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Sample records for state controls photoswitching

  1. Control of DNA hybridization by photoswitchable molecular glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization of DNA is one of the most intriguing events in molecular recognition and is essential for living matter to inherit life beyond generations. In addition to the function of DNA as genetic material, DNA hybridization is a key to control the function of DNA-based materials in nanoscience. Since the hybridization of two single stranded DNAs is a thermodynamically favorable process, dissociation of the once formed DNA duplex is normally unattainable under isothermal conditions. As the progress of DNA-based nanoscience, methodology to control the DNA hybridization process has become increasingly important. Besides many reports using the chemically modified DNA for the regulation of hybridization, we focused our attention on the use of a small ligand as the molecular glue for the DNA. In 2001, we reported the first designed molecule that strongly and specifically bound to the mismatched base pairs in double stranded DNA. Further studies on the mismatch binding molecules provided us a key discovery of a novel mode of the binding of a mismatch binding ligand that induced the base flipping. With these findings we proposed the concept of molecular glue for DNA for the unidirectional control of DNA hybridization and, eventually photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, which enabled the bidirectional control of hybridization under photoirradiation. In this tutorial review, we describe in detail how we integrated the mismatch binding ligand into photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, and the application and perspective in DNA-based nanoscience.

  2. Photoswitchable non-fluorescent thermochromic dye-nanoparticle hybrid probes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Walter N.; Haji, Mwafaq R.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Nima, Zeid A.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins with controllable light?dark states and spectral shifts in emission in response to light have led to breakthroughs in the study of cell biology. Nevertheless, conventional photoswitching is not applicable for weakly fluorescent proteins and requires UV light with low depth penetration in bio-tissue. Here we introduce a novel concept of photoswitchable hybrid probes consisting of thermochromic dye and absorbing nanoparticles, in which temperature-sensitive ...

  3. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light.

  4. Indigoid Photoswitches: Visible Light Responsive Molecular Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermayer, Christian; Dube, Henry

    2018-05-15

    Indigoid photoswitches comprise a class of chromophores that are derived from the parent and well-known indigo dye. Different from most photoswitches their core structures absorb in the visible region of the spectrum in both isomeric states even without substitutions, which makes them especially interesting for applications not tolerant of high-energy UV light. Also different from most current photoswitching systems, they provide highly rigid structures that undergo large yet precisely controllable geometry changes upon photoisomerization. The favorable combination of pronounced photochromism, fast and efficient photoreactions, and high thermal bistability have led to a strongly increased interest in indigoid photoswitches over the last years. As a result, intriguing applications of these chromophores as reversible triggering units in supramolecular and biological chemistry, the field of molecular machines, or smart molecules have been put forward. In this Account current developments in the synthesis, mechanistic understanding of light responsiveness, advantageous properties as phototools, and new applications of indigoid photoswitches are summarized with the focus on hemithioindigo, hemiindigo, and indigo as key examples. Many methods for the synthesis of hemithioindigos are known, but derivatives with a fourth substituent at the double bond could not easily be prepared because of the resulting increased steric hindrance in the products. Recent efforts in our laboratory have provided two different methods to prepare these highly promising photoswitches in very efficient ways. One method is especially designed for the introduction of sterically hindered ketones while the second one allows rapid structural diversification in only three high-yielding synthetic steps. Given the lesser prominence of indigoid photoswitches, mechanistic understanding of their excited state behavior and therefore rational design opportunities for photophysical properties are also much

  5. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  6. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer and photoswitching in hydroxyphenyl-imidazopyridine derivatives: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Iravani, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    The MP2/CC2 and CASSCF theoretical approaches have been employed to determine the excited state proton transfer and photophysical nature of the four organic compounds, having the main frame of hydroxyphenyl-imidzaopyridine (HPIP). The nitrogen insertion effect, in addition to amine (-NH2) substitution has been investigated extensively by following the transition energies and deactivation pathways of resulted HPIP derivatives. It has been predicted that the excited state intramolecular proton transfer with or without small barrier is the most important feature of these compounds. Also, for all of the considered HPIP derivatives, a conical intersection (CI) between ground and the S1 excited state has been predicted. The strong non-adiabatic coupling in the CI (S1/S0), drives the system back to the ground state in which the proton may either return to the phenoxy unit and thus close the photocycle, or the system can continue the twisting motion that results in formation of a γ-photochromic species. This latter species can be responsible for photochromism of HPIP derivative systems.

  7. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  8. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ying, E-mail: yingma@imr.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science (China); An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China); Shang, Yanli [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2015-07-15

    By using an electron donor–acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices. - Graphical abstract: The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed by controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. - Highlights: • An electron donor–acceptor molecule (PDI-Fc) was synthesized. • Well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed. • The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. • Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed.

  9. X-ray Free Electron Laser Determination of Crystal Structures of Dark and Light States of a Reversibly Photoswitching Fluorescent Protein at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. M. Hutchison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The photochromic fluorescent protein Skylan-NS (Nonlinear Structured illumination variant mEos3.1H62L is a reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein which has an unilluminated/ground state with an anionic and cis chromophore conformation and high fluorescence quantum yield. Photo-conversion with illumination at 515 nm generates a meta-stable intermediate with neutral trans-chromophore structure that has a 4 h lifetime. We present X-ray crystal structures of the cis (on state at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and the trans (off state at a limiting resolution of 1.55 Angstrom from serial femtosecond crystallography experiments conducted at SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA at 7.0 keV and 10.5 keV, and at Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS at 9.5 keV. We present a comparison of the data reduction and structure determination statistics for the two facilities which differ in flux, beam characteristics and detector technologies. Furthermore, a comparison of droplet on demand, grease injection and Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN injection shows no significant differences in limiting resolution. The photoconversion of the on- to the off-state includes both internal and surface exposed protein structural changes, occurring in regions that lack crystal contacts in the orthorhombic crystal form.

  10. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  11. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  12. Comparison between s - and d -electron mediated transport in a photoswitching dithienylethene molecule using ab initio transport methods

    KAUST Repository

    Odell, Anders; Delin, Anna; Johansson, Bö rje; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the electrode's Fermi surface on the transport properties of a photoswitching molecule is investigated with state-of-the-art ab initio transport methods. We report results for the conducting properties of the two forms

  13. Controlled Sol-Gel Transitions of a Thermoresponsive Polymer in a Photoswitchable Azobenzene Ionic Liquid as a Molecular Trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caihong; Hashimoto, Kei; Tamate, Ryota; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2018-01-02

    Producing ionic liquids (ILs) that function as molecular trigger for macroscopic change is a challenging issue. Photoisomerization of an azobenzene IL at the molecular level evokes a macroscopic response (light-controlled mechanical sol-gel transitions) for ABA triblock copolymer solutions. The A endblocks, poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate), show a lower critical solution temperature in the IL mixture containing azobenzene, while the B midblock, poly(methyl methacrylate), is compatible with the mixture. In a concentrated polymer solution, different gelation temperatures were observed in it under dark and UV conditions. Light-controlled sol-gel transitions were achieved by a photoresponsive solubility change of the A endblocks upon photoisomerization of the azobenzene IL. Therefore, an azobenzene IL as a molecular switch can tune the self-assembly of a thermoresponsive polymer, leading to macroscopic light-controlled sol-gel transitions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Transfection of genetically encoded photoswitchable probes for STORM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Mark; Jones, Sara A; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-06-01

    Conventional fluorescence microscopy is limited by its spatial resolution, leaving many biological structures too small to be studied in detail. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) is a method for superresolution fluorescence imaging based on the high accuracy localization of individual fluorophores. It uses optically switchable fluorophores: molecules that can be switched between a nonfluorescent and a fluorescent state by exposure to light. This protocol describes the transfection of genetically encoded photoswitchable probes for STORM imaging. It includes a discussion of how to choose a photoswitchable fluorescent protein; standard molecular biology techniques should be used to generate a plasmid containing the sequence of the photoswitchable protein linked to the gene of interest. Once the plasmid has been generated and has been verified, it can be introduced into cells via any standard means of gene delivery, such as lipofection or electroporation. Optimal conditions will vary considerably for different cell lines and plasmids. Here, we present an example protocol for the transfection of BS-C-1 cells with an mEos2-vimentin plasmid using the lipid-based reagent FuGENE6.

  15. Electromagnetic modeling and characterization of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifterin GaAs integrated technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Faci, S.; Deshours, F.; Algani, C.; Alquié, G.; Formont, S.; Chazelas, J.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art of the modeling of microwave photoswitching devices is exposed. A new 3 D electromagnetic modeling allows the design of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifter microwave starting from the traditional circuit of a microwave photoswitch. Measurements of the parameters S of this optically-controlled microwave phase shifter attests the function of this circuit by optical way and highlights the interest of the integration of this new type of microwave phase shifters in ...

  16. A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Shai; Szobota, Stephanie; Reiner, Andreas; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Kienzler, Michael A; Guyon, Alice; Xiao, Tong; Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors, which regulate synaptic strength and are implicated in learning and memory, consist of several subtypes with distinct subunit compositions and functional properties. To enable spatiotemporally defined, rapid and reproducible manipulation of function of specific subtypes, we engineered a set of photoswitchable GluN subunits ('LiGluNs'). Photo-agonism of GluN2A or GluN2B elicits an excitatory drive to hippocampal neurons that can be shaped in time to mimic synaptic activation. Photo-agonism of GluN2A at single dendritic spines evokes spine-specific calcium elevation and expansion, the morphological correlate of LTP. Photo-antagonism of GluN2A alone, or in combination with photo-antagonism of GluN1a, reversibly blocks excitatory synaptic currents, prevents the induction of long-term potentiation and prevents spine expansion. In addition, photo-antagonism in vivo disrupts synaptic pruning of developing retino-tectal projections in larval zebrafish. By providing precise and rapidly reversible optical control of NMDA receptor subtypes, LiGluNs should help unravel the contribution of specific NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission, integration and plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12040.001 PMID:26929991

  17. Evolution and characterization of a new reversibly photoswitchable chromoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Patricia

    We report the molecular engineering and spectral characterization of a new reversibly photoswitchable chromoprotein, B11 a variant of thermostable green protein (TGP) that has been evolved for favorable solubility, thermostability, and enhanced crystallization properties. Its 2.5 A joint X-ray and neutron structure shows the location of critical hydrogen atoms, and reveals the position, orientation, and protonation states of solvent molecules in the chromophore and surrounding amino acids, which have not been ascertained to date from current X-ray structures. We report 1.65 A ground state and light-induced state X-ray crystal structures of B11, which differs from TGP by four amino acids and has a weak fluorescence in its ground state, and these structures are compared to the wild-type TGP structure. These structures will enhance future engineering of new and novel fluorescent proteins.

  18. Photoswitchable nanoporous films by loading azobenzene in metal-organic frameworks of type HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai; Wadhwa, Jasmine; Singh Malhi, Jasleen; Schöttner, Ludger; Welle, Alexander; Schwartz, Heidi; Hermann, Daniela; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Heinke, Lars

    2017-07-13

    Photoswitchable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enable the dynamic remote control of their key properties. Here, a readily producible approach is presented where photochromic molecules, i.e. azobenzene (AB) and o-tetrafluoroazobenzene (tfAB), are loaded in MOF films of type HKUST-1. These nanoporous films, which can be reversibly switched with UV/visible or only visible light, have remote-controllable guest uptake properties.

  19. Tunability of photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds on the basis of ligand substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Sebastian; Dieckmann, Volker; Springfeld, Kristin; Imlau, Mirco [Deparment of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds provide a light-induced linkage isomerization in combination with pronounced changes in characteristic optical properties. As representative of the ruthenium sulfoxide group the molecular compound [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(R-OSO)]{sup +} (OSO: 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate) can be tuned in its optical properties by the substitution of the photoswitchable ligands (R=Bn, BnCl, BnMe). These modified sulfoxides were studied in respect to their photochromic properties and kinetics of the generation and relaxation of the light-induced isomers. The kinetics were determined by pump-probe technique and show in each case two reversible thermal decay processes following Arrhenius law. The two photo-excited states offer lifetimes in the magnitude of {tau}{sub 1}{approx}10{sup 3} s and {tau}{sub 2}{approx}10{sup 4} s at room temperature with activation energies about E{sub A,I}=0.72 eV to 0.92 eV and E{sub A,II}=0.8 eV to 1.00 eV. Another respresentative of the photoswitchable sulfoxides is the [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(pySO)]{sup 2+} compound. This molecule is the first sulfoxide which allows for reversible switching between the ground and metastable states by light exposure. With this compound the sulfoxides are highly qualified for optical data storage on a molecular scale.

  20. Flexible molecular-scale electronic devices composed of diarylethene photoswitching molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongku; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Hanki; Hwang, Wangtaek; Wolf, Jannic Sebastian; Scheer, Elke; Huhn, Thomas; Jeong, Heejun; Lee, Takhee

    2014-01-01

    The electrical properties of diarylethene photoswitching molecular devices on flexible substrates are studied. When exposed to UV or visible light, diarylethene molecular devices show two electrical states (a high and a low conductance state) with a discrepancy of an order of magnitude in the level of current between the two states. The diarylethene flexible molecular devices exhibit excellent long-time stability and reliable electrical characteristics in both conductance states when subjected to various mechanical stresses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Flexible molecular-scale electronic devices composed of diarylethene photoswitching molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongku

    2014-03-31

    The electrical properties of diarylethene photoswitching molecular devices on flexible substrates are studied. When exposed to UV or visible light, diarylethene molecular devices show two electrical states (a high and a low conductance state) with a discrepancy of an order of magnitude in the level of current between the two states. The diarylethene flexible molecular devices exhibit excellent long-time stability and reliable electrical characteristics in both conductance states when subjected to various mechanical stresses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of chemical substitutions on photo-switching properties of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid studied by ab initio methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, Michał F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of chemical substitutions to the molecular structure of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid on photo-switching properties of the system operating on excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer (d-ESIPT) process [M. F. Rode and A. L. Sobolewski, Chem. Phys. 409, 41 (2012)] was studied with the aid of electronic structure theory methods. It was shown that simultaneous application of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substitutions at certain positions of the molecular frame increases the height of the S 0 -state tautomerization barrier (ensuring thermal stability of isomers) and facilitates a barrierless access to the S 1 /S 0 conical intersection from the Franck-Condon region of the S 1 potential-energy surface. Results of study point to the conclusion that the most challenging issue for practical design of a fast molecular photoswitch based on d-ESIPT phenomenon are to ensure a selectivity of optical excitation of a given tautomeric form of the system

  3. Effect of chemical substitutions on photo-switching properties of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid studied by ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Michał F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2014-02-01

    Effect of chemical substitutions to the molecular structure of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid on photo-switching properties of the system operating on excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer (d-ESIPT) process [M. F. Rode and A. L. Sobolewski, Chem. Phys. 409, 41 (2012)] was studied with the aid of electronic structure theory methods. It was shown that simultaneous application of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substitutions at certain positions of the molecular frame increases the height of the S0-state tautomerization barrier (ensuring thermal stability of isomers) and facilitates a barrierless access to the S1/S0 conical intersection from the Franck-Condon region of the S1 potential-energy surface. Results of study point to the conclusion that the most challenging issue for practical design of a fast molecular photoswitch based on d-ESIPT phenomenon are to ensure a selectivity of optical excitation of a given tautomeric form of the system.

  4. mKikGR, a monomeric photoswitchable fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Habuchi

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging.

  5. Molecules Designed to Contain Two Weakly Coupled Spins with a Photoswitchable Spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Jorge Salinas; Estrader, Marta; Garcia, Jordi; Lloyd-Williams, Paul; Sadurní, Anna; Dengler, Dominik; van Slageren, Joris; Chilton, Nicholas F; Roubeau, Olivier; Teat, Simon J; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; Aromí, Guillem

    2017-10-04

    Controlling the charges and spins of molecules lies at the heart of spintronics. A photoswitchable molecule consisting of two independent spins separated by a photoswitchable moiety was designed in the form of new ligand H 4 L, which features a dithienylethene photochromic unit and two lateral coordinating moieties, and yields molecules with [MM⋅⋅⋅MM] topology. Compounds [M 4 L 2 (py) 6 ] (M=Cu, 1; Co, 2; Ni, 3; Zn, 4) were prepared and studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). Different metal centers can be selectively distributed among the two chemically distinct sites of the ligand, and this enables the preparation of many double-spin systems. Heterometallic [MM'⋅⋅⋅M'M] analogues with formulas [Cu 2 Ni 2 L 2 (py) 6 ] (5), [Co 2 Ni 2 L 2 (py) 6 ] (6), [Co 2 Cu 2 L 2 (py) 6 ] (7), [Cu 2 Zn 2 L 2 (py) 6 ] (8), and [Ni 2 Zn 2 L 2 (py) 6 ] (9) were prepared and analyzed by SCXRD. Their composition was established unambiguously. All complexes exhibit two weakly interacting [MM'] moieties, some of which embody two-level quantum systems. Compounds 5 and 8 each exhibit a pair of weakly coupled S=1/2 spins that show quantum coherence in pulsed Q-band EPR spectroscopy, as required for quantum computing, with good phase memory times (T M =3.59 and 6.03 μs at 7 K). Reversible photoswitching of all the molecules was confirmed in solution. DFT calculations on 5 indicate that the interaction between the two spins of the molecule can be switched on and off on photocyclization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stepwise "Dark Photoswitching" of Photochromic Dimers in a Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Hansen, Thorsten; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2017-01-01

    -induced switching) has been termed dark photoswitching and was observed for the dihydroazulene–vinylheptafulvene couple in a junction. In this theoretical study, we expand this concept to dimeric structures containing two dihydroazulene units linked through meta- or para-phenylene bridges and anchored...

  7. Ciprofloxacin-Photoswitch Conjugates : A Facile Strategy for Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, Willem A.; Hansen, Mickel J.; Lerch, Michael M.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    Photopharmacology aims to locally treat diseases and study biological processes with photoresponsive drugs. Herein, easy access to photoswitchable drugs is crucial, which is supported by simple and robust drug modifications. We investigated the possibility of creating drugs that can undergo remote

  8. Arylazoindazole Photoswitches : Facile Synthesis and Functionalization via SNAr Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travieso-Puente, Raquel; Budzak, Simon; Chen, Juan; Stacko, Peter; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Jacquemin, Denis; Otten, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    A straightforward synthetic route to arylazoindazoles via nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presented. Upon deprotonation of the NH group, a C6F5-substituted formazan undergoes facile cyclization as a result of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNAr). This new class of azo photoswitches

  9. Taking Orders from Light: Photo-Switchable Working/Inactive Smart Surfaces for Protein and Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junji; Ma, Wenjing; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2017-03-15

    Photoresponsive smart surfaces are promising candidates for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and sensing devices. The use of light as an order signal provides advantages of remote and noninvasive control with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Modification of the photoswitches with target biomacromolecules, such as peptides, DNA, and small molecules including folic acid derivatives and sugars, has recently become a popular strategy to empower the smart surfaces with an improved detection efficiency and specificity. Herein, we report the construction of photoswitchable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on sugar (galactose/mannose)-decorated azobenzene derivatives and determine their photoswitchable, selective protein/cell adhesion performances via electrochemistry. Under alternate UV/vis irradiation, interconvertible high/low recognition and binding affinity toward selective lectins (proteins that recognize sugars) and cells that highly express sugar receptors are achieved. Furthermore, the cis-SAMs with a low binding affinity toward selective proteins and cells also exhibit minimal response toward unselective protein and cell samples, which offers the possibility in avoiding unwanted contamination and consumption of probes prior to functioning for practical applications. Besides, the electrochemical technique used facilitates the development of portable devices based on the smart surfaces for on-demand disease diagnosis.

  10. Photoswitchable Dihydroazulene Macrocycles for Solar Energy Storage: The Effects of Ring Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Frandsen, Benjamin N; Skov, Anders B; Hansen, Anne Schou; Rasmussen, Mads Georg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2017-10-06

    Efficient energy storage and release are two major challenges of solar energy harvesting technologies. The development of molecular solar thermal systems presents one approach to address these issues by tuning the isomerization reactions of photo/thermoswitches. Here we show that the incorporation of photoswitches into macrocyclic structures is a particularly attractive solution for increasing the storage time. We present the synthesis and properties of a series of macrocycles incorporating two dihydroazulene (DHA) photoswitching subunits, bridged by linkers of varying chain length. Independent of ring size, all macrocycles exhibit stepwise, light-induced, ring-opening reactions (DHA-DHA to DHA-VHF to VHF-VHF; VHF = vinylheptafulvene) with the first DHA undergoing isomerization with a similar efficiency as the uncyclized parent system while the second (DHA-VHF to VHF-VHF) is significantly slower. The energy-releasing, VHF-to-DHA, ring closures also occur in a stepwise manner and are systematically found to proceed slower in the more strained (smaller) cycles, but in all cases with a remarkably slow conversion of the second VHF to DHA. We managed to increase the half-life of the second VHF-to-DHA conversion from 65 to 202 h at room temperature by simply decreasing the ring size. A computational study reveals the smallest macrocycle to have the most energetic VHF-VHF state and hence highest energy density.

  11. Photoswitching of triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion with photo-generated radical from hexaphenylbiimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Zafar [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Toffoletti, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo, 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zhao, Jianzhang, E-mail: zhaojzh@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Barbon, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.barbon@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo, 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Photoirradiation generated radical from hexaphenyl-biimidazole (HPBI) was used for reversible switching of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion, based on quenching of the photosensitizer triplet state by radical-triplet pair mechanism. Upon 365 nm irradiation, the TTA upconversion in a system composed by a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative and perylene, was completely switched off due to quenching of triplet state of photosensitizer by photogenerated radical from HPBI. The upconversion was recovered after leaving the samples in darkness, due to regeneration of HPBI Dimer. The photophysical process involved in the photochromism and photoswitching of TTA upconversion were studied with steady-state UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and EPR spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: Radical-switched TTA upconversion was achieved with reversible quenching of the triplet state by photo-generated stable organic radical from photochromic hexaphenylbiimidazole.

  12. Control of Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Anthony M.; Rojo, Alberto G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical and quantum control of squeezed states of harmonic oscillators. This provides a method for reducing noise below the quantum limit and provides an example of the control of under-actuated systems in the stochastic and quantum context. We consider also the interaction of a squeezed quantum oscillator with an external heat bath.

  13. Structural characterization of the photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa-C62S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Oh Yeun; Sugiyama, Kanako; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Young Kwan; Song, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Eunice Eunkyung; Park, Sam-Yong; Jeon, Hyesung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2007-01-01

    The photoswitching behavior of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) or GFP-like proteins is increasingly recognized as a new technique for optical marking. Recently, Ando and his colleagues developed a new green fluorescent protein Dronpa, which possesses the unique photochromic property of being photoswitchable in a non-destructive manner. To better understand this mechanism, we determined the crystal structures of a new GFP Dronpa and its mutant C62S, at 1.9 A and 1.8 A, respectively. Determination of the structures demonstrates that a unique hydrogen-bonding network and the sulfur atom of the chromophore are critical to the photoswitching property of Dronpa. Reversible photoswitching was lost in cells expressing the Dronpa-C62S upon repetitive irradiation compared to the native protein. Structural and mutational analyses reveal the chemical basis for the functional properties of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and provide the basis for subsequent coherent engineering of this subfamily of Dronpa homolog's

  14. Photoswitchable molecular dipole antennas with tailored coherent coupling in glassy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbahri, Mady; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Gothe, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . We also introduce the concept of 'tailored molecular photonic coupling' while highlighting the role of interferences for the design of optically active media by adjusting the photonic response of the medium with the real and imaginary refractive index of photoswitchable molecules in the 'ON' state...... alteration of photochromic molecular dipole antennas. We successfully demonstrate the concept of Brewster wavelength, which is based on the dipolar interaction between radiating dipoles and the surrounding matrix possessing a net dipole moment, as a key tool for highly localized sensing of matrix polarity....... Our results enhance our fundamental understanding of coherent dipole radiation and open a new vein of research based on glassy disordered dipolar composites that act as macroscopic antenna with cooperative action; furthermore, these results have important implications for new design rules of tailored...

  15. Superresolution imaging in live Caulobacter crescentus cells using photoswitchable enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteen, Julie S.; Thompson, Michael A.; Tselentis, Nicole K.; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, photoactivation and photoswitching were used to control single-molecule fluorescent labels and produce images of cellular structures beyond the optical diffraction limit (e.g., PALM, FPALM, and STORM). While previous live-cell studies relied on sophisticated photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, we show in the present work that superresolution imaging can be performed with fusions to the commonly used fluorescent protein EYFP. Rather than being photoactivated, however, EYFP can be reactivated with violet light after apparent photobleaching. In each cycle after initial imaging, only a sparse subset fluorophores is reactivated and localized, and the final image is then generated from the measured single-molecule positions. Because these methods are based on the imaging nanometer-sized single-molecule emitters and on the use of an active control mechanism to produce sparse sub-ensembles, we suggest the phrase "Single-Molecule Active-Control Microscopy" (SMACM) as an inclusive term for this general imaging strategy. In this paper, we address limitations arising from physiologically imposed upper boundaries on the fluorophore concentration by employing dark time-lapse periods to allow single-molecule motions to fill in filamentous structures, increasing the effective labeling concentration while localizing each emitter at most once per resolution-limited spot. We image cell-cycle-dependent superstructures of the bacterial actin protein MreB in live Caulobacter crescentus cells with sub-40-nm resolution for the first time. Furthermore, we quantify the reactivation quantum yield of EYFP, and find this to be 1.6 x 10-6, on par with conventional photoswitchable fluorescent proteins like Dronpa. These studies show that EYFP is a useful emitter for in vivo superresolution imaging of intracellular structures in bacterial cells.

  16. State Controled Avantgarde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    State controlled radio developed in the Nordic countries by the middle of the 1920es. Danish Radio was established for a trial period in April 1925, and was permanently founded in April 1926. Swedish radio was founded in 1925 and Norwegian radio in 1933. The new and unquestionably powerful medium...... to the program sheet from Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DBC) the program included transmission of music from the Radio Orchestra, sound film and transmissions from theatres and dance restaurants in Copenhage...

  17. A Single-Chain Photoswitchable CRISPR-Cas9 Architecture for Light-Inducible Gene Editing and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin X; Zou, Xinzhi; Chung, Hokyung K; Gao, Yuchen; Liu, Yanxia; Qi, Lei S; Lin, Michael Z

    2018-02-16

    Optical control of CRISPR-Cas9-derived proteins would be useful for restricting gene editing or transcriptional regulation to desired times and places. Optical control of Cas9 functions has been achieved with photouncageable unnatural amino acids or by using light-induced protein interactions to reconstitute Cas9-mediated functions from two polypeptides. However, these methods have only been applied to one Cas9 species and have not been used for optical control of different perturbations at two genes. Here, we use photodissociable dimeric fluorescent protein domains to engineer single-chain photoswitchable Cas9 (ps-Cas9) proteins in which the DNA-binding cleft is occluded at baseline and opened upon illumination. This design successfully controlled different species and functional variants of Cas9, mediated transcriptional activation more robustly than previous optogenetic methods, and enabled light-induced transcription of one gene and editing of another in the same cells. Thus, a single-chain photoswitchable architecture provides a general method to control a variety of Cas9-mediated functions.

  18. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. X-ray reflectivity investgation of structure and kinetics of photoswitchable lipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Kuntal; Haushahn, Björn; Shen, Chen

    The mechanical and dynamic properties of phospholipid membranes are of importance for important biological functions, such as switching of embedded proteins. In order to investigate these properties we study model systems in which amphiphilic photoswitchable molecules are integrated into Langmuir...... films of phospholipids. we have modified glycolipids to contain an azobenzene photoswitch between the chain and the head group and successfully embedded those in a monolayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). This allows us to reversibly change the azobenzene-glycolipid orientation between...

