WorldWideScience

Sample records for state electricity grid

  1. Digital Grid: Transforming the Electric Power Grid into an Innovation Engine for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabortty, Aranya; Huang, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The electric power grid is one of the largest and most complex infrastructures ever built by mankind. Modern civilization depends on it for industry production, human mobility, and comfortable living. However, many critical technologies such as the 60 Hz transformers were developed at the beginning of the 20th century and have changed very little since then.1 The traditional unidirectional power from the generation to the customer through the transmission-distribution grid has also changed no...

  2. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  3. On feasibility boundaries of electrical power grids in steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, O.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C. [Institute of Power Systems and Power Economicy, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 70, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Lehnhoff, S.; Wedde, H.F. [Chair 3, School of Computer Science, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, August-Schmidt-Str. 12, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Both the coordination of international energy transfer and the integration of a rapidly growing number of decentralized energy resources (DER) throughout most countries cause novel problems for avoiding voltage band violations and line overloads. Traditional approaches are typically based on global off-line scheduling under globally available information and rely on iterative procedures that can guarantee neither convergence nor execution time. In this paper, we focus on operational limitation problems in power grids based on widely dispersed (renewable) energy sources. We introduce an extension to the DEZENT algorithm, a multi-agent based coordination system for DER, that allows for the feasibility verification in constant and predetermined time. We give a numerical example showing the legitimacy of our approach and mention ongoing and future work regarding its implementation and utilization. (author)

  4. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  5. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  6. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  7. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  8. New Modeling of Steady-State Modes of Complex Electrical Grids of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmetbayev Arman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical methods for modeling the steady-state modes of complex electrical networks and systems are based on the application of nonlinear node equations. Nonlinear equations are solved by iterative methods, which are connected by known difficulties. To a certain extent, these difficulties can be weakened by applying topological methods. In this paper, we outline the theoretical foundations for the formation of the inverse form of nodal stress equations based on the topology of electrical networks and systems. A new topological method for calculating the distribution coefficients of node currents is proposed based on all possible trees of a directed graph of a complex electrical network. A complex program for calculating current distribution coefficients and forming steady-state parameters in the MATLAB environment has been developed.

  9. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  10. Legal aspects of electric power supply. Grid operator obligations between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control; Das Recht der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsnetze. Netzbetreiberpflichten zwischen unternehmerischer Eigenverantwortung und staatlicher Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetzig, Karoline

    2012-07-01

    The publication provides a systematic outline of the legal boundary conditions governing the operation of electric power supply grids. It goes beyond mere regulatory aspects, covering also the projecting and construction of grids, the acquisition or leasing of land for power transmission line construction, operating licenses and utility certification, the organisational structure and purpose of electric utilities, as well as the operating, servicing and enhancement of electricity grids including calculation of electricity rates. In addition to this systematic outline of legal aspects, it is investigated how the balance between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control was defined in the EnWG 2011, and it is discussed if the law provides sufficient room for entrepreneurial decisions.

  11. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  12. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  13. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  14. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m 2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m 2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m 2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m 2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  15. Electric grids and energy transition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Focussing on electricity, this report proposes an analysis of the main elements in favour of large investments in electric grids, while notably outlining technical or economic uncertainties as well as possible political consequences such as compatibility of a largely interconnected European network with a free choice of energy sources (as specified in the Lisbon Treaty), and responsibility for the States in terms of supply security. The author first describes the present situation: overview of the regulatory framework of the liberalization process. The second part addresses challenges which emerged with the European commitment in favour of renewable sources of electricity and the emergence of new needs, notably regarding electric vehicles. It also presents measures aimed at supporting the development of networks. The third part introduces a discussion about the relevancy of this development by highlighting, on the one hand, the fragility of economic perspectives, and on the other hand, the necessity to address future consequences of a major increase of interconnections within the European electric grid. Some recommendations are finally proposed. Examples and specific analysis more particularly concern Germany, Spain, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom

  16. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  17. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B.; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x ). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) result in a benefit of 4.5 cents kWh -1 and 17 cents kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At $20 per tonne of CO 2 , the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated

  18. European electricity grid. Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt about the need to expand and modernize the European electricity grid, especially in order to allow renewable energies to be fed stochastically into existing systems. As it is hardly possible at the present time and also in the near future to store electricity on a major scale and at adequate prices, electricity must be transmitted from the point of generation to the point of consumption directly and in real time. The development of grid systems, including cross-border transmission systems, is still behind expectations. This is not due to a shortage of projects or a lack of interest on the part of grid operators; the necessary political support is available as well, and investments at present are covered by the feed tariffs. The problem is the lack of acceptance. It is difficult to obtain new permits or commission new grids. This problem of the licensing authorities often results in considerable delays. Consequently, it is up to the grid operators to handle this situation and promote new, intelligent grid systems in an effort to achieve acceptance of a technical-scale infrastructure. This includes transparency in grid expansion, exchange with the public in order to reach mutual understanding and trust and also find compromises as well as the willingness to discuss various approaches to solutions (underground routing, upgrading of existing grid systems, smart systems, and intelligent designs) so as to optimize the use of the existing infrastructure. (orig.)

  19. China state grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jian, Xu; Murten, Sophie; Murten, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Many of us regard electricity as a basic necessity, while few of us know or even wonder how this seemingly magical current arrives in our houses. Fewer still think about the people behind the scenes, those who work day in and day out to ensure our electric needs are met. The stories in this book are those of unsung heroes, whose personal sacrifices ensured the dawn of a strong and smart Chinese electric network. Their tireless thirst for innovation is shown through their dedication to the cause.

  20. When energy grids become intelligent: smart grid standardisation in the starting-blocks; interconnection in Europe: 50 billions Euros to boost all networks; smart electric grids feed new projects; The United States and Europe connect standards on smart electric grids; smart metering: standards place their marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedey, Fabienne; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Barthet, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    As talking about smart grids has became a leitmotiv, their development appears to be complex as it requires all the actors (carriers, dealers, providers, decentralised producers, consumers, equipment manufacturers, and so on) to share a same transverse vision. A European cooperation group has been set up which gathers representatives of the European electrical and telecommunication industry. Beside, the European Commission has presented a plan which comprises 50 billions Euros of investments to improve all networks in the fields of transports, energy and digital technology. In France, six projects on smart grids gathered 115 millions Euros. At the international level, the NIST and SGCG have been asked to cooperatively elaborate a standard framework for smart grids. But smart metering concerns other fields than electricity...

  1. Critical Infrastructure Protection: EMP Impacts on the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Edwin J., Jr.

    The purpose of this research is to identify the United States electric grid infrastructure systems vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse attacks and the cyber-based impacts of those vulnerabilities to the electric grid. Additionally, the research identifies multiple defensive strategies designed to harden the electric grid against electromagnetic pulse attack that include prevention, mitigation and recovery postures. Research results confirm the importance of the electric grid to the United States critical infrastructures system and that an electromagnetic pulse attack against the electric grid could result in electric grid degradation, critical infrastructure(s) damage and the potential for societal collapse. The conclusions of this research indicate that while an electromagnetic pulse attack against the United States electric grid could have catastrophic impacts on American society, there are currently many defensive strategies under consideration designed to prevent, mitigate and or recover from an electromagnetic pulse attack. However, additional research is essential to further identify future target hardening opportunities, efficient implementation strategies and funding resources.

  2. Increased Observability in Electric Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

    infrastructure in distribution grids. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental verifications of the investigated concepts wherever applicable. Electric grids are changing, and so are the roles of system operators. The interest in sustainable energy and the rapidly increasing number of Distributed Energy...... that DSO areas are not necessarily self-sufficient. Missing power is covered by neighbouring areas to confine problems in a small region, which is demonstrated in SYSLAB on a two-area, grid-connected setup. The results highlight the advantages of harnessing the information obtained directly from...

  3. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  4. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  5. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  6. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    with 214 turbines [22]. In July 2011, the DoD declared that a complete study of 217 wind farm projects proposed in 35 states and Puerto Rico found...14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid , Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...electric grid. In the case of a hybrid electric grid (HEG), or hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) where the microgrid can be connected to the commercial

  7. Electric vehicles’ influence on Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta R. Jabłońska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to demonstrate evolution of Electric Vehicles (EV and their infl uence on the Smart Grid (SG. Starting from USA defi nition of the SG considering the fi fth- and sixth- properties of the SG: It accommodates all generation and storage options and it enables new products, services and markets. We can determine EV role in the SG operation. Contemporary we can distinguish following types of the EV: HEVS – hybrid electric vehicles with motor and use batteries with no using electricity from external source, Pure EVs – running on electric motor powered by batteries that are recharged by plugging in the vehicle, Plug-in PHEVs – can be charged with electricity like engine power EVs and run under engine like HEVs. The most interesting for electric power there are Pure EVs and PHEVs that are consumers and also kind of electricity storage devices (very important in SG. These types may be charged “in home”, using special station with diff erent time of charging; there is also considered charging during the time waiting for change of lights on road nodes (junctions. It is important to mention that EV development infl uence not only on SG, social- and climate- environment but also on development of new branch of industries producing equipment necessary for EV operation.

  8. Smart Grid Communication Technologies in the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Philipp; Hauer, Ines; Styczynski, Zbigniew A.; Fernandes, Rubipiara; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent electrical grids can be considered as the next generation of electrical energy transportation. The enormous potential leads to worldwide focus of research on the technology of smart grids. This paper aims to present a review of the Brazilian electricity sector in context with the integration of communication technologies for smart grids. The work gives an overview of the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy in the Brazil and a brief summary ...

  9. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  10. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  11. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers....

  12. Innovative technologies for sustainable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagana-Hammer, B.

    2016-01-01

    This year's Energy Day is under the motto "Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Energy Networks". According to the ideas of the European Commission, a sustainable, secure, efficient, affordable and competitive energy supply with particular attention to the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is to be created. In future, energy should flow freely through Europe without technical barriers in an integrated internal market. For the power supply, this means a renewal and consolidation of the 50-year-old and largely isolated national distribution networks. In addition, the decentralized power plants, which are often remote from the consumers and dependent on the whims of the sun or the wind, are also to be integrated into this network. The fact that electricity can only be saved insufficiently is a further hurdle. In this light, the target of a minimum degree of synchronisation in the European grid of 10% to 2020 and 15% to 2030 seems ambitious. According to the European Commission, the construction of new infrastructure is to be given priority, but there are considerable difficulties with implementation. In addition to the technical barriers, the barriers to the expansion of the energy market and the protracted licensing procedures, the lack of confidence on the part of the citizens question the realization of the plans for a European Supergrid. Today's event attempts to illuminate the large-scale technical possibilities for the exchange of fluctuating renewable energies over long distances as well as the regional grids, which are of interest to the private consumer. The question of the sustainability and expediency of the planned European internal electricity market completes the 2016 Energy Day program. (rössner) [de

  13. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...

  14. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  15. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  16. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2016-01-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  17. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  18. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  19. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  20. Getting Smart? Climate Change and the Electric Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Meadowcroft

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential of smart grid to transform the way societies generate, distribute, and use electricity has increased dramatically over the past decade. A smarter grid could contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation by increasing low-carbon electricity production and enhancing system reliability and resilience. However, climate goals are not necessarily essential for smart grid. Climate change is only one of many considerations motivating innovation in electricity systems, and depending on the path of grid modernization, a future smart grid might do little to reduce, or could even exacerbate, risks associated with climate change. This paper identifies tensions within a shared smart grid vision and illustrates how competing societal priorities are influencing electricity system innovation. Co-existing but divergent priorities among key actors’ are mapped across two critical dimensions: centralized versus decentralized energy systems and radical versus incremental change. Understanding these tensions provides insights on how climate change objectives can be integrated to shape smart grid development. Electricity system change is context-specific and path-dependent, so specific strategies linking smart grid and climate change need to be developed at local, regional, and national levels. And while incremental improvements may bring short term gains, a radical transformation is needed to realize climate objectives.

  1. Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, Diana Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described

  2. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  3. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  4. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  5. 78 FR 12042 - Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops AGENCY: Grid Tech Team, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that two documents are publicly available and the Department of Energy is requesting public comments...

  6. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  7. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  8. Electrolyzers Enhancing Flexibility in Electric Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mohanpurkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time simulation with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL-based approach for verifying the performance of electrolyzer systems in providing grid support. Hydrogen refueling stations may use electrolyzer systems to generate hydrogen and are proposed to have the potential of becoming smarter loads that can proactively provide grid services. On the basis of experimental findings, electrolyzer systems with balance of plant are observed to have a high level of controllability and hence can add flexibility to the grid from the demand side. A generic front end controller (FEC is proposed, which enables an optimal operation of the load on the basis of market and grid conditions. This controller has been simulated and tested in a real-time environment with electrolyzer hardware for a performance assessment. It can optimize the operation of electrolyzer systems on the basis of the information collected by a communication module. Real-time simulation tests are performed to verify the performance of the FEC-driven electrolyzers to provide grid support that enables flexibility, greater economic revenue, and grid support for hydrogen producers under dynamic conditions. The FEC proposed in this paper is tested with electrolyzers, however, it is proposed as a generic control topology that is applicable to any load.

  9. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  10. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  11. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  12. Coupling mechanism of electric vehicle and grid under the background of smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingyu; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Rongjun; Shu, Han; He, Yongxiu

    2018-02-01

    With the development of smart distribution technology in the future, electric vehicle users can not only charge reasonably based on peak-valley price, they can also discharge electricity into the power grid to realize their economic benefit when it’s necessary and thus promote peak load shifting. According to the characteristic that future electric vehicles can discharge, this paper studies the interaction effect between electric vehicles and the grid based on TOU (time of use) Price Strategy. In this paper, four scenarios are used to compare the change of grid load after implementing TOU Price Strategy. The results show that the wide access of electric vehicles can effectively reduce peak and valley difference.

  13. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  14. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  15. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  16. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  17. Grid connection rules for electric cars integrated as virtual power plant in smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the situation of V2G and proposes a solution involving a consolidating fleet manager, and a decision making process for the individual V2G electric car owner. A grid connection routine for electric vehicles is proposed. The algorithm dealing with decisions to be taken in foreseen...

  18. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  19. Electric Vehicle Grid Experiments and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This project developed a low cost building energy management system (EMS) and conducted vehicle-to-grid (V2G) experiments on a commercial office building. The V2G effort included theinstallation and operation of a Princeton Power System CA-30 bi-dire...

  20. Virtual laboratory of electrical mini-grids with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Ramos, Vanessa; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Oliveira Barbosa, Claudomiro Fábio de; Tavares Pinho, João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computing tool called Virtual Laboratory de Minirredes (Virtual Laboratory of Mini-grids). Using the virtual environment of the developed tool, it is possible to make remote connection/disconnection of switches and loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive and non-linear) at strategic points of the electric mini-grid with hybrid distributed generation systems (solar photovoltaic-diesel). The mini-grid has a length of about 1 km and is installed in the test area of the Grupo de Estudios e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Exergética (GEDAE) of the Universidade Federal do Pará, located in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The developed tool has communication functions with electric parameters transducers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This communication enables the opening and closing of contactors, resulting in different settings for the mini-grid. In addition to that, based on the proposed configuration by the user, the real-time operation status of mini-grid is presented in a graphic interface (for example, monitored electric parameters, distributed generators connected, status of disconnected switches, etc.) and the acquired data is stored. The use of the computing tool also focuses on the construction of a database, in order to obtain knowledge about the mini-grid performance under various conditions that can be set, depending on the operational strategy adopted, based on the choice of the layout, loads and power sources used in the mini-grid. (full text)

  1. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  2. Electricity distribution management Smart Grid system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues concerning the implementation of Smart Grid solutions in a real distribution network. The main components possible to quick implementation were presented. Realization of these ideas should bring tangible benefi ts to both customers and distribution system operators. Moreover the paper shows selected research results which examine proposed solutions in area of improving supply reliability and reducing energy losses in analysed network.

  3. Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids brings together leading experts in power, control and communication systems,and consolidates some of the most promising recent research in smart grid modeling,control and optimization in hopes of laying the foundation for future advances in this critical field of study. The contents comprise eighteen essays addressing wide varieties of control-theoretic problems for tomorrow’s power grid. Topics covered include: Control architectures for power system networks with large-scale penetration of renewable energy and plug-in vehicles Optimal demand response New modeling methods for electricity markets Control strategies for data centers Cyber-security Wide-area monitoring and control using synchronized phasor measurements. The authors present theoretical results supported by illustrative examples and practical case studies, making the material comprehensible to a wide audience. The results reflect the exponential transformation that today’s grid is going...

  4. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  5. "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    OpenAIRE

    George R. Parsons; Michael K. Hidrue; Willett Kempton; Meryl P. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 responden...

  6. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  7. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  8. From electric networks to 'Smart grids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, Nourredine; Sabonnadiere, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    After decades of slow evolutions, and because of the emergence of renewable energies and of a multiplication of actors due to the liberalisation of energy markets, electric networks are entering a phase of large and complex development which will lead to a massive introduction of intelligence and to the building up of the 'smart grid' concept. The authors first identify the characteristics of the new energetic paradigm. The present operation of electric grids is based on four components: production by means of high power units installed in strategic locations, transport to consumption centres by means of a highly instrumented transport network which has highly centralised and hierarchical management, and consumers who are passive actors. They comment the implications of recent development for these three components. They describe how information and communication technologies (ICT) are used at the service of the grid, and how new technologies are integrated in different instruments (smart counter, actuators, fast cut devices, sensors, advanced supervision and control functions). Then they discuss the definition of a smart network or smart grid, the objectives it allows to be reached for energy transport as well as energy distribution. They discuss the desirable evolution of distribution networks and their technical objectives. Then, they give an overview of the various involved actors (consumers, network managers, electric equipment manufacturers, energy producers, and so on), evokes bodies and institutions involved in research on smart grids (notably in Grenoble within the INPG), give some examples of innovative concepts which are now being developed (intelligence distribution, virtual central station, grid monitoring, re-configurable grid, smart building). They also identify scientific and technological deadlocks, and outline the challenge of preparing the needed abilities for the development of smart grids

  9. Nuclear Power as an Option in Electrical Generation Planning for Small Economy and Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a NPP in countries with relatively small total GDP (small economy) and usually with small electricity grid face two major problems and constrains: the ability to obtain the considerable financial resources required on reasonable terms and to connect large NPP to small electricity grid. Nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved. The main topics covered by paper will be the: special circumstances related to the financing of NPP, costs and economic feasibility of NPP, conventional approaches for financing power generation projects in developing countries, alternative approaches for mobilizing financial resources. The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires the plant to be connected to an electrical grid system that has adequate capacity for exporting the power from the NPP, and for providing a reliable electrical supply to the NPP for safe start-up, operation and normal or emergency shut-down of the plant. Connection of any large new power plant to the electrical grid system in a country may require significant modification and strengthening of the grid system, but for NPPs there may be added requirements to the structure of the grid system and the way it is controlled and maintained to ensure adequate reliability. Paper shows the comparative assesment of differrent base load technologies as an option in electrical generation planning for small economy and electricity grid.(author).

  10. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  11. Y2K lessons learned for electric grid stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I. L.; Purvis, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Y2K was an example of a worldwide infrastructure threat. Actions to understand infrastructure risks and mitigate infrastructure threats are a continuing and increasing part of the worlds corporate, government, and international organizations systems, and the severe implications of infrastructure failures to the health, safety, and financial well being of people and organizations are the deriving force. The IAEA conducted a number of Y2K related activities in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities. A set of these activities address the interface between electric power generation facilities and electric power grids in the region of Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. This addressed a continuing infrastructure risks and actions to mitigate these risk. The results were shown by events to have made positive contributions. The potential loss of nuclear power plant generation is a significant risk to electric power grids, an important critical infrastructure. Not only does the threat constitute a problem with the potential loss of the grid, loss of the electric power grid increases the probability of accidents in nuclear power plants. Recognizing that these activities addressed only one area of infrastructure risk in one region, there are some key lessons that were learned that could have general applicability

  12. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  13. Modelling Load Shifing Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) represent both a new demand for electricity and a possible storage medium that could supply power to utilities. The 'load shifting' and 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts could help cut electricity demand during peak periods and prove especially helpful in smoothing variations in power generation introduced to the grid by variable renewable resources such as wind and solar power. This paper proposes a method for simulating the potential benefits of using EVs in load shifting and 'vehicle-to-grid' applications for four different regions -- the United States, Western Europe, China and Japan -- that are expected to have large numbers of EVs by 2050.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  15. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  16. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  17. Smart Grid Innovation Management for SME Electricity Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    innovation process lies ahead for utility companies in screening, testing, maturing, implementing and operating smart grids. This process is expected to follow the political targets for CO2 reduction stretching forward until 2050. As no proven concepts exists, and as the process is expected to progress many...... years ahead, smart grid represents an excellent case of continuous innovation. The current study use a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid related technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight critical issues in this innovation process. Major findings...... are that the companies have limited innovation capabilities, they are presented with plenty of technological offerings that eventually have to be rejected, and they suffer from absence of clear objectives....

  18. Strategic Energy Management (SEM) in a micro grid with modern grid interactive electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B.K.; Vyas, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • System: Modelling of energy and storage systems for micro grid. • Target: Co-ordination of unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). • Energy management strategies: Only URFC, URFC–EV charging, URFC-V2G with enabled. • Multi-objective approach: loss, cost minimization, maximization of stored energy. • Proposed Solution: Intelligent co-ordination of URFC and EV with V2G with most effective strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, strategic energy management in a micro grid is proposed incorporating two types of storage elements viz. unitised regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). Rather than a simple approach of optimizing micro grid operation to minimize line loss in the micro grid, this paper deals with multi objective optimization to minimize line loss, operational cost and maximize the value of stored energy of URFC and EV simultaneously. Apart from URFC, two operation strategies are proposed for EV enabling V2G operation to reduce overall system cost of operation. To address the complexity, non-linearity and multi dimensionality of the objective function, particle swarm optimization-a heuristic approach based solution methodology along with forward and back sweep algorithm based load flow solution technique is developed. Combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), forward and backward sweep algorithm resolves the complexity and multi dimensionality of the load flow analysis and optimizes the operational cost of micro grid. The simulation results are presented and discussed which are promising with regard to reduction in line loss as well as cost of operation. Scheduling strategy of the micro grid with both URFC and EV enabling V2G operation presents a promising approach to minimize line loss and cost of operation.

  19. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  20. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  1. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  2. Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    human infrastructure are examined, particularly in how they generate geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in electric grids. The solar origins of...capacitors and AC and HVDC transmission lines all have tripped in prior storms due to relay mis-operations’ (J. Kappenman, Jason Presentation 2011). Over...called quasi-satellite orbits because many large bodies , including the Earth have small "companion" objects in quasi-spacecraft orbits around them

  3. Creating a Smarter U.S. Electricity Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Paul L. Joskow

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on efforts to build what policymakers call the "smart grid," involving 1) improved remote monitoring and automatic and remote control of facilities in high-voltage electricity transmission networks; 2) improved remote monitoring, two-way communications, and automatic and remote control of local distribution networks; and 3) installation of "smart" metering and associated communications capabilities on customer premises so that customers can receive real-time price informati...

  4. From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, Anders N.; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    , electricitysmartgrids must be coordinated with the utilisation of renewable energy being converted into other forms of carriers than electricity including heat and biofuels as well as energy conservation and efficiency improvements, such as CHP and improved efficiencies e.g. in the form of fuel cells. All such measures...... such measures are combined with energy conservation and system efficiency improvements. This article illustrates why electricitysmartgrids should be seen as part of overall smartenergysystems and emphasises the inclusion of flexible CHP production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilisation. Furthermore...

  5. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Oodo, S O; He, H; Qiu, G Y

    2013-01-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  6. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  7. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramer, L. M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; Fortin, D.; Hathaway, J.; Rice, J.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions is examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and datasets were examined. A penalized logistic regression model fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at different time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. The methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.

  8. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  9. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  10. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  11. Analysis of Electric Power Board of Chattanooga Smart Grid Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ollis, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Glass, Jim [EPB Electric Power, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Melin, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Guodong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The deployment of a Smart Grid within the EPB electrical system has brought significant value to EPB customers and to EPB operations. The Smart Grid implementation has permitted the capability to automate many of the existing systems, increasing the overall efficiency and decreasing round trip time for many required operation functions. This has both reduced the cost of operations and increased the reliability of customer service. This boost in performance can be primarily linked to two main components: the communication network and the availability of data. The existence of a fiber communication backbone has opened numerous opportunities for EPB. Large data sets from remote devices can be continuously polled and used to compute numerous metrics. The speed of communication has provided a pathway to sophisticated distribution automation that would not otherwise be possible. The data have been shown to provide a much broader view of the actual electrical system that was not previously available, opening many new opportunities in data analytics. This report documents many of the existing systems and operational features of the EPB system. Many of these systems have seen significant improvement with the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. The research behind this report found that in some cases, the value was directly computable or estimable for these enhancements. Currently, several ongoing research topics are under investigation within EPB. Through a grant from TVA, EPB is currently installing a 1.3MW solar photovoltaic system, which will be the first-generation asset owned by EPB.

