effect of the coil spring for large deformations. The design process is organized into six steps and is presented with a flowchart and design equations. By following this systematic approach, an SMA coil spring actuator can be designed for various applications. Experimental results verified the static two-state model for the SMA coil spring actuator and a case study showed that an actuator designed using this framework met the design requirements. The proposed design framework was developed to assist application engineers such as robotics researchers in designing SMA coil spring actuators without the need for full thermomechanical models. (paper)

  2. Analysis on the heating performance of a gas engine driven air to water heat pump based on a steady-state model

    Zhang, R.R.; Lu, X.S.; Li, S.Z.; Lin, W.S.; Gu, A.Z.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the heating performance of a gas engine driven air to water heat pump was analyzed using a steady state model. The thermodynamic model of a natural gas engine is identified by the experimental data and the compressor model is created by several empirical equations. The heat exchanger models are developed by the theory of heat balance. The system model is validated by comparing the experimental and simulation data, which shows good agreement. To understand the heating characteristic in detail, the performance of the system is analyzed in a wide range of operating conditions, and especially the effect of engine waste heat on the heating performance is discussed. The results show that engine waste heat can provide about 1/3 of the total heating capacity in this gas engine driven air to water heat pump. The performance of the engine, heat pump and integral system are analyzed under variations of engine speed and ambient temperature. It shows that engine speed has remarkable effects on both the engine and heat pump, but ambient temperature has little influence on the engine's performance. The system and component performances in variable speed operating conditions is also discussed at the end of the paper

  3. Model Based Mission Assurance in a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Framework: State-of-the-Art Assessment

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    This report explores the current state of the art of Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) in projects that have shifted towards Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). Its goal is to provide insight into how NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) should respond to this shift. In MBSE, systems engineering information is organized and represented in models: rigorous computer-based representations, which collectively make many activities easier to perform, less error prone, and scalable. S&MA practices must shift accordingly. The "Objective Structure Hierarchies" recently developed by OSMA provide the framework for understanding this shift. Although the objectives themselves will remain constant, S&MA practices (activities, processes, tools) to achieve them are subject to change. This report presents insights derived from literature studies and interviews. The literature studies gleaned assurance implications from reports of space-related applications of MBSE. The interviews with knowledgeable S&MA and MBSE personnel discovered concerns and ideas for how assurance may adapt. Preliminary findings and observations are presented on the state of practice of S&MA with respect to MBSE, how it is already changing, and how it is likely to change further. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to foster the evolution of S&MA to best fit with MBSE.

  4. An engineering two-mode field NOON state in cavity QED

    Saif, Farhan; Rameez-ul-Islam [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-14

    We generate highly non-classical entangled two-mode field states of the type (|n{sub X},0{sub Y}>+-|0{sub X},n{sub Y}>)/sq root2 by utilizing an atomic analogue of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where quantized fields in the high-Q cavities act as beam splitters and mirrors. We discuss that the probability for the production of the desired states may approach a value close to unity under presently available experimental conditions.

  5. Response Surface Methodology Modelling of an Aqueous Two-Phase System for Purification of Protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031) under Solid State Fermentation and Its Biochemical Characterization

    Alhelli, Amaal M.; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Suliman, Eilaf; Shad, Zahra; Mohammed, Nameer Khairulla; Meor Hussin, Anis Shobirin

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031) synthesizes different types of extracellular proteases. The objective of this study is to optimize polyethylene glycol (PEG)/citrate based on an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to purify protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031). The effects of different PEG molecular weights (1500–10,000 g/mol), PEG concentration (9%–20%), concentrations of NaCl (0%–10%) and the citrate buffer (8%–16%) on protease were also studied. The best protease purification could be achieved under the conditions of 9.0% (w/w) PEG 8000, 5.2% NaCl, and 15.9% sodium citrate concentration, which resulted in a one-sided protease partitioning for the bottom phase with a partition coefficient of 0.2, a 6.8-fold protease purification factor, and a yield of 93%. The response surface models displayed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) response which was fit for the variables that were studied as well as a high coefficient of determination (R2). Similarly, the predicted and observed values displayed no significant (p > 0.05) differences. In addition, our enzyme characterization study revealed that Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031) produced a slight neutral protease with a molecular weight between 100 and 140 kDa. The optimal activity of the purified enzyme occurred at a pH of 6.0 and at a temperature of 50 °C. The stability between different pH and temperature ranges along with the effect of chemical metal ions and inhibitors were also studied. Our results reveal that the purified enzyme could be used in the dairy industry such as in accelerated cheese ripening. PMID:27845736

  6. Response Surface Methodology Modelling of an Aqueous Two-Phase System for Purification of Protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 under Solid State Fermentation and Its Biochemical Characterization

    Amaal M. Alhelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 synthesizes different types of extracellular proteases. The objective of this study is to optimize polyethylene glycol (PEG/citrate based on an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS and Response Surface Methodology (RSM to purify protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031. The effects of different PEG molecular weights (1500–10,000 g/mol, PEG concentration (9%–20%, concentrations of NaCl (0%–10% and the citrate buffer (8%–16% on protease were also studied. The best protease purification could be achieved under the conditions of 9.0% (w/w PEG 8000, 5.2% NaCl, and 15.9% sodium citrate concentration, which resulted in a one-sided protease partitioning for the bottom phase with a partition coefficient of 0.2, a 6.8-fold protease purification factor, and a yield of 93%. The response surface models displayed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 response which was fit for the variables that were studied as well as a high coefficient of determination (R2. Similarly, the predicted and observed values displayed no significant (p > 0.05 differences. In addition, our enzyme characterization study revealed that Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 produced a slight neutral protease with a molecular weight between 100 and 140 kDa. The optimal activity of the purified enzyme occurred at a pH of 6.0 and at a temperature of 50 °C. The stability between different pH and temperature ranges along with the effect of chemical metal ions and inhibitors were also studied. Our results reveal that the purified enzyme could be used in the dairy industry such as in accelerated cheese ripening.

  7. Computational engineering

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  8. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    Kamela O. Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  9. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    Colin A. Scholes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  10. Forefront of PUREX system engineering. Chemistry and engineering of ruthenium, technetium and neptunium

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports the activity of the research committee organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan on 'Ruthenium and Technetium Chemistry in the PUREX System', with focusing on basic behaviors of ruthenium, technetium and neptunium in the PUREX process, the principles of plant design, and behaviors during the final waste treatment. The scope of the work includes the following major topics: (1) basic solution and solid-state chemistry; (2) basic solution and solid-state chemistry of minor actinides in particular, Np; (3) partitioning chemistry in the PUREX system and environmental behavior of the components; (4) processes of recovery, purification, and utilization of rare metal fission products; (5) field data on plant design, operation, decontamination, and decommissioning; (6) numerical process simulations and process control technologies; (7) compilation of a data base for process chemistry and plant engineering. (S. Ohno)

  11. The study of envorinmental state on road intersections based on emissions of car engines in Zhytomyr

    Titarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the studies of environmental conditions on road intersections based on car engine emissions in Zhitomir. Statistical methods were used to determine the intensity of traffic flows based on transport emissions according to video monitoring records. Intersections with the highest intensity of traffic flows, where there is a high risk of car emissions accumulation above the applicable standard, were chosen for the assessment of ecological sustainability. Calculation of pollution was done for the intersection of Nebesnoi Sotni street and M. Grushevskogo street. The results of calculation were compared with the limit of affordable concentration and conclusions that emphasize difficulty of the problem and the emergence of its solving. The system of ecological safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements taking into account the exceeding of factual values of pollution over normative values. Recommendations concerning of ecological sustainability of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic flows with the use of intellectual traffic systems.

  12. GPR applications in Civil Engineering in Spain - state-of-the-art

    Pérez Gracia, Vega; Solla, Mercedes; Santos-Assunçao, Sonia; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    GPR was introduced in Spain in 1990, and the first significant work was the PhD thesis of H. Lorenzo in 1994. Due to its versatile applicability, the employ has been increased and actually, GPR is extensively used in detection of pipes, wiring and urban services mainly. During the last years, this method was also widely utilized in the detection of graves from the civil war and in forensic studies, with irregular results. It was also commonly applied in archaeology. Actually exists more than 20 private companies offering geotechnical services by means of GPR. Also, several public institutions as Universities and Research Institutes base part of their research in GPR or in GPR applications. Notwithstanding, no training courses of specific formation on GPR is offered, but in several doctorate programs it is possible to work with GPR. Also, in many schools, GPR is part of the geophysical formation of graduate students. However, no national guidelines and rules exist, and each company defines the investigation protocols. Nevertheless, one of the aims of the Comisión Española de Geodesia y Geofísica (Spanish Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics) is to define guidelines for the GPR studies. Probably, the existence of national guidelines or perhaps European guidelines could be the most effective way to promote the responsible use of GPR in different domains. On the other hand, perhaps recommendations on the use of combined methodologies could be a practical way to persuade in the application of geophysical non-destructive technologies. The CEDEX, Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas (Center for Studies and Experimentation in Civil Engineering), which is a civil engineering research agency in Spain, offers different test sites to calibrate and evaluate the method. It is an autonomous organization, organically ascribed at present to the Ministry of Fomento, and functionally ascribed to the Ministries of Fomento and Medioambiente of Spain, giving

  13. Transient states analysis of CI engine injectors with the use of optical methods

    Skowron, M.; Pielecha, I.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of research was to define real injection time delay against the time of electrical control signal for piezoelectric and electromagnetic diesel fuel injectors. The second objective of this work was the evaluation of influence of typical injection parameters on this delay. The analysis was focused on the occurrence of appropriate control signals recorded with the use of fast-varying data acquisition system and compared with the data recorded by high speed camera. The tests were conducted in constant volume chamber for different injector types used in combustion engines with direct injection of diesel fuel. The tests were performed under variable conditions: different fuel pressure, air back-pressure and injection duration time.

  14. Problems of Modelling Toxic Compounds Emitted by a Marine Internal Combustion Engine in Unsteady States

    Rudnicki Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary engine tests are performed based on the theory of experiment. The available versions of programmes used for analysing experimental data make frequent use of the multiple regression model, which enables examining effects and interactions between input model parameters and a single output variable. The use of multi-equation models provides more freedom in analysing the measured results, as those models enable simultaneous analysis of effects and interactions between many output variables. They can also be used as a tool in preparing experimental material for other advanced diagnostic tools, such as the models making use of neural networks which, when properly prepared, enable also analysing measurement results recorded during dynamic processes.

  15. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  16. Ash study for biogas purification

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  17. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  18. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.113601 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  19. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  20. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  1. Effects of a 70% biodiesel blend on the fuel injection system operation during steady-state and transient performance of a common rail diesel engine

    Tziourtzioumis, Dimitrios; Stamatelos, Anastassios

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We demonstrate how the fuel injection system responds to different fuel properties. ► Improvements to the ECU maps of the engine are suggested. ► These allow operation at high biodiesel blends without loss in engine performance. ► Continued operation with high biodiesel fuel blend, resulted in fuel pump failure. - Abstract: The results of steady state and transient engine bench tests of a 2.0l common-rail passenger car diesel engine fuelled by B70 biodiesel blend are compared with the corresponding results of baseline tests with standard EN 590 diesel fuel. The macroscopic steady-state performance and emissions of the same engine has already been presented elsewhere. The current study demonstrates how the engine management system responds to different fuel properties, with focus to the fuel system dynamics and the engine’s transient response. A set of characteristic transient operation points was selected for the tests. Data acquisition of engine ECU variables was made by means of INCA software/ETAS Mac2 interface. Additional data acquisition regarding engine performance was based on external sensors. The results indicate significant differences in fuel system dynamics and transient engine operation with the B70 blend at high fuel flow rates. Certain modifications to engine ECU maps and control parameters are proposed, aimed at improvement of transient performance of modern engines run on high percentage biodiesel blends. However, a high pressure pump failure that was observed after prolonged operation with the B70 blend, hints to the use of more conservative biodiesel blending in fuel.

  2. 76 FR 77521 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    2011-12-13

    ... section 209 proceeding is to: consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... Air Basin's non-attainment status by reducing NO X and PM 2.5 levels. AWO states that there is no....5 levels is inaccurate and outdated in that it does not represent the most current operation of...

  3. Application of modern tensor calculus to engineered domain structures. 2. Tensor distinction of domain states

    Kopský, Vojtěch

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2006), s. 65-76 ISSN 0108-7673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : tensorial covariants * domain states * stability spaces Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2006

  4. System Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using State Space and ARMAV Models

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the relations between an ambient excited structural system, represented by an innovation state space system, and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) model are considered. It is shown how to obtain a multivariate estimate of the ARMAV model from output measurements, usi...

  5. Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950

    Üngör, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    For ages, the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire had been a multi-ethnic region, where Armenians, Kurds, Syriacs, Turks and Arabs lived together in the same villages and cities. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and rise of the nation state would violently alter this situation, as

  6. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  7. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Technology, Erzurum Vocational Training School, Ataturk University, 25240, ... facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative, immobile (with ..... Partial purification of phytase from a soil isolate bacterium,.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase from ...