  20. Azobenzene Photoswitches for Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Wu, Bian; Poloni, Claudia; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of azobenzenes containing residues needed for aqueous Staudinger–Bertozzi ligation to azides was designed. The resulting photochromes show stable and reversible switching behavior in water, with a photostationary state (PSS) of up to 95:5 cis/trans. Applications in model systems

  1. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -- 4. Mesoscopic superconductivity with unconventional superconductor or ferromagnet. Ultraefficient microrefrigerators realized with ferromagnet-superconductor junctions / F. Giazotto et al. Anomalous charge transport in triplet superconductor junctions by the synergy effect of the proximity effect and the mid gap Andreev resonant states / Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Paramagnetic and glass states in superconductive YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] ceramics of sub-micron scale grains / H. Deguchi et al. Quantum properties of single-domain triplet superconductors / A. M. Gulian and K. S. Wood. A numerical study of Josephson current in p wave superconducting junctions / Y. Asano et al. Tilted bi-crystal sapphire substrates improve properties of grain boundary YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] junctions and extend their Josephson response to THZ frequencies / E. Stepantsov et al. Circuit theory analysis of AB-plane tunnel junctions of unconventional superconductor Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ca[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / I. Shigeta et al. Transport properties of normal metal/anisotropic superconductor junctions in the eutectic system Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol]Ru / M. Kawamura et al. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in d-wave superconductor Josephson / S. Kawabata et al. Quasiparticle states of high-T[symbol] oxides observed by a Zeeman magnetic field response / S. Kashiwaya et al. Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta in anisotropic superconductors: vortex lenses, vortex diodes and vortex pumps / S. Savel'ev and F. Nori. Stability of vortex-antivortex "molecules" in mesoscopic superconducting triangles / V. R. Misko et al. Superconducting network with magnetic decoration - Hofstadter butterfly in spatially modulated magnetic field / Y. Iye et al. Observation of paramagnetic supercurrent in mesoscopic superconducting rings and disks using multiple-small-tunnel-junction method / A. Kanda et al. Guidance of vortices in high

  2. Photoswitchable and Water-Soluble Fluorescent Nano-Aggregates Based on a Diarylethene-Dansyl Dyad and Liposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongbo; Ma, Pin; Wang, Yanan; Hu, Guofei; Fang, Shibi; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan

    2017-01-17

    In this work, a unique approach is developed to generate photoswitchable and water-soluble fluorescent nano-aggregates. Initially, a new light-controlled diarylethene-dansyl dyad DAE 1 is formed by linking two dansyl fluorophores covalently to a symmetrical dithienylethene backbone, whose photophysical properties can be reversibly switched by optical stimuli. Subsequently, the water insolubility of the molecular switch 1 is overcome by incorporating it into the bilayer of liposome DPPC (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in water. This strategy creates stable fluorescent nano-aggregates OF-1@DPPC (≈25 nm diameter) that are soluble in an aqueous medium. The nano-aggregates OF-1@DPPC retain and even improve the photoswitchable fluorescence properties of DAE 1. More importantly, OF-1@DPPC exhibits a remarkable photostability and fatigue resistance after 5 cycles of irradiation with UV and visible light, which is crucial for its practical application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photo-switchable two-dimensional nanofluidic ionic diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Yaping; Zhou, Yi; Jia, Meijuan; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The bottom-up assembly of ion-channel-mimetic nanofluidic devices and materials with two-dimensional (2D) nano-building blocks paves a straightforward way towards the real-world applications of the novel transport phenomena on a nano- or sub-nanoscale. One immediate challenge is to provide the 2D nanofluidic systems with adaptive responsibilities and asymmetric ion transport characteristics. Herein, we introduce a facile and general strategy to provide a graphene-oxide-based 2D nanofluidic system with photo-switchable ionic current rectification (ICR). The degree of ICR can be prominently enhanced upon UV irradiation and it can be perfectly retrieved under irradiation with visible light. A maximum ICR ratio of about 48 was achieved. The smart and functional nanofluidic devices have applications in energy conversion, chemical sensing, water treatment, etc .

  4. Effect of the substitution of F on the photoswitching behavior in single molecular device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Baoan; Zheng, Yapeng; Yuan, Peipei; Liao, Bin; Chen, Wei; An, Xiuhua; Mo, Xiaotong; Ding, Yuqiang

    2017-09-01

    We carry out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function to investigate the electronic transport properties of a 5-arylidenehydantoin molecule sandwiched between two Au electrodes. A reversible switching behavior between E and Z isomerization can be observed in the device through light irradiation, and their currents display different characteristic. Furthermore, it is found that the substitution of F in the molecule enlarges the switching ratio of device. The different characteristics of currents for E/Z forms and E/Z with the substitution of F are discussed by the transmission spectra and the molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian states. We discuss the change of Fermi level alignment due to the substitution of F, and the polarization effect under bias. We find the negative differential resistance effect in the E form with the substitution of F, which is explained by change of molecule-electrode coupling with the varied bias. The results suggest that the 5-arylidenehydantoin molecule with the substitution of F that improves the performance of device, becoming one of the methods for improving single molecular photoswitching performance in the future.

  5. Comparison between s - and d -electron mediated transport in a photoswitching dithienylethene molecule using ab initio transport methods

    KAUST Repository

    Odell, Anders

    2011-10-03

    The influence of the electrode\\'s Fermi surface on the transport properties of a photoswitching molecule is investigated with state-of-the-art ab initio transport methods. We report results for the conducting properties of the two forms of dithienylethene attached either to Ag or to nonmagnetic Ni leads. The I-V curves of the Ag/dithienylethene/Ag device are found to be very similar to those reported previously for Au. In contrast, when Ni is used as the electrode material the zero-bias transmission coefficient is profoundly different as a result of the role played by the Ni d bands in the bonding between the molecule and the electrodes. Intriguingly, despite these differences the overall conducting properties depend little on the electrode material. We thus conclude that electron transport in dithienylethene is, for the cases studied, mainly governed by the intrinsic electronic structure of the molecule. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  7. Photoswitchable diacylglycerols enable optical control of protein kinase C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, J. A.; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.; Hodson, D. J.; Lipstein, N.; Nagpal, J.; Rutter, G. A.; Rhee, J. S.; Gottschalk, A.; Brose, N.; Schultz, C.; Trauner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2016), s. 755-762 ISSN 1552-4450 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : pancreatic beta cells * Caenorhabditis elegans * insulin secretion Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 15.066, year: 2016

  8. Photoswitchable metal organic frameworks: turn on the lights and close the windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Ortega, S.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of modulating the properties of metal–organic frameworks (MOF) on demand by external light-stimuli is a most appealing pathway to enhance their performance in storage and separation and to render novel advanced applications. Photoswitchable linkers of different nature have been inserted

  9. Nonradiative inter- and intramolecular energy transfer from the aromatic donor anisole to a synthesized photoswitchable acceptor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Misra, Tapas; Mukhopadhyay, Rupa; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-02-01

    We report steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements on acetonitrile (ACN) solutions of the model compounds, energy donor anisole (A) and a photoswitchable acceptor N,N'-1,2-phenylene di-p-tosylamide (B) and the multichromophore (M) where A and B are connected by a spacer containing both rigid triple (acetylenic) and flexible methylene bonds. Both steady state and time correlated single photon counting measurements demonstrate that though intermolecular energy transfer, of Forster type, between the donor and acceptor moieties occurs with rate 10(8)s(-1) but when these two reacting components are linked by a spacer (multichromophore, M) the observed transfer rate ( approximately 10(11)s(-1)) enhances. This seemingly indicates that the imposition of the spacer by inserting a triple bond may facilitate in the propagation of electronic excitation energy through bond. The time resolved fluorescence measurements along with the theoretical predictions using Configuration interaction singles (CIS) method by using 6-31G (d,p) basis set, implemented in the Gaussian package indicate the formations of the two excited conformers of B. The experimental findings made from the steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrate that, though two different isomeric species of the acceptor B are formed in the excited singlet states, the prevailing singlet-singlet nonradiative energy transfer route was found from the donor A to the relatively longer-lived isomeric species of B. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiphase dual-color correlation in a reactant-product pair imparts ultrasensitivity in reaction-linked double-photoswitching fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Tian, Zhiyuan; Li, Alexander D Q

    2015-04-08

    A pair of reversible photochemical reactions correlates their reactant and product specifically, and such a correlation uniquely distinguishes their correlated signal from others that are not linked by this reversible reaction. Here a nanoparticle-shielded fluorophore is photodriven to undergo structural dynamics, alternating between a green-fluorescence state and a red-fluorescence state. As time elapses, the fluorophore can be in either state but not both at the same time. Thus, the red fluorescence is maximized while the green fluorescence is minimized and vice versa. Such an antiphase dual-color (AD) corelationship between the red and green fluorescence maxima as well as between their minima can be exploited to greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio, thus enhancing the ultimate detection limit. Potential benefits of this correlation include elimination of all interferences originating from single-color dyes and signal amplification of AD photoswitching molecules by orders of magnitude.

  11. Theoretical investigation of substituent effects on the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Harring; Elm, Jonas; Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent dihydroazu......We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent...... on the substitution pattern, and based on these results, we have outlined molecular design considerations for obtaining new desired target structures exhibiting long energy storage times. Selected candidate systems have also been investigated in terms of optical properties to elucidate how sensitive the absorption...

  12. Geodetic Control Points - Multi-State Control Point Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The Multi-State Control Point Database (MCPD) is a database of geodetic and mapping control covering Idaho and Montana. The control were submitted by registered land...

  13. Solid state controller three axes controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reported flight controller features a handle grip which is mounted on a longitudinally extending control element. The handle grip is pivotally mounted on the control element about a pitch axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis through the control element. The pivotal mounting includes a resilient force mounting mechanism which centers the grip relative to the control element. Rotation of the handle grip produces a direct rotation of a transducer element in a transducer which provides an electrical indication of the rotative movement about three mutually perpendicular axes.

  14. Flexible Self-Powered GaN Ultraviolet Photoswitch with Piezo-Phototronic Effect Enhanced On/Off Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Liu, Yudong; Yu, Aifang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Liu, Jingyu; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Shi, Xieqing; Kou, Jinzong; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Flexible self-powered sensing is urgently needed for wearable, portable, sustainable, maintenance-free and long-term applications. Here, we developed a flexible and self-powered GaN membrane-based ultraviolet (UV) photoswitch with high on/off ratio and excellent sensitivity. Even without any power supply, the driving force of UV photogenerated carriers can be well boosted by the combination of both built-in electric field and piezoelectric polarization field. The asymmetric metal-semiconductor-metal structure has been elaborately utilized to enhance the carrier separation and transport for highly sensitive UV photoresponse. Its UV on/off ratio and detection sensitivity reach to 4.67 × 10(5) and 1.78 × 10(12) cm·Hz(0.5) W(1-), respectively. Due to its excellent mechanical flexibility, the piezoelectric polarization field in GaN membrane can be easily tuned/controlled based on piezo-phototronic effect. Under 1% strain, a stronger and broader depletion region can be obtained to further enhance UV on/off ratio up to 154%. As a result, our research can not only provide a deep understanding of local electric field effects on self-powered optoelectronic detection, but also promote the development of self-powered flexible optoelectronic devices and integrated systems.

  15. Unidirectional Quantum Remote Control:Teleportation of Control-State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-Zhuang; GU Yong-Jian; WU Gui-Chu; GUO Guang-Can

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of teleportation of unitary operations by unidirectional control-state telepor-tation and propose a scheme called unidirectional quantum remote control. The scheme is based on the isomorphismbetween operation and state. It allows us to store a unitary operation in a control state, thereby teleportation of theunitary operation can be implemented by unidirectional teleportation of the control-state. We find that the probabilityof success for implementing an arbitrary unitary operation on arbitrary M-qubit state by unidirectional control-stateteleportation is 4-M, and 2M ebits and 4M cbits are consumed in each teleportation.

  16. Imaging the distribution of photoswitchable probes with temporally-unmixed multispectral optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Stiel, Andre C.; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Synthetic and genetically encoded chromo- and fluorophores have become indispensable tools for biomedical research enabling a myriad of applications in imaging modalities based on biomedical optics. The versatility offered by the optoacoustic (photoacoustic) contrast mechanism enables to detect signals from any substance absorbing light, and hence these probes can be used as optoacoustic contrast agents. While contrast versatility generally represents an advantage of optoacoustics, the strong background signal generated by light absorption in endogeneous chromophores hampers the optoacoustic capacity to detect a photo-absorbing agent of interest. Increasing the optoacoustic sensitivity is then determined by the capability to differentiate specific features of such agent. For example, multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) exploits illuminating the tissue at multiple optical wavelengths to spectrally resolve (unmix) the contribution of different chromophores. Herein, we present an alternative approach to enhance the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of optoacoustic contrast agents. This is achieved with photoswitchable probes that change optical absorption upon illumination with specific optical wavelengths. Thereby, temporally unmixed MSOT (tuMSOT) is based on photoswitching the compounds according to defined schedules to elicit specific time-varying optoacoustic signals, and then use temporal unmixing algorithms to locate the contrast agent based on their particular temporal profile. The photoswitching kinetics is further affected by light intensity, so that tuMSOT can be employed to estimate the light fluence distribution in a biological sample. The performance of the method is demonstrated herein with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein Dronpa and its fast-switching fatigue resistant variant Dronpa-M159T.

  17. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  18. A Scheme of Controlled Quantum State Swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Zou Zhichun; Qi Jianxia; Song Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for controlled quantum state swapping is presented using maximally entangled five-qubit state, i.e., Alice wants to transmit an entangled state of particle a to Bob and at the same time Bob wants to transmit an entangled state of particle b to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. The operations used in this swapping process including C-not operation and a series of single-qubit measurements performed by Alice, Bob, and Charlie.

  19. Molecular solar thermal energy storage in photoswitch oligomers increases energy densities and storage times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansø, Mads; Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Wang, Zhihang; Erhart, Paul; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2018-05-16

    Molecular photoswitches can be used for solar thermal energy storage by photoisomerization into high-energy, meta-stable isomers; we present a molecular design strategy leading to photoswitches with high energy densities and long storage times. High measured energy densities of up to 559 kJ kg -1 (155 Wh kg -1 ), long storage lifetimes up to 48.5 days, and high quantum yields of conversion of up to 94% per subunit are demonstrated in norbornadiene/quadricyclane (NBD/QC) photo-/thermoswitch couples incorporated into dimeric and trimeric structures. By changing the linker unit between the NBD units, we can at the same time fine-tune light-harvesting and energy densities of the dimers and trimers so that they exceed those of their monomeric analogs. These new oligomers thereby meet several of the criteria to be met for an optimum molecule to ultimately enter actual devices being able to undergo closed cycles of solar light-harvesting, energy storage, and heat release.

  20. Isolation contactor state control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  1. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented

  2. Nonlinear H-ininity state feedback controllers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromme, Marc; Møller-Pedersen, Jens; Pagh Petersen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    From a general point of view the state feedback H∞ suboptimal control problem is reasonably well understood. Important problems remain with regard to a priori information of the size of the neighbourhood where the local state feedback H∞ problem is solvable. This problem is solved regionally (sem...... (semiglobally) in this paper, and the obtained control laws are implemented in MAPLE...

  3. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  4. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  5. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  6. Controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tian-Yin; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states in which classical keys for controllers' portion are used. We also discuss the security of the proposed scheme and show that it can satisfy the requirements for controlled quantum teleportation. The comparison between this scheme and the previous ones shows that it is more economical and efficient. (general)

  7. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  8. Fast photo-switchable surfaces for boiling heat transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C. N.; Glavin, N. R.; Voevodin, A. A.; Turner, D. B.; Check, M. H.; Jespersen, M. L.; Borton, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Several milligrams of the ruthenium-centered organometallic complex, ruthenium bis-4,4′-di(thiomethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine, mono-2 -(2-pyridyl)-1,3-oxathiane ([Ru{(HS-CH 2 ) 2 -bpy} 2 {pox}](PF 6 ) 2 ) were synthesized and used to produce a self assembled monolayer film on a gold substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the film detected the presence of bound thiolate, which is an indication of a chemisorbed film. Water contact angle measurements were performed before and after 5 min of visible light irradiation using an ozone-free 1000 W Xe(Hg) arc source with a 425-680 nm long pass mirror. The contact angle changed from 52° pre-irradiation (hydrophilic state) to 95° post-irradiation (hydrophobic state).

  9. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  10. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; DeYoreo, James J [Clayton, CA; Kwon, Youngeun [Livermore, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  11. Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of photoswitchable fluorescent silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölling, Jonas; Polyakova, Svetlana; Belov, Vladimir; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Bossi, Mariano L; Hell, Stefan W

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a new functional (amino reactive) highly efficient fluorescent molecular switch (FMS) with a photochromic diarylethene and a rhodamine fluorescent dye. The reactive group in this FMS -N-hydroxysuccinimide ester- allows selective labeling of amino containing molecules or other materials. In ethanolic solutions, the compound displays a large fluorescent quantum yield of 52 % and a large fluorescence modulation ratio (94 %) between two states that may be interconverted with red and near-UV light. Silica nanoparticles incorporating the new FMS were prepared and characterized, and their spectroscopic and switching properties were also studied. The dye retained its properties after the incorporation into the silica, thereby allowing light-induced reversible high modulation of the fluorescence signal of a single particle for up to 60 cycles, before undergoing irreversible photobleaching. Some applications of these particles in fluorescence microscopy are also demonstrated. In particular, subdiffraction images of nanoparticles were obtained, in the focal plane of a confocal microscope.

  13. Controllable Tamm states in magnetophotonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzlikin, A.M. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics, Russian Academy of Science, 13/19 Izhorskaya ul., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics, Russian Academy of Science, 13/19 Izhorskaya ul., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: a-vinogr@yandex.ru; Dorofeenko, A.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics, Russian Academy of Science, 13/19 Izhorskaya ul., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Levy, M. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295 (United States); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    We study the Tamm states existing at the interface of a 1D magnetophotonic crystal made of magneto-optic material and a material with natural anisotropy. It is shown that in such a photonic crystal (PC) Yeh's band gap may exist, which causes a special type of the Tamm state. As this state is due to magneto-optic properties, it is controllable by an external magnetic field.

  14. Controllable Tamm states in magnetophotonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzlikin, A.M.; Vinogradov, A.P.; Dorofeenko, A.V.; Inoue, M.; Levy, M.; Granovsky, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the Tamm states existing at the interface of a 1D magnetophotonic crystal made of magneto-optic material and a material with natural anisotropy. It is shown that in such a photonic crystal (PC) Yeh's band gap may exist, which causes a special type of the Tamm state. As this state is due to magneto-optic properties, it is controllable by an external magnetic field

  15. Benchmark Study of the Structural and Thermochemical Properties of a Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koerstz, Mads; Elm, Jonas; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the performance of four different density functional theory (DFT) functionals (M06-2X, ωB97X-D, PBE0, and B3LYP-D3BJ) for calculating the structural and thermochemical properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch (DHA/VHF). We find that all the tested DFT......, indicating that the largest source of error when calculating storage free energies originates from errors in the calculated single point energies. It was found that ωB97X-D and M06-2X performed decently for predicting storage energies. While B3LYP-D3BJ and PBE0 generally underestimated the storage energy...

  16. Semiglobal H-infty state feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromme, Marc

    1997-01-01

    semi-global set-stabilizing H-infty control is local H-infty control within some given compact set O such that all state trajectories are bounded inside O, and are approaching an open loop invariant set S subset O as t -> infinity. Sufficient conditions for the existance of a continuous statefeed...

  17. Robust hydraulic position controller by a fuzzy state controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Van der Wal, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    In nuclear industry, one of the most important design considerations of controllers is their robustness. Robustness in this context is defined as the ability of a system to be controlled in a stable way over a wide range of system parameters. Generally the systems to be controlled are linearized, and stability is subsequently proven for this idealized system. By combining classical control theory and fuzzy set theory, a new kind of state controller is proposed and successfully applied to a hydraulic position servo with excellent robustness against variation of system parameters

  18. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity.

  19. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  20. Blackhole State-Controlled Regulated Pushdown Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Csuhaj-Varju; T. Masopust (Tomas); G. Vaszil (György); H. Bordihn; R. Freund; T. Hinze; M. Holzer; M. Kutrib; F. Otto

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we introduce and study a variant of regulated pushdown automata, called blackhole state-controlled R-PDA where a symbol can always be pushed to the pushdown, but only a given depth of the pushdown contents is remembered; the rest of the pushdown contents is lost. In

  1. The Global View on Port State Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis report is the second part of a PhD project entitled "The Econometrics of Maritime Safety – Recommendations to Enhance Safety at Sea" which is based on 183,000 port state control inspections and 11,700 casualties from various data sources. Its overall objective is to provide

  2. A green fluorescent protein with photoswitchable emission from the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available A colorful variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine invertebrates are utilized as genetically encoded markers for live cell imaging. The increased demand for advanced imaging techniques drives a continuous search for FPs with new and improved properties. Many useful FPs have been isolated from species adapted to sun-flooded habitats such as tropical coral reefs. It has yet remained unknown if species expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins also exist in the darkness of the deep sea. Using a submarine-based and -operated fluorescence detection system in the Gulf of Mexico, we discovered ceriantharians emitting bright green fluorescence in depths between 500 and 600 m and identified a GFP, named cerFP505, with bright fluorescence emission peaking at 505 nm. Spectroscopic studies showed that approximately 15% of the protein bulk feature reversible ON/OFF photoswitching that can be induced by alternating irradiation with blue und near-UV light. Despite being derived from an animal adapted to essentially complete darkness and low temperatures, cerFP505 maturation in living mammalian cells at 37 degrees C, its brightness and photostability are comparable to those of EGFP and cmFP512 from shallow water species. Therefore, our findings disclose the deep sea as a potential source of GFP-like molecular marker proteins.

  3. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  4. Tuning the optical emission of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets using proximal photoswitchable azobenzene molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan [Physik Department and NIM, Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Physik Department E20, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-St. 1, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Wierzbowski, Jakob; Ceylan, Özlem; Klein, Julian; Anh, Tuan Le; Meggendorfer, Felix; Finley, Jonathan J.; Margapoti, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.margapoti@wsi.tum.de [Physik Department and NIM, Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Nisic, Filippo; Dragonetti, Claudia [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano and UdR dell' INSTM di Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Palma, Carlos-Andres; Barth, Johannes V. [Physik Department E20, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-St. 1, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    We report photoluminescence measurements performed on monolayer- and two-layer-MoS{sub 2} placed on two types of mixed self-assembled monolayers (mSAMs) of photoswitchable azobenzene molecules. The two mSAMs differ via the electronegative character of the azobenzene derivatives. Thin layers of a transition metal dichalcogenide—MoS{sub 2}—were mechanically exfoliated on mSAM to allow for direct interaction between the molecules and the MoS{sub 2} layers. When the MoS{sub 2} nanosheet is in contact with the electropositive azobenzene molecules in trans configuration, an emission side band at lower energies and at low excitation powers suggest n-type doping. The photoisomerization of the molecules from trans to cis configuration lowers the doping, quenching the side band and enhancing the overall PL efficiency by a factor of ∼3. Opposite results were observed with the chlorinated, more electronegative molecules, exhibiting a reversed trend in the PL efficiency between trans and cis, but with an overall larger intensity. The type of doping induced by the two types of mSAMs was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy technique.

  5. Regulatory accessibility and social influences on state self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Hoyle, Rick H

    2010-02-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals' state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-control leads to increases in state self-control and thinking of others with bad trait or state self-control leads to decreases in state self-control. Study 5 provides evidence that the salience of significant others influences both regulatory accessibility and state self-control. Combined, these studies suggest that the effects of social influences on state self-control occur through multiple mechanisms.

  6. Detailed Characterization of a Nanosecond-Lived Excited State: X-ray and Theoretical Investigation of the Quintet State in Photoexcited [Fe(terpy)(2)](2+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanko, Gyoergy; Bordage, Amelie; Pápai, Mátyás Imre

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical predictions show that depending on the populations of the Fe 3d(xy), 3d(xz), and 3d(yz) orbitals two possible quintet states can exist for the high-spin state of the photoswitchable model system [Fe(terpy)(2)](2+). The differences in the structure and molecular properties of these B-5...

  7. Ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films as transparent top-contacts for light switchable solid-state molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Jevric, Martyn; Hauptmann, Jonas Rahlf

    2013-01-01

    A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules. The electr......A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules...

  8. In Situ Enzymatically Generated Photoswitchable Oxidase Mimetics and Their Application for Colorimetric Detection of Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gen-Xia; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Wang, Guang-Li

    2016-07-09

    In this study, a simple and amplified colorimetric assay is developed for the detection of the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on in situ formation of a photoswitchable oxidase mimetic of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). GOx catalyzes the oxidation of 1-thio-β-d-glucose to give 1-thio-β-d-gluconic acid which spontaneously hydrolyzes to β-d-gluconic acid and H₂S; the generated H₂S instantly reacts with Cd(2+) in the presence of Na₃PO₄ to give PO₄(3-)-stabilized CdS QDs in situ. Under visible-light (λ ≥ 400 nm) stimulation, the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs are a new style of oxidase mimic derived by producing some active species, such as h⁺, (•)OH, O₂(•-) and a little H₂O₂, which can oxidize the typical substrate (3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzydine (TMB)) with a color change. Based on the GOx-triggered growth of the oxidase mimetics of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs in situ, we developed a simple and amplified colorimetric assay to probe the enzymatic activity of GOx. The proposed method allowed the detection of the enzymatic activity of GOx over the range from 25 μg/L to 50 mg/L with a low detection limit of 6.6 μg/L. We believe the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs generated in situ with photo-stimulated enzyme-mimicking activity may find wide potential applications in biosensors.

  9. Synthesis and structural and photoswitchable properties of novel chiral host molecules: axis chiral 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl-appended stiff-stilbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Ideta, Keiko; Goto, Kenta; Shinmyozu, Teruo

    2007-02-16

    Novel photoswitchable chiral hosts having an axis chiral 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl (BINOL)-appended stiff-stilbene, trans-(R,R)- and -(S,S)-1, were synthesized by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and low-valence titanium-catalyzed McMurry coupling as key steps, and they were fully characterized by various NMR spectral techniques. The enantiomers of trans-1 showed almost complete mirror images in the CD spectra, where two split Cotton effects (exciton coupling) were observed in the beta-transitions of the naphthyl chromophore at 222 and 235 nm, but no Cotton effect was observed in the stiff-stilbene chromophore at 365 nm. The structures of (R)-10 and trans-(R,R)-1 were confirmed by X-ray structural analysis. The optimized structure of cis-1 by MO calculations has a wide chiral cavity of 7-8 A in diameter, whereas trans-1 cannot form an intramolecular cavity based on the X-ray data. Irradiation of (R,R)-trans-1 with black light (lambda = 365 nm) in CH3CN or benzene at 23 degrees C led to the conversion to the corresponding cis-isomer, as was monitored by 1H NMR, UV-vis, and CD spectra. At the photostationary state, the cis-1/trans-1 ratio was 86/14 in benzene or 75/25 in CH3CN. On the other hand, irradiation of the cis-1/trans-1 (75/25) mixture in CH3CN with an ultra-high-pressure Hg lamp at 23 degrees C (lambda = 410 nm) led to the photostationary state, where the cis-1/trans-1 ratio was estimated to be 9/91 on the basis of the 1H NMR spectra. The cis-trans and trans-cis interconversions could be repeated 10 times without decomposition of the C=C double bond. Thus, a new type of photoswitchable molecule has been developed, and trans-1 and cis-1 were quite durable under irradiation conditions. The guest binding properties of the BINOL moieties of trans- and cis-(R,R)-1 with F-, Cl-, and H2PO4- were examined by 1H NMR titration in CDCl3. Similar interaction with F- and Cl- was observed in trans-1 (host/guest = 1/1, Kassoc = (1.0 +/- 0.13) x 103 for F

  10. Represenation of process state, structure and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Rasmussen, J.

    1987-04-01

    Supervisory control is essentially a decision-making activity where, among other things, the dm has to maneuver within a complex problem space which reflects key dimensions and attributes of the object system (power plant ...). Of considerable importance therefore is the representation for the dm of this problem space comprising at the one end the target demands, goals, constraints and, at the other, the resources available for meeting the assigned goals - and all of this in pace with the dynamic event-driven environment which characterizes the types of systems of interest. Previous work has identified the advantages of utilizing the two-dimensional means-ends/part-whole space as a basic ingredient in a system representation. This paper associates more detailed representational requirements at the various levels of the means-ends axis with the activities of state identification and diagnosis. In addition, some examples of display formats which attempt to incorporate the outlined representational principles within the context of a PWR plant are discussed. (authors)

  11. Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    vanDellen, Michelle R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2009-01-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals’ state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-contro...

  12. An anatomy of state control in the globalization of state-owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, H.; Ren, B.; Li Sun, S.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating agency theory with institutional analysis in international business, we propose a state-control perspective to analyze government-control mechanisms in emerging economies’ globalization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). We identify two types of state control that influence SOEs’

  13. EXCHANGE CONTROL AS A FORM STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shevchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates ways to improve the effectiveness of exchange control as an indispensable element of creating systems of financial control. S definition proposed exchange control, interpretation of its functional purpose, the isolation of areas and currency control. Proved that only the presence of effective interconnected and interdependent budget, tax, customs and currency control ensure formation of an effective integrated system of financial control.

  14. Palladium-mediated strategies for functionalizing the dihydroazulene photoswitch: paving the way for its exploitation in molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevric, Martyn; Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2013-05-03

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has attracted interest as a molecular switch for advanced materials and molecular electronics. We report here two synthetic approaches using palladium catalysis for synthesizing dihydroazulene (DHA) photoswitches with thioacetate anchoring groups intended for molecular electronics applications. The first methodology involves a Suzuki coupling using tert-butyl thioether protecting groups. Conversion to the thioacetate using boron tribromide/acetyl chloride results in the formation of the product as a mixture of regioisomers mediated by a ring-opening reaction. The second approach circumvents isomerization by the synthesis of stannanes as intermediates and their use in a Stille coupling. Although fully unsaturated azulenes are formed as byproducts during the synthesis of the DHA stannanes, this approach allowed the regioselective incorporation of the thioacetate anchoring group in either one of the two ends (positions 2 or 7) or at both.

  15. Blind Quantum Signature with Controlled Four-Particle Cluster States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Jinjing; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A novel blind quantum signature scheme based on cluster states is introduced. Cluster states are a type of multi-qubit entangled states and it is more immune to decoherence than other entangled states. The controlled four-particle cluster states are created by acting controlled-Z gate on particles of four-particle cluster states. The presented scheme utilizes the above entangled states and simplifies the measurement basis to generate and verify the signature. Security analysis demonstrates that the scheme is unconditional secure. It can be employed to E-commerce systems in quantum scenario.

  16. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace...NUMBERS Automation Desing of a Maglev Controller in State Space N00014-89-J-3202 MIP-9001651 6. AUTHOR(S) Feng Zhao and Richard Thornton 7. PERFORMING

  17. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  18. Euclidean null controllability of linear systems with delays in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sufficient conditions are developed for the Euclidean controllability of linear systems with delay in state and in control. Namely, if the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and the control equation proper, then the control system is Euclidean null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  19. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state

  20. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Present state and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The interest of thermonuclear fusion for energy production is underlined. The present state of the research in this field is presented, emphasis being given to Tokamak configurations. The problems concerning confinement and additional heating in these devices are presented [fr

  1. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «subtype of control», «method of control», «methodical reception of control» has been provided. It has been determined that the form of the State financial control is a manifestation of the internal organization of control and the methods of its carrying out; a model of classification of the State financial control has been substantiated; attributes of the first and second order have been allocated; substantiation of methods and techniques has been improved; their composition and structure have been identified. This approach allows to divide general questions of the State financial control into theoretical and practical and, taking into consideration the expansion of the list of objects of the State financial control, will help to improve its methodology.