  12. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... MINES Electricity § 56.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be guarded, unless protection...

  14. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  15. Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, Jonathan; Saxena, Samveg; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Wang, Dai

    2018-05-01

    California has issued ambitious targets to decarbonize transportation through the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), and to decarbonize the electricity grid through the expansion of both renewable generation and energy storage. These parallel efforts can provide an untapped synergistic opportunity for clean transportation to be an enabler for a clean electricity grid. To quantify this potential, we forecast the hourly system-wide balancing problems arising out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and load continues to grow. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits from EVs modulating the charging or discharging of their batteries to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of drivers. Our results show that with its EV deployment target and with only one-way charging control of EVs, California can achieve much of the same benefit of its Storage Mandate for mitigating renewable intermittency, but at a small fraction of the cost. Moreover, EVs provide many times these benefits if two-way charging control becomes widely available. Thus, EVs support the state’s renewable integration targets while avoiding much of the tremendous capital investment of stationary storage that can instead be applied towards further deployment of clean vehicles.

  16. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  17. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  18. Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

  19. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  20. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  1. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  2. Front-Line Resilience Perspectives: The Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report seeks to summarize how states and local utility companies are approaching all-hazards resilience in planning, construction, operations, and maintenance of the electric system, as well as challenges faced when addressing all-hazards resilience.

  3. Drought and Heat Wave Impacts on Electricity Grid Reliability in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Lubega, W. N.

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of thermal power plants in the United States use cooling systems that discharge large volumes of heated water into rivers and cooling ponds. To minimize thermal pollution from these discharges, restrictions are placed on temperatures at the edge of defined mixing zones in the receiving waters. However, during extended hydrological droughts and heat waves, power plants are often granted thermal variances permitting them to exceed these temperature restrictions. These thermal variances are often deemed necessary for maintaining electricity reliability, particularly as heat waves cause increased electricity demand. Current practice, however, lacks tools for the development of grid-scale operational policies specifying generator output levels that ensure reliable electricity supply while minimizing thermal variances. Such policies must take into consideration characteristics of individual power plants, topology and characteristics of the electricity grid, and locations of power plants within the river basin. In this work, we develop a methodology for the development of these operational policies that captures necessary factors. We develop optimal rules for different hydrological and meteorological conditions, serving as rule curves for thermal power plants. The rules are conditioned on leading modes of the ambient hydrological and meteorological conditions at the different power plant locations, as the locations are geographically close and hydrologically connected. Heat dissipation in the rivers and cooling ponds is modeled using the equilibrium temperature concept. Optimal rules are determined through a Monte Carlo sampling optimization framework. The methodology is applied to a case study of eight power plants in Illinois that were granted thermal variances in the summer of 2012, with a representative electricity grid model used in place of the actual electricity grid.

  4. The Alberta Electrical Grid: What to Expect in the Next Few Years in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Livingston

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government has stated that it wants to make significant changes to the supply of electricity to the current electrical grid for the province. These changes include the phasing out of coal generation by 2030, the supply of 30 per cent of electricity from renewables by 2030 and the introduction of a socalled capacity market in addition to the current electrical energy market. The achievement of these objectives will require a number of fundamental changes to the existing electrical grid. This paper provides an overall description of these changes. The paper first examines the current grid structure in which coal and gas provide the base load supply in the amount of 90 per cent of electricity demand, and renewables are a relatively small source of supply for the remaining 10 per cent. It then reviews the current simple energy market in Alberta that uses a single price auction to determine the wholesale price of electricity. The paper then notes that the achievement of these changes will require a large amount of investment in the next 15 years to create new generating capacity that currently does not exist. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO has forecast that by 2032, Alberta will need an additional 7,000 megawatts of gas generation, 5,000 megawatts of wind, 700 megawatts of solar and 350 megawatts of hydro. To put this in context, the Ontario grid currently has 4,213 megawatts of wind (11 per cent of total generating capacity and 380 megawatts of solar (one per cent of generating capacity. The Alberta government has made two fundamental changes in the electricity market to make this happen. First, it has introduced a Renewable Energy Program (REP to incent investment in renewables. They asked industry to bid on a 20 year contract for supply of electricity that offered a guaranteed fixed price that was independent of the existing wholesale market. The first round of bidding (REP 1 announced in December 2017 resulted in 600

  5. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  6. Impact of peak electricity demand in distribution grids: a stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Schuring, Friso; Kootstra, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The number of (hybrid) electric vehicles is growing, leading to a higher demand for electricity in distribution grids. To investigate the effects of the expected peak demand on distribution grids, a stress test with 15 electric vehicles in a single street is conducted and described in this paper.

  7. The evolution of the electric power grid within the energy transition. Breakfast of 8 February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Katrien; ); Bendtsen, Bendt; ); Derdevet, Michel; Duerr, Matthias; Laffaye, Herve

    2017-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions, questions and answers of a meeting gathering French and Danish representatives of political parties, electric utilities and European bodies which addressed issues related to the evolution of the electric power grid within a context of energy transition. Several issues have been addressed. First, the approach adopted by institutional actors like the European Commission and Parliament with a priority given to grid infrastructures to ensure interconnection between all member States, a financial support for the associated investments, and a European governance. Second, the approach adopted by operators in charge of networks, transport and distribution to face a change in the business model, an increasing financial burden, the issue of acceptability of works, future evolutions and innovations, and a closer collaboration

  8. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  9. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchao Li; Lin Chen; Yuwei Xiang; Jinying Li; Dong Peng

    2018-01-01

    Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have pos...

  10. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  11. Economic aspects of grid connected solar electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, F.

    1993-01-01

    Experience gained with available solar thermal technologies enlighten on options for research and development on solar electricity generation. The proposed analysis of new solar technologies concerns market, costs and profit viewpoint: - Systems under development have to fit with consumers' needs and utilities' specifications, technology is not the only item to study. - Expense headings depend on technological options and operation procedures such as size of the plant, solar only or hybrid concept. - Anticipation of revenues highly depends on direct insolation quality and on local conditions for introducing the electric power generated into the network: daily direct insolation measurements and annual local load curve are prerequisite data. Strategic advantages regarding environment and sustainable development are to be pointed out, specially in industrialized countries or for projects including financing institutions. As far as generating electric power on the grid is a major challenge in the development of a number of countries in the sun belt, cooperation between industrialized and developing countries, under the auspices of international organization, has to be promoted. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Linni; Zheng, Yanchong; Xiao, Xinping; Chan, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  13. Smart PV grid to reinforce the electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hamad, Mohamed Y.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) became the new competitive energy resources of the planet and needs to be engaged in grid to break up the congestion in both Distribution and Transmission systems. The objective of this research is to reduce the load flow through the distribution and transmission equipment by 20%. This reduction will help in relief networks loaded equipment's in all networks. Many projects are starting to develop in the GCC countries and need to be organized to achieve maximum benefits from involving the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the network. The GCC countries have a good location for solar energy with high intensity of the solar radiation and clear sky along the year. The opportunities of the solar energy is to utilize and create a sustainable energy resource for this region. Moreover, the target of this research is to engage the PV technology in such a way to lower the over loaded equipment and increases the electricity demand at the consumer's side.

  14. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  15. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  16. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  18. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  19. A multi agent system framework for value focused interactions between buildings and electrical grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, K.O.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical smart grid connection requires also services from the buildings. The performance demanded during the interactions between buildings and smart electrical grids are multifaceted, involve attainment of various objectives which are sometimes in conflict with each other and require dynamic

  20. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-49-000] National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take..., 18 CFR 385.207, National Grid Transmission Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company...

  1. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  2. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  3. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  4. Photovoltaic electricity production of a grid-connected urban house in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, Milorad; Blagojevic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    A technically attractive solution for sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building fabric of urban houses as an alternative to grid electricity, however, in Serbia this technology is rarely applied. To contribute to sustainability and create success conditions for renewable energy sources (RES) applications due its wish to join EU, Serbian government currently integrated RES into its new energy policy framework. In the near future in the separate law, the government will identify financial conditions to apply this policy and start RES use. To adequately inform this law, we calculated the electricity revenue during entire life of a two-floor house in Belgrade, Serbia and investment in PV panels (currently available on Serbian market) integrated in its entire envelope. It was discussed what are the current degree of economic viability of this solution and suggested level of state subventions needed to support the solar electricity production either by feed-in tariffs or other financial instruments

  5. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jingjie

    2013-01-01

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of con-sumers’ responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way com-munication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid ele...

  6. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  7. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  8. Smart electric grids. Economic and environmental value, general implementation. September 2017. Contribution by RTE - Full report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This report is the RTE's contribution to studies commissions by public authorities on the social and economic valorisation of smart grids for the different actors. It first proposes an overview of the various considered technical and technological solutions: storage, active management of residential, tertiary and industrial demand, and steerability of renewable energies. After a recall of objectives related to the development of smart grids, the report reviews the methodological framework adopted for a previous study (general principles, modelling principles for the electricity system operation, use of the Flexis model, economic and environmental assessment), and proposes an overview of methodological developments achieved since 2015. It discusses how this study compares with others related to smart grid flexibility published in France and in Europe. Then, after having stated some hypotheses, the report presents the analytical framework for quantitative results, discusses economic and environmental assessments performed for each solution (storage, active management for different sectors, and steerability of wind energy production). The next part presents different global economically relevant scenarios of smart grid deployment, with assessments by 2030

  9. Electrical Grid Stability Enhancement using Smart Home Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muawiya A. Kaigama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Load shedding is a powerful scheme used for corrective and preventive measures; corrective to restore system’s stability and preventive to avoid catastrophic failure. However, the affected end users are deprived of power supply absolutely with no choice. This paper presents the design, development, feasibility and merits of Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System (FRGFAS in a smart home. FRGFAS is a decentralized Adaptive Load Shaving(ALS device that supports grid’s system stability by sensing grid’s frequency deterioration level and turns ON/OFF loads accordingly. The FRGFAS permits end users to carry out load shaving at their scale of preference in smart homes via flexible demand responses and automates outdoor lighting to optimum operational hours. FRGFAS obviate load shedding by shaving loads whenever the system is in distress and reset loads supply to the normal state when it stabilizes, this Consequently increases the end user comfort zone and averts a blackout.

  10. Small Modular Reactors for Countries with Small to Medium Electric Grids - An Economically Sensible Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been a renewed interest throughout the world in small nuclear units for generating electricity and for other applications. A report by the World Nuclear Association discussing the advantages of small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) over traditional nuclear reactor designs, states that ''modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production, and reduced siting costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction.'' Since the inception of nuclear power, the size of reactor units has grown from under 100 MWe to more than 1600 MWe. Today, due partly to the high capital cost of large power reactors and partly to the need to service small electricity grids, there is a move to develop smaller units. These may be built individually or as modules in a larger plant. SMRs are a good fit in markets where anticipated electricity demand is projected to increase incrementally, because SMRs could be built in series as needed. SMRs might be particularly attractive in countries that currently rely on diesel generators for producing electricity. Small reactors could make economic sense because of the high cost of diesel generation compared to the low marginal cost of producing electricity from nuclear energy. (Keeping in mind the initial investment costs and the need to establish a national regulatory program.) Some SMR designs are fabricated in a factory and then delivered to the site. This could be a solution for markets that lack the qualified engineers and skilled craft workers needed to construct large reactors on site. This paper will provide an overview of the types and attributes of SMRs in use or under development worldwide, describe the similarities and important differences between designs, discuss potential applications for SMRs, including baseload electricity generation, electricity generation for remote locations and areas with

  11. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...... characteristics of EV batteries, the driving distance per trip and the availability of EVs for charging and providing grid service. The charging and discharging characteristics of EV batteries were used to determine the upper and lower limits of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries and to calculate...... the charging and discharging power. The driving distance per trip and availability of EVs were used to reflect the driving requirements and to implement intelligent charging and discharging management....

  12. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshina, T; Sehgal, C; Bockelman, B; Weitzel, D; Guru, A

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  13. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshina, T.; Sehgal, C.; Bockelman, B.; Weitzel, D.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  14. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  15. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  16. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  17. Mini-grid based off-grid electrification to enhance electricity access in developing countries: What policies may be required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Palit, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    With 1.2 billion people still lacking electricity access by 2013, electricity access remains a major global challenge. Although mini-grid based electrification has received attention in recent times, their full exploitation requires policy support covering a range of areas. Distilling the experience from a five year research project, OASYS South Asia, this paper presents the summary of research findings and shares the experience from four demonstration activities. It suggests that cost-effective universal electricity service remains a challenge and reaching the universal electrification target by 2030 will remain a challenge for the less developed countries. The financial, organisational and governance weaknesses hinder successful implementation of projects in many countries. The paper then provides 10 policy recommendations to promote mini-grids as a complementary route to grid extension to promote electricity access for successful outcomes. - Highlights: •The academic and action research activities undertaken through OASYS South Asia Project are reported. •Evidence produced through a multi-dimensional participatory framework supplemented by four demonstration projects. •Funding and regulatory challenges militate against universal electrification objectives by 2030. •Innovative business approaches linking local mini-grids and livelihood opportunities exist. •Enabling policies are suggested to exploit such options.

  18. The System of Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles with Minimal Impact on the Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching and utilization of new energy sources and technologies is a current trend. The effort to increase the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources is characteristic for economically developed countries. The use of accumulation of electrical energy with a large number of decentralized storage units is most preferred, as well as the focus on the production of energy at the point of its consumption. Modern cogeneration units are a good example. This paper describes the accumulation of electrical energy for equalizing the power balance of electric charging stations with high instantaneous power. The possibility of re-utilization of electrical energy from the charged vehicle in the case of lack of electricity in the power grid is solved at the same time. This paper also deals with the selection of appropriate concept of accumulation system and its cooperation with both renewable and distribution networks. Details of the main power components including the results obtained from the system implementation are also described in this paper.

  19. Optimizing Aggregation Scenarios for Integrating Renewable Energy into the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    This study is an analysis of 2006 and 2007 electric load data, wind speed and solar irradiance data, and existing hydroelectric, geothermal, and other power plant data to quantify benefits of aggregating clean electric power from various Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous United States. First, various time series, statistics, and probability methods are applied to the electric load data to determine if there are any desirable demand-side results—specifically reducing variability and/or coincidence of peak events, which could reduce the amount of required carbon-based generators—in combining the electricity demands from geographically and temporally diverse areas. Second, an optimization algorithm is applied to determine the least-cost portfolio of energy resources to meet the electric load for a range of renewable portfolio standards (RPS’s) for each FERC region and for various aggregation scenarios. Finally, the installed capacities, ramp rates, standard deviation, and corresponding generator requirements from these optimization test runs are compared against the transmission requirements to determine the most economical organizational structure of the contiguous U.S. electric grid. Ideally, results from this study will help to justify and identify a possible structure of a federal RPS and offer insight into how to best organize regions for transmission planning.

  20. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  1. Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...

  2. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  3. Present state of electric power business in United States and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    This article reported present state of nuclear power and electric power business in United States and Europe after Fukushima Daiichi Accident. As for the trend of demand and supply of electric power and policy, the accident forced Germany possibly to proceed with phase-out of nuclear power, but France and United States to sustain nuclear power with no great change of energy policy at this moment. As for the trend of electric power market, there was not state in United States with liberalized retail market of electric power after rolling blackouts occurred in California State in the early 2000s. In Germany proceeding with renewable energy introduction, renewable electricity fed into the grid was paid for by the network operators at fixed tariffs and the costs passed on to electricity consumers were increasing. Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in United States forced the state to introduction of renewable energy to some ratio, and Feed-in Tariff (FIT) introduced in EU in 1990s lead to introduction of a large amount of renewable electricity targeted in 2020. Huge amount of wind power introduction brought about several problems to solve such that excess electric power above domestic demand had bad effects on grids in neighboring region. Enforcement of power transmission lines was also needed with increase of maximum electric power as well as introduction of a large amount of renewable electricity. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...

  5. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...... residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are located among the buses with residential demand. The study is done for different winter and summer...... scenarios, considering typical load profiles in Denmark. Different scenarios have been studied with different penetration level of RESs in the grid. The results show the capability of the proposed algorithm to reduce voltage deviations among the grid buses, as well as to increase the RES penetration...

  6. SmartPrivacy for the smart grid : embedding privacy into the design of electricity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoukian, A. [Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner, Toronto, ON (Canada); Polonetsky, J.; Wolf, C. [Future of Privacy Forum, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Modernization efforts are underway to make the current electrical grid smarter. The future of the Smart Grid will be capable of informing consumers of their day-to-day energy use, curbing greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing consumers' energy bills. However, the Smart Grid also brings with it the possibility of collecting detailed information on individual energy consumption use and patterns within peoples' homes. This paper discussed the Smart Grid and its benefits, as well as the questions that should be examined regarding privacy. The paper also outlined the concept of SmartPrivacy and discussed its application to the Smart Grid scenario. Privacy by design foundational principles and Smart Grid components were also presented in an appendix. It was concluded that the information collected on a Smart Grid will form a library of personal information. The mishandling of this information could be extremely invasive of consumer privacy. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  7. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have positive influences on electric grid investment demand, but the impact of population scale, social electricity consumption, and installed electrical capacity on electric grid investment is not remarkable. We divide different regions in China into the eastern region, central region, and western region to analyze influence factors of electric grid investment, finally obtaining key factors in the eastern, central, and western regions. In the end, according to the analysis of key factors, we make a prediction about China’s electric grid investment for 2020 in different scenarios. The results offer a certain understanding for the development trend of China’s electric grid investment and contribute to the future development of electric grid investment.

  8. Multi-Agent Model-Based Optimization for Future Electrical Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity grid is one of the most complex systems created by human beings. It consists of an intricate network of components such as generators, transmission and distribution lines, transformers, breakers, various controllers, and various measurement and monitoring systems. The grid has been

  9. A Harmonic Impedance Measurement System for Reduction of Harmonics in the Electricity Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  10. A harmonic impedance measurement system for reduction of harmonics in the electricity grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  11. Smart grid communication-enabled intelligence for the electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the ""traditional"" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication ne

  12. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  13. Potential For Plug-In Electric Vehicles To Provide Grid Support Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F. G.; Luo, Y.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Scoffield, D.

    2017-04-01

    Since the modern-day introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), scientists have proposed leveraging PEV battery packs as distributed energy resources for the electric grid. PEV charging can be controlled not only to provide energy for transportation but also to provide grid services and to facilitate the integration of renewable energy generation. With renewable generation increasing at an unprecedented rate, most of which is non-dispatchable and intermittent, the concept of using PEVs as controllable loads is appealing to electric utilities. This additional functionality could also provide value to PEV owners and drive PEV adoption. It has been widely proposed that PEVs can provide valuable grid services, such as load shifting to provide voltage regulation. The objective this work is to address the degree to which PEVs can provide grid services and mutually benefit the electric utilities, PEV owners, and auto manufacturers.

  14. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... in countries like Denmark, is widely discussed and promoted. However, the wide-spread adoption of EVs requires the provision of intelligent grid and EV charging infrastructure. To analyse and understand the amount of EVs that could be integrated in the local distribution grids, within its existing capabilities......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  15. Suburban Housing Development and Off-Grid Electric Power Supply Assessment for North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibikunle Olalekan Ogundari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructures in North-Central Nigeria are inadequate and grid electricity is unable to meet suburban housing electricity demand. The alternative power-supply options proposed by government for the region require appropriation analysis for selection. Four public housing estates in suburban Abuja are selected for electricity demand analysis under conventional and energy-efficient lighting scenarios; then techno-economic parameters of two off-grid electric power supply systems (PV and Diesel-powered generation to meet these electricity demands are evaluated. An energy techno-economic assessment methodology is used. The study determines the energy-efficient lighting system is appropriate with 40% energy savings relative to the Conventional Lighting Systems. The diesel generator alternative power-supply option has Life Cycle Costs almost 4 times those of the PV option. The study established the PV-energy-efficient lighting system as the most feasible off-grid electric power supply alternative for implementation.

  16. State electricity profiles, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

  17. Can the BestGrid Process Improve Stakeholder Involvement in Electricity Transmission Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Komendantova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has set ambitious targets for deployment of renewable energy sources to reach goals of climate change mitigation and energy security policies. However, the current state of electricity transmission infrastructure is a major bottleneck for further scaling up of renewable energy in the EU. Several thousands of kilometers of new lines have to be constructed and upgraded to accommodate growing volumes of intermittent renewable electricity. In many countries, construction of electricity transmission projects has been delayed for several years due to concerns of local stakeholders. The innovative BESTGRID approach, reported here, brings together transmission system operators (TSOs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs to discuss and understand the nature of stakeholder concerns. This paper has three objectives: (1 to understand stakeholder concerns about the deployment of electricity transmission grids in four pilot projects according to five guiding principles: need, transparency, engagement, environment, and impacts on human health as well as benefits; (2 to understand how these principles can be addressed to provide a basis for better decision-making outcomes; and (3 to evaluate the BESTGRID process based on feedback received from stakeholders and the level of participation achieved according to the ladder of Arnstein. This paper goes beyond a discussion of “measures to mitigate opposition” to understand how dialogue between TSOs and the public—represented mainly by NGOs and policy-makers—might lead to a better decision-making process and more sustainable electricity transmission infrastructure deployment.

  18. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  19. Technical Research on the Electric Power Big Data Platform of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiguang MA; Haiyan Wang; Quanming Zhang; Yuan Liang

    2017-01-01

    Through elaborating on the associated relationship among electric power big data, cloud computing and smart grid, this paper put forward general framework of electric power big data platform based on the smart grid. The general framework of the platform is divided into five layers, namely data source layer, data integration and storage layer, data processing and scheduling layer, data analysis layer and application layer. This paper makes in-depth exploration and studies the integrated manage...

  20. Results from an investigation of the integration of wind energy into the El Paso Electric grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, E.M.; Parks, N.J.; Swift, A.H.; Traichal, P.A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper documents some preliminary results from an evaluation of the costs and benefits to be gained from the integration of wind generated electricity into the El Paso Electric grid system. The study focused on the utilization of the considerable known wind potential of the Guadalupe/Delaware Mountains region, but also looked at other energetic wind resources within 15 miles of El Paso Electric`s Grid. The original project`s goal was to identify the added value of wind in terms of jobs, line support, risk reduction etc., that wind energy could bring to El Paso Electric. Although these goals have not yet been achieved the potential for water savings and reductions in gaseous emissions have been documented. Thus this paper focuses mainly on the water consumption and criteria pollutant emissions that could be avoided by adding wind energy to El Paso Electric`s generation mix. Preliminary data from a renewables attitude survey indicates that, from the 338 respondents, there is overwhelming public support for utilizing such renewable sources of electricity. This case study, which should be of direct relevance to the arid southwestern states and beyond, was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and conducted in cooperation with El Paso Electric.

  1. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  2. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  3. Communication solutions for intelligent electricity grid; Kommunikationsloesungen fuer intelligente Stromnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielhauer, Jochen; Wieserner, Gerhard [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Business Unit Sensors and Communication

    2013-06-01

    A central role in the construction of power transmission and power distribution systems are solutions that withstand even the harsh environmental conditions and meet performance-critical applications reliably and without interference. This also applies to all ethernet networks in the power generation and power distribution. Secure and robust communication solutions for smart grids which enable a cost-effective remote monitoring and control of smart grids are decisive.

  4. Needs for Constructing and Possibilities of Nuclear Power Plants Interconnection to the Croatian Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeljko, M.; Bajs, D.

    1998-01-01

    Due to development of electric power system and considering an increase of electrical energy consumption, needs for larger units in new power plants are obvious. Connection of large nuclear power plants to the grid, depending on their power and location, usually requires significant investments in transmission network development and construction. Considering the capacity of the 400 kV transmission network in Croatia, this problem is evident. This paper deals with the possibilities of nuclear power plants construction, as one possible option in electric power system development, and their interconnection to the electricity grid. (author)

  5. Simulation of Electrical Grid with Omnet++ Open Source Discrete Event System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sőrés Milán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of electrical networks is very important before development and servicing of electrical networks and grids can occur. There are software that can simulate the behaviour of electrical grids under different operating conditions, but these simulation environments cannot be used in a single cloud-based project, because they are not GNU-licensed software products. In this paper, an integrated framework was proposed that models and simulates communication networks. The design and operation of the simulation environment are investigated and a model of electrical components is proposed. After simulation, the simulation results were compared to manual computed results.