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... Methods: Molecular community structure of the newly selected thermophilic bacterial ... Keywords: Thermostable cellulase, Sugarcane bagasse, Purification, Characterization, Hot spring ... Currently, one.

  9. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  10. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  11. Transformation techniques for metabolic engineering of diatoms and haptophytes: current state and prospects.

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Deka, Deepi

    2018-05-01

    Diatoms and haptophytes represent a key segment of the dominant phytoplankton communities that frequently form massive blooms in the photic zone of the ocean and are considered indicators of global climate changes. Diatoms and haptophytes also play a vital role in the biological carbon fixation in the carbon cycles. Carbon partitioning within diatoms and haptophytes possesses a wide range of chemical compounds and storage materials, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and chlorophyll. Among the marine microorganisms, diatoms and haptophytes have been recognized as promising sources of long- and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). So far, a variety of approaches have been employed for genetic modification in the nuclei of diatoms and haptophytes. Studies on transformation and metabolic engineering in various intracellular genomes, such as chloroplast and mitochondria, are scarce. Particle bombardment, Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated gene transfer, and electroporation have been reported for foreign gene transformation into the diatoms and haptophytes. Antibiotics (G418 and chloramphenicol) and herbicides (zeocin, hygromycin, and norflurazon) have been successfully demonstrated as the best selection markers. Despite the availability of a wide range of molecular tools for foreign gene expression in microalgae, very few promoters (lhcf1, nr, h4, ef2, fcp, and pds) have been reported for diatoms and haptophytes. Therefore, in this review, we first summarize the significant progress that has been achieved in transgene expression in diatoms and haptophytes and highlight the importance and availability of recently developed novel tools that are suitable for transgenic expression in diatoms and haptophytes.

  12. Engineering the temporal response of photoconductive photodetectors via selective introduction of surface trap states.

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Levina, Larissa; Fischer, Armin; Sargent, Edward H

    2008-05-01

    Photoconductive photodetectors fabricated using simple solution-processing have recently been shown to exhibit high gains (>1000) and outstanding sensitivities ( D* > 10(13) Jones). One ostensible disadvantage of exploiting photoconductive gain is that the temporal response is limited by the release of carriers from trap states. Here we show that it is possible to introduce specific chemical species onto the surfaces of colloidal quantum dots to produce only a single, desired trap state having a carefully selected lifetime. In this way we demonstrate a device that exhibits an attractive photoconductive gain (>10) combined with a response time ( approximately 25 ms) useful in imaging. We achieve this by preserving a single surface species, lead sulfite, while eliminating lead sulfate and lead carboxylate. In doing so we preserve the outstanding sensitivity of these devices, achieving a specific detectivity of 10(12) Jones in the visible, while generating a temporal response suited to imaging applications.

  13. Engineering the Membrane/Electrode Interface To Improve the Performance of Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-08-17

    This paper investigates the effect of adding a 450 nm layer based on porous TiO2 at the interface between a 4.5 μm carbon/TiO2 nanoparticle-based electrode and a polymer electrolyte membrane as a route to improve energy storage performance in solid-state supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization showed that adding the interface layer reduced charge transfer resistance, promoted more efficient ion transfer across the interface, and significantly improved charge/discharge dynamics in a solid-state supercapacitor, resulting in an increased areal capacitance from 45.3 to 111.1 mF cm(-2) per electrode at 0.4 mA cm(-2).

  14. Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference

    Zhang, YI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available . ngled photon pairs (see p a nonlinear crystal to ersion (SPDC). At the tate (6) ℓ¼1 stat th , w from ℓ = 0. The subscripts A and B la R E S EARCH ART I C L E o n February 28, 2016 http://advances.sciencem ag.org/ D ow nloaded from stitute of Photonics... contribution from the ℓ = 1, 2, and 3 subspaces in this six-dimensional state (36 × 36 matrix). (B) The state after the filter, which in principle is given byd01jY � 1 〉 þ d 0 3jY � 3 〉; the contribution from the ℓ = 2 subspace is 3.8 ± 0.2% of its original...

  15. Bureaucratic, engineering and economic men: decision-making for technology in tanzania's state-owned enterprises.

    James, J

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Study of the relationship between national planning objectives and capital intensive choice of technology by public enterprises in Tanzania - gives theoretical models of decision making behaviour; includes case studies based on the textile industry, sugar industry, an edible oil mill, detergent industry, printing ink factory, maize mill and shoe factory; outlines problems of state intervention, bureaucracy and industrial policy alternatives.

  16. Environment and initial state engineered dynamics of quantum and classical correlations

    Wang, Cheng-Zhi, E-mail: czczwang@outlook.com; Li, Chun-Xian; Guo, Yu; Lu, Geng-Biao; Ding, Kai-He

    2016-11-15

    Based on an open exactly solvable system coupled to an environment with nontrivial spectral density, we connect the features of quantum and classical correlations with some features of the environment, initial states of the system, and the presence of initial system–environment correlations. Some interesting features not revealed before are observed by changing the structure of environment, the initial states of system, and the presence of initial system–environment correlations. The main results are as follows. (1) Quantum correlations exhibit temporary freezing and permanent freezing even at high temperature of the environment, for which the necessary and sufficient conditions are given by three propositions. (2) Quantum correlations display a transition from temporary freezing to permanent freezing by changing the structure of environment. (3) Quantum correlations can be enhanced all the time, for which the condition is put forward. (4) The one-to-one dependency relationship between all kinds of dynamic behaviors of quantum correlations and the initial states of the system as well as environment structure is established. (5) In the presence of initial system–environment correlations, quantum correlations under local environment exhibit temporary multi-freezing phenomenon. While under global environment they oscillate, revive, and damp, an explanation for which is given. - Highlights: • Various interesting behaviors of quantum and classical correlations are observed in an open exactly solvable model. • The important effects of the bath structure on quantum and classical correlations are revealed. • The one-to-one correspondence between the type of dynamical behavior of quantum discord and the initial state is given. • Quantum correlations are given in the presence of initial qubits–bath correlations.

  17. Environment and initial state engineered dynamics of quantum and classical correlations

    Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Chun-Xian; Guo, Yu; Lu, Geng-Biao; Ding, Kai-He

    2016-01-01

    Based on an open exactly solvable system coupled to an environment with nontrivial spectral density, we connect the features of quantum and classical correlations with some features of the environment, initial states of the system, and the presence of initial system–environment correlations. Some interesting features not revealed before are observed by changing the structure of environment, the initial states of system, and the presence of initial system–environment correlations. The main results are as follows. (1) Quantum correlations exhibit temporary freezing and permanent freezing even at high temperature of the environment, for which the necessary and sufficient conditions are given by three propositions. (2) Quantum correlations display a transition from temporary freezing to permanent freezing by changing the structure of environment. (3) Quantum correlations can be enhanced all the time, for which the condition is put forward. (4) The one-to-one dependency relationship between all kinds of dynamic behaviors of quantum correlations and the initial states of the system as well as environment structure is established. (5) In the presence of initial system–environment correlations, quantum correlations under local environment exhibit temporary multi-freezing phenomenon. While under global environment they oscillate, revive, and damp, an explanation for which is given. - Highlights: • Various interesting behaviors of quantum and classical correlations are observed in an open exactly solvable model. • The important effects of the bath structure on quantum and classical correlations are revealed. • The one-to-one correspondence between the type of dynamical behavior of quantum discord and the initial state is given. • Quantum correlations are given in the presence of initial qubits–bath correlations.

  18. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  19. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  20. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  1. State-space approaches for modelling and control in financial engineering systems theory and machine learning methods

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2017-01-01

    The book conclusively solves problems associated with the control and estimation of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics in financial systems when these are described in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It then addresses problems associated with the control and estimation of financial systems governed by partial differential equations (e.g. the Black–Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its variants). Lastly it an offers optimal solution to the problem of statistical validation of computational models and tools used to support financial engineers in decision making. The application of state-space models in financial engineering means that the heuristics and empirical methods currently in use in decision-making procedures for finance can be eliminated. It also allows methods of fault-free performance and optimality in the management of assets and capitals and methods assuring stability in the functioning of financial systems to be established. Covering the following key are...

  2. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the Next Generation of Accelerator Scientists and Engineers

    Barletta, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator/beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  3. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers

    Barletta, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, crossdisciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics

  4. Emanation thermal analysis. Application in solid state chemistry, analytical chemistry and engineering

    Balek, V.; Tel'deshi, Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Voluminous material on application of emenation thermal analysis for investigation of solids is systematized. General concepts and historical review of development of the method are given. Methods of introduction of inert gases into solids are considered. Theoretical aspects of inert gas evolution from solids labelled by radioactive gas or its maternal isotope are stated. The methods for measuring inert gases are considered. The possibilities, limitations and perspectives of development of radiometric emanation methods for the solution of various problems of analytical chemistry and thechnology are discussed

  5. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  6. Sustainable Water Purification, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Newly developed phase-engineered and low dimensional materials have opened the door to the design of materials structures that exhibit extremely efficient ionic...

  7. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  8. Capillary Ion Concentration Polarization for Power-Free Salt Purification

    Park, Sungmin; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-11-01

    In this presentation, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the capillary based ion concentration polarization for power-free salt purification system. Traditional ion concentration polarization phenomenon has been studied for a decade for both fundamental nanoscale fluid dynamics and novel engineering applications such as desalination, preconcentration and energy harvesting devices. While the conventional system utilizes an external power source, the system based on capillary ion concentration polarization is capable of perm-selective ion transportation only by capillarity so that the same ion depletion zone can be formed without any external power sources. An ion concentration profile near the nanostructure was tracked using fluorescent probes and analyzed by solving the modified Nernst-Planck equation. As a result, the concentration in the vicinity of the nanostructure was at least 10 times lower than that of bulk electrolyte and thus, the liquid absorbed into the nanostructure had the low concentration. This mechanism can be used for the power free salt purification system which would be significantly useful in underdeveloped and remote area. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1301-02.

  9. Bismuth Oxysulfide and Its Polymer Nanocomposites for Efficient Purification

    Yidong Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger of toxic organic pollutants in both aquatic and air environments calls for high-efficiency purification material. Herein, layered bismuth copper oxychalcogenides, BiCuSO, nanosheets of high photocatalytic activity were introduced to the PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride. The fibrous membranes provide an easy, efficient, and recyclable way to purify organic pollutant. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiCuSO and its polymer composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electron spin resonance (EPR. Photocatalysis of Congo Red reveals that the BiCuSO/PVDF shows a superior photocatalytic activity of a 55% degradation rate in 70 min at visible light. The high photocatalytic activity is attributed to the exposed active {101} facets and the triple vacant associates V B i ‴ V O • • V B i ‴ . By engineering the intrinsic defects on the surface of bismuth oxysulfide, high solar-driven photocatalytic activity can be approached. The successful fabrication of the bismuth oxysulfide and its polymer nanocomposites provides an easy and general approach for high-performance purification materials for various applications.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membrane for Bioethanol Purification

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2013-06-01

    Membrane for Bioethanol Purification. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 47-53. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4062.47-53][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4062.47-53] | View in  |

  11. Re-engineering the state, awakening the nation: Dams, islamist modernity and nationalist politics in Sudan

    Maimuna Mohamud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how and why dam building has fulfilled a crucial role in hegemonic projects of elite consolidation and nation-building. By drawing on the case of Sudan’s Dam Programme and the associated propaganda the Khartoum government has produced, we show how the dams have not just served to materially restructure the Sudanese political economy but have also been essential in the attempted rekindling of the identity of both the regime and the country. Massive investment in hydro-infrastructure dovetailed with the political rebalancing of an authoritarian system in crisis, turning dam-builders into nation-builders: the message of the dams as midwife to a pious, prosperous and revitalised Sudan allowed it to reconcile the nationalism of its military and security wing with the enduring ambitions for transformation of its Islamist base. Dam building in Sudan, as elsewhere, has thus meant a physical redrawing of the landscape and intensified rent creation and seeking but also embodies a high modernist narrative that matches the interests and worldviews of very different constituencies. This, we argue, helps explain its salience in earlier periods of state-building and nation-building, as well as contemporarily

  12. Modulation of Metal and Insulator States in 2D Ferromagnetic VS2 by van der Waals Interaction Engineering.

    Guo, Yuqiao; Deng, Haitao; Sun, Xu; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Jiyin; Wu, Junchi; Chu, Wangsheng; Zhang, Sijia; Pan, Haibin; Zheng, Xusheng; Wu, Xiaojun; Jin, Changqing; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-01

    2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are currently the key to the development of nanoelectronics. However, TMDCs are predominantly nonmagnetic, greatly hindering the advancement of their spintronic applications. Here, an experimental realization of intrinsic magnetic ordering in a pristine TMDC lattice is reported, bringing a new class of ferromagnetic semiconductors among TMDCs. Through van der Waals (vdW) interaction engineering of 2D vanadium disulfide (VS 2 ), dual regulation of spin properties and bandgap brings about intrinsic ferromagnetism along with a small bandgap, unravelling the decisive role of vdW gaps in determining the electronic states in 2D VS 2 . An overall control of the electronic states of VS 2 is also demonstrated: bond-enlarging triggering a metal-to-semiconductor electronic transition and bond-compression inducing metallization in 2D VS 2 . The pristine VS 2 lattice thus provides a new platform for precise manipulation of both charge and spin degrees of freedom in 2D TMDCs availing spintronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biological response to purification and acid functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Acid functionalization has been considered as an easy way to enhance the dispersion and biodegradation of carbon nanotubes (CNT). However, inconsistencies between toxicity studies of acid functionalized CNT remain unexplained. This could be due to a joint effect of the main physicochemical modifications resulting from an acid functionalization: addition of surface acid groups and purification from catalytic metallic impurities. In this study, the impact on CNT biotoxicity of these two physiochemical features was assessed separately. The in vitro biological response of RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated after exposure to 15-240 µg mL-1 of two types of multi-walled CNT. For each type of CNT (small: 20 nm diameter, and big: 90 nm diameter), three different surface chemical properties were studied (total of six CNT samples): pristine, acid functionalized and desorbed. Desorbed CNT were purified by the acid functionalization but presented a very low amount of surface acid groups due to a thermal treatment under vacuum. A Janus effect of acid functionalization with two opposite impacts is highlighted. The CNT purification decreased the overall toxicity, while the surface acid groups intensified it when present at a specific threshold. These acid groups especially amplified the pro-inflammatory response. The threshold mechanism which seemed to regulate the impact of acid groups should be further studied to determine its value and potential link to the other physicochemical state of the CNT. The results suggest that, for a safer-design approach, the benefit-risk balance of an acid functionalization has to be considered, depending on the CNT primary state of purification. Further research should be conducted in this direction.