  2. "ZEMSTVO STATE AFFAIR": UNIT OF ZEMSTVO IN STATE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гульназ Булатовна Азаматова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local self-government in the Russian Empire (1864-1918 arose as a result of the bourgeois reforms and had a diversified character. This article reviews the role of zemstvo in the implementation of individual bourgeois reforms, local self-government relations with the justice of the peace, peasant authorities, the system of taxation and management of national education. The author concludes that district and executive councils complemented the administrative-bureaucratic system of local government through the district and provincial levels and human resources structure. At the same time, local authorities increased the scope of decentralization and democratization of local administration through election of magistrates, civil servants of peasant bodies as well as via representation in collegial bodies. The independent status of zemstvo promoted to emergence of a new level in the administrative and political management culture. The government used zemstvo to create a modernized system of taxation. Through district councils the Russian Empire established the valuation area of taxation and professional human resources. Thus, district councils helped to improve state administration and became the tool of implementation of the government reform programs in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.

  3. Predictive Control Based upon State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive online computation of the control vector by solving the optimal control problem of a non-linear multivariable process with arbitrary performance indices is investigated. Two different methods are considered in the search for an optimal, parameterized control vector: Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and optimization by using the performance index and its gradient directly. Unfortunately, solving this optimization problem has turned out to be a rather time-consuming task which has resulted in a time delay that cannot be accepted when the actual process is exposed to rapidly-varying disturbances. However, an instantaneous feedback strategy operating in parallel with the original control aogorithm was found to be able to cope with this problem.

  4. Semiglobal H-infinity State Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromme, Marc; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    Semi-global set-stabilizing H-infinity controlis a local within some given compact set such that all statetrajectories are bounded inside the set, and are approaching an openloop invariant subset as time approaches infinity. Sufficientconditions for the existence of a continuous state feedback law...

  5. Migration control, documentation, and state transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Segatti, A.; Landau, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Examines undocumented migration, one of the main outcomes of the transition from formal labor migration to a mixed system, gauges the long-term impacts of the bureaucratic stasis on governance in South Africa, and explores how an ongoing state of crisis in this policy sphere is shaping the everyday

  6. Feed Forward Neural Network and Optimal Control Problem with Control and State Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ová, Mária

    2009-09-01

    A feed forward neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The paper extends adaptive critic neural network architecture proposed by [5] to the optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. The proposed simulation method is illustrated by the optimal control problem of nitrogen transformation cycle model. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  7. State-feedback control of fuzzy discrete-event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Ying, Hao

    2010-06-01

    In a 2002 paper, we combined fuzzy logic with discrete-event systems (DESs) and established an automaton model of fuzzy DESs (FDESs). The model can effectively represent deterministic uncertainties and vagueness, as well as human subjective observation and judgment inherent to many real-world problems, particularly those in biomedicine. We also investigated optimal control of FDESs and applied the results to optimize HIV/AIDS treatments for individual patients. Since then, other researchers have investigated supervisory control problems in FDESs, and several results have been obtained. These results are mostly derived by extending the traditional supervisory control of (crisp) DESs, which are string based. In this paper, we develop state-feedback control of FDESs that is different from the supervisory control extensions. We use state space to describe the system behaviors and use state feedback in control. Both disablement and enforcement are allowed. Furthermore, we study controllability based on the state space and prove that a controller exists if and only if the controlled system behavior is (state-based) controllable. We discuss various properties of the state-based controllability. Aside from novelty, the proposed new framework has the advantages of being able to address a wide range of practical problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by existing approaches. We use the diabetes treatment as an example to illustrate some key aspects of our theoretical results.

  8. Controlled teleportation of high-dimension quantum-states with generalized Bell-state measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan You-Bang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme for controlled teleportation of arbitrary high-dimensional unknown quantum states is proposed by using the generalized Bell-basis measurement and the generalized Hadamard transformation. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled teleportation of an unknown single-qutrit state and an unknown two-qutrit state are investigated in detail. In the first scheme, a maximally entangled three-qutrit state is used as the quantum channel, while in the second scheme, an entangled two-qutrit state and an entangled three-qutrit state are employed as the quantum channels. In these schemes, an unknown qutrit state can be teleported to either one of two receivers, but only one of them can reconstruct the qutrit state with the help of the other. Based on the case of qutrits, a scheme of controlled teleportation of an unknown qudit state is presented.

  9. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  10. Exclusion and Control in the Carceral State

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Theorists of punishment typically construe the criminal justice system as the means to achieve retribution or to deter or otherwise prevent crime. But a close look at the way the American penal system actually operates makes clear the poor fit between these more conventional explanations and the realities of American penal practice. Taking actual practice as its starting point, this essay argues instead that the animating mission of the American carceral project is the exclusion and control o...

  11. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  12. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «sub...

  13. Control of trapped-ion quantum states with optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangan, C.; Monroe, C.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Bloch, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results on the quantum control of systems with infinitely large Hilbert spaces. A control-theoretic analysis of the control of trapped-ion quantum states via optical pulses is performed. We demonstrate how resonant bichromatic fields can be applied in two contrasting ways--one that makes the system completely uncontrollable and the other that makes the system controllable. In some interesting cases, the Hilbert space of the qubit-harmonic oscillator can be made finite, and the Schroedinger equation controllable via bichromatic resonant pulses. Extending this analysis to the quantum states of two ions, a new scheme for producing entangled qubits is discovered

  14. Relative controllability of nonlinear systems with delays in state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, sufficient conditions are developed for the relative controllability of perturbed nonlinear systems with time varying multiple delays in control with the perturbation function having implicit derivative with delays depending on both state and control variable, using Darbo's fixed points theorem. Journal of the Nigerian ...

  15. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem represented by the. LMI. Simulation studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ... one is the linear state feedback controller and the other is the nonlinear feedback controller. By the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop error system is ...

  16. Optimal design of tweezer control for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2018-01-01

    Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns which consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of coupled oscillators. In small networks, chimera states usually exhibit short lifetimes and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. A tweezer feedback control scheme can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states. We analyze the action of the tweezer control in small nonlocally coupled networks of Van der Pol and FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators, and determine the ranges of optimal control parameters. We demonstrate that the tweezer control scheme allows for stabilization of chimera states with different shapes, and can be used as an instrument for controlling the coherent domains size, as well as the maximum average frequency difference of the oscillators.

  17. Controlled and secure direct communication using GHZ state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for controlled and secure direct communication is proposed. The communication is based on GHZ state and controlled quantum teleportation. After insuring the security of the quantum channel (a set of qubits in the GHZ state), alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states in the GHZ state and transmits them to Bob, supervised by Charlie using controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded messages directly by the measurement on his qubits. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret messages between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used. The feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side. (orig.)

  18. Protecting nonlocality of multipartite states by feed-forward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Nonlocality is a useful resource in quantum communication and quantum information processing. In practical quantum communication, multipartite entangled states must be distributed between different users in different places through a channel. However, the channel is usually inevitably disturbed by the environment in quantum state distribution processing and then the nonlocality of states will be weakened and even lost. In this paper, we use a feed-forward control scheme to protect the nonlocality of the Bell and GHZ states against dissipation. We find that this protection scheme is very effective, specifically, for the Bell state, we can increase the noise threshold from 0.5 to 0.98, and for GHZ state from 0.29 to 0.96. And we also find that entanglement is relatively easier to be protected than nonlocality. For our scheme, protecting entanglement is equivalent to protecting the state in the case of Bell state, while protecting nonlocality is not.

  19. Light-Induced Contraction/Expansion of 1D Photoswitchable Metallopolymer Monitored at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garah, Mohamed El; Borré, Etienne; Ciesielski, Artur; Dianat, Arezoo; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane; Mauro, Matteo; Samorì, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The use of a bottom-up approach to the fabrication of nanopatterned functional surfaces, which are capable to respond to external stimuli, is of great current interest. Herein, the preparation of light-responsive, linear supramolecular metallopolymers constituted by the ideally infinite repetition of a ditopic ligand bearing an azoaryl moiety and Co(II) coordination nodes is described. The supramolecular polymerization process is followed by optical spectroscopy in dimethylformamide solution. Noteworthy, a submolecularly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the in situ reversible trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a photoswitchable metallopolymer that self-assembles into 2D crystalline patterns onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is achieved for the first time. The STM analysis of the nanopatterned surfaces is corroborated by modeling the physisorbed species onto a graphene slab before and after irradiation by means of density functional theory calculation. Significantly, switching of the monolayers consisting of supramolecular Co(II) metallopolymer bearing trans-azoaryl units to a novel pattern based on cis isomers can be triggered by UV light and reversed back to the trans conformer by using visible light, thereby restoring the trans-based supramolecular 2D packing. These findings represent a step forward toward the design and preparation of photoresponsive "smart" surfaces organized with an atomic precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Controlled Remote State Preparation via General Pure Three-Qubit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebo Zha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protocols for controlled remote state preparation of a single qubit and a general two-qubit state are presented in this paper. The general pure three-qubit states are chosen as shared quantum channel, which are not Local operations and classical communication (LOCC equivalent to the mostly used GHz state. This is the first time that general pure three-qubit states have been introduced to complete remote state preparation. The probability of successful preparation is presented. Moreover, in some special cases, the successful probability could reach a unit value.

  1. 76 FR 14637 - State Medicaid Fraud Control Units; Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...] State Medicaid Fraud Control Units; Data Mining AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... and analyzing State Medicaid claims data, known as data mining. To support and modernize MFCU efforts... (FFP) in the costs of defined data mining activities under specified conditions. In addition, we...

  2. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  3. On the control of queueing systems with aging state information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderwater, M.; Bhulai, S.; van der Mei, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate control of a queueing system in which a component of the state space is subject to aging. The controller can choose to forward incoming queries to the system (where it needs time for processing), or respond with a previously generated response (incurring a penalty for not providing a

  4. Automatic Welding Control Using a State Variable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    A-A10 610 NAVEAL POSTGRADUATE SCH4O.M CEAY CA0/ 13/ SAUTOMATIC WELDING CONTROL USING A STATE VARIABLE MODEL.W()JUN 79 W V "my UNCLASSIFIED...taverse Drive Unit // Jbint Path /Fixed Track 34 (servomotor positioning). Additional controls of heave (vertical), roll (angular rotation about the

  5. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes using Control Flow Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Timmer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  6. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes Using Control Flow Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Timmer, Mark; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  7. Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents an object-oriented implementation of full state feedback control for virtual power plants (VPP). The components of the VPP full state feedback control are (1) objectoriented high-fidelity modeling for all devices in the VPP; (2) Distribution System Distributed Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (DS-DQSE) that enables full observability of the VPP by augmenting actual measurements with virtual, derived and pseudo measurements and performing the Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (QSE) in a distributed manner, and (3) automated formulation of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in real time using the output of the DS-DQSE, and solving the distributed OPF to provide the optimal control commands to the DERs of the VPP.

  8. Control of Thermodynamical System with Input-Dependent State Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Krstic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    We consider control of a cooling system with several consumers that require cooling from a common source. The flow feeding coolant to the consumers can be controlled, but due to significant physical distances between the common source and the consumers, the coolant flow takes a non......-negligible amount of time to travel to the consumers, giving rise to input-dependent state delays. We first present a simple bilinear model of the system, followed by a state feedback control design that is able to stabilize the system at a chosen equilibrium in spite of the delays. We also present a heuristic...

  9. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2012-01-01

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

  10. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  11. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2012-10-13

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.

  12. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  13. Design of Gain Scheduling Control Using State Derivative Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Ismael Hardy Llins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of systems subject to time-varying parameters has awakened the interest of many researchers. The gain scheduling control strategy guarantees a good performance for systems of this type and also is considered as the simplest to deal with problems of this nature. Moreover, the class of systems in which the state derivative signals are easier to obtain than the state signals, such as in the control for reducing vibrations in a mechanical system, has gained an important hole in control theory. Considering those ideas, we propose sufficient conditions via LMI for designing a gain scheduling controller using state derivative feedback. The D-stability methodology was used for improving the performance of the transitory response. Practical implementation in an active suspension system and comparison with other methods validates the efficiency of the proposed strategy.

  14. Electrical Control of Metallic Heavy-Metal-Ferromagnet Interfacial States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong; Sun, Congli; Xu, Meng; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Voyles, Paul M.; Wang, Weigang

    2017-09-01

    Voltage-control effects provide an energy-efficient means of tailoring material properties, especially in highly integrated nanoscale devices. However, only insulating and semiconducting systems can be controlled so far. In metallic systems, there is no electric field due to electron screening effects and thus no such control effect exists. Here, we demonstrate that metallic systems can also be controlled electrically through ionic rather than electronic effects. In a Pt /Co structure, the control of the metallic Pt /Co interface can lead to unprecedented control effects on the magnetic properties of the entire structure. Consequently, the magnetization and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co layer can be independently manipulated to any desired state, the efficient spin toques can be enhanced about 3.5 times, and the switching current can be reduced about one order of magnitude. This ability to control a metallic system may be extended to control other physical phenomena.

  15. Universality in exact quantum state population dynamics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul; Egusquiza, Inigo L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an exact population transition, defined as the probability of finding a state at a final time that is exactly equal to the probability of another state at the initial time. We prove that, given a Hamiltonian, there always exists a complete set of orthogonal states that can be employed as time-zero states for which this exact population transition occurs. The result is general: It holds for arbitrary systems, arbitrary pairs of initial and final states, and for any time interval. The proposition is illustrated with several analytic models. In particular, we demonstrate that in some cases, by tuning the control parameters, a complete transition might occur, where a target state, vacant at t=0, is fully populated at time τ.

  16. State tobacco control expenditures and tax paid cigarette sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A.; Xu, Xin; Huang, Jidong; King, Brian; Lavinghouze, S. Rene; Sneegas, Karla S.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    This research is the first nationally representative study to examine the relationship between actual state-level tobacco control spending in each of the 5 CDC’s Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program categories and cigarette sales. We employed several alternative two-way fixed-effects regression techniques to estimate the determinants of cigarette sales in the United States for the years 2008–2012. State spending on tobacco control was found to have a negative and significant impact on cigarette sales in all models that were estimated. Spending in the areas of cessation interventions, health communication interventions, and state and community interventions were found to have a negative impact on cigarette sales in all models that were estimated, whereas spending in the areas of surveillance and evaluation, and administration and management were found to have negative effects on cigarette sales in only some models. Our models predict that states that spend up to seven times their current levels could still see significant reductions in cigarette sales. The findings from this research could help inform further investments in state tobacco control programs. PMID:29652890

  17. Nonadiabatic quantum state control of many bosons in few wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Kock Pedersen, Mads; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We present a fast scheme for arbitrary unitary control of interacting bosonic atoms in a double well. Assuming fixed interwell tunneling rate and intrawell interaction strength, we control the many-atom state by a discrete sequence of shifts of the single-well energies. For strong interactions......, resonant tunneling transitions implement beam-splitter U(2) rotations among atom number eigenstates, which can be combined and, thus, permit full controllability. By numerically optimizing such sequences of couplings at avoided level crossings, we extend the realm of full controllability to a wide range...... of realistic interaction parameters, while we remain in the simple control space. We demonstrate the efficiency and the high achievable fidelity of our proposal with nonadiabatic population transfer, NOON-state creation, a cnot gate, and a transistorlike, conditional evolution of several atoms....

  18. Location of external state financial control in national control system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates the theoretical basis of the external state financial control in Ukraine in the context of defining its place in the formation of the functional areas of internal and external controls in order to eliminate duplication of a single national control system. The authors have investigated the scientific approaches to the interpretation of the concept of «external state financial control», «internal financial control», «public audit» in order to eliminate terminological confusion. It were found the differences between the external and internal financial control on the basis of comparative characteristics of such features as the entity controlling entities, controlled objects, object methods, and direction control. The concept of internal and external controls are considered to expedient to communicate with the system in which this control is identified. «Internal» in this case is identical intra-control, that is located within the executive branch, while an external control is not included in it and is external to the executive bodies of the controlled institution, and is not related to them and, as a consequence, independent. The authors suggest to form a unified system of state financial control, a clear distinction between internal and external powers of species. The authors consider that appropriate in this context will be the adoption of a single legislative act «About State Financial Control», the proposed structure is introduced in the article. Implementation of this law will contribute to the clear division of functional areas of the state control (internal and external, the elimination of departmental conflicts, and promote the formation of a single integrated control system in Ukraine, able to counteract abuses and prevent the possible loss of budgetary funds.

  19. On-line computer control of a nuclear reactor using optimal control and state estimation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tye, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental implementation of a nuclear reactor control system using combined optimal state feedback based on the Quadratic Regulator and state estimation using Kalman filtering techniques. The results obtained from the experiments indicate that a reactor control loop designed using this approach has improved stability margins, greater speed of response and noise filtering properties compared with a conventional reactor control loop. 11 refs

  20. Control of discrete event systems modeled as hierarchical state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine a class of discrete event systems (DESs) modeled as asynchronous hierarchical state machines (AHSMs). For this class of DESs, they provide an efficient method for testing reachability, which is an essential step in many control synthesis procedures. This method utilizes the asynchronous nature and hierarchical structure of AHSMs, thereby illustrating the advantage of the AHSM representation as compared with its equivalent (flat) state machine representation. An application of the method is presented where an online minimally restrictive solution is proposed for the problem of maintaining a controlled AHSM within prescribed legal bounds.

  1. Reversible Low-Light Induced Photoswitching of Crowned Spiropyran-DO3A Complexed with Gadolinium(III Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Knoesen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Photoswitchable spiropyran has been conjugated to the crowned ring system DO3A, which improves its solubility in dipolar and polar media and stabilizes the merocyanine isomer. Adding the lanthanide ion gadolinium(III to the macrocyclic ring system leads to a photoresponsive magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent that displays an increased spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 upon visible light stimulation. In this work, the photoresponse of this photochromic molecule to weak light illumination using blue and green light emitting diodes was investigated, simulating the emission spectra from bioluminescent enzymes. Photon emission rate of the light emitting diodes was changed, from 1.75 × 1016 photons·s−1 to 2.37 × 1012 photons·s−1. We observed a consistent visible light-induced isomerization of the merocyanine to the spiropyran form with photon fluxes as low as 2.37 × 1012 photons·s−1 resulting in a relaxivity change of the compound. This demonstrates the potential for use of the described imaging probes in low light level applications such as sensing bioluminescence enzyme activity. The isomerization behavior of gadolinium(III-ion complexed and non-complexed spiropyran-DO3A was analyzed in water and ethanol solution in response to low light illumination and compared to the emitted photon emission rate from over-expressed Gaussia princeps luciferase.

  2. Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it

  3. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  4. Solution for state constrained optimal control problems applied to power split control for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van T.A.C.; Gillot, J.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution for scalar state constrained optimal control problems. The algorithm rewrites the constrained optimal control problem as a sequence of unconstrained optimal control problems which can be solved recursively as a two point boundary value problem. The solution

  5. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U{sup VI} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng, E-mail: ecitluofeng@163.com

    2016-07-05

    Graphical abstract: Table of content Herein, through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples afforded ultra-high adsorption capacity for UVI ions from water with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g. - Highlights: • This work shows the record uptake capability of U{sup VI} (360 mg/g) in MOFs. • This work shows, for the first time, photo-switching behaviour towards U{sup VI} in aqueous solution. • This work demonstrates a simple and effective method to largely enhance uptake capability of U{sup VI}. • This work demonstrates a distinct method to prepare photo-sensitive MOFs for photo-switching behaviour towards guest molecules. - Abstract: Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U{sup VI} ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U{sup VI} ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U{sup VI} ions from water at pH value of 4 with

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eCGP123, an extremely stable monomeric green fluorescent protein with reversible photoswitching properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don Paul, Craig; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Byres, Emma; Rossjohn, Jamie; Devenish, Rodney J.; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Prescott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    eCGP123, an extremely stable GFP with photoswitching properties, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected at 2.10 Å resolution. Enhanced consensus green protein variant 123 (eCGP123) is an extremely thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) that exhibits useful negative reversible photoswitching properties. eCGP123 was derived by the application of both a consensus engineering approach and a recursive evolutionary process. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant eCGP123 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The eCGP123 crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.10 Å resolution. The data were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.63, b = 75.38, c = 84.51 Å, α = 90.96, β = 89.92, γ = 104.03°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.26 Å 3 Da −1 ) and a solvent content of 46% indicated that the asymmetric unit contained eight eCGP123 molecules

  7. Hierarchical Controlled Remote State Preparation by Using a Four-Qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-06-01

    We propose a scheme for hierarchical controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. In this process of remote state preparation, the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to reconstruct sender's original state.

  8. Hierarchical Controlled Remote State Preparation by Using a Four-Qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a scheme for hierarchical controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. In this process of remote state preparation, the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to reconstruct sender's original state.

  9. Controlling the dynamics of multi-state neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Tao; Zhao, Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyze the distribution of local fields (DLF) which is induced by the memory patterns in the Q-Ising model. It is found that the structure of the DLF is closely correlated with the network dynamics and the system performance. However, the design rule adopted in the Q-Ising model, like the other rules adopted for multi-state neural networks with associative memories, cannot be applied to directly control the DLF for a given set of memory patterns, and thus cannot be applied to further study the relationships between the structure of the DLF and the dynamics of the network. We then extend a design rule, which was presented recently for designing binary-state neural networks, to make it suitable for designing general multi-state neural networks. This rule is able to control the structure of the DLF as expected. We show that controlling the DLF not only can affect the dynamic behaviors of the multi-state neural networks for a given set of memory patterns, but also can improve the storage capacity. With the change of the DLF, the network shows very rich dynamic behaviors, such as the 'chaos phase', the 'memory phase', and the 'mixture phase'. These dynamic behaviors are also observed in the binary-state neural networks; therefore, our results imply that they may be the universal behaviors of feedback neural networks

  10. Alcohol price elasticities in control and license states in the United States, 1982-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolldal, Björn; Ponicki, William

    2005-08-01

    The demand for alcohol has been demonstrated repeatedly to be sensitive to price changes. However, estimated price elasticities vary by study region and over time. One explanation for these variations might be that different countries or parts of countries have had different alcohol control systems. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that a regulated market leads to higher transaction costs associated with purchasing alcohol, which in turn increases the full price of the beverages (the nominal cash price plus transaction costs). As a result, the cash price of alcohol represents a smaller part of the full price in a highly regulated market. Assuming that customers respond primarily to changes in full price, the demand for alcohol should be less sensitive to changes in cash price where regulation is stricter. This study examined whether variations in price elasticities were a function of the different regulatory systems in control and license states in the United States during the period 1982-99. Time-series cross-sectional analyses (in 50 states over 18 years) were conducted. Elasticities were estimated using a multiplicative model based upon first-differences of time-series within states. Disposable income and other socio-demographic variables were used as control variables. All data were obtained from archival sources. The demand for spirits and beer were significantly more sensitive to price changes in license states than in control states. The estimated price elasticity for wine sales was also somewhat larger in license states, but not significantly so. The lower price elasticities for spirits and beer in the control states support the hypothesis that customers respond primarily to changes in the full price of alcohol.

  11. Dissipative differential systems and the state space H∞ control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our very recent results on the synthesis of dissipative linear differential systems to the 'classical' state space H∞ control problem. We first review our general problem set-up, where the problem of rendering a given plant dissipative by general

  12. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new input-to-state stable (ISS) synchronization method for a general class of chaotic systems with disturbances. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, for the first time, the ISS synchronization controller is presented not only to guarantee the asymptotic ...

  13. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  14. State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed Conflict by H Tonkin ... (US) in the Iraqi theatre by 2007 exceeded the number of US troops, and in 2010 .... due diligence to promote PMSC compliance therewith. ... relying on existing accountability frameworks of international law, new domestic and.

  15. Optimal control of peridinin excited-state dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dietzek, B.; Chábera, P.; Hanf, R.; Tschierlei, S.; Popp, J.; Pascher, T.; Yartsev, A.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 129-136 ISSN 0301-0104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : peridin * excited-state dynamics * coherent control Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  16. Commonwealth and state controls over uranium exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    This survey of Commonwealth and State controls relating to uranium exploration and production in Australia shows that legal controls can be imposed at the following points: on licensing or on the grant of an authority to mine by the Commonwealth; by application of a Commonwealth Code of Practice if it is applicable; by the Commonwealth as a condition to approval for export; by the Commonwealth with respect to foreign investment approval; by the Commonwealth or a state in a government agreement relating to the particular development; by the application of a state code of practice where legislation is made on that behalf and by the application of local government requirements to the extent they are not modified by government agreement. There is potential for much overlap and duplication

  17. Robust synergetic control design under inputs and states constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Saeid; Araújo, Rui; Sadati, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust-constrained control methodology for discrete-time linear parameter-varying (DT-LPV) systems is proposed based on a synergetic control theory (SCT) approach. It is shown that in DT-LPV systems without uncertainty, and for any unmeasured bounded additive disturbance, the proposed controller accomplishes the goal of stabilising the system by asymptotically driving the error of the controlled variable to a bounded set containing the origin and then maintaining it there. Moreover, given an uncertain DT-LPV system jointly subject to unmeasured and constrained additive disturbances, and constraints in states, input commands and reference signals (set points), then invariant set theory is used to find an appropriate polyhedral robust invariant region in which the proposed control framework is guaranteed to robustly stabilise the closed-loop system. Furthermore, this is achieved even for the case of varying non-zero control set points in such uncertain DT-LPV systems. The controller is characterised to have a simple structure leading to an easy implementation, and a non-complex design process. The effectiveness of the proposed method and the implications of the controller design on feasibility and closed-loop performance are demonstrated through application examples on the temperature control on a continuous-stirred tank reactor plant, on the control of a real-coupled DC motor plant, and on an open-loop unstable system example.

  18. Machine Control System of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masand, Harish, E-mail: harish@ipr.res.in; Kumar, Aveg; Bhandarkar, M.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.; Dhongde, J.; Patel, K.; Chudasma, H.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Central Control System. • SST-1. • Machine Control System. - Abstract: Central Control System (CCS) of the Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) controls and monitors around 25 plant and experiment subsystems of SST-1 located remotely from the Central-Control room. Machine Control System (MCS) is a supervisory system that sits on the top of the CCS hierarchy and implements the CCS state diagram. MCS ensures the software interlock between the SST-1 subsystems with the CCS, any subsystem communication failure or its local error does not prohibit the execution of the MCS and in-turn the CCS operation. MCS also periodically monitors the subsystem’s status and their vital process parameters throughout the campaign. It also provides the platform for the Central Control operator to visualize and exchange remotely the operational and experimental configuration parameters with the sub-systems. MCS remains operational 24 × 7 from the commencement to the termination of the SST-1 campaign. The developed MCS has performed robustly and flawlessly during all the last campaigns of SST-1 carried out so far. This paper will describe various aspects of the development of MCS.

  19. Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Hubballi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.

  20. Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Dong [Institute of Information and Control Engineering Technology, Nanjing Normal University, 78 Bancang Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210042 (China)], E-mail: medongy@njnu.edu.cn; Lam, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Wang Zidong [Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zidong.Wang@brunel.ac.uk

    2009-04-15

    The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.

  1. Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Dong; Lam, James; Wang Zidong

    2009-01-01

    The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.

  2. State departments for the selection and control of school textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the State Commissions for the regulation of Schoolbooks, instituted in Argentine at the beginning of the 20th-century. The analysis exhibits a gradual liberalization of the prescriptions and a reassignment of decisions to the publishers, as well as the institution of schoolbooks as ineludible tool of the pedagogical methodology throughout that century. The growing of the publishing industry resulted in a displacement of the functions of control and selection of the produced teaching materials from the State on teachers and publishing companies. The bonds between State proposals and market technologies entailed a state validation of the companies’ conveniences; one of its more harmful consequences was their increasing meddling in the pedagogical methodology to implement in the school.

  3. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2016-07-07

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.

  4. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  5. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States

  6. State-dependent differential Riccati equation to track control of time-varying systems with state and control nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M H; Nekoo, S R

    2015-07-01

    This work studies an optimal control problem using the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) in differential form to track for time-varying systems with state and control nonlinearities. The trajectory tracking structure provides two nonlinear differential equations: the state-dependent differential Riccati equation (SDDRE) and the feed-forward differential equation. The independence of the governing equations and stability of the controller are proven along the trajectory using the Lyapunov approach. Backward integration (BI) is capable of solving the equations as a numerical solution; however, the forward solution methods require the closed-form solution to fulfill the task. A closed-form solution is introduced for SDDRE, but the feed-forward differential equation has not yet been obtained. Different ways of solving the problem are expressed and analyzed. These include BI, closed-form solution with corrective assumption, approximate solution, and forward integration. Application of the tracking problem is investigated to control robotic manipulators possessing rigid or flexible joints. The intention is to release a general program for automatic implementation of an SDDRE controller for any manipulator that obeys the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) principle when only D-H parameters are received as input data. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensorless State-Space Control of Elastic Two-Inertia Drive System Using a Minimum State Order Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Comnac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents sensorless state-space control of two-inertia drive system with resilient coupling. The control structure contains an I+PI controller for load speed regulation and a state feedback controller for effective vibration suppression of the elastic coupling. Mechanical state variable of two-inertia drive are obtained by using a linear minimum-order (Gopinath state observer. The design of the combined (I+PI and state feedback controller is achieved with the extended version of the modulus criterion [5]. The dynamic behavior of presented control structure has been examined, for different conditions, using MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation.