  6. Investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. Movements in the regulation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeuwen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an overview is given of the regulation framework for investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. The overview describes which options regulations and regulation practice offer to grid operators for recovering the cost of investing in grids. Attention is paid to possible discrepancies between the European and the Dutch regulation framework. The article illustrates that grid operators currently lack any clarity and hence certainty about the options for recovering their investment costs. At the same time the fact that investments are needed to secure quality and capacity is not under debate. [nl

  7. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  8. The smart alternative : securing and strengthening our nation's vulnerable electric grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahigian, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    This article explained the concept of the next generation of electrical power grids known as the Smart Grid, which allows the possibility to either reallocate electricity during times of crisis or peak demand or prevent power disruptions through proactive diagnosis. The author examined the security, economic and environmental benefits of implementing the Smart Grid during a time of rising energy prices and desire for energy independence. The Smart Grid uses advanced communications and information technologies to create a modern transmission and distribution network that facilitates the integration of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power, as well as energy-efficient technologies such as plug-in hybrid vehicles. The author emphasized that implementing the Smart Grid grid is also vital to strengthening America's resilience and security since a more robust energy infrastructure will ensure the reliable flow of electricity in the event of a crisis. In addition to promoting energy efficiency, the Smart Grid offers economic benefits, such as reducing the billions of dollars lost each year by American businesses on power outages. A Smart Grid could also open lucrative new markets for smart technologies. 2 figs

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  10. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  11. Research on the impacts of large-scale electric vehicles integration into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuankun; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Because of its special energy driving mode, electric vehicles can improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the pollution to the environment, which is being paid more and more attention. But the charging behavior of electric vehicles is random and intermittent. If the electric vehicle is disordered charging in a large scale, it causes great pressure on the structure and operation of the power grid and affects the safety and economic operation of the power grid. With the development of V2G technology in electric vehicle, the study of the charging and discharging characteristics of electric vehicles is of great significance for improving the safe operation of the power grid and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  12. The importance of nuclear energy for the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ricardo Luis Pereira dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Arouca, Maurício Cardoso; Ribeiro, Alan Emanuel Duailibe

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the thermal energy options available in the country to support the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid capacity. The country's electricity mix consists primarily of renewable sources of energy and this configuration will be maintained throughout the 21st century. However, grid expansion can no longer benefit from hydroelectric power plants with large reservoirs leading to a greater participation of thermal power plants. Among the thermal sources available in the country, nuclear power has important comparative advantages. Recognizing these benefits, the Brazilian government has established that expanding electricity grid capacity will amount to up to 8000 MW through nuclear energy by 2030. The use of nuclear technology for electricity generation has historically been a controversial issue worldwide and some countries have decided to review their nuclear programs in the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This article shows that increasing the participation of nuclear energy in Brazil's electricity grid will provide important benefits for the country by ensuring energy security, keeping Brazil's electricity mix as one of the cleanest in the world, securing electricity grid reliability and safety and reducing operating costs. - Highlights: • The expansion of the power capacity is essential to support the economic growth. • The increase through hydropower cannot benefit from storage reservoirs. • It will be necessary to increase the capacity thermal power. • Nuclear power has significant comparative advantages in Brazil. • Brazil has institutional base, uranium reserves and nuclear technology

  13. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  14. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  15. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  16. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  17. Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs

  18. Electricity tariff systems for informatics system design regarding consumption optimization in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Vasilica OPREA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.

  19. Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.

  20. Cyber physical systems approach to smart electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar; Liu, Chen Ching

    2015-01-01

    This book documents recent advances in the field of modeling, simulation, control, security and reliability of Cyber- Physical Systems (CPS) in power grids. The aim of this book is to help the reader gain insights into working of CPSs and understand their potential in transforming the power grids of tomorrow. This book will be useful for all those who are interested in design of cyber-physical systems, be they students or researchers in power systems, CPS modeling software developers, technical marketing professionals and business policy-makers.

  1. Grid requirements applicable to future NPPs in the new European Electricity Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Padill, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    With a view to keeping nuclear energy as an option for future power generation in a competitive market and taking advantage of the current operating experience, a group of European electric utilities have come together to define common requirements for the design and supply of future Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants connected to the electrical system. These requirements, defined with the aim of standardizing and adapting design to the conditions of the new electricity framework, are being included in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) document. Although there are different types of power plants operating appropriately in large electrical systems, the idea is to find the minimum requirements that will allow growth of this type of energy in the European electricity industry without reducing quality, safety and reliability of interconnected electrical systems. It is therefore necessary to take into account the features of the existing power systems and the operating characteristics and design of nuclear power plants so as to harmonize their respective technical peculiarities in the framework of the deregulated electricity sector. The definition of these grid requirements is based primarily on the operating conditions of the Union pour la Coordination de la Production et le Transport de L'Electricite (UCPTE) grid and takes into account the current Grid Code of the main European countries, for the forthcoming Issue C. This paper sets outs the most relevant aspects of the grid requirements, included in Chapter 2.3 of the EUR document Grid Requirements, Issue B, for the connection of future nuclear power plants in the European electricity system, and others that are being considered in the preparation of the new issue of the document that will take into account the deregulated electricity market situation and deal with the following aspects: General characteristics. Operation of a plant under normal grid conditions. Operation of a plant under disturbed grid

  2. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  3. Power quality issues into a Danish low-voltage grid with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Jensen, Morten M.; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    An increased interest on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is dealing with their introduction into low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Lately, analysis on power quality issues has received attention when considering EVs as additional load. The charging of EVs...

  4. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  5. Balancing services in smart electricity grids enabled by market-driven software agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Hermans, R.M.; Frunt, J.; Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    An important prerequisite for reliable and stable operation of electrical power grids is that supply and demand of power are balanced at all times. In traditional, centrally-controlled electrical power networks, real-time balancing is usually implemented by adjusting large-scale generation to

  6. Optimal design for an electrical hybrid micro grid in Colombia under fuel price variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-álvarez, Semaria; Patiño, Julián; Márquez, Alejandro; Espinosa, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    In many ways, the availability of electrical energy is associated with the degree of development of a society. In spite of the recent technological advancements, many Latin-American countries remain with a wide number of towns isolated from the main grid of their electrical power systems. Colombia

  7. Distributed Optimal Control of Smart Electricity Grids With Congestion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Bliek, F

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the balancing problem in a hierarchical market-based structure for smart energy grids that is based on the Universal Smart Energy Framework. The large-scale introduction of renewable, intermittent energy sources in the power system can create a mismatch between the

  8. Micro-grid platform based on NODE.JS architecture, implemented in electrical network instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M.; Cando, E.; Aguinaga, A.; Llulluna, F.; Jara, N.; Moreno, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this document, I propose a theory about the impact of systems based on microgrids in non-industrialized countries that have the goal to improve energy exploitation through alternatives methods of a clean and renewable energy generation and the creation of the app to manage the behavior of the micro-grids based on the NodeJS, Django and IOJS technologies. The micro-grids allow the optimal way to manage energy flow by electric injection directly in electric network small urban's cells in a low cost and available way. In difference from conventional systems, micro-grids can communicate between them to carry energy to places that have higher demand in accurate moments. This system does not require energy storage, so, costs are lower than conventional systems like fuel cells, solar panels or else; even though micro-grids are independent systems, they are not isolated. The impact that this analysis will generate, is the improvement of the electrical network without having greater control than an intelligent network (SMART-GRID); this leads to move to a 20% increase in energy use in a specified network; that suggest there are others sources of energy generation; but for today's needs, we need to standardize methods and remain in place to support all future technologies and the best option are the Smart Grids and Micro-Grids.

  9. Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mustafizur Rahman

    2017-03-01

      Keywords: GHG emission, cost of electricity, off-grid, wind energy, electricity generation. Article History: Received October 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 26th 2017; Accepted February 4th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rahman, M.M., Baky, M.A.H, and Islam, A.K.M.S. (2017 Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.55-64

  10. Enabling Technologies for Smart Grid Integration and Interoperability of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus

    Conventional, centralized power plants are being replaced by intermittent, distributed renewable energy sources, thus raising the concern about the stability of the power grid in its current state. All the while, electrification of all forms of transportation is increasing the load...... for successful EV integration into the smart grid, as a smart, mobile distributed energy resource. The work is split into three key topics: enabling technologies, grid service applications and interoperability issues. The current state of e-mobility technologies is surveyed. Technologies and protocols...... EVs to not only mitigate their own effects on the grid, but also provide value to grid operators, locally as well as system wide. Finally, it is shown that active integration of EVs into the smart grid, is not only achievable, but is well on its way to becoming a reality....

  11. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  12. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  13. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  14. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses......, it is determined that if scattered load balancing is introduced, electricity transit is enabled to a higher degree than if central load balancing is maintained....

  15. Electric vehicle charging algorithms for coordination of the grid and distribution transformer levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Muñoz, Edgar; Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption has increased the popularity of plug-in electric vehicles. However, a large penetration of plug-in electric vehicles can pose challenges at the grid and local distribution levels. Various charging strategies have been proposed to address such challenges, often separately. In this paper, it is shown that, with uncoordinated charging, distribution transformers and the grid can operate under highly undesirable conditions. Next, several strategies that require modest communication efforts are proposed to mitigate the burden created by high concentrations of plug-in electric vehicles, at the grid and local levels. Existing transformer and battery electric vehicle characteristics are used along with the National Household Travel Survey to simulate various charging strategies. It is shown through the analysis of hot spot temperature and equivalent aging factor that the coordinated strategies proposed here reduce the chances of transformer failure with the addition of plug-in electric vehicle loads, even for an under-designed transformer while uncontrolled and uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging results in increased risk of transformer failure. - Highlights: • Charging algorithm for battery electric vehicles, for high penetration levels. • Algorithm reduces transformer overloading, for grid level valley filling. • Computation and communication requirements are minimal. • The distributed algorithm is implemented without large scale iterations. • Hot spot temperature and loss of life for transformers are evaluated.

  16. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  17. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  18. Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jie Shao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications.

  19. Nationwide impact and vehicle to grid application of electric vehicles mobility using an activity based model

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Roberto; González, Jairo; Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of electric mobility on the transmission grid in Flanders region (Belgium), using a micro-simulation activity based models. These models are used to provide temporal and spatial estimation of energy and power demanded by electric vehicles (EVs) in different mobility zones. The increment in the load demand due to electric mobility is added to the background load demand in these mobility areas and the effects over the transmission substations are analyzed. From t...

  20. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  1. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  3. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinlong

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: → Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. → Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. → Further market-oriented reforms are needed. → Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  4. Risk management and participation planning of electric vehicles in smart grids for demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezamoddini, Nasim; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can serve as an effective tool to better balance the electricity demand and supply in the smart grid. It is defined as 'the changes in electricity usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns' in response to pricing and incentive payments. This paper focuses on new opportunities for DR with electric vehicles (EVs). EVs are potential distributed energy resources that support both the grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid modes. Their participation in the time-based (e.g., time-of-use) and incentive-based (e.g., regulation services) DR programs helps improve the stability and reduce the potential risks to the grid. Smart scheduling of EV charging and discharging activities also supports high penetration of renewables with volatile energy generation. This paper proposes a novel stochastic model from the Independent System Operator's perspective for risk management and participation planning of EVs in the smart grid for DR. The risk factors considered in this paper involve those caused by uncertainties in renewables (wind and solar), load patterns, parking patterns, and transmission lines' reliability. The effectiveness of the model in response to various settings such as the area type (residential, commercial, and industrial), the EV penetration level, and the risk level has been investigated. - Highlights: • We identify new opportunities for demand response (DR) using electric vehicles (EVs). • We integrate EVs in both grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid modes in smart grids. • EV participation for both time- and incentive-based DR programs are modelled. • We consider uncertainties in renewables, load, parking, and transmission lines. • Model case studies are demonstrated in residential, commercial, and industrial areas.

  5. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  6. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  7. Electrical Market Management Considering Power System Constraints in Smart Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand, climate change, growing fuel costs, outdated power system infrastructures, and new power generation technologies have made renewable distribution generators very attractive in recent years. Because of the increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources in addition to the growth of new electrical demand sectors, such as electrical vehicles, the power system may face serious problems and challenges in the near future. A revolutionary new power grid system, called smart grid, has been developed as a solution to these problems. The smart grid, equipped with modern communication and computation infrastructures, can coordinate different parts of the power system to enhance energy efficiency, reliability, and quality, while decreasing the energy cost. Since conventional distribution networks lack smart infrastructures, much research has been recently done in the distribution part of the smart grid, called smart distribution grid (SDG. This paper surveys contemporary literature in SDG from the perspective of the electricity market in addition to power system considerations. For this purpose, this paper reviews current demand side management methods, supply side management methods, and electrical vehicle charging and discharging techniques in SDG and also discusses their drawbacks. We also present future research directions to tackle new and existing challenges in the SDG.

  8. Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; Muttaqi, Kashem M.; Sutanto, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) as mobile storage systems are briefly discussed. • Comparative analysis on electric vehicles (EVs) and charging systems are provided. • It is necessary to coordinate the GIVs to minimize its impacts on power grid. • A proper load model of EVs that predicts the realistic system behavior is required. • Offering a dual tariff by grid utilities is needed as a way to reduce peak load. - Abstract: Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) are promising technologies for future Smart Grid (SG) and offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. The large scale deployment of GIVs without proper control of the time to charge the vehicles can result in unexpected challenges. This can lead to a disruptive impact on the current power distribution systems and in particular its substantial impacts in building power energy systems. Therefore, a proper model that predicts the realistic system behavior is required to analysis the true effects of introducing GIVs in the power grid. This paper presents a review of existing studies on GIV systems, their modeling techniques and their effects on power grids. Following a brief overview of the common types of electric vehicles (EVs) with their charging systems, a review of their impact on the low voltage distribution systems will be analyzed. The comprehensive review presented in this paper reveals that the impact of GIVs on power distribution systems can be quantified using the aspects of EVs, such as vehicle penetration, charging time, charging characteristics, driving patterns, transportation network. GIV studies are expected to be more popular in future years with the development of EV technologies and the government support to electricity utilities. Thereby, these factors will reduce the cost of energy to charge EV and enhance the practical implications of GIVs

  9. Implementation and Demonstration of Grid Frequency Support by V2G Enabled Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Safe operation of the electric power system relies on conventional power stations. In addition to providing electrical energy to the network, some power stations also provide a number of ancillary services for the grid stability. These services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... Frequency Regulation. The service is implemented following the technical conditions for ancillary services in the Danish grid. The real life system is developed using web-centric communication technologies between the components. Communication and control functions of the system are validated through...

  10. A multi-agent system for distribution grid congestion management with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Saleem, Arshad; You, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload the transform......Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload...

  11. Coordinated Charging of Electric Vehicles for Congestion Prevention in the Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Lind, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs), like electric vehicles (EVs), can offer valuable services to power systems, such as enabling renewable energy to the electricity producer and providing ancillary services to the system operator. However, these new DERs may challenge the distribution grid due...... limits of cables and transformers in a distribution grid capacity market framework. Firstly, a theoretical market framework is described. Within this framework, FOs who represent their customer’s (EV owners) interests will centrally guarantee the EV owners’ driving requirements and procure the energy...

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  13. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification and formu......In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification...... and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set...

  14. Storage requirement in the electrical grid; Speicherbedarf im Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Philipp [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    In its energy strategy, the German Government formulates an ambitious goal: the portion of power production from renewable energy sources by 2050 is 80 % of the gross electricity consumption. The necessary expansion of renewable energies increasingly will lead to a supply of renewable energies that exceeds the current demand. The quantification of the economically sensible potential of energy storages for the next few decades depends not only on the expansion of renewable energies but also on the development of frameworks in the area of conventional power generation and the electricity market. The contribution under consideration reports on the potential for large-scale storage in Germany for different paths of development in the electricity industry.

  15. Integrated Electrical and Thermal Grid Facility - Testing of Future Microgrid Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Raj Thangavelu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Experimental Power Grid Centre (EPGC microgrid test facility, which was developed to enable research, development and testing for a wide range of distributed generation and microgrid technologies. The EPGC microgrid facility comprises a integrated electrical and thermal grid with a flexible and configurable architecture, and includes various distributed energy resources and emulators, such as generators, renewable, energy storage technologies and programmable load banks. The integrated thermal grid provides an opportunity to harness waste heat produced by the generators for combined heat, power and cooling applications, and support research in optimization of combined electrical-thermal systems. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate the testing of different control and operation strategies for storage systems in grid-connected and islanded microgrids. One of the case studies also demonstrates an integrated thermal grid to convert waste heat to useful energy, which thus far resulted in a higher combined energy efficiency. Experiment results confirm that the facility enables testing and evaluation of grid technologies and practical problems that may not be apparent in a computer simulated environment.

  16. Potential Analysis of Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have been considered as distributed energy resources (DER) to handle the fluctuation from renewable energy resources (RES), especially the wind power. The intelligent management of EV charging and discharging can achieve the goal of providing up and down regulating power...

  17. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  18. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Western Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  19. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, Joseph D [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McBennett, Brendan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Soonee, Sushil Kumar [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Narasimhan, S. R. [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Joshi, Mohit [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Sreedharan, Priya [U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  20. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Southern Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: to better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and to provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  1. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  2. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  3. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  4. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Grid Support Function Laboratory Validation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kubojiri, Kandice [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ceria, Riley [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective for this test plan was to better understand how to utilize the performance capabilities of advanced inverter functions to allow the interconnection of distributed energy resource (DER) systems to support the new Customer Self-Supply, Customer Grid-Supply, and other future DER programs. The purpose of this project was: 1) to characterize how the tested grid supportive inverters performed the functions of interest, 2) to evaluate the grid supportive inverters in an environment that emulates the dynamics of O'ahu's electrical distribution system, and 3) to gain insight into the benefits of the grid support functions on selected O'ahu island distribution feeders. These goals were achieved through laboratory testing of photovoltaic inverters, including power hardware-in-the-loop testing.

  5. Distribution Grid Services and Flexibility Provision by Electric Vehicles: a Review of Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Codani, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation and new high-power consumption loads – such as electric vehicles (EVs) – distribution system operators (DSO) are facing new grid security challenges. DSOs have historically dealt with such issues by making investments in grid reinforcement...... on current grid conditions. In return, flexibility provision should be remunerated accordingly. In this paper, the authors are interested in making an accurate description of the flexibility services at the distribution level which could be provided by EVs as well as their requirements, e.g. location......, activation time and duration. Market design recommendations for enhancing the provision of DSO grid services by EVs are derived from the conducted analysis....

  6. No energy transition without a change of paradigm for electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors first indicate the three main levels of the French electric grid operation (a national transmission grid, regional distribution grids, and distribution to the final user) with their radial or tree-like structure. They briefly analyse the characteristics and impact of the integration of renewable energies: low power installations, wind and solar farms, strengths (close to consumption locations, reduction of grid losses, free primary energy) and raised problems (sizing of distribution networks, intermittency, and influence on conventional production planning). They discuss the implementation of new tools and devices such as the smart meter which can transmit various technical data, or a local steering of distribution networks. Renewable energies could then become a regulating element when they have been considered until now as a disturbing element. The authors finally evoke solutions aimed at reducing the use of peak means: a smoothed consumption, and the use of other production sources

  7. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The energy flow decision is changed by peak and off peak hours to shorten the functional cost of the grid associated PV framework with storage. Naturally, the quantities of electric vehicles that can be associated are resolved.

  8. Design of investment management optimization system for power grid companies under new electricity reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Su, Zhixiong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Qi, Yongwei

    2017-03-01

    The new normalization of the economic situation and the implementation of a new round of electric power system reform put forward higher requirements to the daily operation of power grid companies. As an important day-to-day operation of power grid companies, investment management is directly related to the promotion of the company's operating efficiency and management level. In this context, the establishment of power grid company investment management optimization system will help to improve the level of investment management and control the company, which is of great significance for power gird companies to adapt to market environment changing as soon as possible and meet the policy environment requirements. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct the investment management optimization system of power grid companies, which includes investment management system, investment process control system, investment structure optimization system, and investment project evaluation system and investment management information platform support system.

  9. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  10. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  11. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); You, Shutang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  12. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  13. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  14. Simulating the value of electric-vehicle-grid integration using a behaviourally realistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinetz, Michael; Axsen, Jonn; Peters, Jotham; Crawford, Curran

    2018-02-01

    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) uses the interaction between electric vehicles and the electrical grid to provide benefits that may include reducing the cost of using intermittent renwable electricity or providing a financial incentive for electric vehicle ownerhip. However, studies that estimate the value of VGI benefits have largely ignored how consumer behaviour will affect the magnitude of the impact. Here, we simulate the long-term impact of VGI using behaviourally realistic and empirically derived models of vehicle adoption and charging combined with an electricity system model. We focus on the case where a central entity manages the charging rate and timing for participating electric vehicles. VGI is found not to increase the adoption of electric vehicles, but does have a a small beneficial impact on electricity prices. By 2050, VGI reduces wholesale electricity prices by 0.6-0.7% (0.7 MWh-1, 2010 CAD) relative to an equivalent scenario without VGI. Excluding consumer behaviour from the analysis inflates the value of VGI.

  15. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  16. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  17. An electricity market with fast bidding, planning and balancing in smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn future energy systems, peaks in the daily electricity generation and consumption are expected to increase. The "smart grid" concept aims to maintain high levels of efficiency in the energy system by establishing distributed intelligence. Software agents (operating on devices with

  18. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  19. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  20. A Market Framework for Enabling Electric Vehicles Flexibility Procurement at the Distribution Level Considering Grid Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, Ana; Marinelli, Mattia; Zecchino, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    In a context of extensive electrification of the transport sector, the use of flexibility services from electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming of paramount importance. This paper defines a market framework for enabling EVs flexibility at the distribution level, considering grid constraints. The main...... the benefit for DSOs and society, proving a technical and economic feasible solution....

  1. e-Portfolios for Learning and Development: without constant internet or electrical grid access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, John; Calverley, Gayle; Greller, Wolfgang; Uhomoibhi, James

    2011-01-01

    Casey, J., Calverley, G., Greller, W., & Uhomoibhi, J. (2010, 26-28 May). e-Portfolios for Learning and Development: without constant internet or electrical grid access. Presentation at the 5th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education, and Training - eLearning Africa, Lusaka,

  2. 78 FR 35539 - Transforming Our Nation's Electric Grid Through Improved Siting, Permitting, and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... key factor in future economic growth, and a critical component of our energy security. Countries that... manage cyber-security threats. By diversifying power sources and reducing congestion, a modernized grid will also create cost savings for consumers and spur economic growth. Modernizing our Nation's electric...

  3. Implementation of the smart grid for Canadian electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, R. [Continental Automated Buildings Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA) provides a knowledge-based forum for the advancement of automation technology and integrated systems in the construction industry. This presentation discussed 2-way communications and advanced control systems designed to enable smart grid applications in buildings. The integration of IT and energy technologies will involve a network of switches, routers, and software devices with unique internet protocol (IP) addresses. Technologies will include sensors, meters, smart components, and power electronics, which will be integrated with building automation systems and building energy management tools. Added benefits of intelligent building technologies will include improved high speed internet and voice communications systems. An oBIX ethernet architecture was proposed to address the many protocols and standards required for smart building applications. Technology usage and purchase plans that consumers are now considering include smart telephony, telepresence, and intelligent bathrooms. It was concluded that the use of intelligent technologies in buildings will reduce energy consumption levels and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. tabs., figs.