  14. Science and engineering technicians in the United States: characteristics of a redefined population, 1972

    Finn, M.G.

    1978-02-01

    The 1972 redefined population was distributed among 10 technician fields. Approximately 75% of the total were concentrated in four relatively large fields: computer programmers; draftsmen; electrical and electronic technicians; and technicians, other fields. Women accounted for 11% of all technicians. The average age of technicians in 1972 was 37. Whites comprised 94.8% of all technicians, while 3.0% were black. More technicians resided in the middle Atlantic region than in any other region. As a percentage of the civilian labor force, however, technicians were most heavily concentrated in the New England and mountain regions. The educational level of technicians was quite diverse: about one-third had no postsecondary education, about one-sixth had at least a bachelor's degree. About one-half fell somewhere between these extremes. Approximately 68% of all technicians reported some form of supplemental training outside formal educational institutions. This training was quite diverse. In 1972, unemployed technicians totaled 3.2% of the technician labor force. Fourteen percent of technicians reported employment outside their field, and 11% reported employment outside the 10 technician fields that constituted the focus of this report. The median annual earnings of technicians employed full-time in 1971 was approximately $10,400. Private companies employed 71% of the technicians; federal and state governments employed 12.4% and 7.4%, respectively. Most other technicians were employed by local government or nonprofit organizations. Implications for policy and planning are drawn. The statistics presented here indicate that the most commonly used assumptions about education--occupation linkages are grossly oversimplified. 5 figures, 44 tables

  15. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  16. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simplified riboprobe purification using translucent straws as gel tubes.

    Kol, S; Ben-Shlomo, I; Adashi, E Y; Rohan, R M

    1996-01-01

    Gel purification of radioactive riboprobes enhances the quality of the ribonuclease protection assay. A simple and effective method for riboprobe purification is described. The method uses acrylamide gels in plastic tubes to achieve electrophoretic separation of the RNA polymerase products.

  18. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  19. Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Steinhardt, H.J.; Bumiller, W.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -60 0 C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m 3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

  20. Reverse engineering of fluid selection for thermodynamic cycles with cubic equations of state, using a compression heat pump as example

    Roskosch, Dennis; Atakan, Burak

    2015-01-01

    Fluid selection for thermodynamic cycles like refrigeration cycles, heat pumps or organic Rankine cycles remains an actual topic. Generally the search for a working fluid is based on experimental approaches or on a not very systematic trial and error approach, far from being elegant. An alternative method may be a theory based reverse engineering approach, proposed and investigated here: The design process should start with an optimal process and with (abstract) properties of the fluid needed to fit into this optimal process, best described by some general equation of state and the corresponding fluid-describing parameters. These should be analyzed and optimized with respect to the defined model process, which also has to be optimized simultaneously. From this information real fluids can be selected or even synthesized which have fluid defining properties in the optimum regime like critical temperature or ideal gas capacities of heat, allowing to find new working fluids, not considered so far. The number and kind of the fluid-defining parameters is mainly based on the choice of the used EOS (equation of state). The property model used in the present work is based on the cubic Peng–Robinson equation, chosen due to its moderate numerical expense, sufficient accuracy as well as a general availability of the fluid-defining parameters for many compounds. The considered model-process works between the temperature levels of 273.15 and 333.15 K and can be used as heat pump for supplying buildings with heat, typically. The objective functions are the COP (coefficient of performance) and the VHC (volumetric heating capacity) as a function of critical pressure, critical temperature, acentric factor and two coefficients for the temperature-dependent isobaric ideal gas heat capacity. Also, the steam quality at the compressor entrance has to be regarded as a problem variable. The results give clear hints regarding optimal fluid parameters of the analyzed process and deepen

  1. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  2. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  3. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  4. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1986-01-01

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  6. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  7. Influence of High School Vocational Agriculture on the Matriculation, Graduation, and Employment of Agricultural Engineering Graduates from the Iowa State University of Science and Technology.

    Ahrens, Donald Louis

    To determine the influence of high school vocational agriculture on college achievement and subsequent employment of agricultural engineering majors, data were collected from 419 graduates of Iowa State University representing the period from 1942 to 1964. The 112 graduates who had taken at least 3 or more semesters of high school vocational…

  8. Magnetic cell sorting purification of differentiated embryonic stem cells stably expressing truncated human CD4 as surface marker.

    David, Robert; Groebner, Michael; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Clinical applications are still hampered by the lack of protocols for gentle, high-yield isolation of specific cell types for transplantation expressing no immunogenic markers. We describe labeling of stably transfected ES cells expressing a human CD4 molecule lacking its intracellular domain (DeltaCD4) under control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for magnetic cell sorting (MACS). To track the labeled ES cells, we fused DeltaCD4 to an intracellular enhanced green fluorescent protein domain (DeltaCD4EGFP). We showed functionality of the membrane-bound fluorescent fusion protein and its suitability for MACS leading to purities greater than 97%. Likewise, expression of DeltaCD4 yielded up to 98.5% positive cells independently of their differentiation state. Purities were not limited by the initial percentage of DeltaCD4(+) cells, ranging from 0.6%-16%. The viability of MACS-selected cells was demonstrated by reaggregation and de novo formation of embryoid bodies developing all three germ layers. Thus, expression of DeltaCD4 in differentiated ES cells may enable rapid, high-yield purification of a desired cell type for tissue engineering and transplantation studies.

  9. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Fluids engineering

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  11. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  12. Binary phase solid-state photopolymerization of acrylates: design, characterization and biomineralization of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Maitlo, Inamullah; Ali, Safdar; Akram, Muhammad Yasir; Shehzad, Farooq Khurum; Nie, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Porous polymer scaffolds designed by the cryogel method are attractive materials for a range of tissue engineering applications. However, the use of toxic crosslinker for retaining the pore structure limits their clinical applications. In this research, acrylates (HEA/PEGDA, HEMA/PEGDA and PEGDA) were used in the low-temperature solid-state photopolymerization to produce porous scaffolds with good structural retention. The morphology, pore diameter, mineral deposition and water absorption of the scaffold were characterized by SEM and water absorption test respectively. Elemental analysis and cytotoxicity of the biomineralized scaffold were revealed by using XRD and MTT assay test. The PEGDA-derived scaffold showed good water absorption ability and a higher degree of porosity with larger pore size compared to others. XRD patterns and IR results confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals from an alternative socking process. The overall cell proliferation was excellent, where PEGDA-derived scaffold had the highest and the most uniform cell growth, while HEMA/PEGDA scaffold showed the least. These results suggest that the cell proliferation and adhesion are directly proportional to the pore size, the shape and the porosity of scaffolds.

  13. Development of Innovative Radioactive Isotope Production Techniques at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    Johnsen, Amanda M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center; Heidrich, Brenden [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center; Durrant, Chad [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Department of mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Center; Bascom, Andrew [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Department of mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Center; Unlu, Kenan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    2013-08-15

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR) at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) has produced radioisotopes for research and commercial purposes since 1956. With the rebirth of the radiochemistry education and research program at the RSEC, the Center stands poised to produce a variety of radioisotopes for research and industrial work that is in line with the mission of the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Isotope Development and Production Research and Application Program. The RSEC received funding from the Office of Science in 2010 to improve production techniques and develop new capabilities. Under this program, we improved our existing techniques to provide four radioisotopes (Mn-56, Br-82, Na-24, and Ar-41) to researchers and industry in a safe and efficient manner. The RSEC is also working to develop new innovative techniques to provide isotopes in short supply to researchers and others in the scientific community, specifically Cu-64 and Cu-67. Improving our existing radioisotopes production techniques and investigating new and innovative methods are two of the main initiatives of the radiochemistry research program at the RSEC.

  14. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry. TAAPEI-2009. Materials of branch scientific and technical conference covers the fiftieth anniversary of the Seversk State Engineering Academy

    2009-01-01

    Materials of the branch scientific and technical conference Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry (18-22 May, 2009, Seversk) are performed. Scientific and practical results of investigations into chemical technological developments, creation of machinery and apparatuses, automation of technological processes, application of present-day information technologies in atomic industry as well as ecological and nuclear weapons proliferation problems are shown. Besides issues of professional education and social-economic problems of the atomic branch are considered [ru

  16. Venturi purification device and its application in purification of gaseous waste of nuclear facilities

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Yang Huanlei

    2013-01-01

    The working principle of Venturi purification device and its purification of aerosol have been described. Then, taking the gaseous iodine as an example, the absorption process of insoluble gas pollutants is discussed, the calculation methods of the gas-liquid contact area, mass transfer rate and efficiency of mass transfer are educed, and the factors that affect the efficiency of mass transfer are analyzed. (authors)

  17. [Integration of fundamental and applied medical and technical research made at the department of the biomedical systems, Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering].

    Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    The integration results of fundamental and applied medical-and-technical research made at the chair of biomedical systems, Moscow state institute of electronic engineering (technical university--MSIEE), are described in the paper. The chair is guided in its research activity by the traditions of higher education in Russia in the field of biomedical electronics and biomedical engineering. Its activities are based on the extrapolation of methods of electronic tools, computer technologies, physics, biology and medicine with due respect being paid to the requirements of practical medicine and to topical issues of research and design.

  18. Phytofilter - environmental friendly solution for purification of surface plate from urbanized territories

    Ruchkinova, O.; Shchuckin, I.

    2017-06-01

    Its proved, that phytofilters are environmental friendly solution of problem of purification of surface plate from urbanized territories. Phytofilters answer the nowadays purposes to systems of purification of land drainage. The main problem of it is restrictions, connecter with its use in the conditions of cold temperature. Manufactured a technology and mechanism, which provide a whole-year purification of surface plate and its storage. Experimentally stated optimal makeup of filtering load: peat, zeolite and sand in per cent of volume, which provides defined hydraulic characteristics. Stated sorbate and ion-selective volume of complex filtering load of ordered composition in dynamic conditions. Estimated dependences of exit concentrations of oil products and heavy metals on temperature by filtering through complex filtering load of ordered composition. Defined effectiveness of purification at phytofiltering installation. Fixed an influence of embryophytes on process of phytogeneration and capacity of filtering load. Recommended swamp iris, mace reed and reed grass. Manufactured phytofilter calculation methodology. Calculated economic effect from use of phytofiltration technology in comparison with traditional block-modular installations.

  19. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria and determination of its kinetic properties. ... Many of the cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds store phosphorus in phytate form. Phytases can be produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. However, the ones with microbial origin ...

  20. Purification of functionalized DNA origami nanostructures.

    Shaw, Alan; Benson, Erik; Högberg, Björn

    2015-05-26

    The high programmability of DNA origami has provided tools for precise manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. This manipulation of matter opens up the possibility to arrange functional elements for a diverse range of applications that utilize the nanometer precision provided by these structures. However, the realization of functionalized DNA origami still suffers from imperfect production methods, in particular in the purification step, where excess material is separated from the desired functionalized DNA origami. In this article we demonstrate and optimize two purification methods that have not previously been applied to DNA origami. In addition, we provide a systematic study comparing the purification efficacy of these and five other commonly used purification methods. Three types of functionalized DNA origami were used as model systems in this study. DNA origami was patterned with either small molecules, antibodies, or larger proteins. With the results of our work we aim to provide a guideline in quality fabrication of various types of functionalized DNA origami and to provide a route for scalable production of these promising tools.