  8. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  9. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  10. State transitions, hysteresis, and control parameters on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Osborne, T.H.; Petrie, T.W.

    1998-07-01

    The theory of turbulence decorrelation by ExB velocity shear is the leading candidate to explain the changes in turbulence and transport that are seen at the plasma edge at the L to H transition. Based on this, a key question is: What are the conditions or control parameters needed to begin the formation of the E r shear layer and thus trigger the L to H transition? On the DIII-D tokamak, the authors are attacking this question both through direct tests of the various theories and by trying to gain insight into the fundamental physics by investigating the control parameters which have a major effect on the power threshold. In this paper the authors describe results of studies on oscillating discharges where the plasma transitions continuously between L and H states. By following the dynamics of the plasma state through the forward and back transitions, they can represent the evolution of various control parameter candidates as a trajectory in various parametric spaces. The shape of these control curves can illustrate the specific nonlinearities governing the L-H transition problem, and under the proper conditions may be interpreted in the context of various phase-transition based models. In particular, the hysteresis exhibited in the various curves may help to clarify causality (what are the critical parameters) and may serve as tests of the models, given sufficient experimental accuracy. At present they are looking at T e , E r and ballooning/diamagnetic parameters as possible control parameter candidates

  11. Digital control for the Penn State Breazeale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiskums, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Digital control has been an integral part of Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) nuclear power reactor technology since the 1960s. Much of the high CANDU production reliability can be attributed to the fault-tolerant and flexible control algorithms achievable with digital control. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has now transported this technology to research reactors, using industrial-grade microcomputers to solve equipment aging and spares obsolescence problems so prevalent at older installations. The open architecture of the Intel 8086-based computers provides for wide availability and reasonably priced, quality hardware from numerous sources. AECL recently supplied the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) with a new console containing a digital control and monitoring system. The reactor safety system (RSS) was also replaced with hardwired relay logic and truly analog state-of-the-art wide range nuclear instrumentation supplied by AECL's subcontractor, Gamma-Metrics. Retaining analog hardware for the mandated RSS functions was key to minimizing licensing efforts and the extensive verification and validation that would be required for safety system software. This paper elaborates on the digital control and monitoring portion of the PSBR console replacement, with emphasis on the key system objectives

  12. Controlled quantum-state transfer in a spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jiangbin; Brumer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Control of the transfer of quantum information encoded in quantum wave packets moving along a spin chain is demonstrated. Specifically, based on a relationship with control in a paradigm of quantum chaos, it is shown that wave packets with slow dispersion can automatically emerge from a class of initial superposition states involving only a few spins, and that arbitrary unspecified traveling wave packets can be nondestructively stopped and later relaunched with perfection. The results establish an interesting application of quantum chaos studies in quantum information science

  13. Practical Application of Neural Networks in State Space Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    the networks, although some modifications are needed for the method to apply to the multilayer perceptron network. In connection with the multilayer perceptron networks it is also pointed out how instantaneous, sample-by-sample linearized state space models can be extracted from a trained network, thus opening......In the present thesis we address some problems in discrete-time state space control of nonlinear dynamical systems and attempt to solve them using generic nonlinear models based on artificial neural networks. The main aim of the work is to examine how well such control algorithms perform when...... theoretic notions followed by a detailed description of the topology, neuron functions and learning rules of the two types of neural networks treated in the thesis, the multilayer perceptron and the neurofuzzy networks. In both cases, a Least Squares second-order gradient method is used to train...

  14. State estimation for networked control systems using fixed data rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Quan; Jin, Fang

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates state estimation for linear time-invariant systems where sensors and controllers are geographically separated and connected via a bandwidth-limited and errorless communication channel with the fixed data rate. All plant states are quantised, coded and converted together into a codeword in our quantisation and coding scheme. We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the fixed data rate for observability of such systems, and further develop the data-rate theorem. It is shown in our results that there exists a quantisation and coding scheme to ensure observability of the system if the fixed data rate is larger than the lower bound given, which is less conservative than the one in the literature. Furthermore, we also examine the role that the disturbances have on the state estimation problem in the case with data-rate limitations. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, D.; Depont, G.; Van Dermarliere, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations

  16. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  17. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  18. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  19. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Active control of a plasmonic metamaterial for quantum state engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriri, S. A.; Tashima, T.; Zhang, X.; Asano, M.; Bechu, M.; Güney, D. Ö.; Yamamoto, T.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Wegener, M.; Tame, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the active control of a plasmonic metamaterial operating in the quantum regime. A two-dimensional metamaterial consisting of unit cells made from gold nanorods is investigated. Using an external laser, we control the temperature of the metamaterial and carry out quantum process tomography on single-photon polarization-encoded qubits sent through, characterizing the metamaterial as a variable quantum channel. The overall polarization response can be tuned by up to 33% for particular nanorod dimensions. To explain the results, we develop a theoretical model and find that the experimental results match the predicted behavior well. This work goes beyond the use of simple passive quantum plasmonic systems and shows that external control of plasmonic elements enables a flexible device that can be used for quantum state engineering.

  1. Valence effects of sorption: laboratory control of valence state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rates of migration of nuclides from nuclear waste repositories required knowledge of the interaction of these nuclides with the components of the geological formations in the path of the migration. These interactions will be dependent upon the valence state and speciation of the nuclide. If the valence state is not known, then there can be little confidence in use of the data for safety analysis. An electrochemical method of valence state control was developed which makes use of a porous electrode in a flow system containing a column of the adsorbent. By use of this method and solvent extraction analyses of the valence states, a number of reactions of interest to HLW repositories were investigated. These include the reduction of Np(V) and Tc(VII) by crushed basalt and other minerals. For the reduction of Np(V) by basalt, the experiments indicate that sorption on basalt increases with pH and that most of the Np is reduced to Np(IV). The adsorbed Np(IV) is very difficult to remove from the basalt. For the experiments with Tc(VII), the results are considerably more complicated. The results of these experiments are used to assess some of the techniques and methods currently used in safety analyses of proposed HLW repositories. Perhaps the most important consideration is that predictive modeling of valence change reactions, such as the reduction of Np(V) and Tc(VII), must be used with considerable caution, and the occurrence of such reactions should be verified as best as possible with experiments using valence state control and analyses. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  2. Infection control resources in New York State hospitals, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricof, Rachel L; Schabses, Karolina A; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg

    2008-12-01

    In July 2005, New York State legislation requiring the mandatory reporting of specific hospital-associated infections (HAIs) was passed by the legislature and signed by the governor. In an effort to measure the impact of this legislation on infection control resources, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) conducted a baseline survey in March 2007. This report presents an overview of the methods and results of this survey. An electronic survey of infection control resources and responsibilities was conducted by the NYSDOH on their secure data network. The survey contained questions regarding the number and percent time for infection prevention and control professional (ICP) and hospital epidemiologist (HE) staff members, ICP/HE educational background and certification, infection control program support services, activities and responsibilities of infection prevention and control program staff, and estimates of time dedicated to various activities, including surveillance. Practitioners in 222 of 224 acute care hospitals (99%) responded. The average number of ICPs per facility depended on the average daily census of acute care beds and ranged from a mean of 0.64 full-time equivalent (FTE) ICP in facilities with an average daily census of or = 900 beds. Averaging the ICP resources over the health care settings for which they were responsible revealed that the "average full-time ICP" was responsible for 151 acute care facility beds, 1.3 intensive care units (ICUs) (average, 16 ICU beds), 21 long-term care facility beds, 0.6 dialysis centers, 0.5 ambulatory surgery centers, 4.8 ambulatory/outpatient clinics, and 1.1 private practice offices. The ICPs reported that 45% of their time is dedicated to surveillance. Other activities for which ICPs reported at least partial responsibility include staff education, quality assurance, occupational health, emergency preparedness, construction, central supply/processing, and risk management. This survey was designed to

  3. Protecting a Diamond Quantum Memory by Charge State Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Simon, Patrick; Antonov, Denis; Thiering, Gergő; Burk, Sina; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Fedder, Helmut; Meijer, Jan; Garrido, Jose A; Gali, Adam; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Doherty, Marcus William; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gallo, Alejandro; Grüneis, Andreas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-10-11

    In recent years, solid-state spin systems have emerged as promising candidates for quantum information processing. Prominent examples are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, phosphorus dopants in silicon (Si:P), rare-earth ions in solids, and V Si -centers in silicon-carbide. The Si:P system has demonstrated that its nuclear spins can yield exceedingly long spin coherence times by eliminating the electron spin of the dopant. For NV centers, however, a proper charge state for storage of nuclear spin qubit coherence has not been identified yet. Here, we identify and characterize the positively charged NV center as an electron-spin-less and optically inactive state by utilizing the nuclear spin qubit as a probe. We control the electronic charge and spin utilizing nanometer scale gate electrodes. We achieve a lengthening of the nuclear spin coherence times by a factor of 4. Surprisingly, the new charge state allows switching of the optical response of single nodes facilitating full individual addressability.

  4. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    -FTIR and XPS studies of the fulgimide samples revealed closely covered amide-terminated SAMs. Reversible photoswitching of the headgroup was read out by applying XPS, ATR-FTIR, and difference absorption spectra in the mid-IR. In XPS, we observed a reversible breathing of the amide/imide C1s and N1s signals......We have prepared high-quality, densely packed, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carboxy-terminated alkyl chains on Si(111). The samples were made by thermal grafting of methyl undec-10-enoate under an inert atmosphere and subsequent cleavage of the ester functionality to disclose the carboxylic...... zigzag-like substitution pattern for the ester- and carboxy-terminated monolayer. Hydrolysis of the remaining H-Si(111) bonds at the surface furnished HO-Si(111) groups according to XPS and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) studies. The amide-terminated alkyl...

  5. [Schistosomiasis control in the State of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, C M

    1995-01-01

    The program of schistosomiasis control for the State of São Paulo, where only low endemicity areas occur, is discussed in this paper. Inclusion of schistosomiasis among the diseases due to obligatory notification is considered as a measure of great importance. Accordingly the search for passive cases conducted by the public health system acquired major importance in the disease surveillance. As from 1981 to 1992 only 11% of the detected cases were considered as autochthonous. The main transmission areas are located at the Litoral and Paraiba Valley regions. In the period of time under analysis, the epidemiological surveillance data suggest a decrease in the morbidity and in the autochthony tendency in the State of São Paulo.

  6. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  7. New method for control over exciton states in quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, A Yu; Proshina, O V

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical study of the exciton states in the quantum well is performed with regard to the distinctions of the dielectric properties of quantum well and barrier materials. The strong exciton-phonon interaction is shown to be possible in materials with high ionicity. This leads to the essential modification of the exciton states. The relationship between the exciton binding energy, along with oscillator strength and the barrier material dielectric properties is found. This suggests the feasibility of the exciton spectrum parameter control by the choice of the barrier material. It is shown that such exciton spectrum engineering also is possible in the quantum wells based on the materials with low ionicity. The reason is the dielectric confinement effect in the quantum wells.

  8. Typing Local Control and State Using Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arjun; Saftoiu, Claudiu; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Programs written in scripting languages employ idioms that confound conventional type systems. In this paper, we highlight one important set of related idioms: the use of local control and state to reason informally about types. To address these idioms, we formalize run-time tags and their relationship to types, and use these to present a novel strategy to integrate typing with flow analysis in a modular way. We demonstrate that in our separation of typing and flow analysis, each component remains conventional, their composition is simple, but the result can handle these idioms better than either one alone.

  9. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  10. Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    — suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...

  11. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  12. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  13. Pipeline heating method based on optimal control and state estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, F.L.V. [Dept. of Subsea Technology. Petrobras Research and Development Center - CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fvianna@petrobras.com.br; Orlande, H.R.B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. POLI/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: helcio@mecanica.ufrj.br; Dulikravich, G.S. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Florida International University - FIU, Miami, FL (United States)], e-mail: dulikrav@fiu.edu

    2010-07-01

    In production of oil and gas wells in deep waters the flowing of hydrocarbon through pipeline is a challenging problem. This environment presents high hydrostatic pressures and low sea bed temperatures, which can favor the formation of solid deposits that in critical operating conditions, as unplanned shutdown conditions, may result in a pipeline blockage and consequently incur in large financial losses. There are different methods to protect the system, but nowadays thermal insulation and chemical injection are the standard solutions normally used. An alternative method of flow assurance is to heat the pipeline. This concept, which is known as active heating system, aims at heating the produced fluid temperature above a safe reference level in order to avoid the formation of solid deposits. The objective of this paper is to introduce a Bayesian statistical approach for the state estimation problem, in which the state variables are considered as the transient temperatures within a pipeline cross-section, and to use the optimal control theory as a design tool for a typical heating system during a simulated shutdown condition. An application example is presented to illustrate how Bayesian filters can be used to reconstruct the temperature field from temperature measurements supposedly available on the external surface of the pipeline. The temperatures predicted with the Bayesian filter are then utilized in a control approach for a heating system used to maintain the temperature within the pipeline above the critical temperature of formation of solid deposits. The physical problem consists of a pipeline cross section represented by a circular domain with four points over the pipe wall representing heating cables. The fluid is considered stagnant, homogeneous, isotropic and with constant thermo-physical properties. The mathematical formulation governing the direct problem was solved with the finite volume method and for the solution of the state estimation problem

  14. Benefits of mercury controls for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Amanda; Selin, Noelle E

    2016-01-12

    Mercury pollution poses risks for both human and ecosystem health. As a consequence, controlling mercury pollution has become a policy goal on both global and national scales. We developed an assessment method linking global-scale atmospheric chemical transport modeling to regional-scale economic modeling to consistently evaluate the potential benefits to the United States of global (UN Minamata Convention on Mercury) and domestic [Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)] policies, framed as economic gains from avoiding mercury-related adverse health endpoints. This method attempts to trace the policies-to-impacts path while taking into account uncertainties and knowledge gaps with policy-appropriate bounding assumptions. We project that cumulative lifetime benefits from the Minamata Convention for individuals affected by 2050 are $339 billion (2005 USD), with a range from $1.4 billion to $575 billion in our sensitivity scenarios. Cumulative economy-wide benefits to the United States, realized by 2050, are $104 billion, with a range from $6 million to $171 billion. Projected Minamata benefits are more than twice those projected from the domestic policy. This relative benefit is robust to several uncertainties and variabilities, with the ratio of benefits (Minamata/MATS) ranging from ≈1.4 to 3. However, we find that for those consuming locally caught freshwater fish from the United States, rather than marine and estuarine fish from the global market, benefits are larger from US than global action, suggesting domestic policies are important for protecting these populations. Per megagram of prevented emissions, our domestic policy scenario results in US benefits about an order of magnitude higher than from our global scenario, further highlighting the importance of domestic action.

  15. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A large selection of photochromic dihydroazulene (DHA) molecules incorporating various substituents at position 2 of the DHA core was prepared and investigated for their ability to form liquid crystalline phases. Incorporation of an octyloxy-substituted biphenyl substituent resulted in nematic...... phase behavior and it was possible to convert one such compound partly into its vinylheptafulvene (VHF) isomer upon irradiation with light when in the liquid crystalline phase. This conversion resulted in an increase in the molecular alignment of the phase. In time, the meta-stable VHF returns...... to the DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...

  16. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  17. Controlling society/ Controlling the state: crime and corruption with a focus on Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Morris Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, crime and corruption represent the failure to effectively control society (crime) and the state (corruption). Despite the fact that many countries like Mexico face problems in both areas, the literature exploring the links between the two remains limited. This paper explores the intersection of crime and corruption, drawing on the Mexican case for examples and discussion. After defining and differentiating the two concepts to broadly encompass violations of the rule of...

  18. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... the environment, including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease... the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State...

  19. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  20. Ways of Improvement of State Finance Control in Ukraine: Definition and Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Azarenkova Halyna M.

    2013-01-01

    The article proves urgency of the issue of improvement of the state finance control. It generalises and systemises shortcomings of the state finance control under modern conditions. It systemises generalised shortcomings and analysis of certain shortcomings with the purpose of identifying their weight. It identifies and justifies ways of improvement of the state finance control in Ukraine. It provides interrelation of the proposed ways of improvement of the state finance control with the spec...

  1. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  2. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  3. 42 CFR 455.21 - Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units... Detection and Investigation Program § 455.21 Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units. In a State with a Medicaid fraud control unit established and certified under subpart C of this part, (a) The...

  4. Faithful Controlled Teleportation of an Arbitrary Unknown Two-Atom State via Special W-States and QED Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yahong; Song Heshan; Yu Changshui

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for the controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-atom state via special W-type entangled states and QED cavity. The scheme does not involve the direct joint Bell-state-measurement (BSM). We show that the quantum information is split into two parts, thus the original atomic state cannot be perfectly restored by the receiver without the other agent's collaboration and classical communication. In addition, the physical realization of this scheme is not difficult

  5. Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.

  6. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  7. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  8. 77 FR 22676 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District AGENCY: Environmental... disapproval of a revision to the Pinal County Air Quality Control District portion of the Arizona State... the Control Officer to determine whether the manner of control of fugitive emissions is satisfactory...

  9. A Systematic Controller Design for a Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter Using a Discrete-Time Integral State Feedback Control and State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jin Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such a system. Conventionally, an LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter can be effectively controlled by using a full-state feedback control. However, this control approach requires the measurement of all system state variables, which brings about more complexity for the inverter system. To address this issue, this paper presents a systematic procedure to design an observer-based integral state feedback control for a LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter in the discrete-time domain. The proposed control scheme consists of an integral state feedback controller and a full-state observer which uses the control input, grid-side currents, and grid voltages to predict all the system state variables. Therefore, only the grid-side current sensors and grid voltage sensors are required to implement the proposed control scheme. Due to the discrete-time integrator incorporated in the state feedback controller, the proposed control scheme ensures both the reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the inverter system in a practical and simple way. As a result, superior control performance can be achieved by using the reduced number of sensors, which significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter system in DG applications. To verify the practical usefulness of the proposed control scheme, a 2 kW three-phase prototype grid-connected inverter has been constructed, and the proposed control system has been implemented based on 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the comprehensive simulation

  10. State and data techniques for control of discontinuous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for structured analysis and design of automated control systems. The technique integrates control of continuous and discontinuous nuclear power plant subsystems and components. A hierarchical control system with distributed intelligence follows from applying the technique. Further, it can be applied to all phases of control system design. For simplicity, the example used in the paper is limited to phase 1 design (basic automatic control action), in which no maintenance, testing, or contingency capability is attempted. 11 figs

  11. United States Control Module Guidance, Navigation, and Control Subsystem Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.; Bartlow, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Should the Russian Space Agency (RSA) not participate in the International Space Station (ISS) program, then the United States (U.S.) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may choose to execute the ISS mission. However, in order to do this, NASA must build two new space vehicles, which must perform the functions that the Russian vehicles and hardware were to perform. These functions include periodic ISS orbit reboost, initial ISS attitude control, and U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) control Moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum desaturation. The two new NASA vehicles that must perform these functions are called the U.S. control module (USCM) and the U.S. resupply module. This paper presents a design concept for the USCM GN&C subsystem, which must play a major role in ISS orbit reboost and initial attitude control, plus USOS CMG momentum desaturation. The proposed concept is structured similar to the USOS GN&C subsystem, by design. It is very robust, in that it allows the USCM to assume a variety of vehicle attitudes and stay power-positive. It has a storage/safe mode that places the USCM in a gravity-gradient orientation and keeps it there for extended periods of time without consuming a great deal of propellant. Simulation results are presented and discussed that show the soundness of the design approach. An equipment list is included that gives detailed information on the baselined GN&C components.

  12. State-of-the-art in control engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kozák

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new trends in research, development and applications of advanced control methods and structures based on the principles of optimality, robustness and intelligence. Present trends in the complex process control design demand an increasing degree of integration of numerical mathematics, control engineering methods, new control structures based of distribution, embedded network control structure and new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, increasing problems with interactions, process non-linearities, operating constraints, time delays, uncertainties, and significant dead-times consequently lead to the necessity to develop more sophisticated control strategies. Advanced control methods and new distributed embedded control structures represent the most effective tools for realizing high performance of many technological processes. Main ideas covered in this paper are motivated namely by the development of new advanced control engineering methods (predictive, hybrid predictive, optimal, adaptive, robust, fuzzy logic, and neural network and new possibilities of their SW and HW realizations and successful implementation in industry.

  13. State and data techniques for control of discontinuous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The need for automated control systems becomes clear as the complexity of nuclear power plants increases and economic incentives demand higher plant availability. A control system with intelligence distributed throughout its controllers allows reduction in operator workload, perhaps reduction in crew size, and potentially a reduction in on-line human error. In automated systems of this kind, each controller should be capable of making decisions and carrying out a plan of action. This paper describes a technique for structured analysis and design of automated control systems. The technique integrates control of continuous and discontinuous nuclear power plant subsystems and components. A hierarchical control system with distributed intelligence follows from applying the technique. Further, it can be applied to all phases of control system design. For simplicity, the example used in the paper is limited to phase I design (basic automatic control action), in which no maintenance, testing, or contingency capability is attempted

  14. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-15

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detailed description of a state system for accounting for and control of nuclear material at the state level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the technical elements of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material at the State Authority level which can be used by a state in the establishment of a national system for nuclear material accounting and control. It is expected that a state system designed along the lines described also will assist the IAEA in carrying out its safeguards responsibilities. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the technical elements of a state level system concerned with Laws and Regulations, the Information System, and the Establishment of Requirements for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control. The discussion shows the relationship of these technical elements at the state level to the principal elements of an SSAC at the facility levels

  16. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  18. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL - STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. Current approaches involve control of overflows, treatment, and combinations of the two. Control may involve maximizing treatment wi...

  19. The role of self-control strength in the development of state anxiety in test situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C; Bertrams, A

    2013-06-01

    Self-control strength may affect state anxiety because emotion regulation is impaired in individuals whose self-control strength has been temporarily depleted. Increases in state anxiety were expected to be larger for participants with depleted compared to nondepleted self-control strength, and trait test anxiety should predict increases in state anxiety more strongly if self-control strength is depleted. In a sample of 76 university students, trait test anxiety was assessed, self-control strength experimentally manipulated, and state anxiety measured before and after the announcement of a test. State anxiety increased after the announcement. Trait test anxiety predicted increases in state anxiety only in students with depleted self-control strength, suggesting that increased self-control strength may be useful for coping with anxiety.

  20. State of South Carolina Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    of a diquat and copper sulfate pentahydrate herbicide combination for hydrilla control was carried out by Yeo et. al. (1974). The copper was applied at...effective combination to control egeria and hydrilla (Gangstad, 1976). A diquat- copper sulfate combination is more effective in controlling hydrilla than the... copper resulting from the use of algacides or herbicides basic copper carbonate (malachite), copper sulfate , and copper tri- ethanolamine to control

  1. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  2. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  3. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    in the design of the incubator, due to their importance for the final performance of the incubator. This includes choice of temperature control system, humidification system, gas addition and control, data collection and process control, and the physical design which includes airlocks for taking out samples...

  4. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  5. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government-Controlled Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2016-09-13

    Food service guideline (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Quantitative content analysis. State government facilities in the United States. Participants were from 50 states and District of Columbia in the United States. Frequency of FSG policies and percentage alignment to tool. State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. A total of 31 policies met the inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of the FSG policy attributes. Western states had the most FSG policies proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. The FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Optimal controlled teleportation via several kinds of three-qubit states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The probability of successful controlled teleportation of an unknown qubit using a general three-particle state is investigated. The analytic expressions of maximal probabilities via several kinds of tripartite states are given, including a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and a tripartite W-state.

  7. Remote-controlling chemical reactions by light: towards chemistry with high spatio-temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göstl, Robert; Senf, Antti; Hecht, Stefan

    2014-03-21

    The foundation of the chemical enterprise has always been the creation of new molecular entities, such as pharmaceuticals or polymeric materials. Over the past decades, this continuing effort of designing compounds with improved properties has been complemented by a strong effort to render their preparation (more) sustainable by implementing atom as well as energy economic strategies. Therefore, synthetic chemistry is typically concerned with making specific bonds and connections in a highly selective and efficient manner. However, to increase the degree of sophistication and expand the scope of our work, we argue that the modern aspiring chemist should in addition be concerned with attaining (better) control over when and where chemical bonds are being made or broken. For this purpose, photoswitchable molecular systems, which allow for external modulation of chemical reactions by light, are being developed and in this review we are covering the current state of the art of this exciting new field. These "remote-controlled synthetic tools" provide a remarkable opportunity to perform chemical transformations with high spatial and temporal resolution and should therefore allow regulating biological processes as well as material and device performance.

  8. Model of Ca(2+) Concentration Controlled by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Skeletal Muscle, Using the State Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yokota, M

    2001-01-01

    ...). This report proposed a model that represents Ca(2+) in a muscle cell controlled by the SR using a state transition probability model in which one state means that protein in the SR is binding ligands, and the other...

  9. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  10. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  11. Comparison and Analysis of the Control Power Between Two Different Perfect Controlled Teleportation Schemes Using Four-particle Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-ting; Mo, Zhi-wen

    2017-10-01

    Control power is used to discuss about the controller's measurable authority. It's a new index to describe the controlled teleportation schemes from the point of view of the controller. In this paper, we introduce two perfect controlled teleportation schemes and calculate the control power under different control particles. In scheme 1, the controller just controls one particle, which is particle 2. And in scheme 2, the controller controls the particles 2 and 3. They both use the cluster state |ψ > _{1234}={1/2}(|0000> +|0011> +|1100> -|1111> )_{1234} as communication channel. By calculating the control power between two schemes, the control power of scheme 1 is 1/3, which is the minimal value of control power. On the contrary, the control power of scheme 2 is maximal, 1/2. Scheme 2 which controls two particles successfully promotes the control power comparing with scheme 1. It's evidently that controlling particle 2 is a necessary condition. And controlling particle 3 can gain the control power but the controller cannot control it solely.

  12. Accelerator Control and Global Networks State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Gurd, D P

    2004-01-01

    As accelerators increase in size and complexity, demands upon their control systems increase correspondingly. Machine complexity is reflected in complexity of control system hardware and software and careful configuration management is essential. Model-based procedures and fast feedback based upon even faster beam instrumentation are often required. Managing machine protection systems with tens of thousands of inputs is another significant challenge. Increased use of commodity hardware and software introduces new issues of security and control. Large new facilities will increasingly be built by national (e.g. SNS) or international (e.g. a linear collider) collaborations. Building an integrated control system for an accelerator whose development is geographically widespread presents particular problems, not all of them technical. Recent discussions of a “Global Accelerator Network” include the possibility of multiple remote control rooms and no more night shifts. Based upon current experien...

  13. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government Controlled Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Food service guidelines (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Design Quantitative content analysis. Setting State government facilities in the U.S. Subjects 50 states and District of Columbia. Measures Frequency of FSG policies and percent alignment to tool. Analysis State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. Results A total of 31 policies met inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of FSG policy attributes. Western States had the most FSG policy proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. Conclusion FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. PMID:27630113

  14. Controlling excited-state contamination in nucleon matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Joó, Bálint; Lin, Huey-Wen; Negele, John; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Richards, David; Syritsyn, Sergey; Winter, Frank

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of size $32^3 \\times 64$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $M_\\pi=312$~MeV. The statistical precision of the data is improved using the all-mode-averaging method. We compare two methods for reducing excited-state contamination: a variational analysis and a two-state fit to data at multiple values of the source-sink separation $t_{\\rm sep}$. We show that both methods can be tuned to significantly reduce excited-state contamination and discuss their relative advantages and cost-effectiveness. A detailed analysis of the size of source smearing used in the calculation of quark propagators and the range of values of $t_{\\rm sep}$ needed to demonstrate convergence of the isovector charges of the nucleon to the $t_{\\rm sep} \\to \\infty $ estimates is presented.

  15. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Durrant, Marie [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  16. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  17. Vorticity State Estimation For Aeroelastic Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight control, structural reliability, and efficiency depend critically on the ability to assess the time-accurate unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments for each...