  4. The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-03-31

    1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. The Energy Institute has been engaged in the

  5. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  6. Influence of the vehicle-to-grid strategy on the aging behavior of lithium battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marongiu, Andrea; Roscher, Marco; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A study of a V2G strategy considering the state of health of EVs as fundamental parameter is proposed. • A Simulation environment with 100 electric vehicle models for two different lithium-ion battery chemistries is implemented. • Real aging and electrical characteristic data are used to parameterize the battery models. • Simulation of 1 year for 4 different scenarios for two different ambient temperatures are carried out and compared. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to study the effect of a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) strategy on the lifetime of two different lithium-ion batteries. The work investigates how the aging effect on the electric vehicles’ (EV) battery packs due to the additional V2G use can be reduced: it is assumed that the grid is able to identify the cars within the fleet for which the ulterior aging effects caused by V2G usage are restrained in respect of the others. The chosen EVs have to contain enough energy to satisfy the grid requests in terms of power regulation. In order to analyze the possible effects on the EVs due to the mentioned strategy, a V2G simulation environment has been implemented. The system consists of 100 EVs and a grid management strategy subsystem. Each EV is represented by a battery electrical model based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data and an aging prediction model parameterized through accelerated aging tests. In order to reproduce real scenario conditions, both the electrical battery model and the aging prediction model have been parameterized for two different cells, a LiFePO 4 -cathode based and an NMC-cathode based lithium-ion cell. In particular, the accelerated aging tests have been carried out for more than one year, both for calendar and cycling operation, involving around 45 cells for each of the two technologies. The grid subsystem is represented by an algorithm which is able to consider information in terms of aging and type of battery installed in the EV. This

  7. Secure Information Exchange Gateway for Electric Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, F. Russell [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Carroll, J. Ritchie [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Sanders, William [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yardley, Timothy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Heine, Erich [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motteler, Barbara [Alstom Grid Inc., Levallois-Perret Cedex (France); Giri, Jay [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Walker, William [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States); McCartha, Esrick [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The major objectives of the SIEGate project were to improve the security posture and minimize the cyber-attack surface of electric utility control centers and to reduce the cost of maintaining control-room-to-control-room information exchange. Major project goals included the design, development, testing, and commercialization of a single security-hardened appliance that could meet industry needs for resisting cyber-attacks while protecting the confidentiality and integrity of a growing volume of real-time information needed to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system and interoperating with existing data formats and networking technologies. The SIEGate project has achieved its goals and objectives. The SIEGate Design Document, issued in March 2012, presented SIEGate use cases, provided SIEGate requirements, established SIEGate design principles, and prescribed design functionality of SIEGate as well as the components that make up SIEGate. SIEGate Release Version 1.0 was posted in January 2014. Release Version 1.0.83, which was posted on March 28, 2014, fixed many issues discovered by early adopters and added several new features. Release Candidate 1.1, which added additional improvements and bug fixes, was posted in June 2014. SIEGate executables have been downloaded more than 300 times. SIEGate has been tested at PJM, Entergy, TVA, and Southern. Security testing and analysis of SIEGate has been conducted at PNNL and PJM. Alstom has provided a summary of recommended steps for commercialization of the SIEGate Appliance and identified two deployment models with immediate commercial application.

  8. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  9. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  10. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems......, especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids....

  11. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid from Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Rita Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frickey, Steven Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  12. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  13. Assessment of the value of electricity grids - Results of an investigation using enterprise data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, M.; Kaufmann, I.; Flury, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the effects of different ways of evaluating the transmission fees for the use of electricity grids as foreseen in Swiss legislation on electricity market liberalisation. The study was made using enterprise data supplied by various distribution utilities. The sensitivity analysis made, with the capital costs of the grids as its kernel, is described. Four variants based on different combinations of basic assessment data and rates of interest are presented. The availability and quality of data is discussed, as is the large number of different utility types to be found in Switzerland. For the interpretation of the results of the study, two primary points of view are considered - that of the utility, focussed on future investments and their financing, and that of the consumer, focussed on pricing aspects. The report is concluded with recommendations on which models should be proposed for a future electricity market decree

  14. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  15. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  16. Short-Term Multiple Forecasting of Electric Energy Loads for Sustainable Demand Planning in Smart Grids for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina Y. Alani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the form of fuel or electricity is ubiquitous globally. Among energy types, electricity is crucial to human life in terms of cooking, warming and cooling of shelters, powering of electronic devices as well as commercial and industrial operations. Users of electronic devices sometimes consume fluctuating amounts of electricity generated from smart-grid infrastructure owned by the government or private investors. However, frequent imbalance is noticed between the demand and supply of electricity, hence effective planning is required to facilitate its distribution among consumers. Such effective planning is stimulated by the need to predict future consumption within a short period. Although several interesting classical techniques have been used for such predictions, they still require improvement for the purpose of reducing significant predictive errors when used for short-term load forecasting. This research develops a near-zero cooperative probabilistic scenario analysis and decision tree (PSA-DT model to address the lacuna of enormous predictive error faced by the state-of-the-art models. The PSA-DT is based on a probabilistic technique in view of the uncertain nature of electricity consumption, complemented by a DT to reinforce the collaboration of the two techniques. Based on detailed experimental analytics on residential, commercial and industrial data loads, the PSA-DT model outperforms the state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy to a near-zero error rate. This implies that its deployment for electricity demand planning will be of great benefit to various smart-grid operators and homes.

  17. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Campíñez-Romero, Severo; Pérez-Molina, Clara; Castro-Gil, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  18. Integrating decentralized electrically powered thermal supply systems into a Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselmann, Maike; Beier, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project “Smart Region Pellworm” is the establishment and operation of a smart grid with a hybrid energy storage system on the German island of Pellworm. One part of the project is the integration of power-to-heat appliances into the smart grid for demand side management purposes. This paper deals with the prerequisites and lessons learned from the integration of electric night storage heaters into Pellworm's energy management system. Special focus lies on the development of a ...

  19. Improving Photovoltaic and Electric Vehicle Penetration in Distribution Grids with Smart Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of electrical vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaics (PVs) can cause significant voltage issues in low voltage distribution grids. To certain extent, the transformer with on-load tap changers can regulate its output voltage, thus relieving the voltage issues and improve the hosting...... capacity of the grid. Smart transformer (ST) is a more powerful component providing faster and superior voltage regulation, as it can regulate the voltage, the frequency and the harmonic behavior of each feeder. This paper will discuss the benefit of this new feature offered by ST through simulation......, analysis and comparison with traditional transformer, where load flow analysis, optimization and multiple line drop compensation (MLDC) methods are involved....

  20. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  1. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  2. Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have a large potential to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and increase fuel economy and fuel flexibility. PHEVs are propelled by the energy from both gasoline and electric power sources. Penetration of PHEVs into the automobile market affects the electrical grid through an increase in electricity demand. This paper studies effects of the wide spread adoption of PHEVs on peak and base load demands in Ontario, Canada. Long-term forecasting models of peak and base load demands and the number of light-duty vehicles sold were developed. To create proper forecasting models, both linear regression (LR and non-linear regression (NLR techniques were employed, considering different ranges in the demographic, climate and economic variables. The results from the LR and NLR models were compared and the most accurate one was selected. Furthermore, forecasting the effects of PHEVs penetration is done through consideration of various scenarios of penetration levels, such as mild, normal and aggressive ones. Finally, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated for electricity production planning purposes.

  3. Real-time Social Media Data Analytics for Situational Awareness of the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Chinthavali, S.; Lee, S.; Shankar, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing frequency of extreme events due to climate change, wide area situational awareness (SA) of the electric grid has become a primary need for federal agencies like DOE,FEMA etc. for emergency preparedness and recovery purposes. While several sensor feeds from Genscape, GridEye, PMUs provide a comprehensive view of the transmission grid, national-scale situational awareness tools are still relying on utility websites for outage information at a distribution level. The inconsistency and the variety in outage website's data formats makes this approach unreliable and also incurs huge software maintenance costs. Social media has emerged as a great medium for the utilities to share outage information with their customers. Despite their potential usefulness, extracting relevant data from these social media data-streams is challenging due to the inherent noise and irrelevant information such as tips to customers during storms, marketing, etc. In this study, we implement a practical and novel machine learning based data-analytics pipeline (Fig 1) for SA, which extracts real-time tweets from around 300 utility companies, processes these tweets using keyword filtering and Naïve-Bayes text classifier trained using supervised learning techniques to detect only relevant tweets. We validated the results by comparing it with the results identified by a human analyst for a period of 48 hours, and it showed around 98.3% accuracy. In addition to the tweets posted by utility companies, millions of twitter users, who are considered as human "social sensors", report power outages online. Therefore, we use Twitter Streaming API to extract real-time tweets containing keywords such as "power outage", "blackout", and "power cuts". An advanced natural language processing technique is proposed to identify the geo-locations associated with this power outage data. The detected tweets are visualized as a color-coded state and a county US map based on the number of outage tweets

  4. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  5. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  6. Smart Grid Operational functions and Control Challenges by Implementing SSSC Tailored to Optimize performance in between Qatar and KSA on the GCC Electrical-power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Masood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work is novel technique to control and optimize SSSC (Subsynchronous Series Controller functions with degree of precision in between Qatar and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The SSSC model developed and simulated in order to identify and determine its control and functioning parameters by introducing new tuning parameters based on that the SSSC can be adjusted stringently to witness desired results lead to address outstanding reactive power management issue. The proposed new parameters are contributing significantly to control SSSC functions in multiple directions in a power system network in between QATAR and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different time-based transmission contingencies on the GCC Electrical-power grid. Strategically, the SSSC capacity and capability can be utilized fully in between Qatar and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by introducing and optimizing its control and tuning parameters more tangibly under both steady and dynamic states.

  7. Influence of Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants under disturbances based on PSS/E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaat, M. K.; Kotb, S. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of the electrical power system in Egypt will increase rapidly in the coming twenty years. In year 2018, power generation will be connecting to the Egyptian electrical grid. Consequently, the interaction of nuclear power plants and other systems become a very important issue, and a detailed nuclear power model for the medium-term and long-term power system stability should be developed. However, there is no nuclear unit model that can describe the detailed characteristics of the nuclear unit in the available commercial power system simulation software. In this paper, a detailed pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear unit model for medium-term and long-term power system transient stability is proposed. The model is implemented by a user defined program in PSS/E through PSS/E Mat lab Seamanlike interface. Also this paper proposes a design of power plant rector controller for the nuclear power plant. This model can be used to analyze the difference influences between the Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants for examples transient fault on electrical grid and outage of nuclear power plant. The simulation results show that the proposed model is valid. (Author)

  8. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated.

  9. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated. (paper)

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  11. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  13. Visualization Techniques for Electrical Grid Smart Metering Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Maria; Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2017-01-01

    (GIS) tools are useful to help visualize the collected big data in near-real time. For this reason, a survey of existing GIS software will be made so that the choice of the most suitable tool can be justified. Also, the integration of GIS technologies into the Common Information Model (CIM) aims...... presented, as a motivation for the choice of the relevant state of the art research. In relation to the knowledge provided by the metering data, a definition of the big data concept will be further introduced, according to the requirements established by the project definition. Geographic Information System...... to improve the visualization efficiency. As a consequence, investigating methods for adapting CIM standards to the GIS platform are also important....

  14. The role of domestic biomass in electricity, heat and grid balancing markets in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panos, Evangelos; Kannan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss Energy Strategy targets to reduce per capita energy consumption, to decrease the share of fossil energy and to replace nuclear electricity generation by gains in efficiency and renewable energy sources. In view of the above objectives, we evaluated the prospects of biomass in stationary applications and grid balancing from an energy system perspective. We quantify a number of “what-if” scenarios using a cost-optimisation bottom-up model, with detailed representation of biomass production and use pathways, electricity and heat sectors, and grid ancillary services markets. The scenario analysis shows that domestic biomass can contribute 5–7% in electricity and 14–21% in heat production by 2050, depending on natural gas prices and climate policy intensity. Pooling of biogenic driven cogeneration plants can provide about 22–44% of the total secondary control power in 2050. Generally, biogenic technologies complement other assets in heat, electricity and ancillary services markets such as heat pumps, new renewable sources and hydropower. - Highlights: • Development and application of the Swiss TIMES electricity and heat system model. • Bioenergy supplies 5–7% of electricity and 14–21% of heat by 2050. • Biogenic gas driven CHP can provide 22–44% of secondary control power in 2050.

  15. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. А. Fursanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of prospective operation of the city electric networks in the conditions of the MART GRID, which will be quite different as compared to the traditional understanding and approaches, are under consideration. This requires the selection and application of appropriate analytical criteria and approaches to assessment, analysis and control of the networks. With this regard the following criteria are recommended: in a particular case – the optimal (minimal technological electric power consumption (losses, while in general – economically reasonable (minimal cost value of electric power transmission. It should be also borne in mind that contemporary urban networks are actively saturated with distributed sources of small generation that have radically changed the structure of electrical networks; therefore, account for such sources is an absolutely necessary objective of management regimes of urban electric networks, both traditional and in associated with the SMART GRID. A case of the analysis and control of urban electric 10 kV networks with distributed small sources of generation has been developed and presented according to the theoretical criterion of minimum relative active power losses in the circuit as a control case. The conducted research makes it possible to determine the magnitude of the tolerance network mode from the point of the theoretical minimum. 

  16. Optimization and Economic Analysis of Grid-Photovoltaic Electric Boat Charging Station in Kuala Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N.A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the feasibility of developing grid-photovoltaic electric boat charging station in Kuala Terengganu using simulation-based method. The main focus is on reducing the dependency on subsidy spent by the government in fisheries sector and encouraging green technology in commercial sector. All data such as solar radiation, amount of subsidy received by fishermen, and fishing activities were collected for the selected area. Economic analyses of the proposed system are discussed based on payback period and net present cost (NPC. The comparison between the proposed system and the grid-only system is done based on the production and consumption of electricity per year, the NPC and emission of pollutant. The system also generates high income from selling energy to the grid with tariff rates RM 1.49/kWh. It is concluded that the proposed system is feasible to be developed in the selected area with the payback period and the NPC are 8.2 years and RM 759,098, respectively. The results also show that the performance of the proposed system is better than grid-only system in all the interested parameters.

  17. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  18. Modeling Of Components Of A Photovoltaic System With Voltage Inverter For Connection To The Electrical Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Andreza C.; Blasques, Luis C. M.; Galhardo, Marcos A. B.; Pinho, João T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of the electrical equipment and control mechanisms used in the power conditioning system of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS), such as the photovoltaic generator, the DC/DC converter, the voltage inverter with PWM control, its output filter, as well as the converter controls and their functionalities, and the interconnection of the system with the distribution grid and load. In addition to the modeling of the grid-tie inverter, the main equipment of the power conditioning system, this paper describes the synchronization form of the photovoltaic (PV) generation with the electricity distribution grid, considering the power injection control method, the maximum power point tracking technique for maximizing the energy supplied by the photovoltaic generator, and the complete topology of the proposed PV system. The main objective is to provide a computational model capable of simulating the behavior of the GCPVS elements, varying the climatic conditions and the power demand on the AC side, presenting consistent results for different operating conditions, such as variations of climatic parameters (solar irradiance, wind speed, and ambient temperature) and load. In these cases, it is possible to evaluate the behavior of the system, sometimes supplying both the active and reactive power of the load, according to the need. (author)

  19. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  20. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajduk, Andrej; Kocarev, Ljupco; Todorovski, Mirko; Kurths, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  1. An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, A. V.; Doorman, G.L.; Ericson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

  2. Robust Multi-Objective PQ Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in Flexible Unbalanced Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Soroudi, Alireza; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV management strategies can be used for mitigating adverse effects and supporting the distribution grid. This paper proposes a robust multi-objective methodology for determining the optimal day...... demand response programs. The method is tested on a real Danish unbalanced distribution grid with 35% EV penetration to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is shown that the proposed formulation guarantees an optimal EV cost as long as the price uncertainties are lower than....... The robust formulation effectively considers the errors in the electricity price forecast and its influence on the EV schedule. Moreover, the impact of EV reactive power support on objective values and technical parameters is analysed both when EVs are the only flexible resources and when linked with other...

  3. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  4. The EU Electricity Policy. Outlook for the Smart Grid Roll-Out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2014-01-01

    The energy transition from a socio-economic system based on fossil fuels to a sustainable low-carbon system is a multi-faceted process. This 'transformation' of the energy system, more specifically of the power system, creates several challenges. These concern in particular the connections with the existing electricity infrastructure of new renewable power sources and the distribution of generating systems, together with automated grid assets and smart meters. The European energy transition is based on two different revolutions: i) the 'post-World War II' industrial investment recovery, when electricity systems were built; and ii) the 'Information Technology' revolution that is bringing new communication and connection modes to the grid. There is no unique path towards a de-carbonised electricity system. The implementation of this development depends on the current local configuration of electricity grids, the interaction between grid operators, the generation mix, the availability of backup generation capacities and the level of cross-border interconnections. Moreover, this evolution impacts the roles of all actors of the energy system, in particular those of Transmission System Operators (TSOs), of Distribution System operators (DSOs) and of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs). Besides the technical challenge, the Energy transition requires the transformation of business models designed as platforms, which are able to integrate different levels of stakeholders, whereas in the past, utilities were based on vertical, public monopoly structures that were often paid based on cost-of-service rules. The traditional utility models were characterised by centralised governance but as a result of technological changes, this system is making way for a more horizontal and multilateral governance. The role of consumers is also changing, with new attributes in particular with regards to demand-response measures. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the key structural

  5. Applying an activity based model to explore the potential of electrical vehicles in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    De Ridder, Fjo; D'Hulst, Reinhilde; KNAPEN, Luk; JANSSENS, Davy

    2013-01-01

    We have explored to what extent charging electrical vehicles (EVs) can be exploited to stabilize smart grids. Firstly, we discuss the transition to a future with a lot of renewable energy resources. Next, a decentralized coordinated charging schedule for EVs is proposed, taking into account the comfort settings of the consumers and local and temporal flexibility. Based on the vehicle behavior information (trajectories, parking places and duration, etc.) the algorithm assures that all vehicles...

  6. Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid : role of hydropower in existing markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences - the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints

  7. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure assignment and power grid impacts assessment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the charging demand of an early electric vehicle (EV) market in Beijing and proposes an assignment model to distribute charging infrastructure. It finds that each type of charging infrastructure has its limitation, and integration is needed to offer a reliable charging service. It also reveals that the service radius of fast charging stations directly influences the final distribution pattern and an infrastructure deployment strategy with short service radius for fast charging stations has relatively fewer disturbances on the power grid. Additionally, although the adoption of electric vehicles will cause an additional electrical load on the Beijing's power grid, this additional load can be accommodated by the current grid's capacity via the charging time management and the battery swap strategy. - Highlight: ► Charging posts, fast charging stations, and battery swap stations should be integrated. ► Charging posts at home parking places will take a major role in a charging network. ► A service radius of 2 km is proposed for fast charging stations deployment. ► The additional charging load from EVs can be accommodated by charging time management.

  8. Trends of the electricity output, power conversion efficiency, and the grid emission factor in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, concerns about the atmospheric environmental problems in North Korea (NK) have been growing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), NK was the first ranked country in mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012. Reliable energy-related data in NK were needed to understand the characteristics of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government were limited. Nevertheless, we could find specific energy-related data produced by NK in the Project Design Documents (PDDs) of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). There were the 6 registered CDM projects hosted by North Korea, developed as small hydropower plants. Several data of each power plant, such as the electricity output, connected to the Eastern Power Grid (EPG) or the Western Power Grid (WPG) in North Korea were provided in the CDM PDDs. We (1) figured out the trends of the electricity output, the `power conversion efficiency' which we defined the amount of generated electricity to the supplied input primary energy for power generation, and fuel mix as grid emission factor in NK as using the data produced by NK between 2005 and 2009, (2) discussed the operating status of the thermal power plants in NK, and (3) discussed the energy/environmental-related policies and the priority issues in NK in this study.

  9. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    electricity market and diminish the business cases for these technologies by increasing the costs of their electricity consumption. With the present tariff structure, only a very small part of the flexibility potential is deployed or operated flexible. In this paper we compare two different grid tariff...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  10. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The 73rd annual report of the State Electricity Commission (SEC) of Victoria covers the financial year ended 30 June 1992. A total revenue of 3,300 million dollars and a net profit of 155.7 million dollars was recorded. There was continued improvement in employee productivity. Progress was made on the Victorian Power Pool (VicPool) pooling arrangement in anticipation of open access to the power grid. A 3-year business plan was formulated and corporate strategy revised. The Strategic Research Program on brown coal technologies, aimed at reducing costs of electricity and emissions of CO[sub 2], continued. Environmental activities continued in the areas of renewable energy source development, air quality monitoring, acid rain, water management, land rehabilitation and improvements to powerlines. The report includes statistical data on customer statistics, electricity sales, power stations, brown coal and briquette production and financial sales.

  11. Simulation-Based Approach for Studying the Balancing of Local Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is facing great challenges due to pollution and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. As part of solving these challenges, the use of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles (EVs is rapidly increasing. However, increased dynamics have triggered problems in balancing energy supply and consumption demand in the power systems. The resulting uncertainty and unpredictability of energy production, consumption, and management of peak loads has caused an increase in costs for energy market actors. Therefore, the means for studying the balancing of local smart grids with EVs is a starting point for this paper. The main contribution is a simulation-based approach which was developed to enable the study of the balancing of local distribution grids with EV batteries in a cost-efficient manner. The simulation-based approach is applied to enable the execution of a distributed system with the simulation of a local distribution grid, including a number of charging stations and EVs. A simulation system has been constructed to support the simulation-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out by executing the scenario related to balancing local distribution grids with EV batteries in a step-by-step manner. The evaluation results indicate that the simulation-based approach is able to facilitate the evaluation of smart grid– and EV-related communication protocols, control algorithms for charging, and functionalities of local distribution grids as part of a complex, critical cyber-physical system. In addition, the simulation system is able to incorporate advanced methods for monitoring, controlling, tracking, and modeling behavior. The simulation model of the local distribution grid can be executed with the smart control of charging and discharging powers of the EVs according to the load situation in the local distribution grid. The resulting simulation system can be applied to the study of balancing local smart grids with EV

  12. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenlots, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Zhenhua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  13. Planning low-carbon electricity systems under uncertainty considering operational flexibility and smart grid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Street, Alexandre; Arroyo, José M; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-08-13

    Electricity grid operators and planners need to deal with both the rapidly increasing integration of renewables and an unprecedented level of uncertainty that originates from unknown generation outputs, changing commercial and regulatory frameworks aimed to foster low-carbon technologies, the evolving availability of market information on feasibility and costs of various technologies, etc. In this context, there is a significant risk of locking-in to inefficient investment planning solutions determined by current deterministic engineering practices that neither capture uncertainty nor represent the actual operation of the planned infrastructure under high penetration of renewables. We therefore present an alternative optimization framework to plan electricity grids that deals with uncertain scenarios and represents increased operational details. The presented framework is able to model the effects of an array of flexible, smart grid technologies that can efficiently displace the need for conventional solutions. We then argue, and demonstrate via the proposed framework and an illustrative example, that proper modelling of uncertainty and operational constraints in planning is key to valuing operationally flexible solutions leading to optimal investment in a smart grid context. Finally, we review the most used practices in power system planning under uncertainty, highlight the challenges of incorporating operational aspects and advocate the need for new and computationally effective optimization tools to properly value the benefits of flexible, smart grid solutions in planning. Such tools are essential to accelerate the development of a low-carbon energy system and investment in the most appropriate portfolio of renewable energy sources and complementary enabling smart technologies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. CSP electricity cost evolution and grid parities based on the IEA roadmaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Moro, J.; Martínez-Duart, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The main object of this paper consists in the development of a mathematical closed-form expression for the evaluation, in the period 2010–2050, of the levelized costs of energy (LCOE) of concentrating solar power (CSP) electricity. For this purpose, the LCOE is calculated using a life-cycle cost method, based on the net present value, the discounted cash flow technique and the technology learning curve approach. By this procedure, the LCOE corresponding to CSP electricity is calculated as a function of ten independent variables. Among these parameters, special attention has been put on the evaluation of the available solar resource, the analysis of the IEA predicted values for the cumulative installed capacity, the initial (2010) cost of the system, the discount and learning rates, etc. One significant contribution of our work is that the predicted evolution of the LCOEs strongly depend, not only on the particular values of the cumulative installed capacity function in the targeted years, but mainly on the specific curved time-paths which are followed by this function. The results obtained in this work are shown both graphically and numerically. Finally, the implications that the results could have in energy planning policies and grid parity calculations are discussed. - Highlights: ► A mathematical closed expression has been developed for calculating the evolution of CSP electricity costs. ► Our technique for the prediction of CSP electricity costs and grid parities is based on IEA Roadmaps. ► The time-table (2010–2050) of cumulative installed CSP capacity is key to electricity cost predictions. ► CSP grid parities can occur within next decade for sites with proper solar resources.