  1. Purification and characterization of xylanase from Aspergillus ...

    Xylanase was subjected to a three-step purification scheme involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Purity was verified by running the extracted protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a single band was ...

  2. Expression, purification and characterization of the interferon ...

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... utilizing a single-step affinity purification with an appreciable yield of the highly purified protein. Recombinant RNase L was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MALDI-TOF analysis. A semi-quantitative agarose-gel-based ribonuclease assay was developed for measuring its 2-5A-dependent ...

  3. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from ...

    user

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Purification and ... ting into small peptides and free amino acids, which can ... Isolated strain was cultured in synthetic medium- casein (SMC; ... Protease activity was assayed by sigma's non-specific protease ... following buffers: 0.05 M citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5 to 6), Tris-.

  4. Purification, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of ...

    Purpose: To carry out the extraction, purification and biological characterization, and assess the antibacterial activity of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus XH1. Methods: Chloroform extraction method was used for bacteriocin extraction while characterization of bacteriocin was carried out by flat-dug well agar ...

  5. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  6. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    Atadashi, I.M.; Aroua, M.K.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  7. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  8. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of acid ...

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the important crops of the North Eastern Region of India. In the present study, acid phosphatase enzyme was isolated and partially purified from germinated local mung bean seeds. The sequential partial purification process was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation method.

  9. Surfactin – A Review on Biosynthesis, Fermentation, Purification and Applications

    Nikhil S. Shaligram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus subtilis and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. It has the ability to reduce surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m at a concentration as low as 0.005 %. The structure of surfactin consists of seven amino acids bonded to the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of a 14-carbon fatty acid. Surfactin possesses a number of biological activities such as the ability to lyse erythrocytes, inhibit clot formation, lyse bacterial spheroplasts and protoplasts, and inhibit cyclic 3',5-monophosphate diesterase. The high cost of production and low yields have limited its use in various commercial applications. Both submerged and solid-state fermentation have been investigated with the mutational approach to improve the productivity. In this review, current state of knowledge on biosynthesis of surfactin, its fermentative production, purification, analytical methods and biomedical applications is presented.

  10. Glycosylation Engineering

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  11. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    Mohammed A. Jebor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were the isolated of Aspergillus niger from soil and growth in synthetic medium, it gave high titer of peroxidase activity, the fructose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, after 12 days of incubation, incubation temperature 25 °C and pH = 6.5. Peroxidase purified in four purification steps; precipitation with 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, step of dialysis, the third by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose and fourth by gel filtration throughout Sephadex G-100. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 150U/mg with 7.75 folds. The peroxidase was shown to have molecular weight of 40kDa in SDS-PAGA and about 40kDa in gel filtration.The optimum pH and temperature for peroxidase activity 7 and 35 C0 respectively.

  12. Control of water absorption by purification of graphite

    Simpkins, J.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that graphite can absorb large quantities of water, which can represent an abundant source of oxygen impurities in fusion plasmas if the corresponding components are not properly outgassed. We have outgassed various fusion-relevant graphites (e.g., POCO AXF-5Q) for 1.5 h at 1500/degree/C to release absorbed water and have subsequently exposed the samples to air for various periods of time. Re-absorption of water during the air exposure was estimated by measuring the amount of water produced in subsequent outgassing runs. The results show that the amount of water re-absorbed increases by a factor of approximately 10 within 8 h compared to the sample in the outgassed state but with no air exposure. The water content of the 'as received' material is reached after approximately 30 days. Re-absorption of water was significantly reduced by purification of the investigated graphite samples. This purification process, which consists of heating the sample at 2800/degree/C for 30 min in an argon atmosphere, reduces the levels of trace impurities which can be responsible for catalytic surface reactions on the internal surfaces of the graphite. After exposing an outgassed sample to an electron cyclotron heated plasma followed by 1 h air exposure, the amount of water desorbed was observed to increase by a factor of 6. Data will be presented to correlate this effect with trace impurities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Specificities of micro-reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Mirodatos, C.; Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Veen, A. C. ven; Schuurman, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable chemistry and exploitation of energy sources for the next decades requires considerable progress in process intensification. A development of new tools and equipments meeting the objectives of high efficiency, improved safety, compactness and low implementation costs is therefore subject of intensive research effort. Among the various scenarios tested in R and D, micro-structured reactors appear as a highly promising technology 1 and perspectives of mass production are already announced by technology providers 2. These reactors are based on assembly/stacking of micro structured plates or fibres. Due to their high heat and/or mass transfer, low pressure drop and good phase contacting, they sound particularly adapted to the large domain of hydrogen production by fuel reforming and purification. This presentation aims at outlining the state of the art, the advantages and drawbacks of using micro-structured reactors to intensify hydrogen production and purification. Two case studies will illustrate this approach: i) comparison between fixed bed and micro-structured reactor for the reforming of methanol into hydrogen and carbon oxides and ii) use of those devices in kinetic studies on the WGS reaction. (Author)

  14. Robust and Efficient Spin Purification for Determinantal Configuration Interaction.

    Fales, B Scott; Hohenstein, Edward G; Levine, Benjamin G

    2017-09-12

    The limited precision of floating point arithmetic can lead to the qualitative and even catastrophic failure of quantum chemical algorithms, especially when high accuracy solutions are sought. For example, numerical errors accumulated while solving for determinantal configuration interaction wave functions via Davidson diagonalization may lead to spin contamination in the trial subspace. This spin contamination may cause the procedure to converge to roots with undesired ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩, wasting computer time in the best case and leading to incorrect conclusions in the worst. In hopes of finding a suitable remedy, we investigate five purification schemes for ensuring that the eigenvectors have the desired ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩. These schemes are based on projection, penalty, and iterative approaches. All of these schemes rely on a direct, graphics processing unit-accelerated algorithm for calculating the S 2 c matrix-vector product. We assess the computational cost and convergence behavior of these methods by application to several benchmark systems and find that the first-order spin penalty method is the optimal choice, though first-order and Löwdin projection approaches also provide fast convergence to the desired spin state. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of these approaches, we computed the lowest several excited states of an open-shell silver cluster (Ag 19 ) using the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method, where spin purification was required to ensure spin stability of the CI vector coefficients. Several low-lying states with significant multiply excited character are predicted, suggesting the value of a multireference approach for modeling plasmonic nanomaterials.

  15. Creation of Novel Solid-Solution Alloy Nanoparticles on the Basis of Density-of-States Engineering by Interelement Fusion.

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kusada, Kohei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-16

    Currently 118 known elements are represented in the periodic table. Of these 118 elements, only about 80 elements are stable, nonradioactive, and widely available for our society. From the viewpoint of the "elements strategy", we need to make full use of the 80 elements to bring out their latent ability and create innovative materials. Furthermore, there is a strong demand that the use of rare or toxic elements be reduced or replaced while their important properties are retained. Advanced science and technology could create higher-performance materials even while replacing or reducing minor or harmful elements through the combination of more abundant elements. The properties of elements are correlated directly with their electronic states. In a solid, the magnitude of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level affects the physical and chemical properties. In the present age, more attention has been paid to improving the properties of materials by means of alloying elements. In particular, the solid-solution-type alloy is advantageous because the properties can be continuously controlled by tuning the compositions and/or combinations of the constituent elements. However, the majority of bulk alloys are of the phase-separated type under ambient conditions, where constituent elements are immiscible with each other. To overcome the challenge of the bulk-phase metallurgical aspects, we have focused on the nanosize effect and developed methods involving "nonequilibrium synthesis" or "a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption". We propose a new concept of "density-of-states engineering" for the design of materials having the most desirable and suitable properties by means of "interelement fusion". In this Account, we describe novel solid-solution alloys of Pd-Pt, Ag-Rh, and Pd-Ru systems in which the constituent elements are immiscible in the bulk state. The homogeneous solid-solution alloys of Pd and Pt were created from Pd core/Pt shell nanoparticles using a

  16. The current state of engineered nanomaterials in consumer goods and waste streams: the need to develop nanoproperty-quantifiable sensors for monitoring engineered nanomaterials

    Wise K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelsey Wise, Murphy BrasuelDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO, USAAbstract: As nanomaterials are harnessed for medicine and other technological advances, an understanding of the toxicology of these new materials is required to inform our use. This toxicological knowledge will be required to establish the medical and environmental regulations required to protect consumers and those involved in nanomaterial manufacturing. Nanoparticles of titanium oxide, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor quantum dots, gold, and silver represent a high percentage of the nanotechnology currently available or currently poised to reach consumers. For these nanoparticles, this review aims to identify current applications, the current methods used for characterization and quantification, current environmental concentrations (if known, and an introduction to the toxicology research. Continued development of analytical tools for the characterization and quantification of nanomaterials in complex environmental and biological samples will be required for our understanding of the toxicology and environmental impact of nanomaterials. Nearly all materials exhibit toxicity at a high enough concentration. Robust, rapid, and cost effective analytical techniques will be required to determine current background levels of anthropogenic, accidental, and engineered nanoparticles in air, water, and soil. The impact of the growing number of engineered nanoparticles used in consumer goods and medical applications can then be estimated. This will allow toxicological profiles relevant to the demonstrated or predicted environmental concentrations to be determined.Keywords: titanium dioxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, nanoparticles environmental concentrations

  17. Water resources investigations: A section in Thirty-third biennial report of the State Engineer to the governor of Utah: 1960-1962

    ,

    1962-01-01

    The Geological Survey is authorized by Congress to cooperate with the States and other local governmental units in water-resources investigations on a 50-50 financial basis. Principal cooperation for Utah is through the office of the Utah State Engineer. Other State offices, such as the State Road Commission, Water and Power Board, Fish and Game Department, and Oil and Gas Conservation Commission have assisted financially. Counties, cities, education institutions, and water users’ organizations also have cooperated for many years. The need for water information applies to all levels of government. It is, therefore, advantageous for the Federal Government, State governments, and other political subdivisions to share in the expense to the extent possible consistent with their common interests and responsibilities. The formal cooperative program in Utah began in 1909, and has been continuous since that date.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  19. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers.

  20. The Impact of Training and Culture on Leadership Values and Perceptions at the United States Army Engineer School

    Thomas, Ted

    1998-01-01

    .... The EOBC students are training to assume leadership positions which the EOAC students were in. A random sample of business leaders values were then compared to the Army engineers values to draw cultural leadership...

  1. Technical improvement of uranium purification

    Huang Lunguang; Zhuang Haixing; Niu Yuqing; Zhou Mi

    1996-01-01

    The authors introduces the present process of producing nuclear-grade UO 2 in Hengyang Uranium Processing Mill of China. At the beginning of 1990's, in order to suit the needs of nuclear-grade products which are needed by the construction of nuclear power station in China, the authors studied the process of using national yellow cake as crude material to produce nuclear-grade UO 2 , which includes drying and calcining of yellow cake, HNO 3 dissolving, extracting and purifying uranium with TBP-kerosene solvent extraction, ADU precipitating, AUTC converting and crystallizing, calcining AUTC crystal, and finally nuclear-grade UO 2 products are obtained. Through these studies, the authors have grasped the technology that is needed by the nuclear-grade products. Therefore, the authors could make improvements in both process flow and process engineering

  2. Utilization of internal purification rejects; Sisaeisen puhdistuksen rejektikonsentraattien kelvollistaminen - KLT 02

    Manner, H; Nissen, M

    1999-12-31

    This was a preliminary study which is part of a larger programme. The aim of the programme is to determine the properties and process ability of the concentrates which come from the internal purification of waters from the papermaking process. It is very important to know the properties and process ability of these purification concentrates in order to find the best methods of separating, reprocessing and utilizing them. The objective of this preliminary study was to ascertain the basic properties of these internal purification concentrates. It was also of interest to analyse the properties of papermaking waters and the state of internal purification today in paper mills. The state of papermaking waters and their internal purification were clarified by a literature review and by analyses of different types of waters. It was found that in mechanical pulping organic dissolved and colloidal substances were present in the water. Also there was a lot of dissolved and colloidal substances in waters from machines producing wood-containing paper grades. The salt content and chemical oxygen demand are critical values concerning the reuse of circulation waters. In mechanical pulping the convection of dissolved and colloidal substances to the paper machine can be reduced by the washing stage. Thus, the amount of dissolved and colloidal substances in the paper machine circulation waters can be reduced. In a paper machine, a disk filter removes fibers and fines from the circulation waters, but dissolved and colloidal substances are not removed. Also the properties of different kind of membrane filtration concentrates were analyzed. The total residue of membrane concentrates is low. For example, they can not be burned purely. The chemical oxygen demand of membrane concentrates is high. The most important subjects for further investigation are the improvement of fractionation and condensability. Furthermore procedures must be found to lower the chemical oxygen demand. One

  3. Utilization of internal purification rejects; Sisaeisen puhdistuksen rejektikonsentraattien kelvollistaminen - KLT 02

    Manner, H.; Nissen, M.