  18. Nuclear material accounting and control: Co-ordinating assistance to newly independent States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstensen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article outlines work under way among the IAEA, its Member States, and the Newly Independent States (NIS) relating to the establishment and development in the NIS of State Systems of Accounting and Control (SSACs) of nuclear material. It describes IAEA activities in the NIS, including fact-finding missions at technical visits, the successful attempts to find donor States providing voluntary funding and expertise, and the co-ordination of technical support between the IAEA and the donor States. 3 tabs

  19. State-space Generalized Predicitve Control for redundant parallel robots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef; Valášek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2003), s. 413-432 ISSN 1539-7734 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/03/0620 Grant - others:CTU(CZ) 0204512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : parallel robot construction * generalized predictive control * drive redundancy Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0411126.pdf

  20. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  1. Dynamic goal states: adjusting cognitive control without conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Ruge, Hannes; Goschke, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    A central topic in the cognitive sciences is how cognitive control is adjusted flexibly to changing environmental demands at different time scales to produce goal-oriented behavior. According to an influential account, the context-sensitive recruitment of cognitive control is mediated by a specialized conflict monitoring process that registers current conflict and signals the demand for enhanced control in subsequent trials. This view has been immensely successful not least due to supporting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggesting that the conflict monitoring function is localized within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which, in turn, signals the demand for enhanced control to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this article, we propose an alternative model of the adaptive regulation of cognitive control based on multistable goal attractor network dynamics and adjustments of cognitive control within a conflict trial. Without incorporation of an explicit conflict monitoring module, the model mirrors behavior in conflict tasks accounting for effects of response congruency, sequential conflict adaptation, and proportion of incongruent trials. Importantly, the model also mirrors frequency tagged EEG data indicating continuous conflict adaptation and suggests a reinterpretation of the correlation between ACC and the PFC BOLD data reported in previous imaging studies. Together, our simulation data propose an alternative interpretation of both behavioral data as well as imaging data that have previously been interpreted in favor of a specialized conflict monitoring process in the ACC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PRINCIPLES OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pustovit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is an improvement of principles of state financial control of Ukraine taking into account European advanced experience. The subject of the research is a comparative analysis of financial control principles and principles of state financial control of Ukraine with the international principles of financial control, envisaged at the international level, and the establishment of the expediency of their implementation in the national legislation in connection with the terms of European integration. The methodological background of the research is the combination of theoretical and scientific methods: analysis, synthesis and comparison, theoretical and logical generalization. The theoretical approaches are analysed according to the determination of conceptcategory of terms: “principle of financial control,” “principle of state financial control.” Existed principles of financial control, principles of state financial control of Ukraine, leading principles of financial control, what determined in Lima Declarations of Guidance on Auditing Precepts, general principles of supreme bodies of financial control activity that are envisaged in Declaration about general principles of supreme bodies of financial control activity of states-participants of CIS are investigated. Carrying out the analysis of financial control principles, principles of state financial control of Ukraine, and international principles of financial control, we reached a conclusion that basic principles (principles of legality, independence, objectivity, impartiality, publicity, neutrality are already normatively envisaged. There is the part of international principles (principle of competence, publicity, efficiency, well-proven, observance of professional ethics, violation prevention, obligatory of responsibility offensive for the accomplished violations of financial discipline that doesn’t have the normative consolidation in laws and regulations of

  3. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  4. The Internet: a global free space with limited state control

    OpenAIRE

    Dommering, E.; van Ginkel, B.; de Goede, M.; Koops, B.J.; Plooij-van Gorsel, E.; Verrijn Stuart, H.; Smallenbroek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter II explains that the internet, as represented by the internet community, has broken free of the traditional structure of the telecommunication sector under international law, namely a convention (recording global agreements about telecommunications) and an international organisation (the International Telecommunication Union) in which national states work together. This structure has been replaced by a multistakeholder model, partly under private law, consisting of ICANN (domain names...

  5. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  6. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Chlamydia control in Europe - a survey of Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; van Bergen, J; Ward, H

    ), contributed to the design and interpretation of the survey, commented on the draft report and approved the final report. Shelagh Redmond (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) provided technical support. Nicola Low (University of Bern) led the Chlamydia Control...

  8. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  9. Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    carried out for two cases namely car moving on sagged bridges and car ... the vibrations of steel moment resisting frame in reinforced cement concrete buildings. ... active or semi-active dampers rolled into one (Spencer Jr. and Soong, 1999). ... implementation cost, low power consumption, ease of control, simple design ...

  10. Visualization of differences across port state control regimes by means of correspondence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article is based on a combined dataset of 183,819 port state control (PSC) inspections from various port state control regimes around the world. In theory, there should be no differences in treatments of inspections to determine if a vessel is substandard or not no matter where the

  11. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  12. Scheme for Deterministic BSM-Free Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Atomic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yahong; Song Heshan; Li Chong

    2007-01-01

    We propose a controlled scheme for teleportation of an arbitrary one or two atomic state via a driven QED cavity. The scheme does not involve the joint Bell-state-measurement BSM and the probability of successful teleportation is 1. We show that the original atomic state cannot be perfectly restored by the receiver without all the agents collaborate and classical communication.

  13. Adaptive optimal stochastic state feedback control of resistive wall modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Sen, A.K.; Longman, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive optimal stochastic state feedback control is developed to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM) instability in tokamaks. The extended least-square method with exponential forgetting factor and covariance resetting is used to identify (experimentally determine) the time-varying stochastic system model. A Kalman filter is used to estimate the system states. The estimated system states are passed on to an optimal state feedback controller to construct control inputs. The Kalman filter and the optimal state feedback controller are periodically redesigned online based on the identified system model. This adaptive controller can stabilize the time-dependent RWM in a slowly evolving tokamak discharge. This is accomplished within a time delay of roughly four times the inverse of the growth rate for the time-invariant model used

  14. Hierarchically controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state by using a four-qubit |χ > entangled state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a scheme for Hierarchically controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit |χ > state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. It is shown that the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to recover sender's original state.

  15. An application of gain-scheduled control using state-space interpolation to hydroactive gas bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Camino, Juan F.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    with a gain-scheduling strategy using state-space interpolation, which avoids both the performance loss and the increase of controller order associated to the Youla parametrisation. The proposed state-space interpolation for gain-scheduling is applied for mass imbalance rejection for a controllable gas...... bearing scheduled in two parameters. Comparisons against the Youla-based scheduling demonstrate the superiority of the state-space interpolation....

  16. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  17. State-Trajectory Analysis and Control of LLC Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    With the fast development of communication systems, computers and consumer electronics, the power supplies for telecoms, servers, desktops, laptops, flat-panel TVs, LED lighting, etc. are required for more power delivery with smaller spaces. The LLC resonant converter has been widely adopted for these applications due to the advantages in high efficiency, high power density and holdup time operation capability.However, unlike PWM converters, the control of the LLC resonant converter is much m...

  18. Multilevel control of the metastable states in a manganite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Feng, Qiyuan; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Chen, Binbin; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Ze; Wang, Lingfei; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2017-06-01

    For high density memory applications, the dynamic switching between multilevel resistance states per cell is highly desirable, and for oxide-based memory devices, the multistate operation has been actively explored. We have previously shown that for La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 films, the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered-insulator (COI) phase can be induced via the anisotropic epitaxial strain, and it competes with the doping-determined ferromagnetic-metal (FMM) ground state in a wide temperature range. Here, we show that for the phase competitions, in various magnetic fields and/or thermal cycling, the reappearance of the COI phase and thus the resistance and magnetization can be manipulated and quantified in a multilevel manner at lower temperatures. Furthermore, by using a high-field magnetic force microscope, we image the COI/FMM domain structures in accordance with the transport measurements, and find that the evolving domains or the phase fraction ratios do underline the metastability of the reappeared COI droplets, possibly protected by the energy barriers due to accommodation strain. These results may add new insights into the design and fabrication of future multilevel memory cells.

  19. Assessment of motivation to control alcohol use: The motivational thought frequency and state motivation scales for alcohol control

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, N; Kavanagh, D; Connor, J; May, J; Andrade, J

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Assessment of motivation to control alcohol use: The motivational thought frequency and state motivation scales for alcohol control journaltitle: Addictive Behaviors articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.02.038 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient Nonlocal M-Control and N-Target Controlled Unitary Gate Using Non-symmetric GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Bing; Lu, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Efficient local implementation of a nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate is considered. We first show that with the assistance of two non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, a nonlocal 2-control and N-target controlled unitary gate can be constructed from 2 local two-qubit CNOT gates, 2 N local two-qutrit conditional SWAP gates, N local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gates, and 2 N single-qutrit gates. At each target node, the two third levels of the two GHZ target qutrits are used to expose one and only one initial computational state to the local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gate, instead of being used to hide certain states from the conditional dynamics. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a higher-order nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate by using M non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) GHZ states as quantum channels. Neither the number of the additional levels of each GHZ target particle nor that of single-qutrit gates needs to increase with M. For certain realistic physical systems, the total gate time may be reduced compared with that required in previous schemes.

  1. Partial state feedback control of chaotic neural network and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guoguang; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The chaos control in the chaotic neural network is studied using the partial state feedback with a control signal from a few control neurons. The controlled CNN converges to one of the stored patterns with a period which depends on the initial conditions, i.e., the set of control neurons and other control parameters. We show that the controlled CNN can distinguish between two initial patterns even if they have a small difference. This implies that such a controlled CNN can be feasibly applied to information processing such as pattern recognition

  2. To the question about the states of workability for automatic control systems with complicated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Losev, V. V.; Kalinin, A. O.; Murygin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the reliability of automated control systems. Analyzes the approach to the classification systems for health States. This approach can be as traditional binary approach, operating with the concept of "serviceability", and other variants of estimation of the system state. This article provides one such option, providing selective evaluation of components for the reliability of the entire system. Introduced description of various automatic control systems and their elements from the point of view of health and risk, mathematical method of determining the transition object from state to state, they differ from each other in the implementation of the objective function. Explores the interplay of elements in different States, the aggregate state of the elements connected in series or in parallel. Are the tables of various logic States and the principles of their calculation in series and parallel connection. Through simulation the proposed approach is illustrated by finding the probability of getting into the system state data in parallel and serially connected elements, with their different probabilities of moving from state to state. In general, the materials of article will be useful for analyzing of the reliability the automated control systems and engineering of the highly-reliable systems. Thus, this mechanism to determine the State of the system provides more detailed information about it and allows a selective approach to the reliability of the system as a whole. Detailed results when assessing the reliability of the automated control systems allows the engineer to make an informed decision when designing means of improving reliability.

  3. Advanced control scenario of high-performance steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, H.; Kurita, G.; Matsukawa, M.; Urata, K.; Sakurai, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Morioka, A.; Miura, Y.M.; Kizu, K.; Kamada, Y.; Sakasai, A.; Ishida, S.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma control on high-β N steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-β N exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected. (authors)

  4. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  5. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advanced of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are: (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to capital investments; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production; and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system, and the human task places the human in the correct role in the relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  6. Quality control of some CT scanners in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, Ali Mohammed Ali

    2013-06-01

    This study conduced with the aim to evaluate the performance of three CT scanner in Khartoum-Sudan through extensive quality control measurements. Image quality was assessed using a CATPHAN 412 CT image quality phantom. Image quality parameters evaluated were: CT image noise, uniformity, CT number linearity, Low Contrast Resolution, High Contrast Resolution, measurements were performed in accordance with guidelines set out by the Institute of physical science and engineering in medicine (IPEM 91). Image quality parameters tested were within the apoplectic limit specified in the relevant CT guidelines. Measured slice thickness ranged between 9.66-10.5 mm for large slice and 5.25-5.88 for medium slice. The correlation coefficient (R) between the measured and the reference CT number was better than 0.99 for all CT scanners. High resolution for large slice was 7 L P/ cm and 8 L P/ cm for small slice. Low contrast resolution with 1.0% nominal level ranged between 2-3 mm diameter of disc for large slice and 4-7 mm diameter disc for small slice. The measured noise ranged between 1.4-3.4 HU for large slice and 2.92-4.08 HU for small slice. Uniformity ranged between 3.08 to 2.075 HU for large slice and 3.22 to 1.4 HU for small slice thickness. The results indicate that routine maintenance, service and calibration, as well as the frequent quality control of CT scanners play a key rote in achieving the best performance of the system. Since computed tomography (CT) contributes the most to the collective dose compared to other radiological examinations, it is a necessity for quality control and quality assurance programs to be established in each radiology department.(Author)

  7. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B K.H. [Sunutech, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs.

  8. Design of Nonlinear Robust Rotor Current Controller for DFIG Based on Terminal Sliding Mode Control and Extended State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As to strong nonlinearity of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG and uncertainty of its model, a novel rotor current controller with nonlinearity and robustness is proposed to enhance fault ride-though (FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Firstly, the model error, external disturbances, and the uncertain factors were estimated by constructing extended state observer (ESO so as to achieve linearization model, which is compensated dynamically from nonlinear model. And then rotor current controller of DFIG is designed by using terminal sliding mode variable structure control theory (TSMC. The controller has superior dynamic performance and strong robustness. The simulation results show that the proposed control approach is effective.

  9. Electronic-state control of amino acids on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masato; Nakayama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Electronic structures of amino acids on the Si(1 1 1) surfaces are investigated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that among various polar amino acids, a histidine is the only one that can be positively ionized when hole carriers are supplied in the Si substrate, by transferring the hole charge from Si substrate to an amino acid. This result indicates that the ionization of a histidine, which will activate the protein functions, can be controlled electrically by producing amino acid/Si junctions

  10. 76 FR 70209 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Congress pursuant to: (1) Section 1344 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, Public... (incorporated in the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003), Public Law 107-228; (4) Section 204... Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Submit Certain Non...

  11. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, E

    1981-01-01

    The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

  12. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  13. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  14. Direct Yaw Control of Vehicle using State Dependent Riccati Equation with Integral Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDHU, F.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct yaw control of four-wheel vehicles using optimal controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and the sliding mode controller (SMC either considers only certain parameters constant in the nonlinear equations of vehicle model or totally neglect their effects to obtain simplified models, resulting in loss of states for the system. In this paper, a modified state-dependent Ricatti equation method obtained by the simplification of the vehicle model is proposed. This method overcomes the problem of the lost states by including state integrals. The results of the proposed system are compared with the sliding mode slip controller and state-dependent Ricatti equation method using high fidelity vehicle model in the vehicle simulation software package, Carsim. Results show 38% reduction in the lateral velocity, 34% reduction in roll and 16% reduction in excessive yaw by only increasing the fuel consumption by 6.07%.

  15. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Crocker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA. Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  16. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Laura D; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Warren, Stacie L; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  17. Nuclear export criteria and controls in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the export licensing procedure and the modifications made to it under the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (NNPA) to achieve greater control over exports of nuclear material and facilities. Export licences from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are now required for certain items connected with nuclear plant construction and the procedure for obtaining the views of the Executive Branch have been formalised. The President is enabled to override the denial of an export licence by the NRC. Amongst the new criteria on the export licensing procedure added to the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, the NNPA provides that the IAEA Safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty are applicable to exported nuclear material or facilities, together with adequate physical protection measures. (NEA) [fr

  18. Controlling imported malaria cases in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2017-02-01

    We extend the mathematical malaria epidemic model framework of Dembele et al. and use it to ``capture" the 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported data on the 2011 number of imported malaria cases in the USA. Furthermore, we use our ``fitted" malaria models for the top 20 countries of malaria acquisition by USA residents to study the impact of protecting USA residents from malaria infection when they travel to malaria endemic areas, the impact of protecting residents of malaria endemic regions from mosquito bites and the impact of killing mosquitoes in those endemic areas on the CDC number of imported malaria cases in USA. To significantly reduce the number of imported malaria cases in USA, for each top 20 country of malaria acquisition by USA travelers, we compute the optimal proportion of USA international travelers that must be protected against malaria infection and the optimal proportion of mosquitoes that must be killed.

  19. Evolved finite state controller for hybrid system in reduced search space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate finite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. The proposed approach reduces the search space using an invariant analysis of the system. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been...

  20. Wheeled vehicle deceleration as estimation parameter of adaptive brake control system state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turenko A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of stability estimation of adaptive control system with signal adjustment based on Lyapunov’s direct method that allows to take into account the nonstationarity of the basic system and non-linearity in the form of limitation on control action restriction as well as error control is stated.

  1. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  2. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  3. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards... requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new nonroad engines or vehicles. Section 209(e)(2... requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50...

  4. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  5. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

  6. Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism in Russia is played out on several registers. It is the instrument by which the ruling elites succeed in effacing (at least superficially their internal divisions and unifying the political spectrum under their banner. It can also be likened to a new form of state-proposed social contract, an attempt to remobilise society to its advantage by drawing on those elements of its cultural reservoirs that form a consensus around the theme of patriotism. Lastly, for the tiny proportion of the population committed to radical right-wing parties, it makes it possible to mobilise against the “other” at a time when massive social discontent is being expressed in xenophobic terms. Nationalism is therefore akin to an amalgam that reveals the multiplicity of current social and cultural experiences in contemporary Russia. Through nationalism, those who have lost out as a result of the reforms formulate their critique of the present and their nostalgia for the past, whereas the elites and the middle classes that have gained from these changes express their satisfaction and belief that Russia will win the game of globalisation.

  7. The Control of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in The United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Roger I.; Parashar, Umesh; Patel, Manish; Tate, Jacqueline; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, two new vaccines have been licensed to prevent rotavirus, the cause of 20% to 50% of severe acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. These vaccines have been implemented in national immunization programs in about 30 high- and middle-income countries, including the United States, and vaccine use has led to substantial decreases in diarrhea-related health care visits. In addition to reductions in diarrhea burden in vaccinated children, decreases have been observed in older, unvaccinated age groups in many settings, suggesting indirect benefits (i.e., herd immunity) from vaccination. Although the efficacy of these oral rotavirus vaccines is expectedly lower in developing countries in Asia and Africa, the public health benefits of vaccination in these settings, where more than 90% of the estimated 453,000 annual deaths from rotavirus occur, are likely to be substantial. Efforts continue to develop alternative rotavirus vaccines that could have a better efficacy and safety profile and may be less expensive. PMID:23303967

  8. Comparative study of state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers for multigrasp prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Controzzi, Marco; Weir, Richard F ff; Cipriani, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A myoelectric controller should provide an intuitive and effective human-machine interface that deciphers user intent in real-time and is robust enough to operate in daily life. Many myoelectric control architectures have been developed, including pattern recognition systems, finite state machines, and more recently, postural control schemes. Here, we present a comparative study of two types of finite state machines and a postural control scheme using both virtual and physical assessment procedures with seven nondisabled subjects. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) was used in order to compare the effectiveness of the controllers during activities of daily living using a multigrasp artificial hand. Also, a virtual hand posture matching task was used to compare the controllers when reproducing six target postures. The performance when using the postural control scheme was significantly better (p state machines during the physical assessment when comparing within-subject averages using the SHAP percent difference metric. The virtual assessment results described significantly greater completion rates (97% and 99%) for the finite state machines, but the movement time tended to be faster (2.7 s) for the postural control scheme. Our results substantiate that postural control schemes rival other state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers.

  9. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GASICA: Generic Automated Stress Induction and Control ApplicationDesign of an application for controlling the stress state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Van Der Vijgh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1.In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope, Bogart, & Bartolome, 1995 and Fairclough, 2009 that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  11. GASICA: generic automated stress induction and control application design of an application for controlling the stress state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert J; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices, and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope et al. (1995) and Fairclough (2009) that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing) measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  12. Guest Controlled Nonmonotonic Deep Cavity Cavitand Assembly State Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Du; Barnett, J Wesley; Gibb, Bruce C; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2017-11-30

    Octa-acid (OA) and tetra-endo-methyl octa-acid (TEMOA) are water-soluble, deep-cavity cavitands with nanometer-sized nonpolar pockets that readily bind complementary guests, such as n-alkanes. Experimentally, OA exhibits a progression of 1:1 to 2:2 to 2:1 host/guest complexes (X:Y where X is the number of hosts and Y is the number of guests) with increasing alkane chain length from methane to tetradecane. Differing from OA only by the addition of four methyl groups ringing the portal of the pocket, TEMOA exhibits a nonmonotonic progression of assembly states from 1:1 to 2:2 to 1:1 to 2:1 with increasing guest length. Here we present a systematic molecular simulation study to parse the molecular and thermodynamic determinants that distinguish the succession of assembly stoichiometries observed for these similar hosts. Potentials of mean force between hosts and guests, determined via umbrella sampling, are used to characterize association free energies. These free energies are subsequently used in a reaction network model to predict the equilibrium distributions of assemblies. Our models accurately reproduce the experimentally observed trends, showing that TEMOA's endo-methyl units constrict the opening of the binding pocket, limiting the conformations available to bound guests and disrupting the balance between monomeric complexes and dimeric capsules. The success of our simulations demonstrate their utility at interpreting the impact of even simple chemical modifications on supramolecular assembly and highlight their potential to aid bottom-up design.

  13. State-space model predictive control method for core power control in pressurized water reactor nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guo Xu; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Bifan; Wu, Wangqiang; Ma, Xiao Qian [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Zhibin [Electric Power Research Institute of Guangdong Power Grid Corporation, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC) method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, the MPC model, and quadratic programming (QP). The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutron dynamic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The MPC model was presented in state-space model form, and QP was introduced for optimization solution under system constraints. Simulations of the proposed state-space MPC control system in PWR were designed for control performance analysis, and the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  14. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam; Aslam, Muhammad; Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  15. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam

    2017-03-25

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  16. Controllability of pure states for the Poeschl-Teller potential with a dynamical group SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.-H.; Tang Yu; Sun, G.-H.; Lara-Rosano, F.; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2005-01-01

    The controllability of a quantum system for the modified Poeschl-Teller (MPT) potential with the discrete bound states is investigated. The creation and annihilation operators of this potential are constructed directly from the normalized wave function with the factorization method and associated to an su(2) algebra. It is shown that this quantum system with the nondegenerate discrete bound states can, in principle, be strongly completely controllable, i.e., the system eigenstates can be guided by the external field to approach arbitrarily close to a target state, which could be theoretically realized by the actions of the creation and annihilation operators on the ground state

  17. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  18. Steady state operation and control experiments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, F.

    2000-01-01

    The main programme of the Tore Supra tokamak is to investigate the route towards long pulse plasma discharges. Tore Supra is thus equipped with a superconducting toroidal magnet, a full set of actively cooled plasma facing components, and a heating and current drive capability based on high power RF systems connected to actively cooled antennas. After pioneering investigations using the LHCD system alone (2 min and zero loop voltage discharges), recent efforts have concentrated on finding scenarios to couple the two RF heating systems in order to perform high power, long duration discharges. To this aim, 6.5 MW, 25 s as well as 4 MW, 60 s discharges have been successfully achieved. At these high power levels, the plasma-wall interaction becomes a critical issue, and recycling fluxes must be controlled to maintain density and to avoid plasma contamination. All these results contributed to the validation of the upgrade of the Tore Supra first wall components (CIEL project) scheduled for 2000. (author)

  19. Main requirements and criteria for State nuclear material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, B.G.; Goryunov, V.K.; Erastov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents comments and substantiation of the main requirements and criteria for the State nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting system in the draft of the federal Main regulations of NM control and accounting. The State NM control and accounting system structure and design principles, the list of nuclear and special non-nuclear materials which are subject to the control and accounting, NM control and accounting principles are considered. Measurement system for the values for NM control and accounting and measurement assurance program, NM transfer procedures, physical inventory taking, closing a material balance and evaluation of inventory difference and balance closure of bulk form NM are shown. Accounting units in the inventory, the system accounting report documentation and preliminary notifications, the NM control and accounting arrangement, the federal and departmental control in the State NM control and accounting system, the State NM control and accounting system supervision and requirement to the personnel carrying out the NM control and accounting are discussed [ru

  20. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  1. Model-Based State Feedback Controller Design for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with an EGR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianpu Dong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the control of transient exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems. Firstly, a state space model of the air system is developed by simplifying a mean value model. The state space model is linearized by using linearization theory and validated by the GT-Power data with an operating point of the diesel engine. Secondly, a state feedback controller based on the intake oxygen mass fraction is designed for EGR control. Since direct measurement of the intake oxygen mass fraction is unavailable on the engine, the estimation method for intake oxygen mass fraction has been proposed in this paper. The control strategy is analyzed by using co-simulation with the Matlab/Simulink and GT-Powers software. Finally, the whole control system is experimentally validated against experimental data of a turbocharged diesel engine. The control effect of the state feedback controller compared with PID controller proved to be further verify the feasibility and advantages of the proposed state feedback controller.

  2. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  3. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  4. Optimization of Aero Engine Acceleration Control in Combat State Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2012-03-01

    In order to drastically exploit the potential of the aero engine and improve acceleration performance in the combat state, an on-line optimized controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for an aero engine. For testing the validity of the presented control method, detailed joint simulation tests of the designed controller and the aero engine model are performed in the whole flight envelope. Simulation test results show that the presented control algorithm has characteristics of rapid convergence speed, high efficiency and can fully exploit the acceleration performance potential of the aero engine. Compared with the former controller, the designed on-line optimized controller (DOOC) can improve the security of the acceleration process and greatly enhance the aero engine thrust in the whole range of the flight envelope, the thrust increases an average of 8.1% in the randomly selected working states. The plane which adopts DOOC can acquire better fighting advantage in the combat state.

  5. Backstepping Based Formation Control of Quadrotors with the State Transformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Uk Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a backstepping-based formation control of quadrotors with the state transformation technique is proposed. First, the dynamics of a quadrotor is derived by using the Newton–Euler formulation. Next, a backstepping-based formation control for quadrotors using a state transformation technique is presented. In the position control, which is the basis of formation control, it is possible to derive the reference attitude angles employing a state transformation technique without the small angle assumption or the simplified dynamics usually used. Stability analysis based on the Lyapunov theorem shows that the proposed formation controller can provide a quadrotor formation error system that is asymptotically stabilized. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed formation control method through comparison simulations.

  6. Advanced topics in control and estimation of state-multiplicative noisy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Topics in Control and Estimation of State-Multiplicative Noisy Systems begins with an introduction and extensive literature survey. The text proceeds to cover solutions of measurement-feedback control and state problems and the formulation of the Bounded Real Lemma for both continuous- and discrete-time systems. The continuous-time reduced-order and stochastic-tracking control problems for delayed systems are then treated. Ideas of nonlinear stability are introduced for infinite-horizon systems, again, in both the continuous- and discrete-time cases. The reader is introduced to six practical examples of noisy state-multiplicative control and filtering associated with various fields of control engineering. The book is rounded out by a three-part appendix containing stochastic tools necessary for a proper appreciation of the text: a basic introduction to nonlinear stochastic differential equations and aspects of switched systems and peak to peak  optimal control and filtering. Advanced Topics in Contr...

  7. State feedback integral control for a rotary direct drive servo valve using a Lyapunov function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jue; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The State Financial Control in Ukraine: Directions of Improvement of its Organization and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomeiko Yuliia A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to examine the essence of the state financial control, identify directions of its improvement and define effective methods for its evaluation. On the basis of the results of analysis of modern scientific works it is determined that the precondition for building an effective state financial control system is defining its role in public financial relationships. According to the data of the conducted study it was concluded that first of all, the state financial control is an instrument of fiscal policy and, therefore, its direct purpose is ensuring a sustainable socio-economic development of the country, i.e., achieving the goal of the fiscal policy. Besides, there revealed the need to harmonize the components of the fiscal policy and types of the state financial control in order to build an effective institutional structure of public administration. It is proved that the division of the state financial control into internal and external must be conducted in accordance with the fact whether the controlling body and the subject under control belong to the same or different branch of power. Also the results of the study suggest that for Ukraine it is expedient to choose the model of a decentralized internal state financial control instead of the existing mixed one in order to avoid duplication by the State Audit Service of Ukraine bodies of partially the functions of the Audit Chamber, and partially those of internal control departments, which operate in the executive branch. There determined inappropriateness of building a system of state internal financial control on the basis of the principles provided for the bodies of the external state financial control. This situation leads to ungrounded definition of the internal control as an object of internal audit, which is carried out by structural units in budget organizations. It is also important to emphasize the need to evaluate managerial decisions in exercising the audit

  9. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Grace G D; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-13

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat. This approach enables the retention of thermal energy (about 200 J g -1 ) in the materials for at least 10 h at temperatures lower than the original crystallization point, unlocking opportunities for portable thermal energy storage systems.

  10. Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Theory with State Estimation and State Feedback for Region II Control of Large Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Mark J.; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory called Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Control (ADTC) is introduced and used to track the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) of 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). Since ADTC theory requires wind speed information, a wind disturbance generator model is combined with lower order plant model to estimate the wind speed as well as partial states of the wind turbine. In this paper, we present a proof of stability and convergence of ADTC theory with lower order estimator and show that the state feedback can be adaptive.

  11. Variable Structure Disturbance Rejection Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems with State and Control Delays via Optimal Sliding Mode Surface Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.

  12. Feedforward control strategy for the state-decoupling Stand-alone UPS with LC output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    . In order to further increase the load current disturbance rejection capability of the state-decoupling in UPS system, a feedforward control strategy is proposed. In addition, the design principle for the current and voltage regulators are discussed. Simulation and experimental results are provided......In this paper, the disturbance rejection performance of the cascaded control strategy for UPS system is investigated. The comparison of closed loop system performance between conventional cascaded control (CCC) strategy and state-decoupling cascaded control (SDCC) strategy are further explored...

  13. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  14. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  15. Preconditioners for state-constrained optimal control problems with Moreau-Yosida penalty function

    KAUST Repository

    Pearson, John W.; Stoll, Martin; Wathen, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal control problems with partial differential equations as constraints play an important role in many applications. The inclusion of bound constraints for the state variable poses a significant challenge for optimization methods. Our focus here

  16. A new state space model for the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servo controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A control axis referenced model of the NASA/JPL 70-m antenna structure is combined with the dynamic equations of servo components to produce a comprehansive state variable (matrix) model of the coupled system. An interactive Fortran program for generating the linear system model and computing its salient parameters is described. Results are produced in a state variable, block diagram, and in factored transfer function forms to facilitate design and analysis by classical as well as modern control methods.

  17. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured

  19. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  20. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  1. Feedback Control of a Solid-State Qubit Using High-Fidelity Projective Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riste, D.; Bultink, C.C.; Lehnert, K.W.; DiCarlo, L.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating

  2. Dynamic state estimation and prediction for real-time control and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time control and operation are crucial to deal with increasing complexity of modern power systems. To effectively enable those functions, it is required a Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) function to provide accurate network state variables at the right moment and predict their trends ahead. This

  3. An Asynchronous P300 BCI With SSVEP-Based Control State Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh C.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous brain–computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigms is proposed. The information transfer is accomplished using P300 event-related potential paradigm and the control state (CS) detection is achieved...