  15. Solar fired combined RO/MED desalination plant integrated with electrical power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrobaei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include proposed scheme (solar Fired Combined Reverse Osmosis (ROY Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Seawater desalination Plant (SCDP) integrated with electrical power grid (EPG)) for repowering and modification of the conventional grid connected RO desalination plants. The model of SCDP during sunny periods may be applied to the following modes operation: *Full solar desalination (i.e. solar thermal and electrical power generation in solar plant is elivered to the desalination process and the surplus electricity is fed into EPG). *Hybrid solar desalination (I.e. a small share of the electrical power consumption for desalination process compensated by EPG). During cloudly periods and at night the SCDP operates as a conventional RO desalination plant. To establish the range, in which solar energy for seawater desalination would be competitive to fossil energy and investigates the potential effect of the proposed scheme on the repowering effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed. The repowered effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed.The repowered effectiveness in optaimizing model was characterized by the condition of attaining maximum fuel saving in the EPG. The study result shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme for modification and repowering the RO plant. For the case study. (SCDP with maual share of solar electrical power generation 67.4%) the economical effect amount 138.9 ton fuel/year for each MW design thermal energy of parabolic solar collectors array and the corresponding decrease in exhaust gases emission (Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 0.55 ton/year.MW, carbon dioxides (CO2) 434.9 ton/year.MW). Moreover, implementation of combined RO/MED design for repowering and modification of conventional grid connected RO plant will

  16. Envisioning a renewable electricity future for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Trieu; Mulcahy, David; Hand, M. Maureen; Baldwin, Samuel F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high renewable electricity penetration scenarios in the United States using detailed capacity expansion modeling that is designed to properly account for the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar resources. The scenarios focus solely on the electricity system, an important sector within the larger energy sector, and demonstrate long-term visions of a U.S. power system where renewable technologies, including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind, contribute 80% of 2050 annual electricity, including 49–55% from wind and solar photovoltaic generation. We present the integration challenges of achieving this high penetration and characterize the options to increase grid flexibility to manage variability. Four high renewable pathways are modeled and demonstrate the robustness and diversity of renewable options. We estimate 69–82% annual greenhouse gas emission reductions and 3%–30% incremental electricity price increases associated with reaching 80%-by-2050 renewable electricity relative to reference scenarios. This paper affirms and strengthens similar analysis from the Renewable Electricity Futures study by using an improved model and updated data to better reflect investment and dispatch decisions under current outlooks for the U.S. electricity sector. - Highlights: • We model high renewable electricity scenarios for the U.S. electricity sector. • The mix of technologies will depend on future costs and system conditions. • Integration challenges and flexibility options are presented. • We estimate an incremental electricity price increase of 3–30% to achieve 80% RE (renewable electricity). • We estimate 69–82% reduction in annual carbon emissions with 80% RE

  17. Qualitative Description of Electric Power System Future States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Trevor D.; Corbin, Charles D.

    2018-03-06

    The simulation and evaluation of transactive systems depends to a large extent on the context in which those efforts are performed. Assumptions regarding the composition of the electric power system, the regulatory and policy environment, the distribution of renewable and other distributed energy resources (DERs), technological advances, and consumer engagement all contribute to, and affect, the evaluation of any given transactive system, regardless of its design. It is our position that the assumptions made about the state of the future power grid will determine, to some extent, the systems ultimately deployed, and that the transactive system itself may play an important role in the evolution of the power system.

  18. Generating grid states from Schrödinger-cat states without postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Daniel J.; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2018-02-01

    Grid (or comb) states are an interesting class of bosonic states introduced by Gottesman, Kitaev, and Preskill [D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.64.012310] to encode a qubit into an oscillator. A method to generate or "breed" a grid state from Schrödinger cat states using beam splitters and homodyne measurements is known [H. M. Vasconcelos, L. Sanz, and S. Glancy, Opt. Lett. 35, 3261 (2010), 10.1364/OL.35.003261], but this method requires postselection. In this paper we show how postprocessing of the measurement data can be used to entirely remove the need for postselection, making the scheme much more viable. We bound the asymptotic behavior of the breeding procedure and demonstrate the efficacy of the method numerically.

  19. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  20. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability

  1. Vision on Scarcity of Transportation. Policy with regard to scarcity of transportation capacity in the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, K.; Fransen, M.; Kranenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Competitive Authority NMa established increasing problems that are related to the (possible future) scarcity in transportation capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to inform market parties about the general vision of NMa in relation to the scarcity issue. This document first addresses the problems related to scarcity in transport capacity in the electricity grid. Next policy developments in this area are discussed and NMa's vision is elaborated and explained [nl

  2. A spatially and temporally resolved model of the electricity grid – Economic vs environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model is developed. • MCP and average price of electricity are determined for 2050 base case. • Economic and environmental dispatch strategies are assessed. • Environmental dispatch results in significant NO_x reduction and higher prices. • A combination of economic and environmental strategies is the preferred method. - Abstract: Substantial changes need to occur in the electricity generation sector in order to address greenhouse gas and urban air quality goals. These goals, combined with increasing energy prices, have led to elevated interest in alternative, low to zero carbon and pollutant emission technologies in this sector. The challenge is to assess the impacts of various technologies, policies, and market practices in order to develop a roadmap to meet energy and environmental goals. To this end, a spatially and temporally resolved resource dispatch model is developed that simulates an electricity market while taking into account physical constraints associated with various components of an electricity grid. Multiple technology simulation modules are developed to provide inputs to the model. The model is used to design a market-based grid, and to develop and evaluate different dispatch strategies. To maintain the system cost at acceptable levels and reduce emissions, the results reveal that the best approach is a combination of economic and environmental dispatch strategies. The methodology and the tools developed provide a means to examine various aspects of future scenarios and their impacts on different sectors, and can be used for both decision making and planning.

  3. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Whitacre, J.F.; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. Ancillary services such as frequency regulation are not considered here because only a small number of vehicles will saturate that market. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO 4 /Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization. For a 16 kWh (57.6 MJ) vehicle battery pack, the maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ∝US$140 to $250 in the three cities. If the measured battery degradation is applied, however, the maximum annual profit (if battery pack replacement costs fall to $5000 for a 16 kWh battery) decreases to ∝10-120. It appears unlikely that these profits alone will provide sufficient incentive to the vehicle owner to use the battery pack for electricity storage and later off-vehicle use. We also estimate grid net social welfare benefits from avoiding the construction and use of peaking generators that may accrue to the owner, finding that these are similar in magnitude to the energy arbitrage profit. (author)

  4. Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov M. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.

  5. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  6. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  7. Optimization Strategies for the Vulnerability Analysis of the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, A.; Meza, J.; Donde, V.; Lesieutre, B.

    2007-11-13

    Identifying small groups of lines, whose removal would cause a severe blackout, is critical for the secure operation of the electric power grid. We show how power grid vulnerability analysis can be studied as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Our analysis reveals a special structure in the formulation that can be exploited to avoid nonlinearity and approximate the original problem as a pure combinatorial problem. The key new observation behind our analysis is the correspondence between the Jacobian matrix (a representation of the feasibility boundary of the equations that describe the flow of power in the network) and the Laplacian matrix in spectral graph theory (a representation of the graph of the power grid). The reduced combinatorial problem is known as the network inhibition problem, for which we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Our experiments on benchmark power grids show that the reduced combinatorial model provides an accurate approximation, to enable vulnerability analyses of real-sized problems with more than 10,000 power lines.

  8. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebec, Gaelle; Moisan, Francois; Gioria, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  9. Role of nuclear and other energy sources in the Cuban electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Perez, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy options to cover electricity demand in Cuba for next years are limited. Expected increase in the oil companion gas, domestic crude oil production and biomass co-generation can not cover the 3-4% growth of the electricity demand. An important option could be the conclusion of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. The paper presents the country energy supply situation for electricity generation and how can be covered the electricity demand forecast until 2015. A short description of the methodology, to evaluate the expansion of the electricity system using DECADES tools is presented. Results of the optimal expansion plan considering the introduction of NPP in combination with increase in the use of renewable sources is analyzed in the framework of small country electricity grid from economical and environmental point of view. Finally, in the conclusions the paper shows the role of NPP to cover electricity demand and in the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions. The contribution of renewable energy sources to these objectives is also presented. (author)

  10. Smart grids or smart users? Involving users in developing a low carbon electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbong, Geert P.J.; Beemsterboer, Sjouke; Sengers, Frans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses practices and perceptions of stakeholders on including users in smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. In-depth interviews have been conducted and smart grid projects have been analysed, using a Strategic Niche Management framework. The analysis shows that there is a clear trend to pay more attention to users in new smart grid projects. However, too much focus on technology and economic incentives can become a barrier. Some institutional barriers have been identified. New innovative business models should be developed to explore different options to involve users. The many pilot and demonstration projects that are taking shape or are being planned offer an excellent opportunity for such an exploration. Learning on the social dimensions of smart grids, and the international exchange of experiences can prevent a premature lock-in in a particular pathway. - Highlights: ► State of the art of smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. ► Focus on role and position of users. ► Trend is to active involvement of users. ► Several barriers have been identified.

  11. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  12. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  13. Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in the Power Demand Curve in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve...... for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs...... and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32...

  14. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill......, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......, technical, and economic aspects of the solar PV-battery system and the Malaysian electricity tariff for commercial and industrial customers....

  15. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  16. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  17. Normal return and efficient operation of the electric grid monopolies; Normalavkastning og effektiv drift for nettmonopolene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjeret, Frode Andre

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the size of the risk premium for electric grid operation in Norway. The size of the companies' risk premium must reflect the market requirements on return compensation (for normal investment risk), adjusted for the return risk for this type of enterprise. The return risk of the grid companies is discussed using two approaches, one theoretical and one empirical. This implies an empirical analysis of comparable foreign companies and an examination of the Norwegian regulatory regime. It is concluded that the regulatory authority is using too small an estimate for the risk premium when determining the capital income of the Norwegian utilities. The report also discusses the principles for valuation of the capital base.

  18. Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Controllability for Provision of Time Critical Grid Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional generation by more stochastic renewable generation sources leads to reduction of inertia and controllability in the power system. This introduces the need for more dynamic regulation services. These faster services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles. EVs are a fast responding energy resource with high availability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the limits of EV charging controllability with the focus on its suitability for providing ancillary grid services. Three different series produced EVs are tested....... The experimental testing is done by using charging current controllability of built-in AC charger to provide a primary frequency regulation service with very dynamic input frequency. The results show that most the controllability of most EVs is more than suitable for providing time critical grid services...

  19. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  20. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  1. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  2. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  3. Smart electric grids, a market on the edge of energy and domotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    'Intelligence' - a word derived from intelligentia in Latin, made up of the prefix inte- ('between') and the root legere ('choose, pick') or ligare ('link') - refers to all thought processes that enable a living being to adapt to new situations, to learn or understand and, above all, to act. Intelligence without action is futile. Artificial intelligence is now being installed on everyday objects. Everything is becoming 'smart': homes, buildings, grids... and, above all, the energy sector. Using the example of smart electric grids, this article establishes a few links between information and communication technology and the environmental transition in order to show that, if these two trends converge. A new type of economy - perhaps a smart economy - could emerge

  4. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  5. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, Rick [Nhu Energy, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Steurer, Mischa [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Faruque, MD Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ravindra, Harsha [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hariri, Ali [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Moaveni, Houtan [New York Power Authority (NYPA), New York (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (Unitied States); Click, Dave [ESA Renewables, LLC, Sanford, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Reedy, Bob [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  6. State-space-based harmonic stability analysis for paralleled grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a state-space-based harmonic stability analysis of paralleled grid-connected inverters system. A small signal model of individual inverter is developed, where LCL filter, the equivalent delay of control system, and current controller are modeled. Then, the overall small signal...... model of paralleled grid-connected inverters is built. Finally, the state space-based stability analysis approach is developed to explain the harmonic resonance phenomenon. The eigenvalue traces associated with time delay and coupled grid impedance are obtained, which accounts for how the unstable...... inverter produces the harmonic resonance and leads to the instability of whole paralleled system. The proposed approach reveals the contributions of the grid impedance as well as the coupled effect on other grid-connected inverters under different grid conditions. Simulation and experimental results...

  7. Optimization of Electricity Generation Schemes in the Java-Bali Grid System with Co2 Reduction Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research considers the problem of reducing CO2 emissions from the Java-Bali power grid system that consists of a variety of power-generating plants: coal-fired, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy (PV, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, and landfill gas. The problem is formulated as linear programming and solved using LINGO 10. The model was developed for a nation to meet a specified CO2 emission target. Two carbon dioxide mitigation options are considered in this study, i.e. fuel balancing and fuel switching. In order to reduce the CO2 emissions by 26% in 2021, State Electric Supply Company (PLN has to generate up to 30% of electricity from renewable energy (RE, and the cost of electricity (COE is expected to increase to 617.77 IDR per kWh for a fuel balancing option, while for fuel switching option, PLN has to generate 29% of electricity from RE, and the COE is expected to increase to 535.85 IDR per kWh.

  8. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  9. The impact of the year 2000 issue on electricity grid performance and nuclear power plant operation in Bulgaria, the Russian Federation and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Y2K date conversion is a potential source of problems to the operation of nuclear power plants through external events and interfaces with electrical power systems, telecommunication systems, and other supporting infrastructures, even if diagnostic and corrective actions within the plant itself, both planned or implemented, are successful. At the end of 1998 there were 425 nuclear power plants in operation in 31 Member States. Most countries and regions are conducting intensive diagnostic and corrective activities to 'find and fix' Y2K software (including embedded software) and equipment problems in their nuclear power plants. These efforts are supplemented by contingency plans. Other countries and regions have not been making comparable efforts and are relying mainly on contingency planning and preparedness. Results of diagnostic and corrective activities can be of benefit to all Member States. Activities on 'find and fix' Y2K problems in electricity grid control systems and computer related technology in national and regional dispatch centers could be of considerable benefit due to the widespread use of the same components, equipment, and software. Consistent with the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Y2K program, an experts meeting was convened to collect information on Y2K activities related to grid operation in countries that operate nuclear power plants and also to identify specific actions to be taken and issues to be addressed in connection with expected grid disturbances. The countries of eastern Europe and the Russian Federation were considered to be a very important region due to delays in taking Y2K corrective actions but also due to the similarity of their electricity grid systems both in components and design but also in mode of operation. Most of these countries either operate their own nuclear power plants or are linked through their electricity grid interconnections to a neighboring country that operates nuclear power

  10. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  11. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  12. A new load frequency control strategy for micro-grids with considering electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , by using a recently introduced plane representation, GT2FLS can be regarded as a combination of several interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems (IT2FLS), each with its own corresponding α level and linguistic rules can directly be incorporated into the controller. This paper further presents a new modified...... is working in an island operation mode. Meanwhile, electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity, being used as dispersed energy storage units instead of small batteries in the systems. Accordingly, the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power control can be applied to compensate for the inadequate LFC capacity...

  13. An analysis of off grid electrical systems in rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P.; Khan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The decade leading up to the end of the last millennium saw systematic unbundling and privatisation of power utility companies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The new profit driven entrepreneurs have swiftly moved to consolidate in urban enclaves and put paid to any remote hope for future rural electrification. Consequently, rural communities have resorted to fending for themselves by adapting to off grid electrification. Most of these emerging installations are individual isolated units. This paper looks at various off gird electric system configurations in rural Kenya and suggests ways in which they could be reconfigured to be more energy efficient

  14. Electricity industry restructuring and distribution Grids' Take-Over. A survey of foreign case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenti, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper surveys some case studies drawn from five foreign countries experience in distribution restructuring and property changes. From transaction prices has been derived the indirect distribution grid evaluation by the investors. The resulting values are widespread and cannot be taken as a sound reference for similar future property transfers in Italy. This paper may be looked at as a methodological guides that will likely shed some light on the possible implementations of the recent electricity bill 79/99 named Decreto Bersani [it

  15. Modeling and simulating an electrical grid subsystem for power balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for power balance analysis in Smart Grids where the physical behavior of different electrical devices is modeled at unit level, and the collective load and generation curves can later be obtained by aggregation. In this way, new behaviors, flexibilities and intelligent...... strategies for power consumption and generation can be easily introduced at the user-level and the system-level impact analyzed on the aggregated profiles. The future aim is to investigate bottom-up balancing strategies, where units with a flexible energy band can react independently to power balance signals...

  16. VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Pratt, Richard M.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2013-12-06

    The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the smart grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON platform has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  18. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  19. End-User Tools Towards AN Efficient Electricity Consumption: the Dynamic Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Fouad; Kist, Alexander A.

    2010-06-01

    Growing uncontrolled electrical demands have caused increased supply requirements. This causes volatile electrical markets and has detrimental unsustainable environmental impacts. The market is presently characterized by regular daily peak demand conditions associated with high electricity prices. A demand-side response system can limit peak demands to an acceptable level. The proposed scheme is based on energy demand and price information which is available online. An online server is used to communicate the information of electricity suppliers to users, who are able to use the information to manage and control their own demand. A configurable, intelligent switching system is used to control local loads during peak events and mange the loads at other times as necessary. The aim is to shift end user loads towards periods where energy demand and therefore also prices are at the lowest. As a result, this will flatten the load profile and avoiding load peeks which are costly for suppliers. The scheme is an endeavour towards achieving a dynamic smart grid demand-side-response environment using information-based communication and computer-controlled switching. Diffusing the scheme shall lead to improved electrical supply services and controlled energy consumption and prices.

  20. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  1. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-10-03

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods, which combine the fidelity of hardware tests with the flexibility of computer simulation. This paper summarizes a study wherein two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models using an OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters based on characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders using physical inverters. Selected results are presented in this paper, and complete results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  2. Battery charging and discharging research based on the interactive technology of smart grid and electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang

    2018-06-01

    To further study the bidirectional flow problem of V2G (Vehicle to Grid) charge and discharge motor, the mathematical model of AC/DC converter and bi-directional DC/DC converter was established. Then, lithium battery was chosen as the battery of electric vehicle and its mathematical model was established. In order to improve the service life of lithium battery, bidirectional DC/DC converter adopted constant current and constant voltage control strategy. In the initial stage of charging, constant current charging was adopted with current single closed loop control. After reaching a certain value, voltage was switched to constant voltage charging controlled by voltage and current. Subsequently, the V2G system simulation model was built in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results verified the correctness of the control strategy and showed that when charging, constant current and constant voltage charging was achieved, the grid side voltage and current were in the same phase, and the power factor was about 1. When discharging, the constant current discharge was applied, and the grid voltage and current phase difference was r. To sum up, the simulation results are correct and helpful.

  3. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  4. Perception of barriers for expansion of electricity grids in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglini, Antonella; Komendantova, Nadejda; Brtnik, Patricia; Patt, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Many of the scenarios for decarbonising the European energy system involve the integration of large-scale and decentralised renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power. However, such integration requires substantial and rapid improvements to the existing transmission grids. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, we analysed the opinions and views of stakeholders concerning the main barriers and solutions to this problem. The results suggest two conclusions. The first is that primary barriers to the currently needed level of grid expansion are not technical or financial, but the lack of appropriate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance. The second is that major changes are needed in the overall regulatory process, rather than simply minor modifications or improved implementation of existing regulations. - Highlights: ► Estimations of perceptions on barriers for expansion of electricity grids in Europe. ► Recommendations on political process and level of acceptance among European population. ► Needs for better, simplified and standardized regulations. ► Strong and transparent consultation process in all stages.

  5. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  6. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  7. Novel wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The only wind powered EV charging station reported in the literature. • The charging station maximally converts wind energy into electric energy. • Novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique implemented in the EV charging station. • The charging station is grid-connected type with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. • The charging station balances load demand in the grid connected to it. - Abstract: In this study, a novel grid-connected wind powered electric vehicle (EV) charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is designed and constructed. The wind powered EV charging station consists of a wind energy conversion system (WECS), a unidirectional DC/DC converter connected to the WECS, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, 15 bidirectional DC/DC converters dedicated to 15 charging stations provided for charging EVs, and a three-phase bidirectional DC/AC inverter connected to the grid. The contribution of this work is that the grid-connected wind powered EV charging station presented in this work is the only constructed EV charging station reported in the literature that uses wind energy as a renewable resource to produce electric energy for charging EVs, and moreover, it maximally converts wind energy into electric energy because it uses a novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique proposed in this study. Other works are only simulated models without any new MPPT consideration. It is demonstrated that the constructed wind powered EV charging station is a perfect charging station that not only produces electric energy to charge EVs but also balances load demand in the grid connected to it.

  8. Evaluation of the electric vehicle impact in the power demand curve in a smart grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of operation costs and load factor. • Contribution of electric vehicles to load diagram leveling. • Use of epigraph variables to transform non-convex functions in convex ones. • Evaluation of the obtained results considering different EVs penetration. - Abstract: Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32-bus distribution network in the case study section considering different scenarios of EVs penetration to analyze their impact in the network and in the other energy resources management

  9. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, N.S.; Taylor, P.C.; Lang, P.D.; Jones, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in electrical energy storage systems is increasing as the opportunities for their application become more compelling in an industry with a back-drop of ageing assets, increasing distributed generation and a desire to transform networks into Smart Grids. A field trial of an energy storage system designed and built by ABB is taking place on a section of 11 kV distribution network operated by EDF Energy Networks in Great Britain. This paper reports on the findings from simulation software developed at Durham University that evaluates the benefits brought by operating an energy storage system in response to multiple events on multiple networks. The tool manages the allocation of a finite energy resource to achieve the most beneficial shared operation across two adjacent areas of distribution network. Simulations account for the key energy storage system parameters of capacity and power rating. Results for events requiring voltage control and power flow management show how the choice of operating strategy influences the benefits achieved. The wider implications of these results are discussed to provide an assessment of the role of electrical energy storage systems in future Smart Grids.

  10. Identification and Ranking of Critical Assets within an Electrical Grid under Threat of Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Blake R.

    This paper examines the ranking of critical assets within an electrical grid under threat of cyber attack.1 Critical to this analysis is the assumption of zero hour exploits namely, the threat of an immediate attack as soon as a vulnerability is discovered. Modeling shows that over time load fluctuations as well as other system variations will change the importance of each asset in the delivery of bulk power. As opposed to classic stability studies where risk can be shown to be greatest during high load periods, the zero hour exploit-cyber-risk assumes that vulnerabilities will be attacked as soon as they are discovered. The probability of attacks is made uniform over time to include any and all possible attacks. Examining the impact of an attack and how the grid reacts immediately following an attack will identify and determine the criticality of each asset. This work endeavors to fulfill the NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Requirements CIP-001-1 through CIP-009-2, cyber security requirements for the reliable supply of bulk power to customers throughout North America. 1Critical assets will here refer to facilities, systems, and equipment, which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable, would affect the reliability or operability of the Bulk Electric System, NERC Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards, 2009

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society ``Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid`` is based on experience from last conference of Croatian Nuclear Society in Opatija and on the same philosophy of serving the needs of small or medium present or future user countries. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO{sub 2} emission, or liability and insurance for nuclear damage. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently the world wide developments on innovative reactors` systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships. Here is presented nine sessions: 1. Energy Options in Countries with Small and Medium Grids 2. Reactors for Small and Medium Electricity Grids 3. Operation and Maintenance Experience 4. Deterministic Safety Analysis 5. Probabilistic Safety Analysis 6. Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning 7. Public Relations 8. Emergency Preparedness 9. Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage

  12. Proceedings of the International Conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society ''Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid'' is based on experience from last conference of Croatian Nuclear Society in Opatija and on the same philosophy of serving the needs of small or medium present or future user countries. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO 2 emission, or liability and insurance for nuclear damage. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently the world wide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships. Here is presented nine sessions: 1. Energy Options in Countries with Small and Medium Grids 2. Reactors for Small and Medium Electricity Grids 3. Operation and Maintenance Experience 4. Deterministic Safety Analysis 5. Probabilistic Safety Analysis 6. Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning 7. Public Relations 8. Emergency Preparedness 9. Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage

  13. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  14. State of the Art Authentication, Access Control, and Secure Integration in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetesh Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid (SG is a promising platform for providing more reliable, efficient, and cost effective electricity to the consumers in a secure manner. Numerous initiatives across the globe are taken by both industry and academia in order to compile various security issues in the smart grid network. Unfortunately, there is no impactful survey paper available in the literature on authentications in the smart grid network. Therefore, this paper addresses the required objectives of an authentication protocol in the smart grid network along with the focus on mutual authentication, access control, and secure integration among different SG components. We review the existing authentication protocols, and analyze mutual authentication, privacy, trust, integrity, and confidentiality of communicating information in the smart grid network. We review authentications between the communicated entities in the smart grid, such as smart appliance, smart meter, energy provider, control center (CC, and home/building/neighborhood area network gateways (GW. We also review the existing authentication schemes for the vehicle-to-grid (V2G communication network along with various available secure integration and access control schemes. We also discuss the importance of the mutual authentication among SG entities while providing confidentiality and privacy preservation, seamless integration, and required access control with lower overhead, cost, and delay. This paper will help to provide a better understanding of current authentication, authorization, and secure integration issues in the smart grid network and directions to create interest among researchers to further explore these promising areas.

  15. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  16. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    project (Flex-ChEV) supported by the ERA-Net Smart Grid FP7 program. The principal asset of the proposed charging station (CS) is a dedicated Energy Storage System (ESS) to compensate for adverse effects on the grid caused by peak charging demand and which could impose severe trials for the local DSO....... Furthermore, CS of this kind could serve multiple business purposes in a smart grid. It can serve as a hub for seamless integration of local renewable and distributed energy resources, it can provide added flexibility for the local grid through different ancillary services and it can act as an efficient......This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  17. Book of abstracts of 10th International Conference on Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference "Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids" is the tenth in a series of meetings on the same topics organized biennially by the Croatian Nuclear Society. This topical conference was initiated in 1996 and the first conference took place in Opatija, the following seven in Dubrovnik and the last one in Zadar. This year, it again takes place in Zadar. The conference is organized with intention to focus on specific aspects of usage of nuclear energy for electricity production in small and medium sized countries. Importance of international cooperation for the assessment of the nuclear option has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result of this recognition, the Conference is organized in co-operation with IAEA. Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety and University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing have also participated in Conference organization. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as country energy needs, new reactor technologies, operation and safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The conference also focuses on the exchange of experience and co-operation in the fields of fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, regulatory practice and liability.