    1998-12-31

    This was a preliminary study which is part of a larger programme. The aim of the programme is to determine the properties and process ability of the concentrates which come from the internal purification of waters from the papermaking process. It is very important to know the properties and process ability of these purification concentrates in order to find the best methods of separating, reprocessing and utilizing them. The objective of this preliminary study was to ascertain the basic properties of these internal purification concentrates. It was also of interest to analyse the properties of papermaking waters and the state of internal purification today in paper mills. The state of papermaking waters and their internal purification were clarified by a literature review and by analyses of different types of waters. It was found that in mechanical pulping organic dissolved and colloidal substances were present in the water. Also there was a lot of dissolved and colloidal substances in waters from machines producing wood-containing paper grades. The salt content and chemical oxygen demand are critical values concerning the reuse of circulation waters. In mechanical pulping the convection of dissolved and colloidal substances to the paper machine can be reduced by the washing stage. Thus, the amount of dissolved and colloidal substances in the paper machine circulation waters can be reduced. In a paper machine, a disk filter removes fibers and fines from the circulation waters, but dissolved and colloidal substances are not removed. Also the properties of different kind of membrane filtration concentrates were analyzed. The total residue of membrane concentrates is low. For example, they can not be burned purely. The chemical oxygen demand of membrane concentrates is high. The most important subjects for further investigation are the improvement of fractionation and condensability. Furthermore procedures must be found to lower the chemical oxygen demand. One

  4. Starlite figures of merit for tokamak current drive - economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive (γ B ∝ n e I o R o /P CD ), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for γ B depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium

  5. STARLITE figures of merit for tokamak current drive -- Economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    Ehst, D.A.; Jardin, S.; Kessel, C.

    1995-10-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive (γ B ∝ n e I 0 R 0 /P CD ), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for γ B depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium

  6. An Evaluation of the Importance of Self- Purification Capacity of Rivers in Developing Effluent Discharge Standards

    Asheg Moalla, M.; Malek Mohammadi, B.; Torabian, A.

    2016-01-01

    In current effluent discharge standards of the most countries such as Iran, self-purification capacity of rivers have not been considered. These standards developed a similar effluent discharge standard for all of the rivers without considering hydrological and hydraulic conditions of rivers. In this paper in order to show the importance of self-purification capacity and differences between the rivers, in developing effluent discharge standard, two rivers- Gheshlagh River in Kurdistan and Sabzkooh River in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari- as samples were selected., and with applying Qual2kw model, current Iran effluent discharge standards were used to simulate the state of each river. The simulation showed that compliance with this standard maintain an appropriate qualitative condition of Gheshlagh River but in Sabzkoh River, due to the large number of pollution sources, these standards not only does not help to maintain the water quality but will have a very negative impact on water quality. Then Using simulation of river quality, the authorized appropriate limit based on self-purification capacity and the number and type of pollutants were estimated and showed that to develop accurate and efficient standards the self-purification capacity, the number of pollution sources, the amount of waste load and other different conditions of rivers also should be considered.

  7. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  8. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  9. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  10. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    None

    1980-03-01

    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  11. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  12. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification.

    Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P

    2014-03-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  14. Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification

  15. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  16. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  17. A Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the require...

  18. Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, United States of America

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Peter Jenni and Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA. Photo 02: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in front of the ATLAS End-Cap Toroid vacuum vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Peter Jenni, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Randi Ruchti ________________________________

  19. Will the United States be a viable source of engineers and constructors at the turn of the century?

    Reynerson, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present recent information addressing the next 20 yr in the general arena of American engineering and construction personnel. Also discussed are the basic sources of engineering and construction services in the next generation and the projected needs of the commercial nuclear industry, the governmental nuclear power and weapons sectors, and other nonnuclear industry demands on a growing, limited technical resource. The source of engineers and constructors can be found within the American educational system. With fundamental adjustments in attitudes, Americans can effectively compete. Organizations such as the American Nuclear Society should increase emphasis in all areas of interface with industry, educational institutions, and the American people in order to continue to carry this message to political leaders

  20. Engineering solutions to the long-term stabilization and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the United States

    Sanders, D.R.; Lommler, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Engineering solutions to the safe and environmentally protective disposal and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the US include many factors. Cover design, materials selection, civil engineering, erosive forces, and cost effectiveness are only a few of those factors described in this paper. The systems approach to the engineering solutions employed in the US is described, with emphasis on the standards prescribed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. Stabilization and isolation of the tailings from humans and the environment are the primary goals of the US uranium mill tailings control standards. The performance of cover designs with respect to water infiltration, radon exhalation, geotechnical stability, erosion protection, human and animal intrusion prevention, and longevity are addressed. The need for and frequency of surveillance efforts to ensure continued disposal system performance are also assessed

  1. Autonomous control of metabolic state by a quorum sensing (QS)-mediated regulator for bisabolene production in engineered E. coli

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Min Woo, Han; Tian, Tian

    2017-01-01

    as it is self-regulated and does not require the addition of inducer compounds, which reduce operational costs for inducer. In this study, a QS system was developed for inducer-free production of the biofuel compound bisabolene from engineered E. coli. Seven variants of the Sensor plasmid, which carry the lux......I-luxR genes, and four variants of the Response plasmid, which carry bisabolene producing pathway genes under the control of the PluxI promoter, were designed for optimization of bisabolene production. Furthermore, a chromosome-integrated QS strain was engineered with the best combination of Sensor...

  2. The Thermal State Computational Research of the Low-Thrust Oxygen-Methane Gaseous-Propellant Rocket Engine in the Pulse Mode of Operation

    O. A. Vorozheeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently promising development direction of space propulsion engineering is to use, as spacecraft controls, low-thrust rocket engines (RDTM on clean fuels, such as oxygen-methane. Modern RDTM are characterized by a lack regenerative cooling and pulse mode of operation, during which there is accumulation of heat energy to lead to the high thermal stress of RDTM structural elements. To get an idea about the thermal state of its elements, which further will reduce the number of fire tests is therefore necessary in the development phase of a new product. Accordingly, the aim of this work is the mathematical modeling and computational study of the thermal state of gaseous oxygen-methane propellant RDMT operating in pulse mode.In this paper we consider a model RDTM working on gaseous propellants oxygen-methane in pulse mode.To calculate the temperature field of the chamber wall of model RDMT under consideration is used the mathematical model of non-stationary heat conduction in a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation that takes into account both the axial heat leakages and the nonstationary processes occurring inside the chamber during pulse operation of RDMT.As a result of numerical study of the thermal state of model RDMT, are obtained the temperature fields during engine operation based on convective, conductive, and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer from the combustion products to the wall.It is shown that the elements of flanges of combustion chamber of model RDMT act as heat sinks structural elements. Temperatures in the wall of the combustion chamber during the engine mode of operation are considered relatively low.Raised temperatures can also occur in the mixing head in the feeding area of the oxidant into the combustion chamber.During engine operation in the area forming the critical section, there is an intensive heating of a wall, which can result in its melting, which in turn will increase the minimum nozzle throat area and hence

  3. Integration of NASA Research into Undergraduate Education in Math, Science, Engineering and Technology at North Carolina A&T State University

    Monroe, Joseph; Kelkar, Ajit

    2003-01-01

    The NASA PAIR program incorporated the NASA-Sponsored research into the undergraduate environment at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. This program is designed to significantly improve undergraduate education in the areas of mathematics, science, engineering, and technology (MSET) by directly benefiting from the experiences of NASA field centers, affiliated industrial partners and academic institutions. The three basic goals of the program were enhancing core courses in MSET curriculum, upgrading core-engineering laboratories to compliment upgraded MSET curriculum, and conduct research training for undergraduates in MSET disciplines through a sophomore shadow program and through Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs. Since the inception of the program nine courses have been modified to include NASA related topics and research. These courses have impacted over 900 students in the first three years of the program. The Electrical Engineering circuit's lab is completely re-equipped to include Computer controlled and data acquisition equipment. The Physics lab is upgraded to implement better sensory data acquisition to enhance students understanding of course concepts. In addition a new instrumentation laboratory in the department of Mechanical Engineering is developed. Research training for A&T students was conducted through four different programs: Apprentice program, Developers program, Sophomore Shadow program and Independent Research program. These programs provided opportunities for an average of forty students per semester.

  4. Scientists, engineers and technicians in nuclear reactor operation and maintenance. Fifteen years of growth and change in the United States of America

    Chewning, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Between 1962 and 1977 the number of nuclear reactors in the United States of America increased from 4 to 65, and the total capacity increased from 730 to 47013 MW. Employment in the reactor operation and maintenance sector, which increased correspondingly from 633 to 17270, showed the earmarks of a maturing industry. By the end of that 15-year span, fewer workers were involved in research and development activities, and the proportion of scientists and engineers had decreased as the duties and responsibilities became more standardized and routine and could be taken over by highly trained technicians. There were also subtle changes in the discipline mixes. Nuclear and reactor engineers took their place in the labour force in increasing numbers as nuclear engineering was recognized as a distinct occupation, and there was a corresponding decrease in the proportion of more traditional engineering disciplines. Life science disciplines increased as concern grew for the health and safety of nuclear workers and the general public, and the physical science disciplines decreased in importance as proportionally less research and development was carried out in reactor operation and maintenance. A profile of nuclear power plant personnel drawn from refined data shows that the industry has truly 'come of age.' By far the largest group of workers is made up of technicians, with the second largest group made up of skilled craftworkers. Less than 30% of all workers in nuclear power operation and maintenance in 1977 were in professional occupations. (author)

  5. Collaboration in nuclear engineering education between France and the United States: Participation of French students at Texas A ampersand M University

    Peddicord, K.L.; Durand, J.L.; Gousty, Y.; Jeneveau, A.; Erdman, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Universities in the United States have had a long tradition of accepting students from other countries to pursue graduate degrees. This has particularly been the case in the fields of engineering and science. This trend has grown to the point that in several graduate engineering fields, the percentage of foreign nationals outnumbers US enrollees. Historically, most foreign students studying in the US universities have been from developing countries. Usually these students apply and are accepted on a case-by-case basis. For a number of reasons, less emphasis has been placed on programs with western Europe. In this paper, a program of collaboration is described in which the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A ampersand M University has entered into memoranda of agreement with two institutions in France. The two universities are the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) in Grenoble and the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine (EPF) in Sceaux. The purpose of the program is to enable students in nuclear engineering to simultaneously complete requirements for the diploma and the MS degree

  6. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  7. Remember when science was fun? Encountering 'nuclear fallout in your wood stove' and other mysteries at the Northwestern New Mexico regional and state science and engineering fairs

    Hylko, J.M.; Miller, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Chapter of the Health Physics Society is a proud supporter of the Northwestern New Mexico Regional and State Science and Engineering Fairs. In this role, the chapter provides judges and furnishes monetary awards to recognize those students, between grades 6-12, and their teachers whose projects include the utilization or investigation of ionizing (e.g., gamma) or non-ionizing (e.g., UV exposure, microwaves) radiation. The chapter promotes public information and education about health physics by sending every award winner and sponsoring teacher a copy of career opportunities in health physics, including information about degree programs and scholarships. Also, the chapter provides a 1-year free subscription to the Rio Grande Chapter Newsletter, and publishes the names of the award winners, the titles of their projects, the names of their teachers, and the names of their schools. Furthermore, chapter members are encouraged to assist contestants and award winners by providing mentoring opportunities, and educational resources such as textbooks. This paper reviews the Rio Grande Chapter Science and Engineering Fair Program with respect to judging categories and criteria, project titles, what the chapter has learned from the students, and an overview of the 1995 Regional, State, and International Science and Engineering Fair Programme. (author)

  8. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    2013-05-24

    ... immediately attempt to regulate new farm and construction equipment and that under any compliance pathway a... from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment... with section 202(a) if: (1) There is inadequate lead time to permit the development of the necessary...

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  10. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

    Kennedy, B. Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippmann, Marcelo J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Peter E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Adams, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Roberston-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Moller, Nancy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Clutter, Ted [ArtComPhoto (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report, the third in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in reservoir engineering and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  11. Virtual Protein Purification: A Simple Exercise to Introduce pH as A Parameter That Effects Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Clark, Daniel D.; Edwards, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a simple exercise using a free, easy-to-use, established online program. The exercise helps to reinforce protein purification concepts and introduces undergraduates to pH as a parameter that affects anion-exchange chromatography. The exercise was tested with biochemistry majors at California State University-Chico. Given the…

  12. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  13. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  14. Transient and Steady-state Tests of the Space Power Research Engine with Resistive and Motor Loads

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  15. Transient and steady-state tests of the space power research engine with resistive and motor loads

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  16. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  17. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  18. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  19. Necessity of purification during bacterial DNA extraction with environmental soils

    Hyun Jeong Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification method for DNA extraction. Its performance was compared with that of conventional DNA extraction kit (with purification. The necessity criteria for DNA purification were established with environmental soil samples. Using lysis conditions at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes with 0.1 mm glass beads, centrifugation time of 10 minutes and 1:10 dilution ratio, the baseline method outperformed conventional DNA extraction on cell seeded sand samples. Further investigation with PCR inhibitors (i.e., humic acids, clay, and magnesium [Mg] showed that sand samples containing less than 10 μg/g humic acids and 70% clay may not require purifications. Interestingly, the inhibition pattern of Mg ion was different from other inhibitors due to the complexation interaction of Mg ion with DNA fragments. It was concluded that DNA extraction method without purification is suitable for soil samples that have less than 10 μg/g of humic acids, less than 70% clay content and less than 0.01% Mg ion content.