  4. The effect of gun control laws on hospital admissions for children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Lane, Rebecca S; Blass, Lawrence W; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-10-01

    Gun control laws vary greatly between states within the United States. We hypothesized that states with strict gun laws have lower mortality and resource utilization rates from pediatric firearms-related injury admissions. Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for accidental (E922), self-inflicted (E955), assault (E965), legal intervention-related (E970), or undetermined circumstance (E985) firearm injuries. Patients were younger than 20 years and admitted for their injuries. Case incidence trends were examined for the study period. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed using 38 covariates to compare outcomes between states with strict or lenient gun control laws. Overall, 38,424 cases were identified, with an overall mortality of 7%. Firearm injuries were most commonly assault (64%), followed by accidental (25%), undetermined circumstance (7%), or self-inflicted (3%). A small minority involved military-grade weapons (0.2%). Most cases occurred in lenient gun control states (48%), followed by strict (47%) and neutral (6%).On 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis, in-hospital mortality by case was higher in lenient (7.5%) versus strict (6.5%) states, p = 0.013. Lenient states had a proportionally higher rate of accidental (31%) and self-inflicted injury (4%) versus strict states (17% and 1.6%, respectively), p gun control contributes not only to worse outcomes per case, but also to a more significant and detrimental impact on public health. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  5. Nonlinear H-infinity State Feedback Controllers: Computation of Valid Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Møller-Pedersen, J.; Pagh Petersen, M.

    1996-01-01

    "From a general point of view the state feedback QTR H-infinitysuboptimal control probelm is reasonable well-understood. Inportantproblems remain with regard to a priori information of the size of theneighbourhood where the local state feedback QTR H-infinityproblem is solvable, and with regard t...

  6. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  7. Deterministic and stochastic control of chimera states in delayed feedback oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Str. 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Maistrenko, Y. [Institute of Mathematics and Center for Medical and Biotechnical Research, NAS of Ukraine, Tereschenkivska Str. 3, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-06-08

    Chimera states, characterized by the coexistence of regular and chaotic dynamics, are found in a nonlinear oscillator model with negative time-delayed feedback. The control of these chimera states by external periodic forcing is demonstrated by numerical simulations. Both deterministic and stochastic external periodic forcing are considered. It is shown that multi-cluster chimeras can be achieved by adjusting the external forcing frequency to appropriate resonance conditions. The constructive role of noise in the formation of a chimera states is shown.

  8. Edge state preparation in a one-dimensional lattice by quantum Lyapunov control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X L; Shi, Z C; Qin, M; Yi, X X

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Lyapunov control uses a feedback control methodology to determine control fields applied to control quantum systems in an open-loop way. In this work, we employ two Lyapunov control schemes to prepare an edge state for a fermionic chain consisting of cold atoms loaded in an optical lattice. Such a chain can be described by the Harper model. Corresponding to the two schemes, two types of quantum Lyapunov functions are considered. The results show that both the schemes are effective at preparing the edge state within a wide range of parameters. We found that the edge state can be prepared with high fidelity even if there are moderate fluctuations of on-site or hopping potentials. Both control schemes can be extended to similar chains (3 m + d , d = 2) of different lengths. Since a regular amplitude control field is easier to apply in practice, an amplitude-modulated control field is used to replace the unmodulated one. Such control approaches provide tools to explore the edge states of one-dimensional topological materials. (paper)

  9. Quantum and classical control of single photon states via a mechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, G J

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical systems typically use light to control the quantum state of a mechanical resonator. In this paper, we propose a scheme for controlling the quantum state of light using the mechanical degree of freedom as a controlled beam splitter. Preparing the mechanical resonator in non-classical states enables an optomechanical Stern–Gerlach interferometer. When the mechanical resonator has a small coherent amplitude it acts as a quantum control, entangling the optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. As the coherent amplitude of the resonator increases, we recover single photon and two-photon interference via a classically controlled beam splitter. The visibility of the two-photon interference is particularly sensitive to coherent excitations in the mechanical resonator and this could form the basis of an optically transduced weak-force sensor. (paper)

  10. Probabilistic Controlled Teleportation of a Triplet W State with Combined Channel of Non-Maximally Entangled Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Dong; Jian-Fu, Teng

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for probabilistic controlled teleportation of a triplet W state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of two Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) states and one Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state is proposed. In this scheme, an (m + 2)-qubit GHZ state serves not only as the control parameter but also as the quantum channel. The m control qubits are shared by m supervisors. With the aid of local operations and individual measurements, including Bell-state measurement, Von Neumann measurement, and mutual classical communication etc., Bob can faithfully reconstruct the original state by performing relevant unitary transformations. The total probability of successful teleportation is only dependent on channel coefficients of EPR states and GHZ, independent of the number of supervisor m. This protocol can also be extended to probabilistic controlled teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of N – 1 EPR states and one (m + 2)-qubit GHZ. (general)

  11. Multiparty-controlled Joint Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary m-qudit State with d-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shu-Xin; Zhao, Zheng-Wei; Zhou, Ping

    2018-01-01

    We present a scheme for multiparty-controlled joint remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qudit state by using d-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states as the quantum channel. An arbitrary m-qudit state can be transmitted from two senders to a remote receiver in a quantum communication network under the controller's control. The senders perform m-qudit measurements according to their information of prepared state, the controllers only need perform single-particle projective measurements. The receiver can prepare the original state on his quantum system by performing corresponding unitary operation according the measurement results of the senders and controllers. It is shown that an arbitrary m-qudit state in general form can be controlled joint remote prepared if and only if the receiver cooperates with all the senders and controllers.

  12. Gate-Controlled Transmission of Quantum Hall Edge States in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wen, Hua; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhu, Jun

    2018-02-02

    The edge states of the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall effect of a two-dimensional electron gas carry key information of the bulk excitations. Here we demonstrate gate-controlled transmission of edge states in bilayer graphene through a potential barrier with tunable height. The backscattering rate is continuously varied from 0 to close to 1, with fractional quantized values corresponding to the sequential complete backscattering of individual modes. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility to controllably manipulate edge states in bilayer graphene, thus opening the door to more complex experiments.

  13. Gate-Controlled Transmission of Quantum Hall Edge States in Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wen, Hua; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The edge states of the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall effect of a two-dimensional electron gas carry key information of the bulk excitations. Here we demonstrate gate-controlled transmission of edge states in bilayer graphene through a potential barrier with tunable height. The backscattering rate is continuously varied from 0 to close to 1, with fractional quantized values corresponding to the sequential complete backscattering of individual modes. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility to controllably manipulate edge states in bilayer graphene, thus opening the door to more complex experiments.

  14. On the Control of a Queueing System with Aging State Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderwater (Martijn); S. Bhulai (Sandjai); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate control of a queueing system in which a component of the state space is subject to aging. The controller can choose to forward incoming queries to the system (where it needs time for processing), or respond with a previously generated response (incurring a penalty for not

  15. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of... soils in open and agricultural areas. We are proposing action on local rules that regulate these...

  16. Controlled dense coding for continuous variables using three-particle entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Jing Zhang; Kun Chi Peng; 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.032318

    2002-01-01

    A simple scheme to realize quantum controlled dense coding with a bright tripartite entangled state light generated from nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers is proposed in this paper. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is controlled by Claire. As a local oscillator and balanced homodyne detector are not needed, the proposed protocol is easy to be realized experimentally. (15 refs)

  17. One Idea of Portfolio Risk Control Focusing on States of Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Noboru

    2004-04-01

    In the modern portfolio theory there are 2 major risk parameters that mean and variance. Correlations should be playing important role as well but variance is thought to be most important risk parameter for risk control in the theory. I focused on states of correlation to calculate eigen values as risk control parameter.

  18. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  19. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  20. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  1. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  2. German Democratic Republic State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnsch, W.; Gegusch, M.

    1976-01-01

    The system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its legal bases and components is embedded in the overall State system of protection in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the competent State authority, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the GDR is also responsible for meeting the GDR's national and international tasks in the control of nuclear material. At enterprise level, the observance of all safety regulations for nuclear material, including the regulations for the control, is within the responsibility of managers of establishments, which are in any way concerned with the handling of nuclear material. To support managers and to function as internal control authorities, nuclear material officers have been appointed in these establishments. Design information, operating data, physical inventory of nuclear material and the respective enterprise records and reports are subject to State control by the Nuclear Material Inspectorate of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board. This Inspectorate keeps the central records on nuclear material, forwards reports and information to, and maintains the necessary contacts with, the IAEA. For the nuclear material in the GDR four material balance areas have been established for control purposes. To rationalize central recording and reporting, electronic data processing is increasingly made use of. In a year-long national and international control of nuclear material, the State control system has stood the test and successfully co-operates with the IAEA. (author)

  3. 78 FR 5303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Control of Sulfur Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... stringency of the SIP. Missouri's revision adds 10 CSR 10- 5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary... approving the State's request to add 10 CSR 10-5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary Boilers to... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  4. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  5. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  6. Numerical static state feedback laws for closed-loop singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de S.C.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Singular and non-singular control trajectories of agricultural and (bio) chemical processes may need to be recalculated from time to time for use in closed-loop optimal control, because of unforeseen changes in state values and noise. This is time consuming. As an alternative, in this paper,

  7. Constrained state-feedback control of an externally excited synchronous machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpiuc, S.C.; Lazar, M.

    2013-01-01

    State-feedback control of externally excited synchronous machines employed in applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and full electric vehicles is a challenging problem. Indeed, these applications are characterized by fast dynamics that are subject to hard physical and control constraints.

  8. Controllability Results For First Order Impulsive Stochastic Functional Differential Systems with State-Dependent Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parthasarathy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the controllability results of first order impulsive stochastic differential and neutral differential systems with state-dependent delay by using semigroup theory. The controllability results are derived by the means of Leray-SchauderAlternative fixed point theorem. An example is provided to illustrate the theory.

  9. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry R

    2012-02-01

    We examined health effects associated with 3 tobacco control interventions in Washington State: a comprehensive state program, a state policy banning smoking in public places, and price increases. We used linear regression models to predict changes in smoking prevalence and specific tobacco-related health conditions associated with the interventions. We estimated dollars saved over 10 years (2000-2009) by the value of hospitalizations prevented, discounting for national trends. Smoking declines in the state exceeded declines in the nation. Of the interventions, the state program had the most consistent and largest effect on trends for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Over 10 years, implementation of the program was associated with prevention of nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, at a value of about $1.5 billion. The return on investment for the state program was more than $5 to $1. The combined program, policy, and price interventions resulted in reductions in smoking and related health effects, while saving money. Public health and other leaders should continue to invest in tobacco control, including comprehensive programs.

  10. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2017-07-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. No human subjects. Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  11. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  12. Control of analog ferroelectric states by small dc-bias in conjunction with fluctuating waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinschi, Dan; Okuyama, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate several possibilities to create and control partially switched analog states of ferroelectric materials, from measurements on PZT capacitors. By employing various types of fluctuating waveforms and controlling the domain dynamics with dc bias of small intensities, we have shown that it is possible to generate sequences of analog ferroelectric states that may appear identical from macroscopic measurements, yet they are unique at the local level. The experimental results have been analyzed theoretically by a simple microscopic model of switching. According to the model simulations, each analog state can be associated with a domain structure that captures subtle variations of the previously applied electric field as well as structural information about the inhomogeneities at the local level. The generation and control of such partially switched analog states may be important for new applications of ferroelectric materials to multi-value memories or in the field of artificial intelligence.

  13. The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juozaityte, Vaida; Pladevall-Morera, David; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety......-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans behavior. When foraging, food availability controls behavioral state switching between active (roaming) and sedentary (dwelling) states; however, when provided with high-quality food, C. elegans become sated and enter quiescence. We show......-regulated behavioral state switching. Taken together, our results identify a neuronal mechanism for controlling intestinal fat stores and organismal behavioral states in C. elegans, and establish a paradigm for the elucidation of obesity-relevant mechanisms....

  14. State control of discrete-time linear systems to be bound in state variables by equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filasová, Anna; Krokavec, Dušan; Serbák, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of designing the discrete-time equivalent PI controller to control the discrete-time linear systems in such a way that the closed-loop state variables satisfy the prescribed equality constraints. Since the problem is generally singular, using standard form of the Lyapunov function and a symmetric positive definite slack matrix, the design conditions are proposed in the form of the enhanced Lyapunov inequality. The results, offering the conditions of the control existence and the optimal performance with respect to the prescribed equality constraints for square discrete-time linear systems, are illustrated with the numerical example to note effectiveness and applicability of the considered approach

  15. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Jeppson, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  16. Economical and feasible controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Zhongxiao; Xia Yunjie; Nguyen Ba An

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new quantum protocol to teleport an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state from a sender to a fixed receiver under the control of M (M < N) controllers. In comparison with other existing protocols, ours is more economical and more feasible. The quantum resource required is just M Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger trios plus (N - M) Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. The techniques required are only N Bell measurements by the sender, a von Neumann measurement by a controller and N single-qubit transformations by the receiver. The rule for the receiver to reconstruct the desired state is derived explicitly in the most general case

  17. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  18. State trajectories used to observe and control dc-to-dc converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. W., III; Wilson, T. G.

    1976-01-01

    State-plane analysis techniques are employed to study the voltage stepup energy-storage dc-to-dc converter. Within this framework, an example converter operating under the influence of a constant on-time and a constant frequency controller is examined. Qualitative insight gained through this approach is used to develop a conceptual free-running control law for the voltage stepup converter which can achieve steady-state operation in one on/off cycle of control. Digital computer simulation data are presented to illustrate and verify the theoretical discussions presented.

  19. ACCOUNTING AND ANALYTICAL PROCUREMENT OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL AND DIRECTIONS OF ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Maksymenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the constructive role of public financial control in management is a logical consequence of the modernization of the established system of state financial control and necessitates an update of the ideology and paradigmatic principles of state financial control. A retrospective review of the theoretical and practical aspects of the methodology and organization in the state financial control of Ukraine suggests that in the scientific environment these issues are studied extensively. However, despite the scientific and practical value of these works, the question of the possible modernization of the modern system of state financial control in the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the world economic system remains unresolved for the time being and is still the subject of lively discussions. The subject of the study is theoretical and methodological principles and methods for the implementation of state financial control, as well as the results of the activities of the State Audit Office of Ukraine for 2017. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the theoretical positions of the system of state financial control in Ukraine, to analyse the activity of the State Audit Service of Ukraine for 2017, and to suggest ways to improve it. To achieve the research goal, the following questions are addressed and solved: the analysis of the activity of the State Audit Service of Ukraine was carried out, based on the results of which the financial impropriety and state of its elimination for 2017 were described; the analysis revealed an increased attention to the organization of an effective system of financial control of budgetary institutions, the continuous improvement of mechanisms of management and control over budgetary funds. Method. To achieve the defined goal, a complex of general scientific and special methods was used: the method of system analysis and complex structures formalization; generalization and scientific abstraction

  20. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  1. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J. [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  2. Information Management System for the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, T. C.; Redmann, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to establish the requirements for an integrated state-wide information management system for water quality control and water quality rights for the State of California. The data sources and end requirements were analyzed for the data collected and used by the numerous agencies, both State and Federal, as well as the nine Regional Boards under the jurisdiction of the State Board. The report details the data interfaces and outlines the system design. A program plan and statement of work for implementation of the project is included.

  3. STUDY ON STATE SYSTEMS OF ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS IN SOME COUNTRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZIDAN, W.I.; EL-GAMMAL, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    All Safeguards agreements between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Member States require the State to establish and maintain a system of accounting for and control of nuclear material subject to safeguards (SSAC) in order to keep track on nuclear materials subject to such agreements. SSACs implementation in 34 IAEA member States varying in their size of nuclear activities, international treaties and nuclear power plants ownership were studied. The study is oriented to state legal framework, SSAC authority, dependency, objectives and functions

  4. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are inevitably part of daily life, the current dissertation aimed to gain a deeper understanding of low self-control states and how they affect performance. Critically, we worked with, rather than agains...

  5. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  6. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  7. Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic and Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting

    2004-01-01

    We present simplification schemes for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one particle and two particles and construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new schemes by means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neumann measurement, and classically controlled operations. In these schemes the teleportation are not always successful but with certain probability.

  8. State-Dependent Impulsive Control Strategies for a Tumor-Immune Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Su Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the number of tumor cells leads us to expect more efficient strategies for treatment of tumor. Towards this goal, a tumor-immune model with state-dependent impulsive treatments is established. This model may give an efficient treatment schedule to control tumor’s abnormal growth. By using the Poincaré map and analogue of Poincaré criterion, some conditions for the existence and stability of a positive order-1 periodic solution of this model are obtained. Moreover, we carry out numerical simulations to illustrate the feasibility of our main results and compare fixed-time impulsive treatment effects with state-dependent impulsive treatment effects. The results of our simulations say that, in determining optimal treatment timing, the model with state-dependent impulsive control is more efficient than that with fixed-time impulsive control.

  9. Dynamic IQC-Based Control of Uncertain LFT Systems With Time-Varying State Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Wu, Fen

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new exact-memory delay control scheme for a class of uncertain systems with time-varying state delay under the integral quadratic constraint (IQC) framework. The uncertain system is described as a linear fractional transformation model including a state-delayed linear time-invariant (LTI) system and time-varying structured uncertainties. The proposed exact-memory delay controller consists of a linear state-feedback control law and an additional term that captures the delay behavior of the plant. We first explore the delay stability and the L 2 -gain performance using dynamic IQCs incorporated with quadratic Lyapunov functions. Then, the design of exact-memory controllers that guarantee desired L 2 -gain performance is examined. The resulting delay control synthesis conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which are convex on all design variables including the scaling matrices associated with the IQC multipliers. The IQC-based exact-memory control scheme provides a novel approach for delay control designs via convex optimization, and advances existing control methods in two important ways: 1) better controlled performance and 2) simplified design procedure with less computational cost. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach have been demonstrated through numerical studies.

  10. Adaptive State Feedback—Theory and Application for Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Thapa Magar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A class of adaptive disturbance tracking controllers (ADTCs is augmented with disturbance and state estimation and adaptive state feedback, in which a controller and estimator, which are designed on the basis of a lower-order model, are used to control a higher-order nonlinear plant. The ADTC requires that the plant be almost strict positive real (ASPR to ensure stability. In this paper, we show that the ASPR property of a plant is retained with the addition of disturbance and state estimation and state feedback, thereby ensuring the stability of the augmented system. The proposed adaptive controller with augmentation is presented in the context of maximum power extraction from a wind turbine in a low-wind-speed operation region. A simulation and comparative study on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s 5 MW nonlinear wind turbine model with an existing baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative(PID controller shows that the proposed controller is more effective than the existing baseline PID controller.

  11. Gun control and suicide: the impact of state firearm regulations in the United States, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio; Hempstead, Katherine

    2011-06-01

    To empirically assess the impact of firearm regulation on male suicides. A negative binomial regression model was applied by using a panel of state level data for the years 1995-2004. The model was used to identify the association between several firearm regulations and male suicide rates. Our empirical analysis suggest that firearms regulations which function to reduce overall gun availability have a significant deterrent effect on male suicide, while regulations that seek to prohibit high risk individuals from owning firearms have a lesser effect. Restricting access to lethal means has been identified as an effective approach to suicide prevention, and firearms regulations are one way to reduce gun availability. The analysis suggests that gun control measures such as permit and licensing requirements have a negative effect on suicide rates among males. Since there is considerable heterogeneity among states with regard to gun control, these results suggest that there are opportunities for many states to reduce suicide by expanding their firearms regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended state observer-based motion synchronisation control for hybrid actuation system of large civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingjian; Shi, Cun; Wang, Shaoping

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid actuation system with dissimilar redundant actuators, which is composed of a hydraulic actuator (HA) and an electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), has been applied on modern civil aircraft to improve the reliability. However, the force fighting problem arises due to different dynamic performances between HA and EHA. This paper proposes an extended state observer (ESO)-based motion synchronisation control method. To cope with the problem of unavailability of the state signals, the well-designed ESO is utilised to observe the HA and EHA state variables which are unmeasured. In particular, the extended state of ESO can estimate the lumped effect of the unknown external disturbances acting on the control surface, the nonlinear dynamics, uncertainties, and the coupling term between HA and EHA. Based on the observed states of ESO, motion synchronisation controllers are presented to make HA and EHA to simultaneously track the desired motion trajectories, which are generated by a trajectory generator. Additionally, the unknown disturbances and the coupling terms can be compensated by using the extended state of the proposed ESO. Finally, comparative simulation results indicate that the proposed ESO-based motion synchronisation controller can achieve great force fighting reduction between HA and EHA.

  13. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  14. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-07-01

    To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Implementation of a Microcode-controlled State Machine and Simulator in AVR Microcontrollers (MICoSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Korbel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a microcode-controlled state machine and its software implementation in Atmel AVR microcontrollers. In particular, ATmega103 and ATmega128 microcontrollers are used. This design is closely related to the software implementation of a simulator in AVR microcontrollers. This simulator communicates with the designed state machine and presents a complete design environment for microcode development and debugging. These two devices can be interconnected by a flat cable and linked to a computer through a serial or USB interface.Both devices share the control software that allows us to create and edit microprograms and to control the whole state machine. It is possible to start, cancel or step through the execution of the microprograms. The operator can also observe the current state of the state machine. The second part of the control software enables the operator to create and compile simulating programs. The control software communicates with both devices using commands. All the results of this communication are well arranged in dialog boxes and windows. 

  16. To Stabilize Power Systems from Various Kind of Oscillations using a State Feedback Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Damping of electromechanical oscillations in power systems is one of the major concerns in the operation of power system since many years. These oscillations cause improper of the power system incorporating losses. This thesis work presents the coordinated AVR+PSS structure, called the Desensitized four loops Regulator, designed to damp these oscillations in the power system. It is shown here that it is possible to transform the structure of this controller into any standard IEEE AVR+PSS structure. The AVR+PSS structure obtained through this structure is efficient to damp out many types of oscillations present in the Power system. These models are to be incorporated with the generator models to get a power system model with state feedback control. On simulating the system in Simulink with the controllers we have obtained the power system model with state feedback control and observed that how these controllers are helpful in damping the oscillations. (author)

  17. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  18. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  19. Event-Triggered Distributed Approximate Optimal State and Output Control of Affine Nonlinear Interconnected Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-06-08

    This paper presents an approximate optimal distributed control scheme for a known interconnected system composed of input affine nonlinear subsystems using event-triggered state and output feedback via a novel hybrid learning scheme. First, the cost function for the overall system is redefined as the sum of cost functions of individual subsystems. A distributed optimal control policy for the interconnected system is developed using the optimal value function of each subsystem. To generate the optimal control policy, forward-in-time, neural networks are employed to reconstruct the unknown optimal value function at each subsystem online. In order to retain the advantages of event-triggered feedback for an adaptive optimal controller, a novel hybrid learning scheme is proposed to reduce the convergence time for the learning algorithm. The development is based on the observation that, in the event-triggered feedback, the sampling instants are dynamic and results in variable interevent time. To relax the requirement of entire state measurements, an extended nonlinear observer is designed at each subsystem to recover the system internal states from the measurable feedback. Using a Lyapunov-based analysis, it is demonstrated that the system states and the observer errors remain locally uniformly ultimately bounded and the control policy converges to a neighborhood of the optimal policy. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the developed controller.

  20. The State Supervision (Control in the Sphere of Economic Activity: International Experience Relevant for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Larysa Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts in the process of decentralization in Ukraine to implement the best international practices of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, in the process which depends on the status of deregulation and development of entrepreneurship, have caused the topicality of the problem set. The article is aimed at analyzing the international experience of application of the State supervision (control instruments in the sphere of economic activity and determination of the directions of their use in Ukraine. The stages of reforms of the control and supervision activity both in foreign countries and in Ukraine were considered. The directions and measures on creation of effective system of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, applied in the world countries, were systematized. Both the positive and the negative aspects of use of foreign instruments of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity in Ukraine have been defined. Recommendations on formation of the national complex system of functioning of control-supervision activity have been given.

  1. Adaptive control of Parkinson's state based on a nonlinear computational model with unknown parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Liu, Chen; Li, Hui-Yan

    2015-02-01

    The objective here is to explore the use of adaptive input-output feedback linearization method to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for closed-loop control of Parkinson's state. The control law is based on a highly nonlinear computational model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with unknown parameters. The restoration of thalamic relay reliability is formulated as the desired outcome of the adaptive control methodology, and the DBS waveform is the control input. The control input is adjusted in real time according to estimates of unknown parameters as well as the feedback signal. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive control algorithm succeeds in restoring the relay reliability of the thalamus, and at the same time achieves accurate estimation of unknown parameters. Our findings point to the potential value of adaptive control approach that could be used to regulate DBS waveform in more effective treatment of PD.

  2. State-Space Equations and the First-Phase Algorithm for Signal Control of Single Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinyuan; PAN Xin; WANG Xiqin

    2007-01-01

    State-space equations were applied to formulate the queuing and delay of traffic at a single intersection in this paper. The signal control of a single intersection was then modeled as a discrete-time optimal control problem, with consideration of the constraints of stream conflicts, saturation flow rate, minimum green time, and maximum green time. The problem cannot be solved directly due to the nonlinear constraints.However, the results of qualitative analysis were used to develop a first-phase signal control algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm substantially reduces the total delay compared to fixed-time control.

  3. Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N

    2010-04-01

    Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.

  4. Guarding the guardians: Civilian control of nuclear weapons in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feaver, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book has three separate complementary goals. First, it develops a model to explain how the command and control of nuclear weapons evolves over time. Second, it tells the story of the evolution of one critical aspect of the nuclear command system, the custody of nuclear weapons. Finally, it assesses the general problem of ensuring civilian control over nuclear operations. The focus is on the formation of operational policy. Where to deploy a weapon and at what state of alertness is an operational decision. Part I, The Theory of Civilian Control is divided into three chapters: Civilian control: Principles and problems; Civilian Control: From alerts to war termination; and Explaining changes in civilian control. Part II, The Evolution of Custody Policy has seven chapters: The Atomic Energy Act and the origin of assertive control, 1945-1947; The first test of assertive civilian control, 1948-1949; The breach in assertive control, 1950-1952; Assertive control becomes delegative control, 1953-1958; The resurgence of assertive control, 1959-1962; The cycle continues, 1963-1990; and Conclusion: The future of civilian control

  5. Design of an optimal preview controller for linear discrete-time descriptor systems with state delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengjuan; Liao, Fucheng

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the linear discrete-time descriptor system with state delay is studied, and a design method for an optimal preview controller is proposed. First, by using the discrete lifting technique, the original system is transformed into a general descriptor system without state delay in form. Then, taking advantage of the first-order forward difference operator, we construct a descriptor augmented error system, including the state vectors of the lifted system, error vectors, and desired target signals. Rigorous mathematical proofs are given for the regularity, stabilisability, causal controllability, and causal observability of the descriptor augmented error system. Based on these, the optimal preview controller with preview feedforward compensation for the original system is obtained by using the standard optimal regulator theory of the descriptor system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation.

  6. Control of lipid oxidation during exercise: role of energy state and mitochondrial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, K; Harris, R C

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable progress during recent years our understanding of how lipid oxidation (LOx) is controlled during exercise remains incomplete. This review focuses on the role of mitochondria and energy state in the control of LOx. LOx increases in parallel with increased energy demand up...... to an exercise intensity of about 50-60% of VO(2max) after which the contribution of lipid decreases. The switch from lipid to carbohydrate (CHO) is of energetic advantage due to the increased ATP/O(2) yield. In the low-intensity domain (energy state will stimulate both LOx...... during high-intensity exercise. Another potential mechanism, suggested in this review, is that Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an initial step in LCFA catabolism, functions as a regulator of LOx. ACS activity is suggested to be under control of CoASH and energy state. Furthermore, evidence exists...

  7. System state estimation and optimal energy control framework for multicell lithium-ion battery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Employed a dual-scale EKF based estimator for in-pack cells’ SOC values. • Proposed a two-stage hybrid state-feedback and output-feedback equalization algorithm. • A switchable balance current mode is designed in the equalization topology. • Verified the performance of proposed method under two conditions. - Abstract: Cell variations caused by the inevitable inconsistency during manufacture and use of battery cells have significant impacts on battery capacity, security and durability for battery energy storage systems. Thus, the battery equalization systems are essentially required to reduce variations of in-pack cells and increase battery pack capability. In order to protect all in-pack cells from damaging, estimate battery state and reduce variations, a system state estimation and energy optimal control framework for multicell lithium-ion battery system is proposed. The state-of-charge (SOC) values of all in-pack cells are firstly estimated using a dual-scale extended Kalman filtering (EKF) to improve estimation accuracy and reduce computation simultaneously. These estimated SOC values provide specific details of battery system, which cannot only be used to protect cells from over-charging/over-discharging, but also be employed to design state-feedback controller for battery equalization system. A two-stage hybrid state-feedback and output-feedback equalization algorithm is proposed. The state-feedback controller is firstly employed for coarse-grained adjustment to reduce equalization time cost with large current. However, due to the inevitable SOC estimation errors, the output-feedback controller is then used for fine-grained adjustment with trickle current. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can provide an effectively estimation and energy control for multicell battery systems. Finally, the implementation of the proposed method is further discussed for the real applications.

  8. Autonomous Control Modes and Optimized Path Guidance for Shipboard Landing in High Sea States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Performing Organization: The Pennsylvania State University Department of Aerospace Engineering 231C Hammond Building University Park , PA 16802 Attn...Research Assistant Penn State University Co-PI: Chengjian He (408) 523-5100 he@flightlab.com Dooyong Lee Advanced Rotorcraft Technologies...Linear Systems Optimal and Robust Control,” CRC press , 2007 6. Transitions/Impact Submitted AHS Forum Paper and presented paper at AHS UAV

  9. Quantum logic networks for controlled teleportation of a single particle via W state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hong-Chun; Qi Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the scheme for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of an unknown state of one particle using the general three-particle W state as the quantum channel. The feature of this scheme is that teleportation between two sides depends on the agreement of the third side (Charlie), who may participate the process of quantum teleportation as a supervisor. In addition, we also construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new scheme by means of the primitive operations.