  18. Dealing with Demand in Electric Grids with an Adaptive Consumption Management Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Jiménez-Bravo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of consumption in homes and workplaces is an increasingly important aspect if we consider the growing popularity of smart cities, the increasing use of renewable energies, and the policies of the European Union on using energy in an efficient and clean way. These factors make it necessary to have a system that is capable of predicting what devices are connected to an electrical network. For demand management, the system must also be able to control the power supply to these devices. To this end, we propose the use of a multiagent system that includes agents with advanced reasoning and learning capacities. More specifically, the agents incorporate a case-based reasoning system and machine learning techniques. Besides, the multiagent system includes agents that are specialized in the management of the data acquired and the electrical devices. The aim is to adjust the consumption of electricity in networks to the electrical demand, and this will be done by acting automatically on the detected devices. The proposed system provides promising results; it is capable of predicting what devices are connected to the power grid at a high success rate. The accuracy of the system makes it possible to act according to the device preferences established in the system. This allows for adjusting the consumption to the current demand situation, without the risk of important home appliances being switched off.

  19. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...... from the grid, exposes the EV battery to these undesirable ripple current components for a longer period and discharges the battery due to power conversion losses. This paper presents a way to provide V2G reactive power compensation through a boost inverter-based single stage EV charger and a DC...

  20. Phase-wise enhanced voltage support from electric vehicles in a Danish low-voltage distribution grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    High deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) imposes great challenges for the distribution grids, especially in unbalanced systems with notable voltage variations which detrimentally affect security of supply. On the other hand, with development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs may be able...... to provide numerous services for grid support, e.g., voltage control. Implemented electronic equipment will allow them to exchange reactive power for autonomous voltage support without communicating with the distribution system operator or influencing the available active power for primary transportation...

  1. Simultaneous day-ahead forecasting of electricity price and load in smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Ghasemi, A.; Moradzadeh, M.; Nooshyar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel MIMO-based support vector machine for forecasting. • Considered uncertainties for better simulation for filtering in input data. • Used LSSVM technique for learning. • Proposed a new modification for standard artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize LSSVM engine. - Abstract: In smart grids, customers are promoted to change their energy consumption patterns by electricity prices. In fact, in this environment, the electricity price and load consumption are highly corrected such that the market participants will have complex model in their decisions to maximize their profit. Although the available forecasting mythologies perform well in electricity market by way of little or no load and price interdependencies, but cannot capture load and price dynamics if they exist. To overcome this shortage, a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) model is presented which can consider the correlation between electricity price and load. The proposed model consists of three components known as a Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) to make valuable subsets, Generalized Mutual Information (GMI) to select best input candidate and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) based on MIMO model, called LSSVM-MIMO, to make simultaneous load and price forecasts. Moreover, the LSSVM-MIMO parameters are optimized by a novel Quasi-Oppositional Artificial Bee Colony (QOABC) algorithm. Some forecasting indices based on error factor are considered to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. Simulations carried out on New York Independent System Operator, New South Wales (NSW) and PJM electricity markets data, and showing that the proposed hybrid algorithm has good potential for simultaneous forecasting of electricity price and load

  2. The Westinghouse AP600 an advanced nuclear option for small or medium electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H. J.; Novak, V.

    1996-01-01

    During the early days of commercial nuclear power, many countries looking to add nuclear power to their energy mix required large plants to meet the energy needs of rapidly growing populations and large industrial complexes. The majority of plants worldwide are in the range of 100 megawatts and beyond. During the 1970s, it became apparent that a smaller nuclear plants would appeal to utilities looking to add additional power capacity to existing grids, or to utilities in smaller countries which were seeking efficient, new nuclear generation capacity for the first time. For instance, the Westinghouse-designed 600 megawatt Krsko plant in Slovenia began operation in 1980, providing electricity to inhabitants of relatively small, yet industrial populations of Slovenia and Croatia. This plant design incorporated the best, proven technology available at that time, based on 20 years of Westinghouse PWR pioneering experience. Beginning in the early 1980s, Westinghouse began to build further upon that experience - in part through the advanced light water reactor programs established by the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - to design a simplified, advanced nuclear reactor in the 600 megawatt range. Originally, Westinghouse's development of its AP600 (advanced, passive 600-megawatt) plants was geared towards the needs of U.S. utilities which specified smaller, simplified nuclear options for the decades ahead. It soon became evident that the small and medium sized electricity grids of international markets could benefit from this new reactor. From the earliest days of Westinghouse's AP600 development, the corporation invited members of the international nuclear community to take part in the design, development and testing of the AP600 - with the goal of designing a reactor that would meet the diverse needs of an international industry composed of countries with similar, yet different, concerns. (author)

  3. Optimal grid design and logistic planning for wind and biomass based renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the grid design and optimal allocation of wind and biomass resources for renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties is studied. Due to wind intermittency, generation of wind electricity is not uniform and cannot be counted on to be readily available to meet the demand. Biomass represents a type of stored energy and is the only renewable resource that can be used for producing biofuels and generating electricity whenever required. However, amount of biomass resources are finite and might not be sufficient to meet the demand for electricity and biofuels. Potential of wind and biomass resources is therefore jointly analyzed for electricity generation. Policies are proposed and evaluated for optimal allocation of finite biomass resources for electricity generation. A stochastic programming model is proposed that optimally balances the electricity demand across the available supply from wind and biomass resources under uncertainties in wind speed and electricity sale price. A case study set in the American Midwest is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by determining the optimal decisions for generation and transmission of renewable electricity. Sensitivity analysis shows that level of subsidy for renewable electricity production has a major impact on the decisions. - Highlights: • Stochastic optimization model for wind/biomass renewable electricity supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in wind speeds and electricity sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. • Uncertainty affects grid connectivity and allocation of power generation capacity. • Location of wind farms is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  4. IRIS: A Comprehensive Approach to Implementing Nuclear Power in Countries with Smaller Electric Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M. D.; Sandell, L.; Storrick, G. D.; Cavlina, N.

    2008-01-01

    Many emerging markets and smaller size countries are considering the nuclear option and the deployment of their first nuclear reactor(s). However, some of their requirements and available infrastructure are quite different from those of larger countries currently employing nuclear power. Specific considerations might include: a small size electrical grid, in some cases on the order of a few GWe; limited financial resources; no nuclear experience; inadequate availability of necessary material and people infrastructure. Large nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe or greater do not provide best fit. The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor, under development by an international team of eighteen organizations from nine countries led by Westinghouse specifically addresses these needs. IRIS is an advanced PWR with integral configuration that yields a simple design with enhanced safety. The IRIS size is 335 MWe and may be deployed in single or multiple modules. It can fit almost any grid, or a small utility within a larger grid; moreover, it allows incremental power additions as needed. The capital outlay is of the order of hundreds of millions rather than a few billions dollars. Successive construction and operation of multiple modules significantly reduces the required capital resources and capital at risk with generation income from earlier plants offsetting the construction outlays of subsequent ones. This is highly desirable in both developed and emerging markets, but it may be of critical importance to the latter. IRIS safety characteristics allow for licensing with a significantly reduced size of emergency zone, a critical feature for small countries and when cogeneration is desired. In fact, IRIS is designed to produce steam for district heating, water desalination and bio-fuel generation in addition to electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced in February 2008 its intention to contribute to funding the licensing of a 'Grid

  5. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  6. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 12, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  7. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 13, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  8. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  9. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-16

    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  10. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  11. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  12. Estimation of the cost savings from participation of electric vehicles in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaee, Mahdi; Cruden, Andrew; Sharkh, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity of the batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) could be utilised to store electrical energy and give it back to the grid when needed by participating in vehicle to grid (V2G) schemes. This participation could be a source of revenue for vehicle owners thus reducing the total charging cost of their EVs. A V2G simulator has been developed using MATLAB to find out the potential cost saving from participation of EVs in V2G schemes. A standard IEEE30 network has been modelled in ...

  13. Transmission pricing in privately-owned electricity grids: An illustration from the Argentine electricity pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, Manuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine electricity reform of 1992 offers an interesting example of decentralized transmission pricing arrangements within a competitive system. This paper is a shortened version of an original analysis made in 1994 of the regulation of the Argentine transmission system, with emphasis on investment cost allocation rules. To make up for the limitation of short-run marginal cost (SRMC) pricing, incentives on service quality were put in place, including penalties for lack of line availability. The mechanism for capacity expansion, based on ad-hoc rules for allocations of investment costs, had the potential to produce non-optimal investment outcomes, as such rules ignored beneficiaries on the demand side. For fine tuning of this system, I proposed an alternative rule based on traditional welfare analysis that broadens the universe of identified beneficiaries, and thus can be expected to produce a fairer outcome on investment cost allocation, reducing the potential risks of non-optimal investment. A brief postscript comments on the paper from the perspective of 2007. (author)

  14. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  15. Distributed Generation Integration in the Electric Grid: Energy Storage System for Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Delfanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years generation from renewable energy sources (RESs has grown considerably in European electrical networks. Transmission system operators are greatly concerned about the impact of RESs on the operational security and efficiency of their networks and more in general of the ENTSO-E interconnected system. Grid codes are to be revised in order to harmonise the rules regarding the connection of RES power plants. A main issue concerns frequency control: frequency is greatly affected by RESs intermittency and its deviations must be limited as much as possible in order to guarantee a suitable level of power quality. To improve frequency stability, in the future, Grid codes could extend frequency control requirements also to RES units, whereas today they are applied only to conventional power plants. Energy storage systems can be a possible solution to increase the flexibility and performance of RES power plants: they allow generators to modulate their power injections without wasting renewable energy. In this paper, the authors studied the suitability of extending frequency control to RES units integrating them with energy storage systems. In particular, the paper focuses on the impact of frequency control on the storage lifetime by analysing the power charge/discharge in response to real frequency oscillations.

  16. Basic rules for defining price of use for the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Ott, W.; Wild, J.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that was to make suggestions on the basic rules that are to be used in defining the prices for the third-party use of the electricity grid for the transport of power. The report discusses the aims of these basic rules and the requirements placed on them. The rules are to help fulfil goals in the economic efficiency and energy policy areas, be transparent and cost-oriented and not be discriminatory. Also, theoretical fundamentals and experience gained in other countries are discussed. Comparisons are made between possible solutions and the suggestion already made by the Swiss Association of Power Utilities. Recommendations are made on the definition of grid price structures that contain energy and power components as well as an optional basic charge. The report also discusses the questions of charges for initial connection to the mains and those made when the supplier is changed

  17. Grid-connected solar electricity in France : the example of Martinique, a French overseas department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, Y. [Tenesol (France)

    2006-07-01

    Tenesol has specialized in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy since 1983 with experience in grid connections, professional applications, decentralized rural electrification and solar pumping. The company's operations include the manufacture of solar panels, system design and turnkey installations backed by a comprehensive after sales service through a global network of subsidiaries. Half of Tenesol's group shareholdings belong to Electricite de France and half belong to Total. The 2 specialized subsidiaries of Tenesol are Tenesa Manufacturing and Tenesol Technologies. This presentation focused Tenesol's operations in Martinique and its financial environment of grid-connected photovoltaics. It presented Tenesol's approach for technical and economic validation of roof suitability in terms of the disc orientation of PV panels. The key figures of installing a 300 square metre 40 kWp PV system were presented along with photographs of installations in Martinique. The installations have a total installed capacity of 2.5 MWp and an annual solar electricity production of 3,375,000 kWhs, resulting in a reduction of 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. figs.

  18. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  19. Power Control at Grid Connected Converters and Analytical Solution of Steady States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor; Škramlík, Jiří; Muller, Z.; Švec, J.; Tlustý, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, September (2015), s. 1-12 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : power control * converter * grid Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2015 http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/601916.pdf

  20. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  1. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  2. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging...... schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention...

  3. Two-Stage Electric Vehicle Charging Coordination in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    ). Being a sizable rated element, electric vehicles (EVs) can offer a great deal of demand flexibility in future intelligent grids. This paper first investigates and analyzes driving pattern and charging requirements of EVs. Secondly, a two-stage charging algorithm, namely local adaptive control...... encompassed by a central coordinative control, is proposed to realize the flexibility offered by EV. The local control enables adaptive charging; whereas the central coordinative control prepares optimized charging schedules. Results from various scenarios show that the proposed algorithm enables significant......Increased environmental awareness in the recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources (RESs); especially solar PV and wind. One of the effective solutions to compensate intermittencies in generation from the RESs is to enable consumer participation in demand response (DR...

  4. Analysis of breakdown on thermal and electrical measurements for SPIDER accelerating grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.pesce@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX - Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pomaro, Nicola [Consorzio RFX - Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The PRIMA test facility, under realization in Padova, includes a full size plasma source prototype for ITER, called SPIDER (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio Frequency plasma). The effects of breakdown in the electrical insulation inside the ion source are analyzed with particular care to the embedded diagnostic system, i.e. the thermal and electrical measurements installed on the grids and ion source case and transferred by multipolar cables to the acquisition system, located inside the 100 kV insulated deck and hosting the ion source power supply, the signal conditioning and the acquisition cubicles. The breakdown affects strongly the measurements, so it has to be mitigated in order to guarantee adequate reliability of the whole measurement set. A parametric study has been carried out on a detailed circuital model for fast transients, implemented using SimPowerSystems{sup TM} tool of Matlab Simulink code. The model includes all the relevant conductors of the subsystems downstream the insulating transformer of the Accelerating Grids Power Supply (AGPS), i.e. the AGPS rectifier, the multipolar transmission line, the 100 kV High Voltage Deck, the ion source power supply and the ion source itself. In particular all the magnetic and capacitive couplings have been computed by a proper 2D fem model. The optimization of the cabling layout, of the wire screening and of the protection devices, like surge arresters and resistors, has been carried out through the accurate modeling of the circuit. The energy dissipated on each ion source surge arrester is estimated and adequate TSD (transient suppression devices) are selected. A peculiar and difficult to satisfy requirement is the high number of surges that the TSD has to withstand. Breakdowns between components polarized at different voltages have been considered, in order to inspect the worst condition during a breakdown.

  5. Smart grids and the transformation of the electricity sector: ICT firms as potential catalysts for sectoral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlinghagen, Sabine; Markard, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability challenges associated with increasing demand and generation of electricity require a far-reaching transformation of the energy system. Smart grid technologies are expected to play a major role in such sectoral transformation. While a growing body of literature is concerned with the dynamics and particularities of sectoral transformation, most contributions have focused on exogenous shocks or new technological developments as drivers of change. This paper complements the existing perspectives by exploring the role of actors as catalysts for transformation. Within the field of smart grid, we study the transformative influence of ICT firms on the energy sector in Europe. More specifically, we analyze actor participation in 450 European smart grid projects between 2000 and 2011 as well as acquisitions in the field. We find that incumbent firms from the ICT sector have gained influence and drive transformation through the creation of variety, in terms of technology, business models and value chains. As a strategic reaction, electricity sector incumbents have recently acquired many start-ups specialized in ICT technology and thus expanded their competence base. We conclude that entrants from another sector can be important catalysts for sectoral transformation and should be analyzed more systematically in transition studies. - Highlight: ► Entrants from adjacent sectors are important catalysts for sectoral transformation. ► We provide a socio-technical systems perspective on smart grid. ► We analyze actor participation in smart grid projects in Europe 2000–2011. ► ICT firms drive transformation towards a smarter grid.

  6. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  7. Managing the output of intermittent sources of electricity: Managers of distribution networks at the center of smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallean, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    A literal revolution is under way in electricity grids owing to: the rapid decentralized production of electricity, the emergence of an active management of demand, the announcement of new means of storage, and the development of new uses, such as electric vehicles. These changes will gradually happen, differently depending on the country and region; but they will combine to form a system that, to be managed, will call for more intelligence, robots and electronics. At the junction between the production and consumption of electricity, distribution network managers must oversee the new system's technical complexity, limit rising costs and guarantee the quality of the services expected by clients

  8. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  9. Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid.

  10. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This fact sheet overviews the Greening the Grid India grid integration study. The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Thanks to advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration.

  11. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  12. High-resolution integration of water, energy, and climate models to assess electricity grid vulnerabilities to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Macknick, J.; Tidwell, V. C.; Zagona, E. A.; Magee, T. M.; Bennett, K.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector depends on large amounts of water for hydropower generation and cooling thermoelectric power plants. Variability in water quantity and temperature due to climate change could reduce the performance and reliability of individual power plants and of the electric grid as a system. While studies have modeled water usage in power systems planning, few have linked grid operations with physical water constraints or with climate-induced changes in water resources to capture the role of the energy-water nexus in power systems flexibility and adequacy. In addition, many hydrologic and hydropower models have a limited representation of power sector water demands and grid interaction opportunities of demand response and ancillary services. A multi-model framework was developed to integrate and harmonize electricity, water, and climate models, allowing for high-resolution simulation of the spatial, temporal, and physical dynamics of these interacting systems. The San Juan River basin in the Southwestern U.S., which contains thermoelectric power plants, hydropower facilities, and multiple non-energy water demands, was chosen as a case study. Downscaled data from three global climate models and predicted regional water demand changes were implemented in the simulations. The Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model was used to project inflows, ambient air temperature, and humidity in the San Juan River Basin. Resulting river operations, water deliveries, water shortage sharing agreements, new water demands, and hydroelectricity generation at the basin-scale were estimated with RiverWare. The impacts of water availability and temperature on electric grid dispatch, curtailment, cooling water usage, and electricity generation cost were modeled in PLEXOS. Lack of water availability resulting from climate, new water demands, and shortage sharing agreements will require thermoelectric generators to drastically decrease power production, as much as 50

  13. Electric states and magnetic states in a Majorana field. (Part 1: electric states)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochak, G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Mojarana condition, by which the Dirac equation is reduced to the so-called ''abbreviated'' equation, may be equivalently replaced in a gauge invariant way by the condition that the chiral invariant equals zero. This allows up to give a Lagrangian derivation of the Majorana field. Symmetry laws of this field, interacting with an electromagnetic field, are then investigated. The system is shown to be split (contrary to the Dirac field, but just as the monopole one) into two chiral components. The solution of the equation of such a chiral component is given in the case of a central electric field. It is shown that there are no bounds states but only ionized states which are a special superposition of positive and negative energy states. Finally the geometrical optics approximation is investigated and the Jacobi equation is solved for a chiral component in a central electric field. All the trajectories are hyperbolic but are not of the classical keplerian type. They are divided into two groups respectively corresponding to attractive and repulsive motions, whatever the particle charge may be [fr

  14. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff:A review on maximum demand shaving

    OpenAIRE

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-conne...

  15. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  16. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  17. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  18. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, M.J.; van Sark, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the

  19. Analysis and Comparison of Voltage Dependent Charging Strategies for Single-Phase Electric Vehicles in an Unbalanced Danish Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, Jorge Nájera; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies four voltage dependent solutions for modulating the charging of multiple Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a real Danish network. Uncontrolled EV charging, especially in grid with high EV penetration, can result in overloaded lines and transformers, low-voltages and other performance...

  20. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  1. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Jeffery S. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Kelly, Suedeen G. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Nordhaus, Robert R. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Douglas W. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  2. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  3. On state estimation in electric drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with state estimation in electric drives. On one hand a nonlinear observer is designed, whereas on the other hand the speed state is estimated by using the dirty derivative from the position measured. The dirty derivative is an approximate version of the perfect derivative which introduces an estimation error few times analyzed in drive applications. For this reason, our proposal in this work consists in illustrating several aspects on the performance of the dirty derivator in presence of both model uncertainties and noisy measurements. To this end, a case study is introduced. The case study considers rotor speed estimation in a permanent magnet stepper motor, by assuming that rotor position and electrical variables are measured. In addition, this paper presents comments about the connection between dirty derivators and observers, and advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are also remarked.

  4. Integrating wind power in electricity grids: an economic analysis. Paper no. IGEC-1-017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Van Kooten, G.C.; Pitt, L.

    2005-01-01

    As a renewable energy source, wind power is gaining popularity as a favoured alternative to fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro power generation. In Europe, countries are required to achieve 15% of their energy consumption from wind by 2010 as the EU strives to meet its Kyoto obligations. Wind power is considered to be environmentally friendly and low cost. While environmental friendliness has come under scrutiny because wind turbines continue to pose a hazard to birds, are visually unappealing, affect the uses of land and change air flows, the purpose of this paper is to examine the question of its presumed low cost and effectiveness at reducing CO 2 emissions by replacing power generated from fossil fuels. To do so, we develop a mathematical programming model of an electrical energy grid that employs power generated by a base-load nuclear power plant, a coal-fired power plant and a gas facility, with the latter used primarily to meet peak-load demand. We then introduce varying levels of wind power generating capacity into the grid. The results indicate that, at low levels of penetration, wind power can provide CO 2 mitigation benefits at low cost. However, as the degree of penetrability increases, the costs of reducing CO 2 emissions rise rapidly because of the spinning reserves required in the coal- and gas-fired power plants. Fossil fuels are consumed even though no power is generated in the eventuality that wind power is suddenly unavailable. The whimsical nature of wind energy makes it a less than desirable long-term source of energy. (author)

  5. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H; Ferroukhi, R [et al.; IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  6. Deregulating electricity in the American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbush, Thomas Lee

    This dissertation develops nine stylized facts that summarize the major consequences of deregulation and tests these against recent experience in the electric utility industry. The experience of the electric utility industry matches the predictions of the stylized facts, except in one instance: although real electricity prices fell between 1982 and 1999, real prices fell less in states that deregulated. This dissertation presents three possible explanations for this discrepancy. First, through dynamic efficiency, consumers may benefit in the long run through lower rates and better service in the electricity market, or deregulation may be a public good that benefits electricity consumers through economy-wide improvements in efficiency. Second, higher prices may be a long-run outcome as predicted by the theory of the second best. Or third, both regulators and utilities may use deregulation to generate new rents. Because the original rents from regulation had dissipated, new rents could be generated under deregulation by making consumers pay off the utilities and then creating more new rents through re-regulation of the industry. Close examination tends to support the first and third explanations, although the second-best explanation cannot yet be ruled out completely. Higher prices appear to be a transitional phenomenon, resulting from a short-term payoff from consumers to incumbent utilities that was required to move deregulation forward. This payoff occurs as residential and commercial consumers bear relatively higher rates over three to five years to compensate utilities for stranded costs, investments thought to be unrecoverable under full competition. All states are benefiting from deregulation, but states that are deregulating are benefiting less while stranded costs are being recovered. This dissertation also examines California electricity deregulation and finds that the experience in California conforms with to the stylized facts, and that certain structural

  7. Integrating Demand-Side Resources into the Electric Grid: Economic and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael J.

    Demand-side resources are taking an increasingly prominent role in providing essential grid services once provided by thermal power plants. This thesis considers the economic feasibility and environmental effects of integrating demand-side resources into the electric grid with consideration given to the diversity of market and environmental conditions that can affect their behavior. Chapter 2 explores the private economics and system-level carbon dioxide reduction when using demand response for spinning reserve. Steady end uses like lighting are more than twice as profitable as seasonal end uses because spinning reserve is needed year-round. Avoided carbon emission damages from using demand response instead of fossil fuel generation for spinning reserve are sufficient to justify incentives for demand response resources. Chapter 3 quantifies the system-level net emissions rate and private economics of behind-the-meter energy storage. Net emission rates are lower than marginal emission rates for power plants and in-line with estimates of net emission rates from grid-level storage. The economics are favorable for many buildings in regions with high demand charges like California and New York, even without subsidies. Future penetration into regions with average charges like Pennsylvania will depend greatly on installation cost reductions and wholesale prices for ancillary services. Chapter 4 outlines a novel econometric model to quantify potential revenues from energy storage that reduces demand charges. The model is based on a novel predictive metric that is derived from the building's load profile. Normalized revenue estimates are independent of the power capacity of the battery holding other performance characteristics equal, which can be used to calculate the profit-maximizing storage size. Chapter 5 analyzes the economic feasibility of flow batteries in the commercial and industrial market. Flow batteries at a 4-hour duration must be less expensive on a dollar per

  8. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N. A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA weather station. For load profile, the information about fishing activities and the amount of subsidy spent by the government were obtained from the interview session with the fishermen and validated with Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM. The results acquired are compared between grid-only and grid-connected RE systems in term of net present cost (NPC, operational cost and payback period. A sensitivity analysis is done to find the minimal Feed-in Tariff (FiT rate that can be implemented in order to encourage the use of RE system in this sector. Then, the relationship between FiT and NPC, payback period and emission of pollutants are analyzed. At current FiT rates RM 0.813/kWh, hybrid grid-PV system manages to achieve its optimal in generating high income from selling the power to the grid with convincing amount of electricity production and short payback period. It is concluded at minimum RM 0.56/kWh of FiT, the grid-connected RE system is possible to be developed because its performance shows better outcome compared to the grid-only system.