  20. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  1. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    USER

    Abstract. Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of. 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa.

  2. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  3. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  4. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  5. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  6. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A

    2010-05-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  7. Single-Step Affinity Purification for Fungal Proteomics ▿ †

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H.; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B.; De Souza, Colin P.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  8. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  9. Development of Purification Protocol Specific for Bacteriocin 105B

    2017-02-09

    Bacillus anthracis. As the current application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials promotes the development of multi- drug resistant microorganisms...SPECTRUM TARGETED ANTIMICROBIALS ASSAYS PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DRUG- RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS...through the purification procedure. The wide-spread use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents has led to the development of drug resistant

  10. Purification and fluorescent labeling of the human serotonin transporter

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Gether, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    To establish a purification procedure for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) we expressed in Sf9 insect cells an epitope-tagged version of the transporter containing a FLAG epitope at the N-terminus and a polyhistidine tail at the C-terminus (FLAG-hSERT-12H). For purification, the transporter...

  11. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  12. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo

    1996-01-01

    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  13. Process for purification of gas mixtures

    Vasiliev, S Z; Letitschevskij, V I; Maergojz, I I; Michailov, L A; Puschkarev, L I

    1977-06-23

    The process relates to the purification of gas mixtures of N, H, and Ar, or N and H, or N and O which contain CO, CO/sub 2/ and water vapour. Single-stage adsorption occurs under standard pressure at temperatures from -40 to +4/sup 0/C up to the point of CO penetration through the zeolite layer. Zeolite is of type A or X combined with Ca, Na, Ag, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn or a natural zeolite of the type klinoptilolite. Regeneration is achieved at constant temperature and pressure of 1-5x10/sup -1/ Torr or by heating to 120-600/sup 0/C.

  14. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  15. Reciprocal-Space Engineering of Quasi-Bound States in the Continuum in Photonic Crystal Slabs for High-Q Microcavities

    Chung, Il-Sug; Taghizadeh, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal (PhC) slabs presume infinite periodicity in the inplane direction. Thus, a large number of unit cells are typically required to implement the BICs with a high quality (Q) factor. Here, we report on a method to engineer the reciprocal......-space properties of BICs, which enables to keep the effect of the BIC phenomenon strong even for a microcavity of a few unit cells. For example, based on this method, a 3D microcavity of 4 unit cells can attain a Q factor of 18k. This allows for various BIC studies in a very compact platform, as well as novel...

  16. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  17. The development and testing of the new flowsheets for the plutonium purification of the Purex process

    Bugrov, K.V.; Korotaev, V.G.; Korchenkin, K.K.; Logunov, M.V.; Ludin, S.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Melentev, A.B.; Samarina, N.S. [FSUE ' PAMayak' , Lenin st., 35, Ozersk 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    In order to improve the extraction flowsheet of RT-1 Plant two versions of plutonium purification unit flowsheet were developed: a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(IV) valence pair and Pu, Np co-recovery, and a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(V) valence pair and Pu recovery. The task related to stabilization of the valence pair of the target components in the required state was solved with the use of reactants already applied at RT-1 Plant, namely, hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine nitrate and catalyst (Fe). Both flowsheets were adapted for the plant purification facility with minimum modifications of the equipment, and passed the full scale industrial testing. As a result of this work, reduction in volume and salt content of the raffinate was achieved. (authors)

  18. Working in the Dry: Cofferdams, In-River Construction, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers

    2009-01-01

    and dams to manage before 1897, but within 10 years, they would have twenty. Many of the MNC engineers had gained practical experience in small lock...America’s water- ways untapped or under-exploited raw mate- rials requiring development, control, and management for human benefit.6 During the colonial...Section , ^ N 6 to sink into position ^ 5ection 5 Gr<eo.test dapth of waiter in which skeleton wa.s a.ctua.1 ly constru_cted wSig_Lfl fee

  19. Monitoring Urban Heat Island Through Google Earth Engine: Potentialities and Difficulties in Different Cities of the United States

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Cirigliano, R. V.; Di Rico, C.; Monti, P.; Crespi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to exploit the large-scale analysis capabilities of the innovative Google Earth Engine platform in order to investigate the temporal variations of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon as a whole. A intuitive methodology implementing a largescale correlation analysis between the Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover alterations was thus developed.The results obtained for the Phoenix MA are promising and show how the urbanization heavily affects the magnitude of the UHI effects with significant increases in LST. The proposed methodology is therefore able to efficiently monitor the UHI phenomenon.

  20. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  1. Online Oxide Contamination Measurement and Purification Demonstration

    Bradley, D. E.; Godfroy, T. J.; Webster, K. L.; Garber, A. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Childers, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid metal sodium-potassium (NaK) has advantageous thermodynamic properties indicating its use as a fission reactor coolant for a surface (lunar, martian) power system. A major area of concern for fission reactor cooling systems is system corrosion due to oxygen contaminants at the high operating temperatures experienced. A small-scale, approximately 4-L capacity, simulated fission reactor cooling system employing NaK as a coolant was fabricated and tested with the goal of demonstrating a noninvasive oxygen detection and purification system. In order to generate prototypical conditions in the simulated cooling system, several system components were designed, fabricated, and tested. These major components were a fully-sealed, magnetically-coupled mechanical NaK pump, a graphite element heated reservoir, a plugging indicator system, and a cold trap. All system components were successfully demonstrated at a maximum system flow rate of approximately 150 cc/s at temperatures up to 550 C. Coolant purification was accomplished using a cold trap before and after plugging operations which showed a relative reduction in oxygen content.

  2. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Novel systems for the rapid separation of 67 Cu, 90 Y, 188 Re, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, and 223 Ra are described. To achieve the high levels of decontamination required of radionuclides used in radioimmunotherapy, we have utilised combinations of ion exchange (IX) and novel extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins. The objective of each separation system is to remove by many orders of magnitude the parent isotopes and to reduce the concentrations of stable, sometimes adventitious impurities, to low levels. The latter objective is particularly important to achieve a high degree of bonding of radionuclide onto a monoclonal antibody. The purification of 212 Bi (60.6 min half-life) furnishes a good example of the level of purity that we have achieved using tandem combinations of EXC and IX resins. Bismuth-212 was separated from its daughters, 212 Pb, 224 Ra, 228 Th and 232 U at the 50 mCi level. The resultant 212 Bi decayed to background in a few days indicative of high purity. Another example of extraordinary removal of parent nuclide from daughter nuclide and subsequent purification of daughter from stable elements is the preparation of 90 Y. Strontium-90 was removed from 90 Y by > 10 9 . The purified 90 Y uptake by monoclonal antibodies was close to 100%

  3. Development of an image converter of radical design. [employing solid state electronics towards the production of an advanced engineering model camera system

    Irwin, E. L.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A long term investigation of thin film sensors, monolithic photo-field effect transistors, and epitaxially diffused phototransistors and photodiodes to meet requirements to produce acceptable all solid state, electronically scanned imaging system, led to the production of an advanced engineering model camera which employs a 200,000 element phototransistor array (organized in a matrix of 400 rows by 500 columns) to secure resolution comparable to commercial television. The full investigation is described for the period July 1962 through July 1972, and covers the following broad topics in detail: (1) sensor monoliths; (2) fabrication technology; (3) functional theory; (4) system methodology; and (5) deployment profile. A summary of the work and conclusions are given, along with extensive schematic diagrams of the final solid state imaging system product.

  4. Development of a tetrameric streptavidin mutein with reversible biotin binding capability: engineering a mobile loop as an exit door for biotin.

    Valerie J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available A novel form of tetrameric streptavidin has been engineered to have reversible biotin binding capability. In wild-type streptavidin, loop(3-4 functions as a lid for the entry and exit of biotin. When biotin is bound, interactions between biotin and key residues in loop(3-4 keep this lid in the closed state. In the engineered mutein, a second biotin exit door is created by changing the amino acid sequence of loop(7-8. This door is mobile even in the presence of the bound biotin and can facilitate the release of biotin from the mutein. Since loop(7-8 is involved in subunit interactions, alteration of this loop in the engineered mutein results in an 11° rotation between the two dimers in reference to wild-type streptavidin. The tetrameric state of the engineered mutein is stabilized by a H127C mutation, which leads to the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonds. The biotin binding kinetic parameters (k(off of 4.28×10(-4 s(-1 and K(d of 1.9×10(-8 M make this engineered mutein a superb affinity agent for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Affinity matrices can be regenerated using gentle procedures, and regenerated matrices can be reused at least ten times without any observable reduction in binding capacity. With the combination of both the engineered mutein and wild-type streptavidin, biotinylated biomolecules can easily be affinity purified to high purity and immobilized to desirable platforms without any leakage concerns. Other potential biotechnological applications, such as development of an automated high-throughput protein purification system, are feasible.

  5. Development of a Tetrameric Streptavidin Mutein with Reversible Biotin Binding Capability: Engineering a Mobile Loop as an Exit Door for Biotin

    O'Sullivan, Valerie J.; Barrette-Ng, Isabelle; Hommema, Eric; Hermanson, Greg T.; Schofield, Mark; Wu, Sau-Ching; Honetschlaeger, Claudia; Ng, Kenneth K.-S.; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2012-01-01

    A novel form of tetrameric streptavidin has been engineered to have reversible biotin binding capability. In wild-type streptavidin, loop3–4 functions as a lid for the entry and exit of biotin. When biotin is bound, interactions between biotin and key residues in loop3–4 keep this lid in the closed state. In the engineered mutein, a second biotin exit door is created by changing the amino acid sequence of loop7–8. This door is mobile even in the presence of the bound biotin and can facilitate the release of biotin from the mutein. Since loop7–8 is involved in subunit interactions, alteration of this loop in the engineered mutein results in an 11° rotation between the two dimers in reference to wild-type streptavidin. The tetrameric state of the engineered mutein is stabilized by a H127C mutation, which leads to the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonds. The biotin binding kinetic parameters (koff of 4.28×10−4 s−1 and Kd of 1.9×10−8 M) make this engineered mutein a superb affinity agent for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Affinity matrices can be regenerated using gentle procedures, and regenerated matrices can be reused at least ten times without any observable reduction in binding capacity. With the combination of both the engineered mutein and wild-type streptavidin, biotinylated biomolecules can easily be affinity purified to high purity and immobilized to desirable platforms without any leakage concerns. Other potential biotechnological applications, such as development of an automated high-throughput protein purification system, are feasible. PMID:22536357

  6. Sculpting carbon bonds for allotropic transformation through solid-state re-engineering of –sp2 carbon

    Jung, Hyun Young; Araujo, Paulo T.; Kim, Young Lae; Jung, Sung Mi; Jia, Xiaoting; Hong, Sanghyun; Ahn, Chi Won; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kar, Swastik; Jung, Yung Joon

    2014-09-15

    Carbon forms one of nature’s strongest chemical bonds; its allotropes having provided some of the most exciting scientific discoveries in recent times. The possibility of inter-allotropic transformations/hybridization of carbon is hence a topic of immense fundamental and technological interest. Such modifications usually require extreme conditions (high temperature, pressure and/or high-energy irradiations), and are usually not well controlled. Here we demonstrate inter-allotropic transformations/hybridizations of specific types that appear uniformly across large-area carbon networks, using moderate alternating voltage pulses. By controlling the pulse magnitude, small-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes can be transformed predominantly into larger-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes of different morphologies, multi-layered graphene nanoribbons or structures with sp3 bonds. This re-engineering of carbon bonds evolves via a coalescence-induced reconfiguration of sp2 hybridization, terminates with negligible introduction of defects and demonstrates remarkable reproducibility. This reflects a potential step forward for large-scale engineering of nanocarbon allotropes and their junctions.

  7. Interfacial Engineered Polyaniline/Sulfur-doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Ultralong Cycle Lifetime Fiber-Shaped, Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Li, Chun; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Shengwen; Cheng, Jianli; Zhang, Yanning; Zhou, Jingwen; Yang, Dan; Tong, Dong-Ge; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-04

    Fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSCs) have great potential in wearable electronics applications. However, the limited specific surface area and inadequate structural stability caused by the weak interfacial interactions of the electrodes result in relatively low specific capacitance and unsatisfactory cycle lifetime. Herein, solid-state FSCs with high energy density and ultralong cycle lifetime based on polyaniline (PANI)/sulfur-doped TiO2 nanotubes array (PANI/S-TiO2) are fabricated by interfacial engineering. The experimental results and ab initio calculations reveal that S doping can effectively promote the conductivity of titania nanotubes and increase the binding energy of PANI anchored on the electrode surface, leading to much stronger binding of PANI on the surface of the electrode and excellent electrode structure stability. As a result, the FSCs using the PANI/S-TiO2 electrodes deliver a high specific capacitance of 91.9 mF cm-2, a capacitance retention of 93.78% after 12,000 charge/discharge cycles, and an areal energy density of 3.2 µWh cm-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the all-solid-state FSC device retains its excellent flexibility and stable electrochemical capacitance even after bending 150 cycles. The enhanced performances of FSCs could be attributed to the large surface area, short ion diffusion path, high electrical conductivity and engineered interfacial interaction of the rationally designed electrodes.