  10. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  11. Festival of Curses: A Traditional Crime Control Method In Edo State –Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Akanji Okunola; Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2016-01-01

    Festivals and ceremonies are part and parcel of African culture, usually in all its pump, merriment and pageantry. However, with the increasing wave of criminal activities in Nigeria especially in Edo state, festivals and ceremonies are being redefined and conceptualized in practice. Only recently a new festival ‘Festival of Curses’ was brought to the fore in combating crime in Edo state. The study therefore seeks to explain the festival as a traditional mechanism in crime control, the nature...

  12. Synthesis of state observer and nonlinear output feedback controller design of AC machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tahir, Ali Abdul Razzaq

    2016-01-01

    The research work developed in this thesis has been mainly devoted to the observation and sensor-less control problems of electrical systems. Three major contributions have been carried out using the high - gain concept and output feedback adaptive nonlinear control for online UPS. In this thesis, we dealt with synthesis of sampled high - gain observers for nonlinear systems application to PMSMs and DFIGs. We particularly focus on two constraints: sampling effect and tracking unmeasured mechanical and magnetic state variables. The first contribution consists in a high gain observer design that performs a relatively accurate estimation of both mechanical and magnetic state variable using the available measurements on stator currents and voltages of PMSM. We propose a global exponential observer having state predictor for a class of nonlinear globally Lipschitz system. In second contribution, we proposed a novel non - standard HGO design for non-injective feedback relation application to variable speed DFIG based WPGS. Meanwhile, a reduced system model is analyzed, provided by observability test to check is it possible synthesis state observer for sensor-less control. In last contribution, an adaptive observer for states and parameters estimation are designed for a class of state - affine systems application to output feedback adaptive nonlinear control of three-phase AC/DC boost power converter for online UPS systems. Basically, the problem focused on cascade nonlinear adaptive controller that is developed making use Lyapunov theory. The parameters uncertainties are processed by the practical control laws under back-stepping design techniques with capacity of adaptation. (author)

  13. Global control of reaction wheel pendulum through energy regulation and extended linearization of the state variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Montoya-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a global controller for the Reaction Wheel Pendulum system using energy regulation and extended linearization methods for the state feedback. The proposed energy regulation is based on the gradual reduction of the energy of the system to reach the unstable equilibrium point. The signal input for this task is obtained from the Lyapunov stability theory. The extended state feedback controller design is used to get a smooth nonlinear function that extends the region of operation to a bigger range, in contrast with the static linear state feedback obtained through the method of approximate linearization around an operating point. The general designed controller operates with a switching between the two control signals depending upon the region of operation; perturbations are applied in the control signal and the (simulated measured variables to verify the robustness and efficiency of the controller. Finally, simulations and tests using the model of the reaction wheel pendulum system, allow to observe the versatility and functionality of the proposed controller in the entire operation region of the pendulum.

  14. Gate-controlled tunneling of quantum Hall edge states in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Jing; Wen, Hua

    Controlled tunneling of integer and fractional quantum Hall edge states provides a powerful tool to probe the physics of 1D systems and exotic particle statistics. Experiments in GaAs 2DEGs employ either a quantum point contact or a line junction tunnel barrier. It is generally difficult to independently control the filling factors νL and νR on the two sides of the barrier. Here we show that in bilayer graphene both νL and νR as well as their Landau level structures can be independently controlled using a dual-split-gate structure. In addition, the height of the line-junction tunnel barrier implemented in our experiments is tunable via a 5th gate. By measuring the tunneling resistance across the junction RT we examine the equilibration of the edge states in a variety of νL/νR scenarios and under different barrier heights. Edge states from both sides are fully mixed in the case of a low barrier. As the barrier height increases, we observe plateaus in RT that correspond to sequential complete backscattering of edge states. Gate-controlled manipulation of edge states offers a new angle to the exploration of quantum Hall magnetism and fractional quantum Hall effect in bilayer graphene.

  15. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  16. Feedback control of plasma density and heating power for steady state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Shuji, E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Seki, Tetsuo; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Ryosuke; Nomura, Goro; Mutoh, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We upgraded a control system for steady state operation in LHD. • This system contains gas fueling system and ICRF power control system. • Automatic power boost system is also attached for stable operation. • As a result, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. - Abstract: For steady state operation, the feedback control of plasma density and heating power system was developed in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to achieve a record of the long pulse discharge, stable plasma density and heating power are needed. This system contains the radio frequency (RF) heating power control, interlocks, gas fueling, automatic RF phase control, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna position control, and graphical user interface (GUI). Using the density control system, the electron density was controlled to the target density and using the RF heating power control system, the RF power injection could be stable. As a result of using this system, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Further, the ICRF hardware experienced no critical accidents during the 17th LHD experiment campaign in 2013.

  17. Workshop meeting on State accounting and control system for radioactive substances and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, V.F.

    2012-01-01

    On 2-6 July 2012, the fifth All-Russian workshop meeting of State Accounting and Control System for Radiation Substances (RS) and Radioactive Wastes (RAW) was conducted. The objective of the workshop was to discuss development of the State Accounting and Control System for RS and RAW in the Russian Federation, current changes to legal acts and regulations that pertain to management of RS and RAW, as well as other issues related to organisation of RS and RAW management activities and promotion of international cooperation [ru

  18. Complex dynamics of a Holling type II prey-predator system with state feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guirong; Lu Qishao; Qian Linning

    2007-01-01

    The complex dynamics of a Holling type II prey-predator system with impulsive state feedback control is studied in both theoretical and numerical ways. The sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of semi-trivial and positive periodic solutions are obtained by using the Poincare map and the analogue of the Poincare criterion. The qualitative analysis shows that the positive periodic solution bifurcates from the semi-trivial solution through a fold bifurcation. The bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and phase portraits are illustrated by an example, in which the chaotic solutions appear via a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations. The superiority of the state feedback control strategy is also discussed

  19. Transparent control of three-body selective destruction of tunneling via unusual states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yunrong; Tan, Jintao; Hai, Wenhua; Lu, Gengbiao

    2015-01-01

    We study transparent control of quantum tunneling via unusual analytical solutions for three bosons held in a driven double-well. Under high-frequency approximation, we analytically obtain the fine band structure and general non-Floquet state. At some collapse points of the quasi-energy spectra, the latter becomes the unusual special states. Based on the analytical results and their numerical correspondences, we clearly reveal the mechanism of coherent tunneling and suggest a scheme to transparently control the tunneling of three bosons from one well to another. The results can be observed with the current experimental capability (Chen et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 210405) (paper)

  20. Preparing Pseudo-Pure States in a Quadrupolar Spin System Using Optimal Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yi-Peng; Li Jun; Zhou Xian-Yi; Peng Xin-Hua; Du Jiang-Feng; Nie Xin-Fang; Chen Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-pure state (PPS) preparation is crucial in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computation. There have been some methods in spin-1/2 systems and a few attempts in quadrupolar spin systems. As optimal control via gradient ascent pulses engineering (GRAPE) has been widely used in quantum information science, we apply this technique to PPS preparation in quadrupolar spin systems. This approach shows an effective and fast quantum control method for both the state preparation and the realization of quantum gates in quadrupolar systems

  1. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  2. Proposal of many-party controlled teleportation for multi-qubit entangled W state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhi-Ping; Li Hong-Cai

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of M-party controlled teleportation for one N-qubit entangled W state via (N-1) Einstein-PodolskyRosen (EPR) pairs and one (M+2)-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is proposed. We achieve the teleportation in such a way that M agents can execute the Hadamard transformation, perform the measurement on their qubits and inform the receiver of their measurements. Then we discuss that the receiver cannot fully recover the state from the sender if one agent does not co-operate with him.

  3. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  4. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  5. Controlling the layer localization of gapless states in bilayer graphene with a gate voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments in gated bilayer graphene with stacking domain walls present topological gapless states protected by no-valley mixing. Here we research these states under gate voltages using atomistic models, which allow us to elucidate their origin. We find that the gate potential controls the layer localization of the two states, which switches non-trivially between layers depending on the applied gate voltage magnitude. We also show how these bilayer gapless states arise from bands of single-layer graphene by analyzing the formation of carbon bonds between layers. Based on this analysis we provide a model Hamiltonian with analytical solutions, which explains the layer localization as a function of the ratio between the applied potential and interlayer hopping. Our results open a route for the manipulation of gapless states in electronic devices, analogous to the proposed writing and reading memories in topological insulators.

  6. Perturbed cooperative-state feedback strategy for model predictive networked control of interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2018-01-01

    A perturbed cooperative-state feedback (PSF) strategy is presented for the control of interconnected systems in this paper. The subsystems of an interconnected system can exchange data via the communication network that has multiple connection topologies. The PSF strategy can resolve both issues, the sensor data losses and the communication network breaks, thanks to the two components of the control including a cooperative-state feedback and a perturbation variable, e.g., u i =K ij x j +w i . The PSF is implemented in a decentralized model predictive control scheme with a stability constraint and a non-monotonic storage function (ΔV(x(k))≥0), derived from the dissipative systems theory. Numerical simulation for the automatic generation control problem in power systems is studied to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented PSF strategy. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling of low frequency dynamics of a smart system and its state feedback based active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Mohit; Parameswaran, Arun P.

    2018-01-01

    Major physical systems/structures suffer from unwanted vibrations. For efficient working of such systems, these vibrations have to be controlled. In this paper, mathematical modeling of an aluminum cantilever beam with bonded multiple piezoelectric patches which act as the disturbance generator, sensor as well as control actuator has been presented. This piezoelectric laminate cantilever beam is assumed to be vibrating in a single degree of freedom i.e. in the flexural mode only and the corresponding state space models have been derived analytically using the finite element technique. Dominant modes of flexural vibration are identified from the frequency response of the developed model of the system and finally a state feedback controller based on pole placement technique is designed to actively suppress the vibrations. Through numerous simulations as well as experimental validation, the effectiveness of the active controller in damping the vibrations at various excitation frequencies as well as frequency ranges along the flexural mode is established.

  8. Correlations in state space can cause sub-optimal adaptation of optimal feedback control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprasoff, Jonathan; Donchin, Opher

    2012-04-01

    Control of our movements is apparently facilitated by an adaptive internal model in the cerebellum. It was long thought that this internal model implemented an adaptive inverse model and generated motor commands, but recently many reject that idea in favor of a forward model hypothesis. In theory, the forward model predicts upcoming state during reaching movements so the motor cortex can generate appropriate motor commands. Recent computational models of this process rely on the optimal feedback control (OFC) framework of control theory. OFC is a powerful tool for describing motor control, it does not describe adaptation. Some assume that adaptation of the forward model alone could explain motor adaptation, but this is widely understood to be overly simplistic. However, an adaptive optimal controller is difficult to implement. A reasonable alternative is to allow forward model adaptation to 're-tune' the controller. Our simulations show that, as expected, forward model adaptation alone does not produce optimal trajectories during reaching movements perturbed by force fields. However, they also show that re-optimizing the controller from the forward model can be sub-optimal. This is because, in a system with state correlations or redundancies, accurate prediction requires different information than optimal control. We find that adding noise to the movements that matches noise found in human data is enough to overcome this problem. However, since the state space for control of real movements is far more complex than in our simple simulations, the effects of correlations on re-adaptation of the controller from the forward model cannot be overlooked.

  9. Use of wiener nonlinear MPC to control a CSTR with multiple steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Lusson Cervantes, A.; Agamennoni, O.E.; Figueroa, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control based on a Wiener Model with a Piecewise Linear gain is presented. The major advantages of this algorithm is that it retains all the interesting properties of the classical linear MPC and the computations are easy to solve due to the canonical structure of the nonlinear gain. The proposed control scheme is applied to a nonlinear CSTR that presents multiple steady states.

  10. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coatings of metal parts and products. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  11. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating of metal parts and products. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. Chaos control for a class of chaotic systems using PI-type state observer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guoping; Zheng Weixing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by using the PI-type state observer design approach and the characteristic of ergodicity of chaos, a new method is presented for controlling chaos, including the stabilization of unstable equilibrium points and set-point tracking, for a class of chaotic systems. Based on the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, a simple criterion is derived for designing the controller gains for stabilization and tracking, in which control parameters can be selected via the pole placement technique of linear control theory. More importantly, this control method has a simple controller structure, high robustness against system parametric variations, and strong rejection of external constant disturbances. The method is applied to the chaotic Lorenz system for demonstration

  13. Predictive Sea State Estimation for Automated Ride Control and Handling - PSSEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    PSSEARCH provides predictive sea state estimation, coupled with closed-loop feedback control for automated ride control. It enables a manned or unmanned watercraft to determine the 3D map and sea state conditions in its vicinity in real time. Adaptive path-planning/ replanning software and a control surface management system will then use this information to choose the best settings and heading relative to the seas for the watercraft. PSSEARCH looks ahead and anticipates potential impact of waves on the boat and is used in a tight control loop to adjust trim tabs, course, and throttle settings. The software uses sensory inputs including IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), stereo, radar, etc. to determine the sea state and wave conditions (wave height, frequency, wave direction) in the vicinity of a rapidly moving boat. This information can then be used to plot a safe path through the oncoming waves. The main issues in determining a safe path for sea surface navigation are: (1) deriving a 3D map of the surrounding environment, (2) extracting hazards and sea state surface state from the imaging sensors/map, and (3) planning a path and control surface settings that avoid the hazards, accomplish the mission navigation goals, and mitigate crew injuries from excessive heave, pitch, and roll accelerations while taking into account the dynamics of the sea surface state. The first part is solved using a wide baseline stereo system, where 3D structure is determined from two calibrated pairs of visual imagers. Once the 3D map is derived, anything above the sea surface is classified as a potential hazard and a surface analysis gives a static snapshot of the waves. Dynamics of the wave features are obtained from a frequency analysis of motion vectors derived from the orientation of the waves during a sequence of inputs. Fusion of the dynamic wave patterns with the 3D maps and the IMU outputs is used for efficient safe path planning.

  14. Pulse-train control of branching processes: Elimination of background and intruder state population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Markus; Uiberacker, Christoph; Jakubetz, Werner; Etinski, Mihajlo

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce and describe pulse train control (PTC) of population branching in strongly coupled processes as a novel control tool for the separation of competing multiphoton processes. Control strategies are presented based on the different responses of processes with different photonicities and/or different frequency detunings to the pulse-to-pulse time delay and the pulse-to-pulse phase shift in pulse trains. The control efficiency is further enhanced by the property of pulse trains that complete population transfer can be obtained over an extended frequency range that replaces the resonance frequency of simple pulses. The possibility to freely tune the frequency assists the separation of the competing processes and reduces the number of subpulses required for full control. As a sample application, PTC of leaking multiphoton resonances is demonstrated by numerical simulations. In model systems exhibiting sizable background (intruder) state population if excited with single pulses, PTC leading to complete accumulation of population in the target state and elimination of background population is readily achieved. The analysis of the results reveals different mechanisms of control and provides clues on the mechanisms of the leaking process itself. In an alternative setup, pulse trains can be used as a phase-sensitive tool for level switching. By changing only the pulse-to-pulse phase shift of a train with otherwise unchanged parameters, population can be transferred to any of two different target states in a near-quantitative manner.

  15. Interim report on the state-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers. Part 4. Failure-rate and failure-mode data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaross, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    An assessment of the reliability of solid-state motor controllers for nuclear power plants is made. Available data on failure-rate and failure-mode data for solid-state motor controllers based on industrial operating experience is meager; the data are augmented by data on other solid-state power electronic devices that are shown to have components similar to those found in solid-state motor controllers. In addition to large nonnuclear solid-state adjustable-speed motor drives, the reliability of nuclear plant inverter systems and high-voltage solid-state dc transmission-line converters is assessed. Licensee Event Report analyses from several sources, the open literature, and personal communications are used to determine the realiability of solid-state devices typical of those expected to be used in nuclear power plants in terms of failures per hour

  16. Propulsion Control Technology Development in the United States A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.a; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective of the advancement of control technologies for aircraft gas turbine engines. The paper primarily covers technology advances in the United States in the last 60 years (1940 to approximately 2002). The paper emphasizes the pioneering technologies that have been tested or implemented during this period, assimilating knowledge and experience from industry experts, including personal interviews with both current and retired experts. Since the first United States-built aircraft gas turbine engine was flown in 1942, engine control technology has evolved from a simple hydro-mechanical fuel metering valve to a full-authority digital electronic control system (FADEC) that is common to all modern aircraft propulsion systems. At the same time, control systems have provided engine diagnostic functions. Engine diagnostic capabilities have also evolved from pilot observation of engine gauges to the automated on-board diagnostic system that uses mathematical models to assess engine health and assist in post-flight troubleshooting and maintenance. Using system complexity and capability as a measure, we can break the historical development of control systems down to four phases: (1) the start-up phase (1942 to 1949), (2) the growth phase (1950 to 1969), (3) the electronic phase (1970 to 1989), and (4) the integration phase (1990 to 2002). In each phase, the state-of-the-art control technology is described and the engines that have become historical landmarks, from the control and diagnostic standpoint, are identified. Finally, a historical perspective of engine controls in the last 60 years is presented in terms of control system complexity, number of sensors, number of lines of software (or embedded code), and other factors.

  17. Communicating program outcomes to encourage policymaker support for evidence-based state tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Allison M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2014-12-04

    Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003-2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans) and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1) high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2) the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3) ideological differences in views of the state's role in tobacco control, (4) the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5) the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  18. Adaptive Neural Network Control for Nonlinear Hydraulic Servo-System with Time-Varying State Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Min Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural network control problem is addressed for a class of nonlinear hydraulic servo-systems with time-varying state constraints. In view of the low precision problem of the traditional hydraulic servo-system which is caused by the tracking errors surpassing appropriate bound, the previous works have shown that the constraint for the system is a good way to solve the low precision problem. Meanwhile, compared with constant constraints, the time-varying state constraints are more general in the actual systems. Therefore, when the states of the system are forced to obey bounded time-varying constraint conditions, the high precision tracking performance of the system can be easily realized. In order to achieve this goal, the time-varying barrier Lyapunov function (TVBLF is used to prevent the states from violating time-varying constraints. By the backstepping design, the adaptive controller will be obtained. A radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is used to estimate the uncertainties. Based on analyzing the stability of the hydraulic servo-system, we show that the error signals are bounded in the compacts sets; the time-varying state constrains are never violated and all singles of the hydraulic servo-system are bounded. The simulation and experimental results show that the tracking accuracy of system is improved and the controller has fast tracking ability and strong robustness.

  19. Evaluation of tuberculosis control programme in Khartoum State for the year 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed Suleiman, M M; Aro, Arja R.; Sodemann, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top ten causes of global mortality. Sudan is among the countries with high TB prevalence; with an estimated incidence of 90/100,000 smear-positive cases. In 1993, the Khartoum State tuberculosis control programme was established. Since its establishment,...

  20. Control of the thermostressed state of low-pressure cylinder rotors for power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.

    1980-01-01

    The principle arrangement of an analog device for operation control of the low pressure cylinder (LPC) heating at large steam turbine start-up has been developed. Different forms of representation of the thermal conductivity equation used for realization by means of analog models are analized. Presented are the results of calculating the heating indices for the welded rotor of LPC during the turbine start-up from a cold state and the curves of temperature distribution in the disc of the first sections of welded LPC rotor at start-up from a cold state and in a steady-state regime. The results obtained show that in the process of start-up the error of the temperature difference DELTAt determination according to the suggested scheme does not exceed 10 deg C. After achieving the maximum of DELTAt in the process of the rotor temperature field flattening, this error increases and constitutes 32 deg C in steady-state regime, mainly, due to the error of temperature determination on the rotation axis in controlled cross section. As far as the control for the LPC rotor heating is necessary only during start-up and the requirements for its accuracy are not equivalent, therefore, for all regimes, representativity and accuracy of control provided by the accepted calculation scheme is quite satisfactory

  1. Automatic feedback on cognitive load and emotional state of traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Harbers, M.; Lim, D.; Tas, V. van der

    2014-01-01

    Workload research in command, information and process-control centers, resulted in a modular and formal Cognitive Load and Emotional State (CLES) model with transparent and easy-to-modify classification and assessment techniques. The model distinguishes three representation and analysis layers with

  2. Controlling and Autonomy-Supportive Parenting in the United States and China: Beyond Children's Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Meifang; Qu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Research comparing the predictive power of parents' control and autonomy support in the United States and China has relied almost exclusively on children's reports. Such reports may lead to inaccurate conclusions if they do not reflect parents' practices to the same extent in the two countries. A total of 394 American and Chinese children…

  3. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  4. Continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices in a bi-stable state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-te; Cheng, Ke-ming; Gu, Yun-song; Li, Zhuo-qi

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the problem of continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices at a high angle of attack in a bi-stable regime, a dual synthetic jet actuator embedded in an ogive forebody was designed. Alternating unsteady disturbance with varying degree asymmetrical flow fields near the nozzles is generated by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal of the actuator, specifically embodying the asymmetric time-averaged pattern of jet velocity, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Experimental results show that within the range of relatively high angles of attack, including the angle-of-attack region in a bi-stable state, the lateral force of the ogive forebody is continuously controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal; the position of the forebody vortices in space, the vorticity magnitude, the total pressure coefficient near the vortex core, and the vortex breakdown location are continuously changed with the duty cycle increased observed from the time-averaged flow field. Instantaneous flow field results indicate that although the forebody vortices are in an unsteady oscillation state, a continuous change in the forebody vortices' oscillation balance position as the duty cycle increases leads to a continuous change in the model's surface pressure distribution and time-averaged lateral force. Different from the traditional control principle, in this study, other different degree asymmetrical states of the forebody vortices except the bi-stable state are obtained using the dual synthetic jet control technology.

  5. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  6. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  7. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic compound (VOC). We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  8. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  9. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  10. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are approving local rules that regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  11. State University of New York Research Foundation: Controls over Direct Costs. Report 93-S-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An evaluation was done of the State University of New York (SUNY) Research Foundation's controls over direct expenditures for research and sponsored activities. The Foundation is a private, non-profit educational corporation established to expand the educational mission of SUNY through fund raising, administration of gifts and grants, and…

  12. Temperature control in a continuously mixed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    A continuously mixed, aseptic paddle mixer was used successfully for solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae on whole wheat kernels. Continuous mixing improved temperature control and prevented inhomogeneities in the bed. Respiration rates found in this system were comparable to those

  13. The Lack of a Long-Term Growth Effect of Annosus Control in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. H. Tainter; J. G. Williams; N. J. Hess; S. W. Oak; D. A. Starkey

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of basal area increment was made in 1988 of six pine plantations located across the southeastern United States. These plantations had been thinned in 1969-1970 and stumps treated with borax to measure long-term efficacy of annosus root rot control. In the present study, no long-term growth effects were identified. There were neither negative growth...

  14. Multiobjective Output Feedback Control of a Class of Stochastic Hybrid Systems with State-Dependent Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aberkane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic output feedback control of continuous-time active fault tolerant control systems with Markovian parameters (AFTCSMP and state-dependent noise. The main contribution is to formulate conditions for multiperformance design, related to this class of stochastic hybrid systems, that take into account the problematic resulting from the fact that the controller only depends on the fault detection and isolation (FDI process. The specifications and objectives under consideration include stochastic stability, ℋ2 and ℋ∞ (or more generally, stochastic integral quadratic constraints performances. Results are formulated as matrix inequalities. The theoretical results are illustrated using a classical example from literature.

  15. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) and Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  16. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  17. Controlling Unknown Saddle Type Steady States of Dynamical Systems with Latency in the Feedback Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Bumeliene, Skaidra; Tamaseviciute, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We suggest an adaptive control technique for stabilizing saddle type unstable steady states of dynamical systems. The controller is composed of an unstable and a stable high-pass filters operating in parallel. The mathematical model is considered analytically and numerically. The conjoint...... controller is sufficiently robust to time latencies in the feedback loop. In addition, it is not sensitive to the damping parameters of the system and is relatively fast. Experiments have been performed using a simplified version of the electronic Young-Silva circuit imitating behavior of the Duffing...

  18. 8 CFR 215.2 - Authority of departure-control officer to prevent alien's departure from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prevent alien's departure from the United States. 215.2 Section 215.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROLS OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.2 Authority of departure-control officer to prevent alien's departure from the United States. (a) No alien...

  19. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A NONLINEAR COUPLED ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION HEATING SYSTEM WITH POINTWISE STATE CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Yousept

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An optimal control problem arising in the context of 3D electromagnetic induction heating is investigated. The state equation is given by a quasilinear stationary heat equation coupled with a semilinear time harmonic eddy current equation. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the presence of pointwise inequality state-constraints represent the main challenge of the paper. In the first part of the paper, the existence and regularity of the state are addressed. The second part of the paper deals with the analysis of the corresponding linearized equation. Some suffcient conditions are presented which guarantee thesolvability of the linearized system. The final part of the paper is concerned with the optimal control. The aim of the optimization is to find the optimal voltage such that a desired temperature can be achieved optimally. The corresponding first-order necessary optimality condition is presented.

  20. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  1. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  2. Controlled release of cavity states into propagating modes induced via a single qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Constantin, Marius; Reagor, Matthew; Axline, Christopher; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Lehnert, Konrad; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel; Schoelkopf, Robert

    Photonic states stored in long-lived cavities are a promising platform for scalable quantum computing and for the realization of quantum networks. An important aspect in such a cavity-based architecture will be the controlled conversion of stored photonic states into propagating ones. This will allow, for instance, quantum state transfer between remote cavities. We demonstrate the controlled release of quantum states from a microwave resonator with millisecond lifetime in a 3D circuit QED system. Dispersive coupling of the cavity to a transmon qubit allows us to enable a four-wave mixing process that transfers the stored state into a second resonator from which it can leave the system through a transmission line. This permits us to evacuate the cavity on time scales that are orders of magnitude faster than the intrinsic lifetime. This Q-switching process can in principle be fully coherent, making our system highly promising for quantum state transfer between nodes in a quantum network of high-Q cavities.

  3. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F.; Perez Molina, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations

  4. Investigation of multidimensional control systems in the state space and wavelet medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosenkov, D. B.; Simikova, A. A.; Fedosenkov, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The notions are introduced of “one-dimensional-point” and “multidimensional-point” automatic control systems. To demonstrate the joint use of approaches based on the concepts of state space and wavelet transforms, a method for optimal control in a state space medium represented in the form of time-frequency representations (maps), is considered. The computer-aided control system is formed on the basis of the similarity transformation method, which makes it possible to exclude the use of reduced state variable observers. 1D-material flow signals formed by primary transducers are converted by means of wavelet transformations into multidimensional concentrated-at-a point variables in the form of time-frequency distributions of Cohen’s class. The algorithm for synthesizing a stationary controller for feeding processes is given here. The conclusion is made that the formation of an optimal control law with time-frequency distributions available contributes to the improvement of transient processes quality in feeding subsystems and the mixing unit. Confirming the efficiency of the method presented is illustrated by an example of the current registration of material flows in the multi-feeding unit. The first section in your paper.

  5. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Department of Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: manolo@dfists.ua.es; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)]. E-mail: ma_perez_m@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations.

  6. Comparing Interval Management Control Laws for Steady-State Errors and String Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Lesley A.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2018-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that leverages avionics to provide speed guidance to an aircraft to achieve and maintain a specified spacing interval from another aircraft. The design of a speed control law to achieve the spacing goal is a key aspect in the research and development of the IM concept. In this paper, two control laws that are used in much of the contemporary IM research are analyzed and compared to characterize steady-state errors and string stability. Numerical results are used to illustrate how the choice of control laws gains impacts the size of steady-state errors and string performance and the potential trade-offs between those performance characteristics.

  7. Dynamic analysis of the ethanol fermentation with the impulsive state feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhong; Kong, Yinchang; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol fermentation model with the impulsive state feedback control is proposed. • Existence and stability of the order-1 or order-2 periodic solution are investigated. • The complete expression of the order-1 periodic solution is obtained. • Fermentation process can be effectively controlled by monitoring the impulsive period. - Abstract: To keep a sustainable and steady output of ethanol, ethanol fermentation in a bio-reactor with impulsive state feedback control is formulated. The sufficient conditions for existences of order-1 periodic solution and order-2 periodic solution are obtained by using the properties of the periodic solution. The results imply that ethanol fermentation tends to an order-1 periodic solution or order-2 periodic solution. At the same time, we also give the complete expression of the period of the positive period-1 solution. Finally, discussions and numerical simulations are given.

  8. Global Control of the Furuta Pendulum Using Artificial Neural Networks and Feedback of State Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. Escobar-Dávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical modeling of the Furuta Pendu-lum by power functions, taking into account the non linear own dynamics of the physical systems and considering the existing couplings between the electric and mechanic devices. A control process based on feedback of state variables (FSV for the equilibrium point is developed and two topics for the non linear zone are addressed. First of all, functions are implemented to represent the energetic states of the plant in a global way and the operation regions are established (“Swing up” zone, and later Artificial Neural Networks (ANN are employed to simulate the behavior of the energy functions. Finally, it is presented the combination between the control techniques, considering the own constrains of the actuators and sensors used, besides of this, a study is done in a simulated environment of the physical phenomena that may disturb system behavior, and the capacity, sensitivity and robustness of the controller is verified.