  9. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  10. The role of CSP in the electricity system of South Africa - technical operation, grid constraints, market structure and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Christoph; Friebertshäuser, Chris; Hartmann, Niklas; Fluri, Thomas; Nitz, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the role of solar technologies (CSP and PV) and their interaction in the South African electricity system by using a fundamental electricity system modelling (ENTIGRIS-SouthAfrica). The model is used to analyse the South African long-term electricity generation portfolio mix, optimized site selection and required transmission capacities until the year 2050. Hereby especially the location and grid integration of solar technology (PV and CSP) and wind power plants is analysed. This analysis is carried out by using detailed resource assessment of both technologies. A cluster approach is presented to reduce complexity by integrating the data in an optimization model.

  11. Nuclear Power in Countries with Limited Electrical Grid Capacities: The Case of Armenia. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication addresses issues relating to nuclear power deployment faced by countries with electrical grids of limited capacity and stability. In particular, technology issues and related institutional measures as well as some technical and economic options for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste applicable in these circumstances are addressed. It aims to assist States implementing a nuclear power programme in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste that is technically sound, environmentally responsible, economically feasible and acceptable to all stakeholders. Armenia was selected as a case study and the data obtained from the studies performed led to general recommendations which could be applicable to some other countries with similar economies and grid characteristics

  12. Transactive Home Energy Management Systems: The Impact of Their Proliferation on the Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Annabelle; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Ruth, Mark; Wu, Hongyu; Lunacek, Monte; Vaynshenk, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 100 million singlefamily homes in the United States account for 36% of the electricity load, and often they determine the peak system load, especially on hot summer days when residential air-conditioning use is high. Traditional building power profiles are changing. Currently, there is an increased use of energy-efficient building materials and designs, which decreases building loads. In addition, there is an increased adoption of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV), which leads to bidirectional power flow and significant power ramps as PV output decreases in the late afternoon. Building power profiles are likely to change even more as residential energy storage products proliferate. Therefore, a better understanding of residential electricity demand is key to addressing the envisioned transition of the electric power system from its traditional structure to one that is transactive.

  13. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India’s Electric Grid, Vol. 1. National Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soonee, Sushil Kumar [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Narasimhan, S. R. [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Joshi, Mohit [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); McBennett, Brendan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sreedharan, Priya [US Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Using advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India’s RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration. Our primary tool is a detailed production cost model, which simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. Our team comprises a core group from the Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd. (POSOCO), which is the national grid operator (with representation from the National, Southern, and Western Regional Load Dispatch Centers) under Ministry of Power, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and a broader modeling team that includes Central Electricity Authority (CEA), POWERGRID (the central transmission utility, CTU), and State Load Dispatch Centers in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh. Our model includes high-resolution wind and solar data (forecasts and actuals), unique properties for each generator, CEA/CTU’s anticipated buildout of the power system, and enforced state-to-state transmission flows. Assuming the fulfillment of current efforts to provide better access to the physical flexibility of the power system, we find that power system balancing with 100 GW of solar and 60 GW of wind is achievable at 15-minute operational timescales with minimal RE curtailment. This RE capacity meets 22% of total projected 2022 electricity consumption in India with annual RE

  14. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I -- National Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McBennett, Brendan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Soonee, Sushil Kumar [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Narasimhan, S. R. [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Joshi, Mohit [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Sreedharan, Priya [United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-06-28

    The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Thanks to advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration. Our primary tool is a detailed production cost model, which simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. Our team comprises a core group from the Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd. (POSOCO), which is the national grid operator (with representation from the National, Southern, and Western Regional Load Dispatch Centers) under Ministry of Power, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and a broader modeling team that includes Central Electricity Authority (CEA), POWERGRID (the central transmission utility, CTU), and State Load Dispatch Centers in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh. Our model includes high-resolution wind and solar data (forecasts and actuals), unique properties for each generator, CEA/CTU's anticipated buildout of the power system, and enforced state-to-state transmission flows. Assuming the fulfillment of current efforts to provide better access to the physical flexibility of the power system, we find that power system balancing with 100 GW of solar and 60 GW of wind is achievable at 15-minute operational timescales with minimal RE curtailment. This RE capacity meets 22% of total projected 2022 electricity consumption in India with annual RE

  15. Forecast of the installed capacity for renewable energy installations and its influence on the grid extensions in the State of Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Harald; Pfeiffer, Klaus [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); Zeidler, Jens [MITNETZ Strom, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schulz, Stephan [50Hertz Transmission, Berlin (Germany); Dorendorf, Stefan [E.ON edis, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Development of installations for renewable electrical generation forced by the Federal Government of Germany causes an increased expansion of wind, photovoltaic and biomass installations, especially in the plain states, such as Brandenburg in Germany. Therefore, a study on grid integration of renewable energy in the state of Brandenburg was commissioned on behalf of the Brandenburg Ministry of Economics and European Affairs. The work tasks of the study, on the one hand, consisted of comprehensive forecast for the renewable energy sources such as wind, biomass and photovoltaic. On the other hand, grid calculations for the evaluation of plausibility of the existing grid extension concepts of network operators in Brandenburg were conducted based on this forecast. The results of this study are to be presented to general public in this contribution. (orig.)

  16. Proceedings of the International conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society `Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid` was organized with intention to focus on and discuss the specific needs and interests of the countries with small or medium nuclear systems. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. For these countries the world wide developments on innovative reactors` systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships.

  17. Proceedings of the International conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society 'Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid' was organized with intention to focus on and discuss the specific needs and interests of the countries with small or medium nuclear systems. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. For these countries the world wide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships

  18. Fuzzy-Estimation Control for Improvement Microwave Connection for Iraq Electrical Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoomod, Haider K.; Radi, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    The demand for broadband wireless services is increasing day by day (as internet or radio broadcast and TV etc.) for this reason and optimal exploiting for this bandwidth may be other reasons indeed be there is problem in the communication channels. it’s necessary that exploiting the good part form this bandwidth. In this paper, we propose to use estimation technique for estimate channel availability in that moment and next one to know the error in the bandwidth channel for controlling the possibility data transferring through the channel. The proposed estimation based on the combination of the least Minimum square (LMS), Standard Kalman filter, and Modified Kalman filter. The error estimation in channel use as control parameter in fuzzy rules to adjusted the rate and size sending data through the network channel, and rearrangement the priorities of the buffered data (workstation control parameters, Texts, phone call, images, and camera video) for the worst cases of error in channel. The propose system is designed to management data communications through the channels connect among the Iraqi electrical grid stations. The proposed results show that the modified Kalman filter have a best result in time and noise estimation (0.1109 for 5% noise estimation to 0.3211 for 90% noise estimation) and the packets loss rate is reduced with ratio from (35% to 385%).

  19. What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Brandon; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Carvalho, Pedro M S

    2013-01-01

    Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700 MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500 MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.16–0.30 MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.07–0.13 MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity. (letter)

  20. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  1. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle

    2017-05-08

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  2. The electricity grid as a marketplace. Mannheim tests virtual energy market for generators, consumers and grid operators; Das Stromnetz wird zum Marktplatz. Mannheim erprobt virtuellen Energiemarkt fuer Erzeuger, Verbraucher und Netzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In future, electricity grids will have to transport large quantities of electricity from renewable energy sources fed centrally and decentrally. Plus, we need greater reserves, storage facilities and flexibility in the electricity market due to the fluctuating supply. In the ''Modellstadt Mannheim'' project, a virtual energy marketplace is being developed for energy generators, consumers and grid operators. Customers can see the source and price of their electricity and influence them directly via the timing and extent of their consumption and the delivery from their own generation systems. This approach also includes gas, water and district heating. (orig.)

  3. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  4. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    and a heterogeneous scale-free (fractal) network. For the stylized electric power grid, our initial simulations demonstrate that the addition of geographically unrestricted random transactions can eventually push a grid to cascading failure, thus supporting the hypothesis that actions of unrestrained power markets (without proper security coordination on market actions) can undermine large scale system stability. We also find that network topology greatly influences system robustness. Homogeneous networks that are 'fish-net' like can withstand many more transaction perturbations before cascading than can scale-free networks. Interestingly, when the homogeneous network finally cascades, it tends to fail in its entirety, while the scale-free tends to compartmentalize failure and thus leads to smaller, more restricted outages. In the case of stylized Fedwire, initial simulations show that as banks adaptively set their individual reserves in response to random transactions, the ratio of the total volume of transactions to individual reserves, or 'turnover ratio', increases with increasing volume. The removal of a bank from interaction within the network then creates a cascade, its speed of propagation increasing as the turnover ratio increases. We also find that propagation is accelerated by patterned transactions (as expected to occur within real markets) and in scale-free networks, by the 'attack' of the most highly connected bank. These results suggest that the time scale for intervention by the Federal Reserve to divert a cascade in Fedwire may be quite short. Ongoing work in our cascade analysis effort is building on both these specific stylized applications to enhance their fidelity as well as embracing new applications. We are implementing markets and additional network interactions (e.g., social, telecommunication, information gathering, and control) that can impose structured drives (perturbations) comparable to those seen in real

  5. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV) framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The...

  6. Load Frequency Control in Isolated Micro-Grids with Electrical Vehicles Based on Multivariable Generalized Predictive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In power systems, although the inertia energy in power sources can partly cover power unbalances caused by load disturbance or renewable energy fluctuation, it is still hard to maintain the frequency deviation within acceptable ranges. However, with the vehicle-to-grid (V2G technique, electric vehicles (EVs can act as mobile energy storage units, which could be a solution for load frequency control (LFC in an isolated grid. In this paper, a LFC model of an isolated micro-grid with EVs, distributed generations and their constraints is developed. In addition, a controller based on multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC theory is proposed for LFC in the isolated micro-grid, where EVs and diesel generator (DG are coordinated to achieve a satisfied performance on load frequency. A benchmark isolated micro-grid with EVs, DG, and wind farm is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate that with MGPC, the energy stored in EVs can be managed intelligently according to LFC requirement. This improves the system frequency stability with complex operation situations including the random renewable energy resource and the continuous load disturbances.

  7. The Development of Models for Assessment of the Geomagnetically Induced Currents Impact on Electric Power Grids during Geomagnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAKHNINA, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model and an algorithm for the calculation of the functioning of an electric power grid of arbitrary configuration and complexity during geomagnetic storms were developed. The calculations were performed in the MATLAB mathematical package and the Simulink environment. The binding of objects to geographical coordinates is realized in the model, which enables to determine the matrix of potentials of geoelectric fields in nodal points. In order to define the instantaneous magnetizing currents, the power transformers are designed on the basis of the T-shaped equivalent circuit with a nonlinear mutual inductance of magnetization branch. Calculation of RMS values of active, reactive and total power values in all the elements is done with regard to the impact of harmonic components of the current and voltage. The results of modeling of the impact of geomagnetic storms of various intensity with the west-east direction of the geoelectric field vector for Samara region electric power grid are given.

  8. Optimizing Electric Vehicle Coordination Over a Heterogeneous Mesh Network in a Scaled-Down Smart Grid Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Lévesque, Martin; Maier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    High penetration of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles (EVs) create power imbalance and congestion in the existing power network, and hence causes significant problems in the control and operation. Despite investing huge efforts from the electric utilities, governments, and researchers......, smart grid (SG) is still at the developmental stage to address those issues. In this regard, a smart grid testbed (SGT) is desirable to develop, analyze, and demonstrate various novel SG solutions, namely demand response, real-time pricing, and congestion management. In this paper, a novel SGT...... is developed in a laboratory by scaling a 250 kVA, 0.4 kV real low-voltage distribution feeder down to 1 kVA, 0.22 kV. Information and communication technology is integrated in the scaled-down network to establish real-time monitoring and control. The novelty of the developed testbed is demonstrated...

  9. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active...... power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model......Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...

  10. Renewables-Friendly Grid Development Strategies. Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with "renewables-friendly"" grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  11. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh N. A. S.; Muda W. M. W.

    2017-01-01

    In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE) technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sul...

  12. SEA for strategic grid planning in South Africa: Enabling the efficient and effective roll out of strategic electricity transmission infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fischer, TD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available | Resilience and Sustainability 36th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment 11 - 14 May 2016 | Nagoya Congress Center | Aichi-Nagoya | Japan | www.iaia.org SEA FOR STRATEGIC GRID PLANNING IN SOUTH AFRICA: Enabling... the efficient and effective roll out of strategic electricity transmission infrastructure Abstract ID: 409 Authors: Marshall Mabin(1) , Paul Lochner and Dee Fischer Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 320 Stellenbosch 7599 South...

  13. Compensating customer-generators: a taxonomy describing methods of compensating customer-generators for electricity supplied to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Bell, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The increasing popularity of on-site power generation is driving the demand for methods to compensate customer-generators that supply electricity to the grid. Although many practices exist for providing such compensation, confusion surrounds the terms often used to describe such practices (notably, net metering and net billing). To help clarify this situation, the following paper proposes a taxonomy that distinguishes between 16 distinct compensation practices

  14. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  15. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage...

  16. Book of Abstracts of 6th International Conference: Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.; Pevec, D.; Bajs, T.

    2006-01-01

    The conference is organized with intention to focus on specific aspects of usage of nuclear energy for electricity production. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as country energy needs, new reactor technologies, operation and safety of the operating nuclear power plants, environmental advantages, and organizational, educational and social requirements for countries with small and medium electricity grid. In order to achieve the best safety and operational standards, these countries must put added emphasis on rational and efficient use of human and material resources. Therefore, the conference also focuses on the exchange of experience and co-operation in the fields of safety culture, liability, regulatory practice and radioactive waste management

  17. Book of Abstracts of 6th International Conference: Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavlina, N; Pevec, D; Bajs, T [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The conference is organized with intention to focus on specific aspects of usage of nuclear energy for electricity production. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as country energy needs, new reactor technologies, operation and safety of the operating nuclear power plants, environmental advantages, and organizational, educational and social requirements for countries with small and medium electricity grid. In order to achieve the best safety and operational standards, these countries must put added emphasis on rational and efficient use of human and material resources. Therefore, the conference also focuses on the exchange of experience and co-operation in the fields of safety culture, liability, regulatory practice and radioactive waste management.

  18. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles: Fast Primary Control Enhanced by a Stabilizer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles are growing in popularity as a zero emission and efficient mode of transport against traditional internal combustion engine-based vehicles. Considerable as flexible distributed energy storage systems, by adjusting the battery charging process they can potentially provide different...... ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...

  19. Smart grids or smart users? : involving users in developing a low carbon electricity economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbong, G.P.J.; Beemsterboer, S.F.L.; Sengers, F.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses practices and perceptions of stakeholders on including users in smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. In-depth interviews have been conducted and smart grid projects have been analysed, using a Strategic Niche Management framework. The analysis shows that there is a clear

  20. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  1. Maximized integration of photovoltaics into distribution grids using smart charging strategies for electric vehicles; Maximierte PV-Integration in Niederspannungsnetzen durch intelligente Nutzung von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen; Appelrath, H Juergen; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany). Bereich Energie

    2011-07-01

    An ICT-based integration of electric vehicles (EV) offers a promising potential on the distribution grid level, especially regarding synergies with renewable and distributed energy systems. Of special interest are (a) the charging of EV with electric power from renewable energy sources and (b) a preferentially local usage of feed-in from distributed energy systems. Regarding a systemic analysis of electromobility, a stable and reliable operation of the electric power grid is a major constraint for the integration of EV and maximized usage of renewable energy. In the model project GridSurfer, we conducted simulation-based analyses on the integration of EV. In this contribution, we present results from an analysis of future Smart-Grid-scenarios with special regard to rural areas and distribution grids in north-western Germany. (orig.)

  2. Conditions and costs for renewables electricity grid connection: Examples in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swider, Derk J.; Beurskens, Luuk; Davidson, Sarah; Twidell, John; Pyrko, Jurek; Prueggler, Wolfgang; Auer, Hans; Vertin, Katarina; Skema, Romualdas

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares conditions and costs for RES-E grid connection in selected European countries. These are Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Austria, Lithuania and Slovenia. Country specific case studies are presented for wind onshore and offshore, biomass and photovoltaic power systems, as based on literature reviews and stakeholder interviews. It is shown that, especially for wind offshore, the allocation of grid connection costs can form a significant barrier for the installation of new RES-E generation if the developer has to bear all such costs. If energy policy makers want to reduce the barriers for new large-scale RES-E deployment, then it is concluded that the grid connection costs should be covered by the respective grid operator. These costs may then be recouped by increasing consumer tariffs for the use of the grid. (author)

  3. The Concept of the Use of the Marine Reactor Plant in Small Electric Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopkin, N.; Makarov, V.; Pologikh, B.

    2002-01-01

    In report some aspects of the using marine nuclear reactor are considered for provision of need small non-interconnected power systems, as well as separate settlements and the mining enterprises disposed in regions with a undeveloped infrastructure. Recently for these purposes it is offered to use the nuclear small modular power plants. The required plant power for small electric grids lies within from 1 to several tens of MWe. Module can be collected and tested on machine-building plant, and then delivered in ready type to the working place on some transport, for instance, a barge. Through determined time it's possible to transport a module to the repair shop and also to the point of storage after the end of operation. Marine nuclear reactors on their powers, compactness, mass and size are ideal prototypes for creation of such modules. For instance, building at present floating power unit, intended for functioning in region of the Russian North, based on using reactor plants of nuclear icebreakers. Reliability and safety of the ship reactor are confirmed by their trouble-free operation during approximately 180 reactors-years. Unlike big stationary nuclear plant, working in base mode, power unit with marine reactor wholly capable to work in mode of the loading following. In contrast with reactor of nuclear icebreaker, advisable to increase the core lifetime and to reduce the enrichment of the uranium. This requires more uranium capacity fuel compositions and design of the core. In particular, possible transition from traditional for ship reactor of the channel core to cassette design. Other directions of evolution of the ship reactors, not touching the basic constructive decisions verified by practice, but promoting development of properties of self-security of plant are possible. Among such directions is reduction volumetric power density of a core. (author)

  4. Solar activity and transformer failures in the Greek national electric grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zois Ioannis Panayiotis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We study both the short term and long term effects of solar activity on the large transformers (150 kV and 400 kV of the Greek national electric grid. Methods: We use data analysis and various statistical methods and models. Results: Contrary to common belief in PPC Greece, we see that there are considerable both short term (immediate and long term effects of solar activity onto large transformers in a mid-latitude country like Greece. Our results can be summarised as follows: For the short term effects: During 1989–2010 there were 43 “stormy days” (namely days with for example Ap ≥ 100 and we had 19 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 3 days and 51 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 7 days. All these failures can be directly related to Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs. Explicit cases are briefly presented. For the long term effects, again for the same period 1989–2010, we have two main results: The annual number of transformer failures seems to follow the solar activity pattern. Yet the maximum number of transformer failures occurs about half a solar cycle after the maximum of solar activity. There is statistical correlation between solar activity expressed using various newly defined long term solar activity indices and the annual number of transformer failures. These new long term solar activity indices were defined using both local (from the geomagnetic station in Greece and global (planetary averages geomagnetic data. Applying both linear and non-linear statistical regression we compute the regression equations and the corresponding coefficients of determination.

  5. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    -model, are introduced to analyze these problems. However, it is found that Linear Time Invariant (LTI) base model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomenon because of time varying system operation trajectories, varying output impedance seen by grid connected systems and neglected switching component......An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average...... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  6. Smart grids, demand-side management and decentralised electricity production: Mounting a national R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a collective enquiry conducted between May and December 2007 and coordinated by TECHNOFI. This study had four goals: 1) analyse the role of actors in French research, in terms of new knowledge to be acquired regarding electricity networks, in order to optimise operations in the future and bring electricity generation, transmission and distribution to play their full role in policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 2) propose a new conceptual framework for national R and D on electricity networks, complementing work currently pursued by researchers in France, in order to explore in greater detail other possible futures for electricity networks, 3) set up organisational and financial modes for this additional research, based on a list of projects that clearly distinguishes between European and national public funding, 4) link these proposed directions for research, organisation and funding to an industrial vision ensuring that national manufacturers and parts makers will continue to rank among the top global competitors. This analysis objectively demonstrates that France holds a unique position in the European landscape of power-grid research and development. France is one of the EU countries where operators, accompanied by public authorities, continue to invest heavily in the grid, compared to other countries with equivalent GDP (Germany, Italy, Spain, Great Britain). Annual R and D expenditures are on the order of euros 65 M, when those of RTE, ERDF (including EDF-R and D), the CNRS and ADEME are added up. Research subsidies from the CEC obtained competitively by French researchers add another ∼5 M annually to the total. These R and D investments do not include the contribution of industrial groups such as AREVA, SCHNEIDER and NEXANS and other national equipment suppliers who operate world-wide, Europe being only a small part of their activity due to the economic growth of emerging countries. With this high level

  7. Deliverable 7.1: Legal Framework and Legal Barriers to an Offshore HVDC Electricity Grid in the North Sea : Intermediate Report for Stakeholder Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, C.T.

    The present deliverable elaborates the current legal framework for offshore wind and grid development on international, European and national level. It is shown that often, the legal framework needs to be adapted in order to facilitate the development of a meshed offshore electricity grid. This is

  8. Inverter systems for feeding electrical power of fuel cells in the grid; Stromrichtersysteme zur Netzeinspeisung elektrischer Energie aus Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Malte

    2011-03-04

    Fuel cells represent an important potential alternative to conventional thermal-mechanical- electrical energy transformations due to their highly efficient direct conversion of chemical energy, i.e. hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Inverter systems that feed electrical power from fuel cells into the grid must convert the direct current of the fuel cell into the alternating current of the grid. In addition, these inverters have to adapt the different voltages of the fuel cell system to the grid. Inverter systems for fuel cells can be seen as an own field of research. Only a few results from other fields of research in power electronic circuits in the medium power range - like converters for electrical drives or power supplies - can be applied to inverter systems for fuel cells due to the different technical constraints. In this thesis, different topologies of appropriate inverter systems in the medium power range of 20 kW and higher are analyzed and compared to each other. This study includes transformerless inverters as well as two-stage inverter systems with high frequency transformers (DC/DC converter combined with an inverter). In the beginning, this thesis shows the electrical characteristics of the fuel cell and of the main inverter components like power semiconductors and passive components. In addition, the principles of power semiconductor losses and methods of the semiconductor power loss calculation are shown. This work does not focus on the dimensioning of the passive components like capacitors, chokes and transformers. The main principles of the dimensioning of the passive components are shown but are not analyzed in detail. The summary of the demands of a fuel cell inverter system is followed by the analytical analysis of the different inverter topologies. In addition, the semiconductor loss calculations for the topologies will be derived. To gain practical experience and to verify parts of the theoretical analysis, the converters

  9. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems. Towards smarter and greener electric grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingfeng Wang (ed.) [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods. (orig.)

  10. Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: An analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Pasaoglu, Guzay; Thiel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the future German power system and makes projections of the BEVs hourly load profile by car size (‘mini’, ‘small’, ‘compact’ and ‘large’). By means of a power plant dispatching optimisation model, the study assesses the optimal BEV charging/discharging strategies in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) schemes. The results show that the 2% rise in power demand required to power these BEVs does not hamper system stability provided an optimal G2V scheme is applied. Moreover, such BEV deployment can contribute to further integrating wind and solar power generation. Applying a V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants, leading to a higher integration of intermittent renewables and resulting in a decrease in system costs. However, the evaluation of the profitability of BEVs shows that applying a V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to the high cost of investing in batteries. Some BEV owners would make modest profits (€6 a year), but a higher number would sustain losses, for reasons of scale. For BEVs to become part of the power system, further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners. - Highlights: • Optimal strategies for charging/discharging battery electric vehicles are assessed. • G2V scheme improves the stability of the future German power system. • V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants. • V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to high batteries investment cost. • Further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners

  11. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Low Voltage (LV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2012-01-01

    the single line diagram (SLD) of the LV grid. The demand profiles of end-users are determined by the end-user yearly consumption and avreaged demand profiles of different customer types in Denmark. Five charging scenarios have been tested using the developed LV grid. The first two charging scenarios are dumb....... The two charging power levels are 1 phase 16 A and 3 phase 16 A. The loading of the power components and voltage profile are analyzed to quantify the impact of the charging scenarios and charging power levels on LV grids....