  8. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  9. Rational design of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of therapeutic enzymes.

    Trasatti, John P; Woo, James; Ladiwala, Asif; Cramer, Steven; Karande, Pankaj

    2018-04-25

    Non-mAb biologics represent a growing class of therapeutics under clinical development. Although affinity chromatography is a potentially attractive approach for purification, the development of platform technologies, such as Protein A for mAbs, has been challenging due to the inherent chemical and structural diversity of these molecules. Here, we present our studies on the rapid development of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of biologics using a prototypical enzyme therapeutic in clinical use. Employing a suite of de novo rational and combinatorial design strategies we designed and screened a library of peptides on microarray platforms for their ability to bind to the target with high affinity and selectivity in cell culture fluid. Lead peptides were evaluated on resin in batch conditions and compared with a commercially available resin to evaluate their efficacy. Two lead candidates identified from microarray studies provided high binding capacity to the target while demonstrating high selectivity against culture contaminants and product variants compared to a commercial resin system. These findings provide a proof-of-concept for developing affinity peptide-based bioseparations processes for a target biologic. Peptide affinity ligand design and screening approaches presented in this work can also be easily translated to other biologics of interest. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Recombinant Expression and Purification of the Shigella Translocator IpaB.

    Barta, Michael L; Adam, Philip R; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are highly conserved virulence factors employed by a large number of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. Like many T3SS translocators, recombinant expression of the hydrophobic Shigella protein IpaB requires the presence of its cognate chaperone IpgC. Chaperone-bound IpaB is maintained in a nonfunctional state, which has hampered in vitro studies aimed at understanding molecular structure and function of this important class of T3SS proteins. Herein, we describe an expression and purification protocol that utilizes mild detergents to produce highly purified, homogeneous IpaB of defined oligomeric states.

  11. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  12. United States Department of Energy commercial reactor spent fuel programs being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Piscitella, R.R.; Rasmussen, T.L.; Uhl, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory participation in OCRWM programs includes the Spent Fuel Storage Cask Testing Program, Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Program, Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program, the Nuclear Fuel Services Project, and the Cask Systems Acquisition Program. The DOE has entered into a cooperative agreement with Virginia Power and the Electric Power Research Institute to demonstrate storage of commercial spent fuel in steel storage casks. The Program conducted heat transfer and shielding tests with three storage casks with intact spent fuel assemblies and two casks with consolidated spent fuel rods, one of which was previously tested with intact fuel, and provides test information in support of Virginia Power's at-reactor dry storage licensing effort. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Review on present state of human model researches in nuclear engineering and the prospect for their industrial applications

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Yoshimura, Seiichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Naito, Norio

    1999-01-01

    Reviews have been made on the researches and developments for human models in the field of nuclear engineering. Until now, the related works have been made mainly for the modeling of plant operator and operator crew in the control room, but also there arise new tendencies of extending the modeling works for maintenance field as well as for personnel training purposes. The whole range of human model research is divided into the five areas of (a) modeling for machine system, (b) measurement and analysis of human information behavior, (c) modeling of human internal information process, (d) modeling of human interaction with machine system, and (e) that of between human themselves. The real examples of the human model developments as well as their methods, applications, and the model validations are described, and then, the further subjects and efforts are pointed out which would be needed for the broader industrial application of the human modeling. (author)

  14. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  15. A Case Study on the Selection of Purification Project of Lake

    Shen Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will mainly talk about best scheme for the water purification project of the Lake. The engineering used the water diversion metabolism method to purify the water. If the lake area and the water volume are small, the metabolic cycle is relatively short; if the lake area and the water volume are large, the metabolic cycle is relatively long. Simultaneously, the larger the water flow is, the shorter the metabolic cycle period is and the higher the average metabolic rate is. The process of the water metabolism is in agreement with the direction of the water flow movement. With the gradual metabolism of water, different water bodies begin to dilute and diffuse. The engineers will choose the most appropriate water division project according to different water division volumes and water division routes.

  16. 2. National scientific conference on process engineering in environment protection. Conference materials

    1994-01-01

    The national conference on 'Process engineering in environment protection' Jachranka 1994 has been divided into three sessions. Section 1 has been devoted to flue gas purification and collects 13 papers. Section 2 on liquid purification gathered 8 presentation. Section 3 - the poster session with 12 posters on related topics. During the conference 2 lectures and 3 posters have been devoted to the application of nuclear techniques to the solution different problems connected with environment protection

  17. Aqueous two-phase system purification for superoxide dismutase induced by menadione from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Kavakcıoğlu, Berna; Tongul, Burcu; Tarhan, Leman

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the partitioning behavior of menadione-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), an antioxidant enzyme that has various applications in the medical and cosmetic industries, from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been characterized on different types of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) (poly(ethylene glycol)/polypropylene glycol (PEG/PPG)-dextran, PEG-salt and PPG-salt). PEG-salt combinations were found most optimal systems for the purification of SOD. The best partition conditions were found using the PEG-3350 24% and K 2 HPO 4 5% (w/w) with pH 7.0 at 25 °C. The partition coefficient of total SOD activity and total protein concentration observed in this system were 0.17 and 6.65, respectively, with the recovery percentage as 78.90% in the bottom phase and 13.17% in the top phase. The highest purification fold for SOD from P. chrysosporium was found as 6.04 in the bottom phase of PEG 3350%24 - K 2 HPO 4 %5 (w/w) system with pH 7.0. SOD purified from P. chrysosporium was determined to be a homodimer in its native state with a molecular weight of 60  ± 4 kDa. Consequently, simple and only one step PEG-salt ATPS system was developed for SOD purification from P. chrysosporium.

  18. Production and partial purification of tannase from Aspergillus ficuum Gim 3.6.

    Ma, Wan-liang; Zhao, Fen-fen; Ye, Qin; Hu, Zhen-xing; Yan, Dong; Hou, Jie; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A novel fungal strain, Aspergillus ficuum Gim 3.6, was evaluated for its tannase-producing capability in a wheat bran-based solid-state fermentation. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis revealed that the strain was able to degrade tannic acid to gallic acid and pyrogallol during the fermentation process. Quantitation of enzyme activity demonstrated that this strain was capable of producing a relatively high yield of extracellular tannase. Single-factor optimization of process parameters resulted in high yield of tannase after 60 hr of incubation at a pH of 5.0 at 30°C, 1 mL of inoculum size, and 1:1 solid-liquid ratio in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) tannic acid as inducer. The potential of aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) for the purification of tannase was investigated. Influence of various parameters such as phase-forming salt, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG), pH, and stability ratio on tannase partition and purification was studied. In all the systems, the target enzyme was observed to preferentially partition to the PEG-rich top phase, and the best result of purification (2.74-fold) with an enzyme activity recovery of 77.17% was obtained in the system containing 17% (w/w) sodium citrate and 18.18% (w/w) PEG1000, at pH 7.0.

  19. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  20. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    Sun, Junfen, E-mail: junfensun@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, North People Road 2999, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Lishun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Heze University, Daxue Road 2269, Heze, Shandong Province 274015 (China)

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. The Evaluative State, Institutional Autonomy and Re-engineering Higher Education in Western Europe: The Prince and His Pleasure

    Neave, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This vigorous study provides an alternative framework for reflecting on the changes in Western Europe's higher education systems over the past quarter century. Building from two basic concepts – the rise of the evaluative state and the shifts in meaning and definition of positional and institutional

  2. Features of Load and Wear of Main Propulsion Devices on Sea-Going Ships with Piston Combustion Engines and Their Impact on Changes in Technical States of the Systems

    Girtler Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the specificity of operation of propulsion systems of seagoing ships which causes the need to control the load on them, especially on their engines called main engines. The characteristics of the load on the propulsion systems, especially on the main engines as well as on the shaft lines and propellers driven by the engines, along with the process of wear in tribological joints (sliding tribological systems of the machines have been described herein. Using examples of typical types of wear (both linear and volumetric for the tribological systems of this sort, interpretation of states of their wear has been provided with regards to the wear levels defined as acceptable, unacceptable and catastrophic. The following hypotheses have been formulated: 1 hypothesis explaining necessity to consider the loads on the systems under operation as stochastic processes; 2 hypothesis explaining a possibility of considering the processes as stationary; and 3 hypothesis explaining why it can be assumed that a given technical state of any tribological system can be considered as dependent only on the directly preceding state and stochastically independent of the states that existed earlier. Accepting the hypotheses as true, a four-state continuous-time semi-Markov process has been proposed in the form of a model of changes in condition of a propulsion system (PS of any ship. The model includes the most significant states affecting safety of a ship at sea, such as: s0 - PS ability state, s1 - PS disability state due to damage to the main engine (ME, s2 - PS disability state due to damage to the shaft line (SL and s3 - PS disability state due to damage to the propeller (P. Probability of occurrence (changes of the states has also been demonstrated.

  3. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  4. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  5. Purification of tritium-free water

    Hussain, S.D.

    1982-10-01

    Ground water which has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a long time as compared to the half life of tritium (12.43 years) does not contain any measureable amount of tritium. Such water is called tritium-free water. It may contain dissolved and suspended impurities and has to be purified before it can be used for the preparation of blanks and standards required in the routine measurement of low level tritium in water samples. The purification of tritium-free water by distillation in a closed system has been described. The quality of processed tritium-free water was precisely checked at International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna and found satisfactory. (authors)

  6. Radioligand purification prior to routine receptor assays

    Le Goff, J.-M.; Berthois, Y.; Martin, P.-M.

    1988-01-01

    The need to repurify the commercially available radioligands [ 3 H]estradiol and [ 3 H]testosterone before use in routine assays was investigated. Storage of these products for 2 months after delivery led to appreciable degradation of [ 3 H]estradiol compared to [ 3 H]testosterone. Unexpectedly, TLC and even HPLC procedures were ineffective in completely restoring the purity of [ 3 H]-estradiol and the unremoved polar products induced important variations in our estrogen receptor assays. An increase in non-specific binding and a concomitant decrease in total binding were observed resulting in an underestimation of specific binding sites and of the affinity constant. In some cases Scatchard analysis was not possible. The authors therefore strongly recommend the repurification of low-stability radioligands and propose an economic time-saving procedure for the purification of [ 3 H]estradiol by solvent differential partition which requires no high-cost investment in apparatus. (author)

  7. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  8. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  9. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  10. (Hyper)thermophilic enzymes: production and purification.

    Falcicchio, Pierpaolo; Levisson, Mark; Kengen, Servé W M; Koutsopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms, thriving at environmental temperatures near or above 100 °C, has revolutionized our ideas about the upper temperature limit at which life can exist. The characterization of (hyper)thermostable proteins has broadened our understanding and presented new opportunities for solving one of the most challenging problems in biophysics: how is structural stability and biological function maintained at high temperatures where "normal" proteins undergo dramatic structural changes? In our laboratory we have purified and studied many thermostable and hyperthermostable proteins in an attempt to determine the molecular basis of heat stability. Here, we present methods to express such proteins and enzymes in E. coli and provide a general protocol for overproduction and purification. The ability to produce enzymes that retain their stability and activity at elevated temperatures creates exciting opportunities for a wide range of biocatalytic applications.

  11. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H 2 S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H 2 S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  12. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification.

    Voisin, Hugo; Bergström, Lennart; Liu, Peng; Mathew, Aji P

    2017-03-05

    Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  13. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification

    Hugo Voisin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present—in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  14. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  15. Radiation purification of water from cyanides

    Piskarev, I.M.; Rylova, A.E.; Sevast'yanov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts at performing the process of radiation purification of water from cyanides have been described in the literature and were briefly reviewed earlier. Sodium cyanide solutions were examined in a concentration range from 26 mg/l to 80 g/l. The data given in various publications often disagree. Radiation yields of cyanide decay vary from 0.48 to 28 molecule/100 eV for equal dose rates, according to the data presented by various authors, and the maximum yield of 1200 was attained at a low dose rate (0.18 kGy/h) in a neutral solution. Chain decomposition of cyanides was observed in some studies, but not in others; the acidity of the solution examined was not necessarily reported. It was specified that complete decomposition of cyanides occurs; however, no detection limits for the analytical procedures of cyanide determination were reported. The authors performed experiments on the purification of actual industrial waste waters (solution and slurry), which were preliminarily preserved with sodium hydroxide (pH 9; the cyanide content was 90 mg/1). Solutions in dishes 40 mm in diameter and 20 or 40 mm in height were exposed to X-rays with a maximum energy of bremsstrahlung spectrum of 70 keV. Volumes of the solutions were 20 and 40 ml. With consideration for angular divergence and beam attenuation by solution, the average absorbed-dose rates were 1.5 and 3.1 kGy/h for dishes of V equal to 40 and 20 ml, respectively. Measurements of the absorbed dose were made with a ferrosulfate dosimeter

  16. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  17. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering: state-of-the-art in in vivo studies.