  9. Principal State Analysis for a Compact in-Line Fiber Polarization Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng-Yong; Wu Chong-Qing; Wang Zhi-Hao; Qin Tao; Wang Yi-Xu

    2013-01-01

    A compact in-line fiber-based polarization controller (FPC) made of a rotatable fiber squeezer is investigated in detail with the Mueller matrix model established based on the generalized principal state of polarization (PSP). The PSP caused by the fiber squeezing is in the equator plane, which turns around S 3 axis on the Poincaré sphere when rotating the squeezer. Subsequently, a programmable polarization control method is proposed to realize the polarization conversion between arbitrary polarization states, in which only two parameters of phase shift and rotation angle need to be controlled. This type of FPC, which has a highly compact structure, lower insertion loss, and can be directly embedded into any fiber devices without any extra delay, will be an ideal PC for high-speed optical communication and all-optical signal processing

  10. Optimal Control for Fast and Robust Generation of Entangled States in Anisotropic Heisenberg Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by some recent results of the optimal control (OC) theory, we study anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on a single spin, with the aim of exploring how maximally entangled state can be prepared. To achieve the goal, we use a numerical optimization algorithm (e.g., the Krotov algorithm, which was shown to be capable of reaching the quantum speed limit) to search an optimal set of control parameters, and then obtain OC pulses corresponding to the target fidelity. We find that the minimum time for implementing our target state depending on the anisotropy parameter Δ of the model. Finally, we analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the optimal fidelities and the effectiveness of the Krotov method under some realistic conditions.

  11. Solid-state tap-changer of transformers: Design, control and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad; Siahkolah, Behzad [Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype electronic tap-changer of transformer. Mechanical tap-changer has many problems such as low operating speed, short lifetime and heavy size. In order to solve these problems a fully solid-state tap-changer with a new control strategy and optimal configuration is proposed. The design of tap-changer is discussed and bi-directional solid-state power electronics switches are implemented. Following the realization of the tap-changer controller, developed software for such precise control is introduced. To verify the design procedure and optimal configuration and apply the developed software, a prototype low-power tap-changer has been built and tested. (author)

  12. Adaptive online state-of-charge determination based on neuro-controller and neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yanqing, E-mail: network_hawk@126.co [Department of Automation, Chongqing Industry Polytechnic College, Jiulongpo District, Chongqing 400050 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a novel approach using adaptive artificial neural network based model and neuro-controller for online cell State of Charge (SOC) determination. Taking cell SOC as model's predictive control input unit, radial basis function neural network, which can adjust its structure to prediction error with recursive least square algorithm, is used to simulate battery system. Besides that, neuro-controller based on Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and modified PID controller is used to decide the control input of battery system, i.e., cell SOC. Finally this algorithm is applied for the SOC determination of lead-acid batteries, and results of lab tests on physical cells, compared with model prediction, are presented. Results show that the ANN based battery system model adaptively simulates battery system with great accuracy, and the predicted SOC simultaneously converges to the real value quickly within the error of +-1 as time goes on.

  13. Complex state variable- and disturbance observer-based current controllers for AC drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    In vector-controlled AC drives, the design of current controller is usually based on a machine model defined in synchronous frame coordinate, where the drive performance may be degraded by both the variation of the machine parameters and the cross-coupling between the d- and q-axes components...... of the stator current. In order to improve the current control performance an alternative current control strategy was proposed previously aiming to avoid the undesired cross-coupling and non-linearities between the state variables. These effects are assumed as disturbances arisen in the closed-loop path...... of the parameter and the cross-coupling effect. Moreover, it provides a better performance, smooth and low noisy operation with respect to the complex variable controller....

  14. Robust state feedback controller design of STATCOM using chaotic optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new design technique for the design of robust state feedback controller for static synchronous compensator (STATCOM using Chaotic Optimization Algorithm (COA is presented. The design is formulated as an optimization problem which is solved by the COA. Since chaotic planning enjoys reliability, ergodicity and stochastic feature, the proposed technique presents chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The simulation results reveal that the proposed controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhances greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions shows that the phase based controller is superior compare to the magnitude based controller.

  15. Use of digital control theory state space formalism for feedback at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Hendrickson, L.; Rouse, F.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-05-01

    The algorithms used in the database-driven SLC fast-feedback system are based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. These are implemented as a set of matrix equations which use a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of states from a vector of measurements, and then apply a gain matrix to determine the actuator settings from the state vector. The matrices used in the calculation are derived offline using Linear Quadratic Gaussian minimization. For a given noise spectrum, this procedure minimizes the rms of the states (e.g., the position or energy of the beam). The offline program also allows simulation of the loop's response to arbitrary inputs, and calculates its frequency response. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Collisional quenching at ultralow energies: controlling efficiency with internal state selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Bodo, E; Gianturco, F A

    2007-12-14

    Calculations have been carried out for the vibrational quenching of excited H(2) molecules which collide with Li(+) ions at ultralow energies. The dynamics has been treated exactly using the well-known quantum coupled-channel expansions over different initial vibrational levels. The overall interaction potential has been obtained from the calculations carried out earlier by our group using highly correlated ab initio methods. The results indicate that specific features of the scattering observables, e.g., the appearance of Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic channel cross sections and the marked increase of the cooling rates from specific initial states, can be linked to potential properties at vanishing energies (sign and size of scattering lengths) and to the presence of either virtual states or bound states. The suggestion is made such that by selecting the initial state preparation of the molecular partners, the ionic interactions would be amenable to controlling quenching efficiency at ultralow energies.

  17. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  18. Control of vortex state in cobalt nanorings with domain wall pinning centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Lal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic rings at the mesoscopic scale exhibit new spin configuration states and switching behavior, which can be controlled via geometrical structure, material composition and applied field. Vortex states in magnetic nanorings ensure flux closure, which is necessary for low stray fields in high packing density in memory devices. We performed magnetoresistance measurements on cobalt nanoring devices and show that by attaching nanowires to the ring, the vortex state can be stabilized. When a square pad is attached to the free end of the wire, the domain wall nucleation field in the nanowire is reduced. In addition, the vortex state persists over a larger range of magnetic fields, and exists at all in-plane orientations of the magnetic field. These experimental findings are well supported by our micromagnetic simulations.

  19. Control or non-control state: that is the question! An asynchronous visual P300-based BCI approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegger, Andreas; Faller, Josef; Halder, Sebastian; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on event-related potentials (ERP) were proven to be a reliable synchronous communication method. For everyday life situations, however, this synchronous mode is impractical because the system will deliver a selection even if the user is not paying attention to the stimulation. So far, research into attention-aware visual ERP-BCIs (i.e., asynchronous ERP-BCIs) has led to variable success. In this study, we investigate new approaches for detection of user engagement. Approach. Classifier output and frequency-domain features of electroencephalogram signals as well as the hybridization of them were used to detect the user's state. We tested their capabilities for state detection in different control scenarios on offline data from 21 healthy volunteers. Main results. The hybridization of classifier output and frequency-domain features outperformed the results of the single methods, and allowed building an asynchronous P300-based BCI with an average correct state detection accuracy of more than 95%. Significance. Our results show that all introduced approaches for state detection in an asynchronous P300-based BCI can effectively avoid involuntary selections, and that the hybrid method is the most effective approach.

  20. On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Moss, David J; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.

  1. Results from two workshops: Developing and amending regulations and funding state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.

    1993-09-01

    The first section of this document presents the results of a technical workshop on the process of regulations development and amendment sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop focused on methods for reducing the time it takes to promulgate regulations to help those States that are having difficulty meeting the three-year deadline for adopting new NRC regulations. Workshop participants responded to six questions, reviewed the procedures used by various States for revising and adopting changes to their regulations, and reviewed the time-flow charts used by various States. This workshop was designed to provide guidance to States that are promulgating and revising regulations. The second section of this document summarizes the proceedings of a technical workshop, also sponsored by the NRC, on funding radiation control programs that emphasized fee schedules and effective strategies for the 1990s. This workshop focused on determining the true costs of running a program, on setting realistic fees for the various categories of licenses, and on the most efficient methods for sending invoices, recording receipts, depositing money received, and issuing licenses. Workshop participants responded to seven questions; reviewed the methods various States use to determine true costs; reviewed the procedure that the various States use to produce invoices and licenses; reviewed the procedures that the States are required to abide by when they receive money; and reviewed the method used by the NRC to determine the cost of its various programs

  2. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVISM ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE AREA OF BUDGET ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Mishchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the impact of subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, over the budget on all levels of executive power, in order to eliminate subjectivity in their actions and increase the efficiency of public finances in general. Method. The study, which requires a deeper consideration of the issue of transformation of the content of the role performed by subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, in the presence of crisis phenomena in the economy. Methodology. The study of this issue is based on the analysis of the performance of the State Audit Service of Ukraine in identifying violations that led to losses of financial and material resources for the period of 2011–2017. Results. In our opinion, the dynamics of a constant decrease in the size of eliminated financial violations testifies to the insignificant effectiveness of the implemented control measures. The lowest, according to statistical indicators, is an indicator of elimination of financial violations in recent years, as well, the number of financial audits has also decreased significantly. Moreover, the number of inspections in individual cases had no effect on the final result. At the same time, the transition to new standards of inspections, with a view to deregulating and reducing the level of subjectivism, is less effective, but more transparent, which is positive in a slowdown of the economy, despite a certain reduction, but there is a significant level of corruption. Subjectivity in the actions of the controlling bodies can exert significant pressure on the entities subject to their supervision. Therefore, in order to achieve an optimal balance between the effectiveness of control measures and the reduction of pressure on economic entities, it is necessary to bring the existing system to standards that correspond to the level of developed countries. Currently, the process of changing approaches to inspections is based on

  3. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  4. Dynamic Learning from Adaptive Neural Control of Uncertain Robots with Guaranteed Full-State Tracking Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic learning method is developed for an uncertain n-link robot with unknown system dynamics, achieving predefined performance attributes on the link angular position and velocity tracking errors. For a known nonsingular initial robotic condition, performance functions and unconstrained transformation errors are employed to prevent the violation of the full-state tracking error constraints. By combining two independent Lyapunov functions and radial basis function (RBF neural network (NN approximator, a novel and simple adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for the dynamics of the unconstrained transformation errors, which guarantees uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. In the steady-state control process, RBF NNs are verified to satisfy the partial persistent excitation (PE condition. Subsequently, an appropriate state transformation is adopted to achieve the accurate convergence of neural weight estimates. The corresponding experienced knowledge on unknown robotic dynamics is stored in NNs with constant neural weight values. Using the stored knowledge, a static neural learning controller is developed to improve the full-state tracking performance. A comparative simulation study on a 2-link robot illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. On-Demand Final State Control of a Surface-Bound Bistable Single Molecule Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Torres, José A; Simpson, Grant J; Adams, Christopher J; Früchtl, Herbert A; Schaub, Renald

    2018-04-12

    Modern electronic devices perform their defined action because of the complete reliability of their individual active components (transistors, switches, diodes, and so forth). For instance, to encode basic computer units (bits) an electrical switch can be used. The reliability of the switch ensures that the desired outcome (the component's final state, 0 or 1) can be selected with certainty. No practical data storage device would otherwise exist. This reliability criterion will necessarily need to hold true for future molecular electronics to have the opportunity to emerge as a viable miniaturization alternative to our current silicon-based technology. Molecular electronics target the use of single-molecules to perform the actions of individual electronic components. On-demand final state control over a bistable unimolecular component has therefore been one of the main challenges in the past decade (1-5) but has yet to be achieved. In this Letter, we demonstrate how control of the final state of a surface-supported bistable single molecule switch can be realized. On the basis of the observations and deductions presented here, we further suggest an alternative strategy to achieve final state control in unimolecular bistable switches.

  6. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  7. God and Guns: Examining Religious Influences on Gun Control Attitudes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass shootings in the United States have generated significant media coverage and public concern, invigorating debates over gun control. Media coverage and academic research on gun control attitudes and reactions to mass shootings have paid little attention to the role of religion. Recent research sheds light on the complex relationship between religion and guns, including higher rates of gun ownership and stronger opposition to gun control among white evangelical Protestants. Using nationally representative survey data, this study examines the relationship between religious identity, gun ownership, and support for a range of gun control policies, including proposed remedies for preventing mass shootings. Compared with individuals from other religious traditions, evangelical Protestants are most opposed to stricter gun control laws and enforcement, even with statistical controls for gun ownership and demographic characteristics. Rather, they favor individualistic solutions and putting more emphasis on religious values in their social surroundings. I discuss how these findings reflect the cultural tools evangelical Protestants use to construct their understandings of social problems, including gun violence, and the broader implications for gun policy in the United States.

  8. Relationships between adaptation-innovation, experienced control, and state-trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, R L

    1989-08-01

    This study examines correlations among scores on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory, the Tiffany Control Scales, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for 104 undergraduates enrolled in the general psychology classes at a middle-sized midwestern university. Analysis indicated that adaptors and innovators perceive control from and/or over some aspects of their lives differently. Innovators feel control over internal (self) and over external (environment) while adaptors feel control from internal (self) and from external (environment). These results suggest innovators generally feel that they are in control of both themselves and the environment. Adaptors, however, generally feel they are controlled by internal drives and impulses or environmental events. The present study yielded no correlation between choice of college major and adaption-innovation but more research is needed. A relation between adaption and state anxiety was found, which may suggest adaptors feel more pressure when completing a novel task (answering questionnaires) than innovators. Finally, no significant correlation was found between the Kirton scores and trait anxiety.

  9. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  10. Uhrig dynamical control of a three-level system via non-Markovian quantum state diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Wenchong; Zhao, Xinyu; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to implement the Uhrig dynamical decoupling to a three-level quantum system coupled to a non-Markovian reservoir comprising of infinite numbers of degrees of freedom. For this purpose, we first reformulate the non-Markovian QSD to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. With this stochastic QSD approach, we demonstrate that an unknown state of the three-level quantum system can be universally protected against both coloured phase and amplitude noises when the control-pulse sequences and control operators are properly designed. The advantage of using non-Markovian QSD equations is that the control dynamics of open quantum systems can be treated exactly without using Trotter product formula and be efficiently simulated even when the environment is comprised of infinite numbers of degrees of freedom. We also show how the control efficacy depends on the environment memory time and the designed time points of applied control pulses. (paper)

  11. Evaluation of the Nuclear Medicine facilities in Minas Gerais state: quality control program of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Biancardi, Rodrigo; Rocha, Adriana Marcia Guimaraes; Ferreira, Denia Romao; Silva, Franciele Aquiles Anjos; Assuncao, Jonathan Buenos Aires; Alves, Ederson Henrique; Almeida, Ana Flavia Batista; Alves, Nathalia Fernandes; Xavier, Faber Henrique Zacarias; Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Mamede, Marcelo; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2017-01-01

    With the reformulation of the CNEN-NN-3.05 standard in December 2013, Brazil's Nuclear Medicine (NMS) services have to perform a greater number of quality controls for SPECT and PET equipment. However, little is known about the reality of the quality control programs of these services regarding the application of the new standard. Thus, in this context, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality control program of MNSs in the state of Minas Gerais. All NMSs in the state of Minas Gerais were invited to participate in the project. Of these, 34.48% (20 facilities) agreed to participate in the project, 50.00% (29 facilities) did not respond to the invitation and 15.52%(9 facilities) declined their participation. Thus, as of November 2015, 20 SPECT and 2 PET/CT equipment were evaluated for the performance of the quality control tests recommended by the new CNEN standard. The phantoms required for the evaluation came from the Laboratory of Dosimetry and Quality Control of UFMG. Even with the deadlines set by CNEN for the implementation of the quality control program in the NMSs, more than 50% of the evaluated services did not implement the quality controls, and the absence of specific phantoms is the main reason for the failure. Among the problems found in the installations, the most critical were: collimators with no conditions of use in the clinical routine, linearity problems of the evaluated image and values of image uniformity superior to the limits of acceptance. Problems in the uniformity and linearity of the image found directly impacted the performance of other tests, such as spatial resolution, SPECT performance, among others. In a general way, the NMSs in the state of Minas Gerais evaluated with the present study are in clinical feasible conditions. (author)

  12. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Control the polarization state of light with symmetry-broken metallic metastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Han; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the polarization state, the transmission direction, the amplitude and the phase of light in a very limited space is essential for the development of on-chip photonics. Over the past decades, numerous sub-wavelength metallic microstructures have been proposed and fabricated to fulfill these demands. In this article, we review our efforts in achieving negative refractive index, controlling the polarization state, and tuning the amplitude of light with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. We designed an assembly of stacked metallic U-shaped resonators that allow achieving negative refraction for pure magnetic and electric responses respectively at the same frequency by selecting the polarization of incident light. Based on this, we tune the permittivity and permeability of the structure, and achieve negative refractive index. Further, by control the excitation and radiation of surface electric current on a number of 2D and 3D asymmetric metallic metastructures, we are able to control the polarization state of light. It is also demonstrated that with a stereostructured metal film, the whole metal surfaces can be used to construct either polarization-sensitive or polarization-insensitive prefect absorbers, with the advantage of efficient heat dissipation and electric conductivity. Our practice shows that metamaterials, including metasurface, indeed help to master light in nanoscale, and are promising in the development of new generation of photonics

  15. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  16. Complementarities Between Nuclear Security, Safeguards and State System of Accounting for and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear security deals with prevention against theft and diversion of nuclear materials and sabotage against nuclear materials or installations. It is based on provisions of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities complemented by: - Provisions for accounting for and control to prevent and, where appropriate, detect loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials; - The nuclear safety provisions to protect nuclear materials and facilities against sabotage. Safeguards are based on the statements and accounting controls in the facilities. The respective aim of EURATOM and IAEA controls is to verify afterwards the respect for the declared use of materials or political commitments undertaken by States under the non-proliferation purpose. However, EURATOM and IAEA controls are not exercised at all facilities (including those working for defence purposes) or in respect of all nuclear materials subject to the French national control. In addition, these international safeguards do not deal with physical protection of nuclear materials which is the sole responsibility of the State. The state control, implemented in France, is positioned upstream to the international controls. It aims to prevent, deter and detect the loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials in installations or during transport. It places the responsibility of a possible diversion at the operator level. It is made of different components that complement each other and form a coherent whole. This includes: - physical protection; - accounting for and control; - inspections. The physical protection system has to protect nuclear materials against a malicious act. Malicious act means a theft or diversion of nuclear material or an act of sabotage affecting nuclear materials or facilities which could lead to radiological releases into the environment. The accounting for and control system of nuclear materials has to allow the continuous and accurate knowledge of the quantity, quality and location

  17. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purushothaman Geethanjali School of Electrical Engineering Department of Control and Automation VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Myoelectric signals (MES have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy. Keywords: EMG, assistive device, amputee, myoelectric control, electric powered, body ­powered, bioelectric signal control

  19. State of the Art Report for Development of Control Element Drive Mechanism of the APR+ Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Choi, Suhn; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-10-15

    Recently newly-developed nuclear reactors with increased safety and enhanced performance by developed countries in the nuclear area are competing in the global nuclear market. Several reactors, for example AP600 and AP1000 by Westinghouse Electric Co. in USA, EPR by Areva in Europe, APWR by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry in Japan in the pressurized power reactor, are competing to preoccupy the nuclear market during Nuclear Renaissance. Dedicated control element drive mechanism with enhanced performance and increased safety are developed for these new reactors. And load follow capability is required, and it is estimated that load follow requirement make design requirement of a control element drive mechanism harsh. It is necessary to review the current technical state of a control element drive mechanism. This work is aimed to review the design characteristics of a past and current control element drive mechanism for a nuclear reactor and to check the direction and goal of CEDM design development recently.

  20. Controllability of multi-agent systems with time-delay in state and switching topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhijian; Wang, Zidong; Lin, Hai; Wang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    In this article, the controllability issue is addressed for an interconnected system of multiple agents. The network associated with the system is of the leader-follower structure with some agents taking leader role and others being followers interconnected via the neighbour-based rule. Sufficient conditions are derived for the controllability of multi-agent systems with time-delay in state, as well as a graph-based uncontrollability topology structure is revealed. Both single and double integrator dynamics are considered. For switching topology, two algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the controllability of multi-agent systems. Several examples are also presented to illustrate how to control the system to shape into the desired configurations.

  1. State of the Art Report for Development of Control Element Drive Mechanism of the APR+ Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Choi, Suhn; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Recently newly-developed nuclear reactors with increased safety and enhanced performance by developed countries in the nuclear area are competing in the global nuclear market. Several reactors, for example AP600 and AP1000 by Westinghouse Electric Co. in USA, EPR by Areva in Europe, APWR by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry in Japan in the pressurized power reactor, are competing to preoccupy the nuclear market during Nuclear Renaissance. Dedicated control element drive mechanism with enhanced performance and increased safety are developed for these new reactors. And load follow capability is required, and it is estimated that load follow requirement make design requirement of a control element drive mechanism harsh. It is necessary to review the current technical state of a control element drive mechanism. This work is aimed to review the design characteristics of a past and current control element drive mechanism for a nuclear reactor and to check the direction and goal of CEDM design development recently

  2. Improved State Feedback H∞ Control for Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a nonlinear longitudinal dynamical model for Air-breathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicles (AHFV, a linearized model on a nominal trim condition is proposed. To stabilize the flight of an AHFV in the presence of external disturbances and actuator uncertainties, a state feedback H∞ control is designed. With bounds on the uncertainties, a feedback stabilization problem is converted to an optimal control problem and the cost function is minimized by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Since uncertainties in the design of AHFV are inevitable, to make a comparison, a general H∞ robust controller is constructed by only considering the disturbances firstly. Then the results are extended by incorporating the actual existing uncertainties as well as the external disturbances in the AHFV system. Numerical simulation shows that the controller, which takes both disturbances and uncertainties into account, can effectively stabilize the AHFV system.

  3. Nursing, social contexts, and ideologies in the early United States birth control movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwey, M D

    1999-12-01

    Using historical discourse analysis, this study provides a thematic analysis of writings of nursing and birth control as found in The Birth Control Review from 1917 to 1927. The author contrasts this publication with the official journal of the American Nurses Association, the American Journal of Nursing from the same years to explore nursing voices and silences in early birth control stories. In dialogue with social contexts, nursing endeavors and inactivity have played important yet conflicting roles in the birth control movement in the United States. Nursing writings from the early twentieth century reflect eugenic beliefs, national fears of immigrants, and ambivalence about women's roles in society and the home. Nurses simultaneously empowered women to choose when to become pregnant and reinforced nativist and paternalistic views of the poor.

  4. Analysis of Steady-State Error in Torque Current Component Control of PMSM Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANDSTETTER, P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents dynamic properties of a vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor drive supplied by a voltage source inverter. The paper deals with a control loop for the torque producing stator current. There is shown fundamental mathematical description for the vector control structure of the permanent magnet synchronous motor drive with respect to the current control for d-axis and q-axis of the rotor rotating coordinate system. The derivations of steady-state deviation for schemes with and without decoupling circuits are described for q-axis. The properties of both schemes are verified by MATLAB-SIMULINK program considering a lower and a higher value of inertia and by experimental measurements in our laboratory. The simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed at the end of the paper.

  5. In-situ, In-Memory Stateful Vector Logic Operations based on Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Agrawal, Amogh; Roy, Kaushik

    2018-04-10

    Recently, the exponential increase in compute requirements demanded by emerging applications like artificial intelligence, Internet of things, etc. have rendered the state-of-art von-Neumann machines inefficient in terms of energy and throughput owing to the well-known von-Neumann bottleneck. A promising approach to mitigate the bottleneck is to do computations as close to the memory units as possible. One extreme possibility is to do in-situ Boolean logic computations by using stateful devices. Stateful devices are those that can act both as a compute engine and storage device, simultaneously. We propose such stateful, vector, in-memory operations using voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). Our proposal is based on the well known manufacturable 1-transistor - 1-MTJ bit-cell and does not require any modifications in the bit-cell circuit or the magnetic device. Instead, we leverage the very physics of the VCMA effect to enable stateful computations. Specifically, we exploit the voltage asymmetry of the VCMA effect to construct stateful IMP (implication) gate and use the precessional switching dynamics of the VCMA devices to propose a massively parallel NOT operation. Further, we show that other gates like AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NIMP (complement of implication) can be implemented using multi-cycle operations.

  6. Control of the Speed of a Light-Induced Spin Transition through Mesoscale Core-Shell Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Ashley C; Slimani, Ahmed; Cain, John M; Andrus, Matthew J; Ahir, Akhil R; Abboud, Khalil A; Meisel, Mark W; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Talham, Daniel R

    2018-05-02

    The rate of the light-induced spin transition in a coordination polymer network solid dramatically increases when included as the core in mesoscale core-shell particles. A series of photomagnetic coordination polymer core-shell heterostructures, based on the light-switchable Rb a Co b [Fe(CN) 6 ] c · mH 2 O (RbCoFe-PBA) as core with the isostructural K j Ni k [Cr(CN) 6 ] l · nH 2 O (KNiCr-PBA) as shell, are studied using temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry. The core RbCoFe-PBA exhibits a charge transfer-induced spin transition (CTIST), which can be thermally and optically induced. When coupled to the shell, the rate of the optically induced transition from low spin to high spin increases. Isothermal relaxation from the optically induced high spin state of the core back to the low spin state and activation energies associated with the transition between these states were measured. The presence of a shell decreases the activation energy, which is associated with the elastic properties of the core. Numerical simulations using an electro-elastic model for the spin transition in core-shell particles supports the findings, demonstrating how coupling of the core to the shell changes the elastic properties of the system. The ability to tune the rate of optically induced magnetic and structural phase transitions through control of mesoscale architecture presents a new approach to the development of photoswitchable materials with tailored properties.

  7. State observer-based sliding mode control for semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sizhong; Zhao, Yuzhuang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes an improved virtual reference model for semi-active suspension to coordinate the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. The reference model combines the virtues of sky-hook with ground-hook control logic, and the hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high-speed condition. Suspension state observer based on unscented Kalman filter is designed. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is developed to track the states of the reference model. The stability of the SMC strategy is proven by means of Lyapunov function taking into account the nonlinear damper characteristics and sprung mass variation of the vehicle. Finally, the performance of the controller is demonstrated under three typical working conditions: the random road excitation, speed bump road and sharp acceleration and braking. The simulation results indicated that, compared with the traditional passive suspension, the proposed control algorithm can offer a better coordination between vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. This approach provides a viable alternative to costlier active suspension control systems for commercial vehicles.

  8. A Tunable Mid-Infrared Solid-State Laser with a Compact Thermal Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunable mid-infrared lasers are widely used in laser spectroscopy, gas sensing and many other related areas. In order to solve heat dissipation problems and improve the environmental temperature adaptability of solid-state laser sources, a tunable all-fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO was established, and a compact thermal control system based on thermoelectric coolers, an automatic temperature control circuit, cooling fins, fans and heat pipes was integrated and designed for the laser. This system is compact, light and air-cooling which satisfies the demand for miniaturization of lasers. A mathematical model and method was established to estimate the cooling capacity of this thermal control system under different ambient environments. A finite-element model was built and simulated to analyze the thermal transfer process. Experiments in room and high temperature environments were carried out and showed that the substrate temperature of a pump module could be maintained at a stable value with controlled precision to 0.2 degrees, while the output power stability of the laser was within ±1%. The experimental results indicate that this compact air-cooling thermal control system could effectively solve the heat dissipation problem of mid-infrared solid-state lasers with a one hundred watts level pump module in room and high temperature environments.

  9. Distribution state estimation based voltage control for distribution networks; Koordinierte Spannungsregelung anhand einer Zustandsschaetzung im Verteilnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwold, Konrad; Yan, Wei [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieuebertragung und Hochspannungstechnik (IEH)

    2012-07-01

    The increased integration of distributed energy units creates challenges for the operators of distribution systems. This is due to the fact that distribution systems that were initially designed for distributed consumption and central generation now face decentralized feed-in. One imminent problem associated with decentralised fee-in are local voltage violations in the distribution system, which are hard to handle via conventional voltage control strategies. This article proposes a new voltage control framework for distribution system operation. The framework utilizes reactive power of distributed energy units as well on-load tap changers to mitigate voltage problems in the network. Using an optimization-band the control strategy can be used in situations where network information is derived from distribution state estimators and thus holds some error. The control capabilities in combination with a distribution state estimator are tested using data from a real rural distribution network. The results are very promising, as voltage control is achieved fast and accurate, preventing a majority of the voltage violations during system operation under realistic system conditions. (orig.)

  10. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-02-12

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method.

  11. An Overview of Distributed Microgrid State Estimation and Control for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  12. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  13. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  14. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  15. [The contact-free control of the functional state: the experience of its practical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M V

    1992-01-01

    Application of contactless control method does not create any psychological or physical discomfort for a man and allows to realize diagnostics continuously for a long time, evidently or secretly. These properties of the control determine its effective application in practice. In the paper the data are given of the studies of the functional state of a man-operator using the parameters of the eyelids movements contactlessly recorded in infra-red rays, and the results of diagnostics of patients with depression by the characteristics of their speech, recorded from the microphone. The above data are obtained in practice.

  16. Projective Synchronization of Chaotic Discrete Dynamical Systems via Linear State Error Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.

  17. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  18. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  19. Model Predictive Flight Control System with Full State Observer using H∞ Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwale, Jitu; Singh, Dhan Jeet

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the application of the model predictive approach to design a flight control system (FCS) for longitudinal dynamics of a fixed wing aircraft. Longitudinal dynamics is derived for a conventional aircraft. Open loop aircraft response analysis is carried out. Simulation studies are illustrated to prove the efficacy of the proposed model predictive controller using H ∞ state observer. The estimation criterion used in the {H}_{∞} observer design is to minimize the worst possible effects of the modelling errors and additive noise on the parameter estimation.

  20. Development and realization of the new state system of account and control of RAM and RAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.; Shilko, V.; Syssoev, M.; Ershov, V.; Yanovskaya, N.

    1998-01-01

    In the article the principles of organization, organizational structure and main functions of the automated system of the state account and control of radioactive material (RAM) and waste (RAW), which is developed now in Russia, are presented. On the base of analysis the existing ( >) system the acute necessity in automation of processes of an account and control DA and DAI, based on use of modern information technologies is shown. There are presented a structure and content of normative - legal, program and information parts of the system and milestones of designing it. (author)