  12. Optimal electricity dispatch on isolated mini-grids using a demand response strategy for thermal storage backup with genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Diana; Silva, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses the DHW (domestic hot water) electric backup from solar thermal systems to optimize the total electricity dispatch of an isolated mini-grid. The proposed approach estimates the hourly DHW load, and proposes and simulates different DR (demand response) strategies, from the supply side, to minimize the dispatch costs of an energy system. The case study consists on optimizing the electricity load, in a representative day with low solar radiation, in Corvo Island, Azores. The DHW backup is induced by three different demand patterns. The study compares different DR strategies: backup at demand (no strategy), pre-scheduled backup using two different imposed schedules, a strategy based on linear programming, and finally two strategies using genetic algorithms, with different formulations for DHW backup – one that assigns number of systems and another that assigns energy demand. It is concluded that pre-determined DR strategies may increase the generation costs, but DR strategies based on optimization algorithms are able to decrease generation costs. In particular, linear programming is the strategy that presents the lowest increase on dispatch costs, but the strategy based on genetic algorithms is the one that best minimizes both daily operation costs and total energy demand, of the system. - Highlights: • Integrated hourly model of DHW electric impact and electricity dispatch of isolated grid. • Proposal and comparison of different DR (demand response) strategies for DHW backup. • LP strategy presents 12% increase on total electric load, plus 5% on dispatch costs. • GA strategy presents 7% increase on total electric load, plus 8% on dispatch costs

  13. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-02-12

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method.

  14. An Overview of Distributed Microgrid State Estimation and Control for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chinarro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of today’s society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc. have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid applications.

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  17. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  18. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  19. Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies for Reduced Load Variation and Guaranteed Charge Completion in Regional Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully decentralized strategy to coordinate charge operation of electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Based on stochastic switching control of on-board chargers, this strategy ensures high-efficiency charging, reduces load variations to the grid during charging periods, achieves charge completion with high probability, and accomplishes approximate “valley-filling”. Further improvements on the core strategy, including individualized power management, adaptive strategies, and battery support systems, are introduced to further reduce power fluctuation variances and to guarantee charge completion. Stochastic analysis is performed to establish the main properties of the strategies and to quantitatively show the performance improvements. Compared with the existing decentralized charging strategies, the strategies proposed in this paper can be implemented without any information exchange between grid operators and electric vehicles (EVs, resulting in a communications cost reduction. Additionally, it is shown that by using stochastic charging rules, a grid-supporting battery system with a very small energy capacity can achieve substantial reduction of EV load fluctuations with high confidence. An extensive set of simulations and case studies with real-world data are used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed strategies.

  20. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject to the constraints of fuel utilization factor, stack temperature and output active power. The optimal operating conditions of the grid-connected SOFC were obtained by solving the NLP problem considering the power consumed by the air compressor. With the optimal operating conditions of the SOFC for the maximum efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model.

  1. Smart regulation of rural electricity grids. Modern communications technology reduces the voltage fluctuations and regulates the storage of surplus electricity; Laendliches Stromnetz smart geregelt. Moderne Kommunikationstechnik reduziert Spannungsschwankungen und regelt die Speicherung ueberschuessigen Stroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Anna

    2012-07-01

    In the ''Smart Country'' model project, researchers in Bitburg- Pruem were testing out the distribution network of the future. It is designed to respond flexibly to the increasingly decentralised generation of renewable electricity in the grid. For this purpose various operating resources were further developed: an optimised biogas plant, which controls the electricity supplied by the grid, virtually stores surplus electricity with an efficiency of 98 %. In addition, voltage regulators double the usable output capacity in the grid. The Eifel project successfully passed the field test after around one year. (orig.)

  2. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  3. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  4. Swiss Solutions for Providing Electrical Power in Cases of Long-Term Black-Out of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altkind, Franz; Schmid, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of nuclear power plant electrical system robustness and defence-in-depth may be derived from comparing design and operating practices in member countries. In pursuing this goal, the current paper will focus on Switzerland. It will present in general the protective measures implemented in the Swiss nuclear power plants to ensure power supply, which comply with the 'Defence-in-depth' principle by means of several layers of protection. In particular it will present the measures taken in case of a total station blackout. The different layers supplying electricity may be summed up as follows. The first layer consists of the external main grid, which the plant generators feed into. The second layer is the auxiliary power supply when the power plant is in island mode in case of a failure of the main grid. A third layer is provided by the external reserve grid in case of both a failure of the external main grid and of the auxiliary power supply in island mode. As a fourth layer there exists an emergency electrical power supply. This is supplied either from an emergency diesel generator or a direct feed from a hydroelectric power plant. In the fifth layer, the special emergency electrical power supply from bunkered emergency diesel generators power the special emergency safety system and is activated upon the loss of all external feeds. A sixth layer consists of accident management equipment. Since the Fukushima event, the sixth layer has been reinforced and a seventh layer with off-site accident management equipment has been newly added. The Swiss nuclear safety regulator has analysed the accident. It reviewed the Swiss plants' protection against earthquakes as well as flooding and demanded increased precautionary measures from the Swiss operators in the hypothetical case of a total station blackout, when all the first five layers of supply would fail. In the immediate, a centralized storage with severe accident management equipment

  5. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy; Les reseaux electriques intelligents dans la strategie energetique du Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloaguen, Olivier [Ambassade de France au Royaume-Uni, Service de presse, 58 Knightsbridge, London SW1X 7JT (United Kingdom); Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine [Ecole des Mines de Paris - MINES Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France)

    2011-09-15

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  6. The role of smart metering and decentralized electricity storage for smart grids: The importance of positive externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Römer, Benedikt; Reichhart, Philipp; Kranz, Johann; Picot, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Because of its fluctuating nature, the feed-in of renewable energy sources into low-voltage distribution grids complicates the balancing of demand and supply. This carries the risk of grid instabilities causing damage to electronic devices and power outages, which eventually lead to deadweight losses. In principle, the problems arising from fluctuating feed-in can be solved by increasing demand elasticity or decoupling generation and consumption; for the first, an advanced metering infrastructure and, for the second, decentralized electricity storage are considered core enablers. However, to date, the diffusion of these future smart grids’ core components is low. The present study provides new insights for understanding and overcoming diffusion barriers. For this purpose, a qualitative research approach was chosen. The most important stakeholders as well as related private costs and benefits are identified. The findings show that both of these smart grid components are widely considered beneficial to society by experts. However, because the numerous private benefits are widely distributed among distinct players, socially desired investments are hampered by positive externalities. The importance of well-designed and consistent regulatory and legal frameworks that provide economic incentives to involved stakeholders is highlighted in the results. - Highlights: ► Smart meters and decentralized storages are important components of smart grids. ► Both components are widely seen as beneficial to society. ► Identification of the most important stakeholders and their investment incentives. ► Omission of societal desirable actions due to positive externalities. ► Measures to foster diffusion of smart grid key components.

  7. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  8. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year's report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities

  9. A socio-technical investigation of the smart grid: Implications for demand-side activities of electricity service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline Marie

    Enabled by advanced communication and information technologies, the smart grid represents a major transformation for the electricity sector. Vast quantities of data and two-way communications abilities create the potential for a flexible, data-driven, multi-directional supply and consumption network well equipped to meet the challenges of the next century. For electricity service providers ("utilities"), the smart grid provides opportunities for improved business practices and new business models; however, a transformation of such magnitude is not without risks. Three related studies are conducted to explore the implications of the smart grid on utilities' demand-side activities. An initial conceptual framework, based on organizational information processing theory, suggests that utilities' performance depends on the fit between the information processing requirements and capacities associated with a given demand-side activity. Using secondary data and multiple regression analyses, the first study finds, consistent with OIPT, a positive relationship between utilities' advanced meter deployments and demand-side management performance. However, it also finds that meters with only data collection capacities are associated with lower performance, suggesting the presence of information waste causing operational inefficiencies. In the second study, interviews with industry participants provide partial support for the initial conceptual model, new insights are gained with respect to information processing fit and information waste, and "big data" is identified as a central theme of the smart grid. To derive richer theoretical insights, the third study employs a grounded theory approach examining the experience of one successful utility in detail. Based on interviews and documentary data, the paradox of dynamic stability emerges as an essential enabler of utilities' performance in the smart grid environment. Within this context, the frames of opportunity, control, and data

  10. CoSimulating Communication Networks and Electrical System for Performance Evaluation in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwantae Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart grid research domain, simulation study is the first choice, since the analytic complexity is too high and constructing a testbed is very expensive. However, since communication infrastructure and the power grid are tightly coupled with each other in the smart grid, a well-defined combination of simulation tools for the systems is required for the simulation study. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a cosimulation work called OOCoSim, which consists of OPNET (network simulation tool and OpenDSS (power system simulation tool. By employing the simulation tool, an organic and dynamic cosimulation can be realized since both simulators operate on the same computing platform and provide external interfaces through which the simulation can be managed dynamically. In this paper, we provide OOCoSim design principles including a synchronization scheme and detailed descriptions of its implementation. To present the effectiveness of OOCoSim, we define a smart grid application model and conduct a simulation study to see the impact of the defined application and the underlying network system on the distribution system. The simulation results show that the proposed OOCoSim can successfully simulate the integrated scenario of the power and network systems and produce the accurate effects of the networked control in the smart grid.

  11. Green electricity policies in the United States: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.

    2005-01-01

    While there has been interest in promoting the use of renewable energy in electricity production for a number of years in the United States, the market share of non-hydro renewable energy sources in electricity production has remained at about 2 percent over the past decade. The paper reviews the principal energy resources used for electricity production, considers the changing regulatory environment for the electricity industry, and describes government policies that have been used to promote green electricity in the United States, with an emphasis on measures adopted by state governments. Factors influencing the development of green power markets are also discussed, including underlying economic issues, public policy measures, the regulatory environment, external costs, and subsidies. Without significant increases in fossil fuel prices, much more stringent environmental regulations, or significant changes in electricity customer preferences, green electricity markets are likely to develop slowly in the United States

  12. Comparison study of the technical characteristics and financial analysis of electric battery storage systems for residential grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palivos, Marios; Vokas, Georgios A.; Anastasiadis, Anestis; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Chafic

    2018-05-01

    One of the major energy issues of our days is reliable and effective energy generation and supply of electricity grids. In recent years there has been experienced a rapid development and implementation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) worldwide. On one hand, many Gigawatts of grid-connected renewables are being installed and on the other many Megawatts of hybrid renewable systems for residential use are being installed making use of electric battery systems, in order to cover all daily energy and power needs during. New types of batteries are being developed and many companies have made great progress providing a variety of electricity storage products. The purpose of this research is firstly to highlight the necessity and also the importance of the use of energy storage systems and secondly, through detailed technical and financial simulation analysis using HOMER Pro-optimization software, to compare the technical characteristics and performance of energy storage systems by various leading companies when installed in a residential renewable energy system with a specific load and at the same time to provide the most efficient system economically. Results concerning the operation and the choice of a storage system are derived.

  13. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  14. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ardito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability and flexibility in order to support a new concept of electricity network — the smart grid. In this work, we will analyse the state-of-the-art of smart grids, in their technical, management, security, and optimization aspects. We will also provide a brief overview of the regulatory aspects involved in the development of a smart grid, mainly from the viewpoint of the European Union.

  15. Potential of vehicle-to-grid ancillary services considering the uncertainties in plug-in electric vehicle availability and service/localization limitations in distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabi, Siyamak; Davigny, Arnaud; Courtecuisse, Vincent; Riffonneau, Yann; Robyns, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The availability uncertainty of PEVs are modelled using Gaussian mixture model. • Interdependency of stochastic variables are modelled using copula function. • V2G bidding capacity is calculated using Free Pattern search optimization method. • Localization limitation is considered for V2G service potential assessment. • Competitive services for fleet of V2G-enabled PEVs are identified using fuzzy sets. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to propose an approach for statistical assessment of the potential of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) ancillary services, where it focuses on PEVs doing daily home-work commuting. In this approach, the possible ancillary services (A/S) for each PEV fleet in terms of its available V2G power (AVP) and flexible intervals are identified. The flexible interval is calculated using a powerful stochastic global optimization technique so-called “Free Pattern Search” (FPS). A probabilistic method is also proposed to quantify the impacts of PEV’s availability uncertainty using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and interdependency of stochastic variables on AVP of each fleet thanks to a multivariate modeling with Copula function. Each fleet is analyzed based on its aggregated PEV numbers at different level of distribution grid, in order to satisfy the ancillary services localization limitation. A case study using the proposed approach evaluates the real potential in Niort, a city in west of France. In fact, by using the proposed approach an aggregator can analyze the V2G potential of PEVs under its contract.

  16. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  17. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  18. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference: Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Debrecin, N.

    2004-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference 'Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids' is the fifth in a series of meetings on the same topics organized biannually by the Croatian Nuclear Society. This topical conference was initiated in 1996 to be devoted to the needs and interests of countries with small or medium nuclear systems and electricity grids. The first conference took place in Opatija, and the three following in Dubrovnik. Encouraged by the successes of previous conferences in Dubrovnik we decided to organise it once more in Dubrovnik. The conference is organized with intention to focus on specific aspects of introduction and usage of nuclear energy by countries with small and medium electricity grids. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as development of small and medium reactors, accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO 2 emission, nuclear terrorism risk coverage, or cooperation in nuclear fuel cycle. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put added emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently, the worldwide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are of substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and co-operation amongst that group of countries is of great interest. Exchanging specific experience and co-operation between the like countries will be additional value relative to the still prevailing equipment supplier-national utility relationships

  19. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference: Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pevec, D; Debrecin, N [eds.

    2004-07-01

    The Fifth International Conference 'Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids' is the fifth in a series of meetings on the same topics organized biannually by the Croatian Nuclear Society. This topical conference was initiated in 1996 to be devoted to the needs and interests of countries with small or medium nuclear systems and electricity grids. The first conference took place in Opatija, and the three following in Dubrovnik. Encouraged by the successes of previous conferences in Dubrovnik we decided to organise it once more in Dubrovnik. The conference is organized with intention to focus on specific aspects of introduction and usage of nuclear energy by countries with small and medium electricity grids. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as development of small and medium reactors, accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO{sub 2} emission, nuclear terrorism risk coverage, or cooperation in nuclear fuel cycle. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put added emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently, the worldwide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are of substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and co-operation amongst that group of countries is of great interest. Exchanging specific experience and co-operation between the like countries will be additional value relative to the still prevailing equipment supplier-national utility relationships.

  20. Decentralized electricity generation by using photovoltaic grid-connected solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyundziev, N.; Vitanov, P.; Radkov, R.; Grottke, M.

    2006-01-01

    AcadPV is the first demonstration installation connected permanently to LV grid in Sofia, Bulgaria aiming at assessment of PV efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. A thorough analysis has been carried out in order to select PV system site, supporting construction design and orientation. The PV generator is divided to 3 PV subfields equipped by 3 SUNPOWER inverters connected to 3 separated phases of the grid. The performance of 10kWp PV system has been evaluated during the first year of operation and compared to PV simulation software results

  1. Intelligent Decision-Making System with Green Pervasive Computing for Renewable Energy Business in Electricity Markets on Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JongHyuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the intelligent decision-making system for the smart grid based electricity market which requires distributed decision making on the competitive environments composed of many players and components. It is very important to consider the renewable energy and emission problem which are expected to be monitored by wireless communication networks. It is very difficult to predict renewable energy outputs and emission prices over time horizon, so it could be helpful to catch up those data on real time basis using many different kinds of communication infrastructures. On this backgrounds this paper provides an algorithm to make an optimal decision considering above factors.

  2. Utilization of the Flexibility Potential of Electric Vehicles - an Alternative to Distribution Grid Reinforcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ager-Hanssen, Siri Bruskeland; Myhre, Siri Olimb

    2015-01-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a large share of global emissions. Electric vehicles have many environmental advantages compared to conventional petrol vehicles. Hence, if electric vehicles can replace petrol vehicles, the transportation sector's total emissions can be significantly reduced. In Norway, due to policy incentives, it is expected that the number of electric vehicles will increase considerably in the near future. Despite the great advantages of electric vehicles, large pe...

  3. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    can be chosen by the grid user. The use of these models leads to load reduction as well as load shifting. Achieved results confirm the possibility to force grid optimized behaviour by economic incentives. Both approaches offer potential to reduce peak load but not to achieve different targets simultaneously. In combination with electricity tariffs these effects are weakened. The concluding outcome states that, assuming the supplier is responsible for controlling energy and the grid operator for demand, the new grid fee approaches are an appropriate tool for the grid operator to influence the load curve within his grid area.

  4. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  5. Embedded Ag Grid Electrodes as Current Collector for Ultraflexible Transparent Solid-State Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Long; Liu, Yan-Hua; Gao, Xu; Sun, Yilin; Shen, Su; Cai, Xinlei; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-08-23

    Flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors have attracted immerse attention for the power supply of next-generation flexible "see-through" or "invisible" electronics. For fabrication of such devices, high-performance flexible transparent current collectors are highly desired. In this paper, the utilization of embedded Ag grid transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) fabricated by a facile soft ultraviolet imprinting lithography method combined with scrap techniques, as the current collector for flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors, is demonstrated. The embedded Ag grid TCEs exhibit not only excellent optoelectronic properties (R S ∼ 2.0 Ω sq -1 and T ∼ 89.74%) but also robust mechanical properties, which could meet the conductivity, transparency, and flexibility needs of current collectors for flexible transparent supercapacitors. The obtained supercapacitor exhibits large specific capacitance, long cycling life, high optical transparency (T ∼ 80.58% at 550 nm), high flexibility, and high stability. Owing to the embedded Ag grid TCE structure, the device shows a slight capacitance loss of 2.6% even after 1000 cycles of repetitive bending for a bending radius of up to 2.0 mm. This paves the way for developing high-performance current collectors and thus flexible transparent energy storage devices, and their general applicability opens up opportunities for flexible transparent electronics.

  6. Transmission-grid requirements with scattered and fluctuating renewable electricity-sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the requirements of the transmission grids in a year 2020 situation with power balancing (matching production and consumption)as it is now on the few large power plants, and a year 2020 situation with geographically-scattered power balancing using e.g. CHP plants, heat pumps...

  7. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    essentially means it is applicable to any EV complying with IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 standards. The field test validation is conducted in a real Danish distribution grid with a Nissan Leaf providing three ancillary services through unidirectional AC charging, namely congestion management, local voltage support...

  8. Economic costs of managing of an electricity grid with increasing wind power penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescott, R.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of policy choices, including a carbon tax, on the optimal allocation of power across different generation sources and on future investments in generating facilities. The main focus is on the Alberta power grid, as it is heavily dependent on fossil fuels and has only limited

  9. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - General requirements; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the third part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The first part of this second appendix to the main report examines the electrical conditions and requirements that have to be met by distributed production facilities. These include limits for voltage and frequency, synchronisation aspects, protection, reactive power questions and islanding. Also, recommendations are made on the assessment of grid reactions and on the avoidance of non-permissible effects on the grid's audio-frequency remote control apparatus. A second part examines the situation concerning the connection of distributed power units to the grid and grid topologies. The last chapter lists relevant standards and guidelines.

  10. Preparing tomorrow's grid: RTE at the service of regions to support energy transition. Regional electric assessments - Stakes and key data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This document gathers a first one which presents the regional electric assessments and 21 regional reports. The presentation document briefly outlines the interdependency of regions, the diversity of regional situation in terms of electricity production and consumption, needs and ways to develop energy saving in order to reduce sensitivity to temperature, the evolution, objectives and contrasted results of the development of renewable energies, the investments and projects by RTE to develop and improve the grid. Regional reports propose maps and graphs and a synthesis of the evolution of electricity consumption, of the evolution of electricity consumption by industries, of the evolution of peak consumptions, of the evolution of consumption coverage by regional production, of the origin of electricity production (renewable thermal, photovoltaic, thermal fossil, hydraulic, nuclear), of the evolution of the various productions (renewable, hydraulic, thermal fossil, nuclear), of the evolution of the share of renewable energies, of the development of photovoltaic and wind installed power. They also present projects and investments, and propose maps of France indicating the level of consumption, the evolution of consumption between 2006 and 2013, the production/consumption rate of the different French regions and the energy exchanges between regions

  11. Application of battery-based storage systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Debarberis, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Battery system application in demand smoothening in distribution grids is analysed. ► Five European countries are studied with and without high photovoltaic deployment. ► A sensitivity analysis for different battery system parameters is performed. ► A simple battery system management is sufficient for low demand smoothening. ► More elaborate management is required for high demand smoothening. - Abstract: This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids. The analysis includes case studies of Denmark, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy. A high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the smoothening effect of daily demand profiles for different configurations of the battery system. In general, battery-storage systems with low rated power and low battery capacity can smooth the demand sufficiently with the aid of a simple management process. For example, with 1 kW of peak demand, a 30–45% decrease in the variability of the daily demand profile can be achieved with a battery system of 0.1 kW rated power and up to 0.6 kW h battery capacity. However, further smoothening requires higher battery-system capacity and power. In this case, more elaborate management is also needed to use the battery system efficiently.

  12. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    into the islanding operation mode, while the centralized joint load frequency control (CJLFC) utilizing DGs handles the secondary frequency regulation. The BESS with the associated controllers has been modelled in Real-time digital simulator (RTDS) in order to identify the improvement of the frequency and voltage......This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters...... response. The modified IEEE 9-bus system, which is comprised of several DG units, wind power plant and the BESS, has been employed to illustrate the performance of the proposed coordinated flexible control scheme using RTDS in order to verify its practical efficacy....

  13. Managing operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) exchange stations for use with a smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng; Sharkey, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a deterministic integer programming model for determining the optimal operations of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery exchange stations over time. The operations include the number of batteries to charge, discharge, and exchange at each point in time over a set time horizon. We allow discharging of batteries back to the power grid, through vehicle-to-grid technology. We incorporate the exchange station's dependence on the power network, transportation network, and other exchange stations. The charging and discharging at these exchange stations lead to a greater amount of variability which creates a less predictable and flat power generation curve. We introduce and test three policies to smooth the power generation curve by balancing its load. Further, tests are conducted evaluating these policies while factoring wind energy into the power generation curve. These computational tests use realistic data and analysis of the results suggest general operating procedures for exchange stations and evaluate the effectiveness of these power flattening policies. - Highlights: • Model the operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery exchange stations. • Determine the optimal and general charging, discharging, and exchange operations. • Conclude that forced customer service levels are unnecessary with proper pricing. • Examine policies to reduce variability in power generation from PHEVs and wind. • Observe that strict constraints on exchange stations best reduce variability

  14. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  15. Guidelines for Distribution System Operators on Reactive Power Provision by Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia; Træholt, Chresten

    2017-01-01

    The increasing success of electric vehicles is bringing new technical challenges to power system operators. This work intends to provide guidelines for distribution system operators in terms of reactive power requirements when evaluating and authorizing electric vehicles supply equipment with fast...... the amount of reactive power that an individual electric vehicle is expected to provide when connected to a low voltage feeder, in order to benefit of the desired voltage rise effect in comparison to the case of unitary power factor....

  16. A Dynamic Electricity Tariff Survey for Smart Grid in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjoo Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis for consumer perception of the level of electricity price, the amount of household electricity consumption and consumer perception on dynamic electricity pricing system in South Korea are investigated. A survey was conducted between July 24 and August 17, 2015 and then for the preference analysis, Binary Logistic Model is applied for the acceptance, Ordered Probit Model is applied. The major findings say that the less they have monthly income, the more satisfied dynamic pricing. In dynamic electricity tariff, real time pricing is most preferred dynamic pricing system and it reaches about 40% of respondents.

  17. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC......As part of their capacity development efforts to promote mitigation actions, the UNEP DTU Partnership, together with the UNFCCC Regional Collaborating Centre in the Caribbean, UNDP and OLADE, agreed to collaborate with Caribbean countries willing to update or establish their grid emission factors...... emission factor for countries with generation units with similar characteristics. Data on the power systems of the different countries have been collected from several centres and institutions, including the UNEP DTU Partnership, the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), the Caribbean Community...

  18. Assessment and Methods for Supply-Following Loads in Modern Electricity Grids with Deep Renewables Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    today. Following the course of this trend, grids with deep renewables penetration present a CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2 family of new challenges and...maps the demand curve. Coal is operated as an intermediate resource, turned on for the course of the day, but turned off at night; this represents a...Internet access and a data storage entity, recording data samples into a MySQL database. Having all of the sensors on a network was important for

  19. Optimisation of maintenance in electric power grids; Optimierung der Instandhaltung in elektrischen Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeromin, Ingo [Mainova AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Balzer, Gerd [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Elektrische Energieversorgung

    2012-10-15

    During the past few years, the regulation efforts in power supply resulted in structuring of maintenance and replacement of operating facilities. Activities in this field are summarized under the heading of asset management. Investigations so far tended to focus on maintenance strategies and neglected the financial aspect, i.e. the total cost of a grid with different groups of operating facilities. The authors show strategies for solving this central problem of asset management.

  20. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...