    Veronesi, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Tschon, Matilde; Aldini, Nicolò Nicoli; Fini, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to address hyaline cartilage regeneration, but to date, there is no universal procedure to promote the restoration of mechanical and functional properties of native cartilage, which is one of the most important challenges in orthopedic surgery. For cartilage tissue engineering, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an alternative cell source to chondrocytes. Since little is known about adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) cartilage regeneration potential, the aim of this review was to give an overview of in vivo studies about the chondrogenic potential and regeneration ability of culture-expanded ADSCs when implanted in heterotopic sites or in osteoarthritic and osteochondral defects. The review compares the different studies in terms of number of implanted cells and animals, cell harvesting sites, in vitro expansion and chondrogenic induction conditions, length of experimental time, defect dimensions, used scaffolds and post-explant analyses of the cartilage regeneration. Despite variability of the in vivo protocols, it seems that good cartilage formation and regeneration were obtained with chondrogenically predifferentiated ADSCs (1 × 10(7) cells for heterotopic cartilage formation and 1 × 10(6) cells/scaffold for cartilage defect regeneration) and polymeric scaffolds, even if many other aspects need to be clarified in future studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pressure Indicating with Measuring Spark Plugs on a DI-Gasoline Engine - State of Technology; Druckindizierung mit Messzuendkerzen an einem DI-Ottomotor - Stand der Technik

    Walter, T.; Brechbuehl, S.; Gossweiler, C.; Schnepf, M.; Wolfer, P. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    For pressure indicating in gasoline engines, spark plugs with integrated pressure sensor are enabling for fast and efficient access to the combustion chamber. These socalled measuring spark plugs permit any engine to be set up for pressure-indicating within a minimum amount of time and without need for any preparation of an additional bore. Measuring spark plugs offer the user a number of immediate advantages: a) no need to modify the engine by drilling a separate bore to access the combustion chamber b) no modification of the geometry of the combustion chamber and thermal conditions c) suitable for on-board measurements, end-of-line checks and monitoring d) quick and easy installation and replacement In terms of costs, measuring spark plugs are also representing a beneficial alternative to separate indicating bores. The cost of designing, preparing and carrying out an additional bore in a cylinder head are typically many times the costs for a measuring spark plug, thus producing a significant cost saving. The main disadvantages of measuring spark plugs are as follows: 1) restricted to uncooled, low sensitivity miniature pressure sensors 2) the sensor element is exposed to an extraordinarily high thermal load 3) proximity to high voltage carries the risk of electromagnetic interference 4) the positioning between the valve seats means they are subject to heavy vibration 5) the incorporation of the pressure sensor results in more complex design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology as well as the dynamic behaviour of measuring spark plugs and to present the current state of technology. (orig.)

  20. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  1. Microwave-Based Oxidation State and Soot Loading Determination on Gasoline Particulate Filters with Three-Way Catalyst Coating for Homogenously Operated Gasoline Engines

    Markus Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel method emerged to determine the oxygen storage degree of three way catalysts (TWC by a microwave-based method. Up to now, this method has been investigated only in lab-scale reactors or under steady state conditions. This work expands those initial studies. A TWC-coated gasoline particulate filter was investigated in a dynamic engine test bench simulating a typical European driving cycle (NEDC. It could be shown that both the oxygen storage degree and the soot loading can be monitored directly, but not simultaneously due to their competitive effects. Under normal driving conditions, no soot accumulation was observed, related to the low raw emissions and the catalytic coating of the filter. For the first time, the quality factor of the cavity resonator in addition to the resonance frequency was used, with the benefit of less cross sensitivity to inconstant temperature and water. Therefore, a temperature dependent calibration of the microwave signal was created and applied to monitor the oxidation state in transient driving cycles. The microwave measurement mirrors the oxidation state determined by lambda probes and can be highly beneficial in start-stop phases (where lambda-probes do not work and to determine the oxygen storage capacity (OSC without unnecessary emissions.

  2. Microwave-Based Oxidation State and Soot Loading Determination on Gasoline Particulate Filters with Three-Way Catalyst Coating for Homogenously Operated Gasoline Engines.

    Dietrich, Markus; Jahn, Christoph; Lanzerath, Peter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-09-02

    Recently, a novel method emerged to determine the oxygen storage degree of three way catalysts (TWC) by a microwave-based method. Up to now, this method has been investigated only in lab-scale reactors or under steady state conditions. This work expands those initial studies. A TWC-coated gasoline particulate filter was investigated in a dynamic engine test bench simulating a typical European driving cycle (NEDC). It could be shown that both the oxygen storage degree and the soot loading can be monitored directly, but not simultaneously due to their competitive effects. Under normal driving conditions, no soot accumulation was observed, related to the low raw emissions and the catalytic coating of the filter. For the first time, the quality factor of the cavity resonator in addition to the resonance frequency was used, with the benefit of less cross sensitivity to inconstant temperature and water. Therefore, a temperature dependent calibration of the microwave signal was created and applied to monitor the oxidation state in transient driving cycles. The microwave measurement mirrors the oxidation state determined by lambda probes and can be highly beneficial in start-stop phases (where lambda-probes do not work) and to determine the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) without unnecessary emissions.

  3. Production and purification of polyclonal anti-hamster ...

    . ... IgG showed high titer and high specificity in the designed ELISA. Purified antibody and its conjugation with HRP are used in research and diagnosis of hamster disease. Key words: Production, purification, hamster immunoglobulins.

  4. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  5. Generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Schwach, Verena; Passier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 International Society of Differentiation Efficient and reproducible generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) is crucial for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening and study of developmental events during cardiac specification. Established

  6. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae

    and preparations are now on sale. ... significant for optimization of extraction, resin selection and ... and flavonoids as indexes, optimize the proper density. ..... system. Sep Purif Technol. 2008; 62: 590-595. 12. Chen JH, Liau BC, Jong TT.

  7. Radiation-adsorption purification of effluents containing pesticides

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Shubin, V.N.; Nikonorova, G.K.; Zorin, D.M.; Sosnovskaya, A.A.; Petryaev, E.P.; Vlasova, V.I.; Edimicheva, I.P.; Subbotina, N.N.; Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-adsorption purification is one of the new direction in the radiation purification of natural wastes and effluents containing pesticides. This method combines the conventional adsorption purification with radiation treatment of the sorbent, and the result the protection time of the sorbent increases due to the radiation regeneration of carbon. In present work the method was used for purification of effluents from pesticides, such as 4,4'Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane /DDT/, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane /HCCH/, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate /DDVF/ and petroleum products (a mixture of kerosene and xylene in ratio 7:1). Such effluents are formed at factories producing an insecticide aerosol 'Prime-71'. Three investigations were carried out on model with a solution similar composition to industrial effluents. (author)

  8. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... DNA vaccine, the cost of purification must be decreased. Although commonly .... Three mice were killed every 4 days interval. Tissues of heart, liver, .... Now, methods such as chromatography had good prospects in plasmid ...

  9. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of ...

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... and or enzymatic lysis for direct or indirect extraction of. DNA followed by ... strength wastewater sludge in order to determine the best. DNA extraction protocol ... Ammonium acetate purification method was used to remove the.

  10. Vegetation characteristics and water purification by artificial floating ...

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Environmental pollution poses a grave menace to the ... major functions; 1) water purification, 2) providing habitats for certain animals ... areas. The aims were to; 1) select certain emerging plants effective at ...

  11. The Partial Purification and Characterization of Trypsin From the ...

    VESTEL

    fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and. 4.49%, respectively. .... It was subjected to water wash and digestive tracts were .... sulphate precipitation was a simple method and generally.

  12. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji

    2018-02-01

    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  13. The human factors engineering approach to biomedical informatics projects: state of the art, results, benefits and challenges.

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M-C; Elkin, Peter; Pelayo, Sylvia; Beuscart, Regis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define a comprehensible overview of the Human Factors approach to biomedical informatics applications for healthcare. The overview starts with a presentation of the necessity of a proper management of Human factors for Healthcare IT projects to avoid unusable products and unsafe work situations. The first section is dedicated to definitions of the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) main concepts. The second section describes a functional model of an HFE lifecycle adapted for healthcare work situations. The third section provides an overview of existing HF and usability methods for healthcare products and presents a selection of interesting results. The last section discusses the benefits and limitations of the HFE approach. Literature review based on Pubmed and conference proceedings in the field of Medical Informatics coupled with a review of other databases and conference proceedings in the field of Ergonomics focused on papers addressing healthcare work and system design. Usability studies performed on healthcare applications have uncovered unacceptable usability flaws that make the systems error prone, thus endangering the patient safety. Moreover, in many cases, the procurement and the implementation process simply forget about human factors: following only technological considerations, they issue potentially dangerous and always unpleasant work situations. But when properly applied to IT projects, the HFE approach proves efficient when seeking to improve patient safety, users' satisfaction and adoption of the products. We recommend that the HFE methodology should be applied to most informatics and systems development projects, and the usability of the products should be systematically checked before permitting their release and implementation. This requires the development of Centers specialized in Human Factors for Healthcare and Patient safety in each Country/Region.

  14. Effect of yield to tensile (Y/T) ratio on the structural integrity of offshore pipeline: advanced engineering assessment using limit state design approach

    Malatesta, G; Mannucci, G; Demofonti, G [Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Cumino, G [TenarisDalmine (Italy); Izquierdo, A; Tivelli, M [Tenaris Group (Mexico); Quintanilla, H [TENARIS Group (Mexico). TAMSA

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays specifications require strict Yield to Tensile ratio limitation, nevertheless a fully accepted engineering assessment of its influence on pipeline integrity is still lacking. Probabilistic analysis based on structural reliability approach (Limit State Design) aimed at quantifying the Y/T ratio influence on failure probabilities of offshore pipelines was made. In particular, Tenaris seamless pipe data were used as input for the probabilistic failure analysis. The LSD approach has been applied to two actual deep water design cases that have been on purpose selected, and the most relevant failure modes have been considered. Main result of the work is that the quantitative effect of the Y/T ratio on failure probabilities of a deep water pipeline resulted not so big as expected; it has a minor effect, especially when failure modes are governed by Y only. (author)

  15. New Mexico State University campus geothermal demonstration project: an engineering construction design and economic evaluation. Final technical report, February 25, 1980-April 24, 1981

    Cunniff, R.A.; Ferguson, E.; Archey, J.

    1981-07-01

    A detailed engineering construction cost estimate and economic evaluation of low temperature geothermal energy application for the New Mexico State University Campus are provided. Included are results from controlled experiments to acquire design data, design calculations and parameters, detailed cost estimates, and a comprehensive cost and benefit analysis. Detailed designs are given for a system using 140 to 145{sup 0}F geothermal water to displace 79 billion Btu per year of natural gas now being burned to generate steam. This savings represents a displacement of 44 to 46 percent of NMSU central plant natural gas consumption, or 32 to 35 percent of total NMSU natural gas consumption. The report forms the basis for the system construction phase with work scheduled to commence in July 1981, and target on-stream data of February 1982.

  16. Effect of self purification on the structural optical and electrical properties of copper doped oxidized Zn films

    Koshy, Obey; Abdul Khadar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of self purification mechanism is studied on oxidized Cu–Zn thin films. Oxidized Cu–Zn thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation on glass substrates. XRD studies indicate that the oxidized Cu–Zn thin films are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. AFM images shows that with increase in copper wt. percent the nanoparticle morphology of oxidized Zn film turned to one dimensional nanorod morphology. XPS spectra of the oxidized Cu–Zn thin films shows the oxidized state of zinc and copper. The PL spectra of oxidized Zn film showed a strong and narrow near band edge emission at 380 nm whereas in the case of oxidized Cu–Zn thin films the emission showed peak near 410 nm corresponding to peak related to copper. With increase in copper content, the intensity of the defect emission decreased due to the self purification mechanism in nanomaterials. In addition the resistivity of doped films increased due to the self purification mechanism in nanomaterials. - Highlights: • Copper doping in ZnO resulted in the increase in blue emission due to defect levels formed. • The intensity of the luminescence peak of the doped film sample decreased and resistivity increased due to the self purification mechanism in nanomaterials.

  17. A new helium gas recovery and purification system

    Yamamotot, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, J.; Hamana, I.; Hayashi, S.; Mizutani, S.; Sanjo, S.

    1974-01-01

    A helium gas recovery and purification system, based on the principle of gas permeation through a membrane, is described. The system can be used for the purification of helium gas containing air as a contaminant. The apparatus, operating at ambient temperature does not need constant attention, the recovery ratio of helium gas is satisfactory and running costs are low. Gases other than helium can be processed with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  18. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    1987-01-01

    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report

  19. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report.

  20. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay