Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.
This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…
Wronowski, Meredith L.
The case study presented below is a representation of a real-world, ongoing situation involving a public school district's capital outlay for charter schools within its boundaries. One particular charter, Beacon Charter School, was promised a permanent building by the public school district that also acts as its authorizer. However, recent events…
Duncombe, William; Wang, Wen
Traditionally, financing the construction of school facilities has been a local responsibility. In the past several decades, states have increased their support for school facilities. Using data collected from various sources, this study first classifies the design of capital aid programs in all 50 states into various categories based on the scope…
Sielke, Catherine C.
Between 1994 and 1998, capital outlay funding bills for school facilities, tax bases, and taxation bills experienced the greatest growth in state legislative activity. This article discusses the reasons for increased funding activity, various state-aid mechanisms to fund capital outlay, and future capital funding directions. (MLH)
Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars
Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yeung, Ryan
This study examines the effect of highway capital investments on highway fatalities. We used state-level data from the 48 contiguous states in the United States from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the effects on highway fatalities of capital expenditures and highway capital stock. We estimated these effects by controlling for a set of control variables together with state and year dummy variables and state-specific linear time trends. We found that capital expenditures and capital stock had significant and negative effects on highway fatalities. States faced with declines in gas tax revenues have already cut back drastically on spending on roads including on maintenance and capital outlay. If this trend continues, it may undermine traffic safety. While states and local governments are currently fiscally strained, it is important for them to continue investments in roadways to enhance traffic safety and, more significantly, to save lives. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In an uncertain economic environment, experts' knowledge about outlays and cash inflows of available projects consists of much vagueness instead of randomness. Investment outlays and annual net cash flows of a project are usually predicted by using experts' knowledge. Fuzzy variables can overcome the difficulties in predicting these parameters. In this paper, capital budgeting problem with fuzzy investment outlays and fuzzy annual net cash flows is studied based on credibility measure. Net present value (NPV) method is employed, and two fuzzy chance-constrained programming models for capital budgeting problem are provided. A fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm is provided for solving the proposed model problems. Two numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
This paper reports that Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA has slashed its 1992 capital budget by more than half for lack of adequate cash flow. Petrobras Pres. Benedicto Moreira last week disclosed the cut, to $1.4 billion from $2.9 billion earmarked earlier, citing cash flow problems stemming from heavy subsidies for domestic products. Petrobras Association of Engineers (Aepet) disputes the latest amount, claiming without elaboration the state company actually is cutting the current budget to $1 billion. At either level, the severe budget cut bodes ill for Petrobras plans to boost domestic production by a net 300,000 b/d to 1 million b/d by 1995, an ambitious program that calls for outlays of $18 billion
Report #2007-4-00026, November 28, 2006. We questioned $1,007,858 of the $9,871,025 in reported outlays because the recipient claimed unallowable outlays for contractual services, subgrant costs, indirect labor and facilities costs, and in-kind costs.
C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.
The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.
Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.
Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...
McCue, Michael J
Prior literature provides only a descriptive view of the types and numbers of capital expenditures made by hospitals. This study conducted an empirical analysis to assess simultaneously what market, organizational, and financial factors relate to the number of capital projects as well as the specific types: medical equipment, expansion, and maintenance projects. Sampling California hospital capital expenditure data from 2002 to 2007, this study aggregated the number of capital projects by each type of capital investment decision: medical equipment, expansion, and maintenance/renovation per hospital. Using ordinary least squares regression, this study evaluated the association of these factors with these types of capital investment projects. This study found that hospitals capturing a greater share of the market, maintaining high levels of liquidity, and operating with more than 350 beds invested in a greater number of capital projects per hospital as well as medical equipment and expansionary projects per hospital. Within the state of California, the demand for health care services within a hospital market as well as cash and investment reserves were key drivers in the hospital CEOs and boards' decision to increase their capital purchases. The types of purchases included capital outlays related to medical equipment, such as CT scanners, MRIs, and surgical systems, and revenue-generating expansionary projects, such as new bed towers, hospitals wings, operating and emergency rooms, and replacement hospitals from 2002 to 2007.
Swiger, John; Klaus, Allen
A process for college and university decision making and budgeting for capital outlays that focuses on evaluating the qualitative and quantitative benefits of each proposed project is described and illustrated. The process provides a means to solicit suggestions from those involved and provide detailed information for cost-benefit analysis. (MSE)
Herian, Mitchel N; Tay, Louis; Hamm, Joseph A; Diener, Ed
Research from across disciplines has demonstrated that social and political contextual factors at the national and subnational levels can impact the health and health behavior risks of individuals. This paper examines the impact of state-level social capital and ideology on individual-level health outcomes in the U.S. Leveraging the variation that exists across states in the U.S., the results reveal that individuals report better health in states with higher levels of governmental liberalism and in states with higher levels of social capital. Critically, however, the effect of social capital was moderated by liberalism such that social capital was a stronger predictor of health in states with low levels of liberalism. We interpret this finding to mean that social capital within a political unit-as indicated by measures of interpersonal trust-can serve as a substitute for the beneficial impacts that might result from an active governmental structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dec 15, 2013 ... Keywords: State-building, social capital, ethnic supremacy, Dinka, Nuer,. South Sudan. * Robert Gerenge is the Head of Special Programmes at the Electoral Institute for Sustainable. Democracy in Africa (EISA). South Sudan's December 2013 conflict: Bolting state-building fault lines with social capital.
... (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting Requirements § 3015.85 Outlay report and request for reimbursement for... § 3015.84. (3) The awarding agency may substitute the Financial Status Report specified in § 3015.82 for...
The research paper intends to interpret how the three forms of family capital viz. family's financial capital, family's man power capital and family's human capital influences the career choice intention of students of HEI's of Uttarakhand, India. Additionally the study also evaluates the impact of student's individual social capital on his career intent. This is a quantitative study conducted at Uttarakhand state of India on a large sample of students studying in various professional courses...
This paper explores the association between social capital and average happiness in the United States. Social capital is measured as a multidimensional concept consisting of social trust and two different indicators of sociability. In order to employ the variation both over time and across states......, the data are organized in either a panel of nine US Census regions over the period 1983-1998 or in averages over this period in a cross-section of 48 states. The results show that social trust is positively associated with happiness while the potential effects of informal sociability at the level...... of society only appear significant in the regional estimates. The findings document the importance of social trust for average happiness but also hold more general implications for social capital theory....
Albers, Alison Burke; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Siegel, Michael; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Jernigan, David H.
Background Low alcohol prices are a potent risk factor for excessive drinking, underage drinking, and adverse alcohol-attributable outcomes. Presently, there is little reported information on alcohol prices in the U.S., in particular as it relates to the costs of potentially beneficial amounts of alcohol. Purpose To determine the minimum financial outlay necessary to purchase individual brands of alcohol using online alcohol price data from January through March 2012. Methods The smallest container size and the minimum price at which that size beverage could be purchased in the U.S. in 2012 were determined for 898 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types. The analyses were conducted in March 2012. Results The majority of alcoholic beverage categories contain brands that can be purchased in the U.S. for very low minimum financial outlays. Conclusions In the U.S., a wide variety of alcohol brands, across many types of alcohol, are available at very low prices. Given that both alcohol use and abuse are responsive to price, particularly among adolescents, the prevalence of low alcohol prices is concerning. Surveillance of alcohol prices and minimum pricing policies should be considered in the U.S. as part of a public health strategy to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:23253652
Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P
No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge.
Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.
With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.
Full Text Available The capital market is unarguably the most robust institution in any economy notable for mobilizing the necessary fund for financing long-term productive project. It controls relatively large amounts of capital and represent the largest institutional providing long-term credits for capital project like real estate that requires huge capital outlay. This study therefore, attempts an investigation into the effectiveness of capital market derivatives in housing delivery in Lagos. An empirical survey research was conducted in Lagos, using a random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire to collect data from 147 respondents comprising 89 stockbrokers and 58 real estate developers in Lagos mega-city. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 56.7% of the observed variations in housing delivery (R2= 0.567; p< 0.05 is explained by capital market derivatives, which suggests that, proper utilization of capital market derivatives will enhance and improve housing delivery in Nigeria. However, this is not been adequately used by developers of real estate projects in the study. Thus, the study recommends amongst other remedial steps that a synergetic effort should be created between the capital market and real estate developers which will enhance effective housing delivery, the development of people and the Nation.
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the United States has witnessed increasing wealth concentration in the hands of the ultra-rich. Measured at the state level, the top 10 percent of income earners amassed roughly 43% of total income, and economic growth only enhanced this inequality between the ultrarich and the rest of citizens. This paper examines whether social capital plays a positive role in mitigating income inequality at the state level, with an emphasis on racial diversity and its relation to church attendance. The empirical findings demonstrate that social capital, whether measured by Robert Putnam’s state-level social capital index (SCI, or a new measure that improves SCI’s original measurement, fails to improve income equality. In comparison, racial diversity is found to be a consistent contributor of income inequality. In states with a greater proportion of minority population, the ultra-rich tend to share more wealth and social capital potentially facilitates the ultra-rich to enjoy the benefit of economic growth.
Schneller, Peter L.
The United States democratic system includes characteristics of capitalism as well as socialism. Perhaps the most socialistic endeavor of the US is its K-12 public school system; in fact, US public schools are necessary for democracy to thrive and to create an educated and well-informed populace. However, capitalism and socialism are strange…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to observe the effect of the age of the organization department in Padang State University on performance through human capital, structural capital and relational capital. The sample is all of department in Padang State University, which is 33 departments. The data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using partial least squares (PLS. The results showed that the age of the department is not direct and significant impact on the department performance. While the age departments significantly affect the department's human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Furthermore, the human capital, structural capital and relational capital significantly positive affect the department performance. This research failed to prove the existence of variable human capital, structural capital and relational capital as a mediating variable but serves as an intervening variable. Its means that age of department performance cannot determine performance without increasing the human capital, structural capital and relational capital.
...) estimated DoD FY 99 outlays to be $3.7 billion higher than estimates submitted by DoD, which would have caused DoD spending to exceed FY 99 defense spending targets established in the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA...
Howe, Edward T.
Financing school capital projects in New York State is a responsibility involving both local school districts and the state government. State building aid is provided through an aid ratio and approved expenditure formula. This formula has an equalizing effect among districts by explicitly providing an aid amount inversely proportional to property…
The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue Capital in the Horn of Africa. The nature of the relationship between militias, rogue capital, and the state in the Horn of Africa is largely unknown. New research will map militia presence in the region, and generate knowledge that could be used to develop national ...
Worrell, E.; Angelini, T.; Masanet, E.
In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce
Paranchuk Stepan V.
Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of impact of the fiscal policy on the state of circulating capital in the corporate sector in Ukraine and in other countries. The article underlines conceptual approaches to improvement of the state tax policy with consideration of a necessity of formation of own financial resources for formation of circulating capital by subjects of the corporate sector. It justifies scientific and practical measures on reduction of the tax load on the production capital, that is, on that part of the fixed and circulating capital, which regularly and directly participates in creation of the added value. It offers a list of tax privileges for subjects of the corporate sector that direct profit into accumulation of the own capital base, including in the part of increase of the circulating capital. Realisation of the proposed recommendations should facilitate fast accumulation of financial resources for further formation of the circulating capital in the corporate sector, since this is an indispensable condition of high efficiency of corporate finance and economic activity in general.
Finchum, R. N.
Present capital outlay investments in elementary and secondary school buildings, sites, and equipment in the United States are being increased at the rate of about $3 billion annually. Maintenance and operational services, important aspects of property protection, educational progress, pupil safety, and plant efficiency, are being provided in…
Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara
Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
The nature of the relationship between militias, rogue capital, and the state in the Horn of ... and challenge the legitimacy and accountability of state authorities. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.
AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A Case Study on Human Capital Mismanagement in the United States Air Force By John P...Force does not effectively manage its human capital to develop and retain a technically literate acquisitions workforce. A detailed look at the...Several solutions are suggested to improve the human capital management and increase the quality and relevancy of the acquisitions community at
This article argues that the entitlement tied to post-secession dividends claims by the Dinka and Nuer has (re)produced a generally volatile social space for South Sudan by defining the mode of political settlement of the state, and undermining the generation of social capital for conf lict management in the society.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight...... of the Scandinavian welfare state ‘bumblebee’....
Ferreira Junior, Evaristo Santiago
This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research....... The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...
The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.
The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports
Erkuş-Öztürk, H.; Terhorst, P.
This paper aims to show that (i) there are two micro-models of tourism capitalism in Antalya (Turkey) and (ii) different trajectories of (re)scaling of state-business relations form an integral part of each model of tourism capitalism. The paper bridges two debates in the literature that generally
Ralf J. Leiteritz
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the political dynamics of capital account policy in South Korea. The first part is devoted to the historical evolution of capital account policy from the 1960s to the present day. It highlights the path of substantial financial opening that began in the early 1990s with two distinct waves of capital account liberalization before and after the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998. The second part of the paper aims to detect the political origins of why capital account liberalization has not been complete and sustained. It locates them at the level of domestic informal institutions: first, the ideational legacy of the previous developmental state model – economic nationalism – that was predicated upon substantial barriers to international capital movements. Second, the political power of the export-oriented sector, namely of large conglomerates, that prefer exchange-rate stability and thus restrictions on capital inflows. This paper offers a heuristic argument based on a single case study which needs to be subjected to further empirical testing.
Full Text Available The essay tackles the intertwining of State and capital as powers that dominate modernity, locating on a global scale right from the start. This intertwining intersects inevitably the history of empire, which, rather than just being the precedent of the State, represents a composite form of layered sovereignties and multifaceted juridical spaces. The concept of the State that emerges from the essay moves away from the broadly meant Weberian conception, which is prevailing in contemporary literature. In contrast with the Weberian definition, indeed, the territoriality of the State is unsettled and altered both by the swaying of its borders and by the emergence of new territorial formations inside and across the borders. The global view on the State complicates its relationship with the nation and the idea of the monopoly of the legislative production and legitimate physical strength. The result is a much more fragmented and movable image of the history of modern State.
the Capital Expenditure table are those normally included in "equipment and capital outlay" by the New York State Department of Audit and Control...19 . - - C a a * -~- -- - - e a aa - - -- - C a c z - =----- -- a X- - - - Z.-.- -- -- - - a - - - I . Ch ... .aCa aC... - "-a C " fl C ana~ acca ...a - I m a - * Sa a - - S a -* ma m aaamn n * a -- a a a * a a C~0aaa~ aCCa -----------,a a 0~ an a a - - - - ma a a . - a * - aa a a a S a - a
Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.
This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...
Foreign trade of capital goods in the United States from 1994 to 2016 is specifically examined. A lagging performance of exports vis-à-vis imports in terms of magnitude, growth rate as well as price reductions has led to the current deficit. Domestic industrial output is a determining factor in the extent of foreign trade of capital goods. It exposes very large coefficients in the long term for exports (2.89), as well as for imports (4.34). Concerning the effective exchange rate, coefficients...
Schwienbacher, A.; Hege, U.; Palomino, F.
Abstract: This paper compares the success of venture capital investments in the United States and in Europe by analyzing individual venture-backed companies and the value generated within the stage financing process. We document that US venture capitalists generate significantly more value with
Ferreira Junior, Evaristo Santiago
This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)
Ferreira, Junior, Evaristo Santiago
This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)
Full Text Available Research subject. The subject in this article is theoretical, methodical and applied aspects of state management of banks’ capitalization in Ukraine, a consideration which allows the estimate efficiency of Ukrainian banks refinancing and recapitalization, as well as to enunciate practical recommendations concerning an increase of their capitalization level. The purpose is an analysis of government support measures for the domestic bank system; furthermore the search for additional sources of financing bank funds and the development of capitalization level increase in conditions of social and economic transformations. Methodology. In the research there are used general scientific methods of learning economic facts and the use of processes in their steady development and correlation: logic analysis, methods of scientific abstraction, induction, deduction, optimization, grouping and comparison, as well as graphic and tabular methods. Results. The questions of government control in the bank system in the period of the world financial crisis is researched on international level by the Financial Stability Council, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, specialists of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. As a result of relative novelty of these problems only a small number of researches is devoted to the use of government bank support instruments and therefore further development of this topic has practical value for improving the renewal mechanisms of financial stability and reliability of the bank system in Ukraine. After the analysis of the government control measures of the domestic bank capitalization, since 2009, and the effectiveness of budget resources segregation on refinancing and recapitalization of bank institutions in Ukraine (including crisis period, it was found out that these mechanisms, unfortunately, did not change much the situation on the bank market. Taking into account the unstable political situation in Ukraine and
I analyze the determinants of the stated capital cost of IPPs' power projects which significantly influences their price of power. I show that IPPs face a strong incentive to overstate their capital cost and argue that effective competition or regulatory scrutiny will limit the extent of the same. I analyze the stated capital costs of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) IPP projects in eight developing countries which became operational during 1990-2006 and find that the stated capital cost of projects selected without competitive bidding is 44-56% higher than those selected with competitive bidding, even after controlling for the effect of cost differences among projects. The extent to which the stated capital costs of projects selected without competitive bidding are higher compared those selected with competitive bidding, is a lower bound on the extent to which they are overstated. My results indicate the drawbacks associated with a policy of promoting private sector participation without an adequate focus on improving competition or regulation. (author)
Full Text Available El artículo hace un breve análisis de los flujos de capital hacia América Latina durante el último lustro, atraídos por economías menos intervenidas por el Estado, más abiertas al comercio internacional, más estables y equilibradas en sus variables macroeconómicas fundamentales. Seguidamente se examina la economía colombiana en los aspectos de crecimiento, inflación, agregados externos, monetarios y fiscales para concluir la apreciación del peso causada por la repatriación de capitales y las expectativas sobre una nueva bonanza petrolera hacen más difícil el desarrollo de la producción de bienes transables en el país.This paper analyses briefly capital inflows in Latin America duringthe last five years which were attracted by less state intervention,more openness to international trade and more stable economies in their macro variables.Next, the paper examines the Colombian economy in themes such asgrowth, inflation, external and fiscal balances, to conclude that the appreciation of the peso, caused by the capital inflow and the expectations of a new oil boom, makes it more difficult to developthe development of tradable within the country.
Congressional Budget Office, 2013
In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…
du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn
This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state expend...
Full Text Available The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of institutional changes which have to a great extent, apart from the war of course, influenced the evolution of capitalism. The paper finds that the transition generated a number of costs, mainly generated by the state (fall in employment, manufacturing and social capital. The claim that the manufacturing industry has inherited low competitiveness neglects the necessary discussion on the role of the state in the formation of industrial policy and market actions. It is also an ex post argument for the claim that restructuring should have been implemented prior to privatisation as this would reduce negative impacts. Institutional changes led to a drastic reduction of the role of the manufacturing sector in the economy. The main finding in this paper is that the change in the interaction between the financial and the real sectors of the economy, the educational system and industrial relations system exposed the vulnerability of the current institutional environment. Despite similarities, institutional advantages of political capitalism are lost in the new type of Croatian capitalism, due to the complexity of the double transition process and the institutional or socio-economic particularities.
Lacheta, A; Stangiewicz, T
The use of dynamic programming of monthly extraction and storage of coal at mines was examined in order to reduce the annual outlays for these operations. In addition, realization of the model simultaneously satisfies the orders of the consumers, despite the seasonal fluctuations in the demand of the customers and the coal shipment capabilities of the mining enterprise.
... the Attorney General; Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems; Removal of Final Rule... only if the Attorney General has certified ``that [the] State has established a mechanism for providing... State to qualify for the special habeas procedures, the Attorney General must determine that ``the State...
Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITALISM AND OF STATE IN PORTUGAL: PASSAGE OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GROUPS DOMINATED BY THE PORTUGUESE CAPITAL FOR GROUPS DOMINATED BY MULTINATIONAL CAPITAL, AND OF A PROTECTOR STATE FOR A SUBSERVIENT STATE
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the capitalism characteristics in the Portuguese social formation, considering economic groups in Portugal before and after of April 25. Detailing the characteristics of these economic groups, the author concludes that the principal shareholders of most economic and financial groups operating in Portugal, are transnational groups, some companies belonging to foreign States and other large economic and financial groups operating on a global scale. Accordingly, the State role, given the fragility towards these groups, is of simple server and executor of policies dictated by these groups directly or, indirectly by international organizations that represent and defend their interests, like the IMF, the Commission European, the World Bank, even the OECD, etc. Argues that given the growing globalization and increased threats of all kinds, one needs in Portugal is a strong State that defend the national sovereignty, able of promote the growth and sustained development of the country, and to defend the Portuguese of threats and constant attacks to a life with a minimum of human dignity.
Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.
... Office of the Attorney General; Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems; Removal of Final Rule AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of proposed... the Attorney General has certified ``that [the] State has established a mechanism for providing...
Most ecological economists believe that the transition to a steady-state economy is necessary to ensure ecological sustainability and to maximize a nation's economic welfare. While some observers agree with the necessity of the steady-state economy, they are nonetheless critical of the suggestion made by ecological economists-in particular, Herman Daly-that a steady-state economy is compatible with a capitalist system. First, they believe that steady-state capitalism is based on the untenable assumption that growth is an optional rather than in-built element of capitalism. Second, they argue that capitalist notions of efficient resource allocation are too restrictive to facilitate the transition to an "ecological" or steady-state economy. I believe these observers are outright wrong with their first criticism and, because they misunderstand Daly's vision of a steady-state economy, are misplaced with their second criticism. The nature of a capitalist system depends upon the institutional framework that supports and shapes it. Hence, a capitalist system can exist in a wide variety of forms. Unfortunately, many observers fail to recognize that the current "growth imperative" is the result of capitalist systems everywhere being institutionally designed to grow. They need not be designed this way to survive and thrive. Indeed, because continued growth is both existentially undesirable and ecologically unsustainable, redesigning capitalist systems through the introduction of Daly-like institutions would prove to be capitalism's savior. What's more, it would constitute humankind's best hope of achieving sustainable development. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
Samuel Kortum; Josh Lerner
While policymakers often assume venture capital has a profound impact on innovation, that premise has not been evaluated systematically. We address this omission by examining the influence of venture capital on patented inventions in the United States across twenty industries over three decades. We address concerns about causality in several ways, including exploiting a 1979 policy shift that spurred venture capital fundraising. We find that the amount of venture capital activity in an indust...
Ransome, Yusuf; Thurber, Katherine A; Swen, Melody; Crawford, Natalie D; German, Danielle; Dean, Lorraine T
Social capital is a well-established predictor of several behavioral health outcomes. However, we know less about the relationship with prevention, transmission, and treatment of HIV/AIDS outcomes in the United States (US). In 2017, we conducted a scoping review of empirical studies investigating the relationships between social capital and HIV/AIDS in the US by searching PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts with no restriction on publication date, for articles in English language. Sample search terms included: HIV infections OR HIV OR AIDS OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR human immunodeficiency virus AND social capital OR social control, informal OR social participation OR social cohesion OR generalized trust OR social trust OR collective efficacy OR community mob* OR civic participation. We identified 1581 unique manuscripts and reviewed 13 based on eligibility criteria. The earliest eligible study was published in 2003. More than half (n=7/13) focused on HIV or AIDS diagnosis, then prescribing ART and/or adherence (n=5/13), then linkage and or engagement in HIV care (n=4/13). Fifty eight percent (58%) documented a protective association between at least one social capital measure and an HIV/AIDS outcome. Seven studies used validated social capital scales, however there was substantial variation in conceptual/operational definitions and measures used. Most studies were based on samples from the Northeast. Three studies directly focused on or stratified analyses among subgroups or key populations. Studies were cross-sectional, so causal inference is unknown. Our review suggests that social capital may be an important determinant of HIV/AIDS prevention, transmission, and treatment outcomes. We recommend future research assess these associations using qualitative and mixed-methods approaches, longitudinally, examine differences across subgroups and geographic region, include a wider range of social capital constructs, and
Vieira, Mauro Luis; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Macarini, Samira Mafioletti; Martins, Gabriela Dal Forno; Lordelo, Eulina da Rocha; Tokumaru, Rosana Suemi; Oliva, Angela Donate
This study aimed to investigate characteristics of Brazilian mothers' beliefs system, in the dimensions of autonomy and interdependence. A group of 600 women, half from state capitals and half from small towns, participated in the study. They were individually interviewed with Scales of Allocentrism, Beliefs about Parental Practices and Socialization Goals. Paired and Independent samples t tests and Multivariate GLM were performed. The results indicate that although mothers from both contexts value autonomy, mothers inhabiting small towns considered the relational dimension as the most important; whereas mothers inhabiting capitals valued equally both dimensions, either in their beliefs about practices or in the socialization goals for their children. Mothers from small towns have a higher mean score for allocentrism than mothers living in capitals. Thus, place of residence proved to be a relevant variable in the modulation of maternal beliefs. Educational level was not a significant factor in the variables considered and with this group of mothers. The study results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the understanding of the complex relationship between dimensions of autonomy and interdependence in mothers' beliefs system.
Li, Shijian; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge
Shijian Li1, Pilar Horner2, Jorge Delva31School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Social Work, Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Abstract: This paper presents the results of analyses conducted to examine if social capital indicators were associated with current cigarette smoking and with quitting smoking among a national representative sample of La...
There has been a lacuna in previous studies of medicine and health care of concepts or structures relating changes in health care with their contextualizing social structures. That is, there is a need to more adequately account for health care and social structure in terms of dynamic rather than static concepts. This article reports the application of a general schema outlining the transformation of capitalism through the phases of entrepreneurial, monopoly, and global capitalism, first presented by Ross and Trachte, to help understand both the changing role of medicine in Canada and the historical trajectory of the development of health insurance. These related events are shown to be partly reflective of the transformed class dynamic involved in a changing capitalist mode of production. The recent history of challenges to medicare in Canada as well as evidence of the declining power of medicine are both related directly and indirectly to the increased power of business and the decline in the relative autonomy of the state accompanying globalization. The application of the phases of capitalism sequence does roughly fit the Canadian instance although some modifications will be required to account for the specifics of the Canadian case. The schema also helps resolve two previously competing class arguments about the rise of health insurance in Canada.
Erick da Silva Santos
Full Text Available This article introduces the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA associated with factor analysis to evaluate the relative efficiency of tourism demand of 18 Brazilian capital cities within a three-year period. Such assessment includes data on factors that affect tourism demand as cities’ budgets allocated on health, transportation, security, infrastructure, tourism as well as the result of this investment on number of tourist arrivals and creation of employments in each destination. The results show the capitals that reached 100% efficiency and also the only three capitals that touched the maximum efficiency over the three years. Findings also revealed that factor analysis associated with DEA offers a potential tool for managers to provide themselves with a set of practical indicators that better assist in decision-making regarding investment on sectors that positively interfere the demand in tourism locations.
... degrees in an area of national need; (ii) Is described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code..., recruitment, capital outlay, debt service, indirect costs, or any other costs not included in the...
Kevin A. Yelvington
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and
Nov 16, 2009 ... drops of bromophenol blue (BPB) was added to the prepared buffer solution and stored ..... ever these techniques need enough capital outlay which is not available for ... In vitro conservation of horticultural species. Acta. Hort.
problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....
Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis
This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.
Lange, Mark D.
The economic impact of St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, on the local economy was studied. Using models developed by the American Council on Education, estimates were made of the dollar outlays by the local economic sectors that are associated with or influenced by the university. The focus is the measurable impacts, in dollar terms, of the…
Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term Ã¦social common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.
Green capitalism? Global climate change, global competition between states, and the prevention of the energy turnaround; Gruener Kapitalismus? Klimawandel, globale Staatenkonkurrenz und die Verhinderung der Energiewende
Transnational groups call for green capitalism as well as the governments of leading states. In spite of this, international climate conferences are failing, and CO2 emissions are ever-increasing. A climate catastrophe that will threaten the lives of millions is getting increasingly probable. The book states that green capitalism will be impossible unless the power of fossil industries can be broken. These industries are among the strongest and best-organized capital groups and have decisive relevance for the competition strategies of the most powerful states of the world. (orig./RHM)
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....
Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.
Energy resources and demands in the ASEAN countries are discussed in economic terms. Capital outlays and the use of scarce resources for generating energy within ASEAN are presented. Long-term ASEAN energy development and the constraints on it are examined.
Frazier, H C
There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.
Chidi, Nnebedum; Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale
Unsatisfactory performance of secondary school students in external examinations in Oyo State seems to suggest lapses in principals' application of human capital development practices especially in the areas of training and mentoring of teachers to enhance instructional delivery. This unpleasant state of affair necessitated the researchers to…
Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E
In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital.
A sharp cut in spending on pipelines will hold US petroleum industry budgets at about 1993 levels for domestic projects this year. Excluding pipeline outlays, industry spending for capital and exploration items will advance. Oil and Gas Journal's annual budget survey shows US companies plan to spend $31.3 billion on US projects in 1994, down only 0.7% from 1993. Spending last year was down by the same percentage from 1992's $31.7 billion. Total outlays, excluding pipelines, well be $28.9 billion, up 5.8% from 1993. In 1993 spending excluding pipelines was $27.3 billion, down 1.2% from 1992. Industry's total spending hit a high of $83 billion in 1981. It then fell to the recent low of $25.2 billion in 1987. Adjusted for inflation, spending in 1994 will be the lowest since 1987. A sharp drop in drilling lowered upstream outlays during the past several years. At the same time, spending for upgrades, renovation, environmental compliance, marketing, and transportation bolstered downstream budgets. E and P spending in 1994 will increase 6.2% from the 1993 level, moving up to $14.8 billion. Refining capital spending will inch up 0.9% to $5.4 billion for 1994
Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.
In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…
Muir, Albert E.
Economic activity generated by federally-supported research and development in New York State is estimated at 3.7 times the level of original federal spending, generating enough national and state tax revenues to offset the original federal outlay of taxpayers' money. Results support continued aid to higher education during fiscal crises. (MSE)
McLaren, M. Bruce
Describes the management of a learning resource center (LRC) budget. Topics discussed include controlling a budget, keeping records, managing grants, managing petty cash, responding to unexpected expenses, managing capital outlay dollars, managing insurance, balancing budgets, budget stretching strategies, and fund raising. (JLB)
Silva, Leilane Bagno Eleutério da; Silva, Stael Silvana Bagno Eleutério da; Marcílio, Amanda Garcia; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo
Inadequate life habits are known to favor hypertension, and Adventists recommend healthy life habits. To assess the prevalence of hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists from the inner São Paulo state and São Paulo state capital. This study assessed 264 Adventists (mean age, 41.17 ± 15.27 years; women, 59.8%) with a high religiosity level assessed by use of the Duke University Religion Index. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. The total prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% (27.4% in the inner state and 15% in the capital). The Adventists from the capital differed from those of inner state as follows (p < 0.05), respectively: higher education (62% vs 36.6%); employed by a third party (44%) vs self-employed (40.9%); family income (8.39 ± 6.20 vs 4.59 ± 4.75 minimum wages); individual income (4.54 ± 5.34 vs 6.35 ± 48; couple responsible for family income (35% vs 39.6%); vegetarianism (11% vs 3%); blood pressure (115.38 ± 16.52/68.74 ± 8.94 vs 123.66 ± 19.62/74.88 ± 11.85 mmHg); white ethnicity (65% vs 81.1%); married (53% vs 68.9%); lower tangible support in the social aspect (15.7 ± 5.41 vs 16.9 ± 4.32); and recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (65% vs 48.8%). On multivariate analysis, hypertension associated with the following: 1) vegetarianism (OR 0.051; 95% CI: 0.004-0.681); 2) educational level (OR 5.317; 95% CI: 1.674-16.893); 3) recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (OR 2.725; 95% CI: 1.275-5.821); 4) being retired (OR 8.846; 95% CI: 1.406-55.668); and 5) being responsible for family income (OR 0.422; 95% CI: 0.189-0.942). The prevalence of hypertension among Adventists was lower as compared with that reported in Brazilian studies, and it was lower in the São Paulo state capital as compared with that in the inner São Paulo state, possibly because of the better socioeconomic conditions and life habits of the former.
Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.
... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General Membership and Branching Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this...
Buss, Adrian; Dumas, Bernard J
In some situations, investment capital seems to move slowly towards profitable trades. We develop a model of a financial market in which capital moves slowly simply because there is a proportional cost to moving capital. We incorporate trading fees in an infinite-horizon dynamic general-equilibrium model in which investors optimally and endogenously decide when and how much to trade. We determine the steady-state equilibrium no-trade zone, study the dynamics of equilibrium trades and prices a...
Ohdanskiy K. M.
Full Text Available The real state of the capital assets’ disposal through the national economy sectors is determined in comparison with the result of capital assets use in the country’s economic complex in general in the time period of 1990-2012. It has been proved that the apparent total results regarding efficiency achieved in capital assets use through the sectors of economy do not demonstrate their real effect on the capital productivity ratio of the national economy in the whole. Analysis of the effect of the labor instruments concentrated in the national economy sectors on the national capital productivity ratio has been made. The sectors with their stuff which really determine the level of capital assets use in the country have been identified. Existence and development of the institute of economic initiatives have been proved. The fact is that the economic initiatives mentioned above concentrate their efforts on the improvement of capital assets use and the need to attract attention of the subjects of economic activities to the social development concept.
Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders
be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative......The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...
Utah State Library, Salt Lake City.
Designed to answer basic questions and to assist the Utah public library trustee in the performance of his duties, this handbook's brief, informative sections cover efficiency guidelines, policies and procedures, standards, money, personnel services, travel costs, operations, capital outlay, trustee checklist, job description for librarian,…
Holmes, C. Thomas; Sielke, Catherine C.
Fully 40 percent ($5 billion) of Georgia's FY 2000 general funds budget is for K-12 education. There is increased funding for a homestead exemption, expansion of the HOPE (higher education) Scholarship Program, capital outlay projects, remedial assistance programs, and instruction of limited-English speaking students. (MLH)
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been regarded as one of the most important information technology developments in the past decades. While ERP systems provide the potential to bring substantial benefits, their implementations are characterized with large capital outlay, long duration, and high risks of failure including…
Full Text Available The tax policies which states follow with regard to developing technology and capital investments with raising mobility due to globalism are need to be discussed in its legal basis. The principle of tax neutrality has the aim of being legal foundation for these policies. According to this, the neutrality principle in taxation of international capital investments is provided with two measures, namely; not effecting the investment decision and not discriminate between investments. In this paper, initially focused on the conceptual framework and the foundations of the tax neutrality principle and later capital export neutrality and capital import neutrality are considered and explained with regard to international capital movements. Moreover, conformity and diversion to the principle of the current situation and regulations in OECD, EU and Turkey are examined.
McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth
State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…
Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.
LUIZ CARLOS BRESSER-PEREIRA
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper argues that the state and the market are the main institutions regulating capitalism, and, correspondingly, that the form of the economic and political coordination of capitalism will be either developmental or liberal. It defines the developmental state, relates it to the formation of a developmental class coalition, and notes that capitalism was born developmental in its mercantilist phase, turned liberal in the nineteenth century, and, after 1929, became once again developmental, but, now, democratic and progressive. All industrial and capitalist revolutions took place within the framework of developmentalism, whereby the state coordinates the non-competitive sector of the economy and the five macroeconomic prices (which the market is unable to make “right”, while the market coordinates the competitive sector. In the 1970s, a crisis opened the way for a short-lived and reactionary form of capitalism, neoliberalism or rentier-financier capitalism. Since the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, the neoliberal hegemony has come to an end, and we are now experiencing a period of transition.
Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary
As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive…
Hunt, Deirdre; And Others
The food and beverage industry is of overwhelming strategic importance to the Irish economy. It is also one of the fastest changing sectors. Recent trends in this largely indigenous industry in recent years include the following: globalization, large and accelerating capital outlay, company consolidation, added value product, enhanced quality…
Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
G. Roger Knight
Full Text Available Any attempt to descry the existence of a significant colonial bourgeoisie in Java during the middle decades of the nineteenth century might appear futile. An old, and apparently still lingering, orthodoxy postulates a colonial state uniquely in thrall to a powerful bureaucracy: one that exercised so extensive a control over resources as to largely preclude bourgeois capital formation. On this reading, colonial proprietorship, notably in sugar, was seignorial in nature rather than bourgeois.
Ness, Erik C.; Tandberg, David A.
Our fixed-effects panel data analysis of state spending on higher education fills a near void of studies examining capital expenditures on higher education. In our study, we found that political characteristics (e.g., interest group activity, organizational structure, and formal powers) largely account for differences between general fund and…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.7 Investment of capital and assets. The cash capital and other funds of... periodically issue instructions for the guidance of companies with respect to investments and other matters...
Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain; Shah, Tari shah; Ahmed, Eatzaz
This study provides the compatibility of top-down approach of the collectivist society with the algebraic representation of social capital matrix , which establishes algebraic based model having capability of interpreting the state intervention in building social capital. The study also suggests a policy framework for the developing economic strategies and effective planing at government level regarding social capital development in perspective of top-down approach.
Damask, James; Lawson, Robert
This report sets up a structure for examining the real costs of public education. It defines three approaches of gathering and reporting cost information: narrow (salaries and current expenditures, excluding capital outlays); generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) (costs are recorded during the period in which they occur); and broad (all…
D. Munk, Martin
This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....
Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka
Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…
This dissertation explores the relationships among founding capital cities, defining state territories, and creating and propagating national identities. In the modern period and deep into history, nascent nations struggling to define themselves and unify diverse states have founded capital cities to embody a national ethos, reveal a shared history, direct the relationship among subjects and government, and differentiate a society from its international peers. In the Late Bronze Age (LBA) (15...
Guldager, Rikke; Poulsen, Ingrid; Egerod, Ingrid
resources in decision-making in a stroke unit. In particular, it focuses on the challenges in optimising the rehabilitation process faced by patients and relatives, and the strategies they use. Data were generated using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative content analysis...... was applied to investigate the patients’ and relatives’ experiences of decision-making. We present a field-specific form of capital: An individual or a family’s resources that are valued in the field of rehabilitation as physical, behavioural and cognitively embedded attitudes and practices. Rehabilitation...... rehabilitation and may provide patients with an advantage, to ensure the best rehabilitation. The possession of Rehabilitation capital (high or low) contributes explanations for unequal practices and treatments at a micro-level in healthcare institutions....
Formal modelling techniques for analyzing the capital requirements of energy industries have been performed at DOE. A survey has been undertaken of a number of models which forecast energy-sector capital requirements or which detail the interactions of the energy sector and the economy. Models are identified which can be useful as prototypes for some portion of DOE's modelling needs. The models are examined to determine any useful data bases which could serve as inputs to an original DOE model. A selected group of models are examined which can comply with the stated capabilities. The data sources being used by these models are covered and a catalog of the relevant data bases is provided. The models covered are: capital markets and capital availability models (Fossil 1, Bankers Trust Co., DRI Macro Model); models of physical capital requirements (Bechtel Supply Planning Model, ICF Oil and Gas Model and Coal Model, Stanford Research Institute National Energy Model); macroeconomic forecasting models with input-output analysis capabilities (Wharton Annual Long-Term Forecasting Model, Brookhaven/University of Illinois Model, Hudson-Jorgenson/Brookhaven Model); utility models (MIT Regional Electricity Model-Baughman Joskow, Teknekron Electric Utility Simulation Model); and others (DRI Energy Model, DRI/Zimmerman Coal Model, and Oak Ridge Residential Energy Use Model).
Heider, Florian; Gropp, Reint
This paper documents that standard cross-sectional determinants of firm leverage also apply to the capital structure of large banks in the United States and Europe. We find a remarkable consistency in sign, significance and economic magnitude. Like non-financial firms, banks appear to have stable capital structures at levels that are specific to each individual bank. The results suggest that capital requirements may only be of second-order importance for banks’ capital structures and confirm ...
Holtgrave, D; Crosby, R
Objective: This study examined the state level association between social capital, poverty, income inequality, and four infectious diseases that have important public health implications given their long term sequelae: gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS.
Halil D. Kaya; Julia S. Kwok; Elizabeth C. Rabe
The Great Recession of 2008-2009 hurt almost all of the companies’ stock values in the United States. Interestingly, for Starbucks, the deterioration started a few years before the recession. From 2005 to 2007, the company’s stock price declined by approximately 40%. This case encourages students to examine the company’s return on capital, compare it to its cost of capital, and then relate this to the decline in the company’s stock price. First, they will establish a single formula for return...
Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek
This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…
Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.
Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and…
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
... Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital..., 2013, a document adopting a final rule that revises its risk-based and leverage capital requirements... risk-based and leverage capital requirements for banking organizations. An allowance for additional...
Reis, Priscilleyne Ouverney; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Souza, Líbia Roberta de Oliveira; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; de Almeida, Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Penna, Gerson Oliveira
In order to estimate the prevalence of influenza like illness (ILI) in adults from all state capitals and geographic regions in Brazil, a periodical monitoring of ILI cases by the national telephone survey (VIGITEL) was carried out in 2010. A cross-sectional study with 47,876 telephone interviews in the state capitals and Federal District, a probabilistic sample of adult population (>18 years-old) with landline telephone. Questions concerning the results of ILI cases and pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009, from January 10 to November 30, were analyzed. The proportion of cases stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and Brazilian geographic region was weighted with data from the National Survey with Household Sampling (PNAD) 2008. The prevalence of ILI cases in the last 30 days before interview was 31.2% (95%CI 30.2-32.2%) for all state capitals and the Federal District. This prevalence was higher among women, young adults (18 to 29 years-old) and individuals with 9 to 11 years of schooling. According to the geographic region analysis, Northern Brazil presented the highest prevalence of ILI cases. A tendency to increase with further decrease was observed among the geographic regions, except the Northeast. Need for health care assistance was reported by 26.8% (95%CI 25.1-28.5) from ILI cases. Among ILI cases that sought health care assistance, 2.6% (95%CI 1.8-3.4) reported pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 medical suspicion. The results of this survey supported influenza surveillance as it provided timeliness and useful surveillance information, which were not captured by the traditional surveillance system, as the occurrence of ILI and need of health care assistance.
Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.
Guided by both Coleman and Bourdieu's theories on social capital, I interviewed Chinese immigrant parents to understand their experiences in weaving social connections with the school and teachers to benefit their children's education. This study confirms Coleman's argument that human capital in parents will not transfer to the children…
Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Litun, D. S.; Sankin, D. A.; Dmitryukova, I. G.
The present state and development of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology around the world are briefly reviewed. Questions of increasing the capacity of single boiler units and raising the parameters of steam are discussed. CFB boilers for 225- and 330-MW power units are described and their parameters are estimated as applied to the conditions of firing different Russian fuels. Indicators characterizing CFB boilers and pulverized-coal boilers are given. Capital outlays and operational costs for new coal-fired units are compared, and the results from this comparison are used to show the field of the most promising use of the CFB technology during technical refitting of Russian thermal power stations.
Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio
In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. PMID:24495808
Chuzhinov, V.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Nikolaev, B.I.; Sulaberidze, G.A.
This work deals with questions of the optimization of mass diffusion elements (columns or pumps) in cascades. Since the establishment and operation of real diffusion plants involves substantial outlays of material resources and energy, cascade optimization should be conducted in accordance with the criterion of the possibility of realizing further economies on the method and diffusion process. One of these indicators is the cost of the end product. Formulas are given for calculating the basic expenditures required for the production of an isotope in a cascade, and an analytical formula is obtained for assessing the cost of an enriched isotope mixture. Calculations are made of the influence of the steam flow rate on the cost of 99% 13 CH 4 and its constitutents, taking into account capital and power outlay on the construction and operation of the installation. It is demonstrated that as the result of a discrepancy between optimum power and capital outlays, the steam flow rate corresponding to the minimum cost is less than that corresponding to the maximum fractionating capacity of the column. In each specific case, optimization parameters should be selected having regard to the special features of the fractionating method and the fractionating apparatus. The results may be used in calculations of mass-diffusion fractionating installations, and also in comparisons of the effectiveness of the various methods used in the separation of these and other isotopes. (author)
Merrimack Education Center, Chelmsford, MA.
The verified successful business practices described in this booklet were being used by Massachusetts schools in the late 1970s. The practices have resulted in cost savings, are generally easy to replicate, and usually do not require major capital outlay. The practices listed are largely conservation practices or relate to food service management,…
Arkansas State Commission on Coordination of Higher Educational Finance, Little Rock.
CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS IN ARKANSAS INCLUDE (1) A PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF AT LEAST 300 FULL TIME EQUIVALENT STUDENTS IN THE THIRD YEAR OF OPERATION, (2) ASSESSED VALUATION ADEQUATE TO PROVIDE FROM LOCAL PROPERTY TAXES ONE-THIRD OF THE ANNUAL OPERATING COST AND THE TOTAL DEBT SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY,…
Yurij L. Katchanov
measuring and assessing the accumulated recognition and the specific scientific power. The concept of scientific capital developed by Bourdieu is used in international social science research to explain a set of scholarly properties and practices. Mathematical modeling is applied as a lens through which the scientific capital is addressed. The principal contribution of this paper is an axiomatic characterization of scientific capital in terms of natural axioms. The application of the axiomatic method to scientific capital reveals novel insights into problem still not covered by mathematical modeling. Proposed model embraces the interrelations between separate sociological variables, providing a unified sociological view of science. Suggested microvariational principle is based upon postulate, which affirms that (under suitable conditions the observed state of the agent in scientific field maximizes scientific capital. Its value can be roughly imagined as a volume of social differences. According to the considered macrovariational principle, the actual state of scientific field makes so-called energy functional (which is associated with the distribution of scientific capital minimal.
Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio
In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...
HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...
Runkle, Q.; Haines, T.; Piper, K.; Leach, S.
To assess and evaluate the impact of the Green Capital: Student Capital project, the partnership (the University of the West of England, the University of Bristol, the Students’ Union at UWE, and Bristol Students’ Union) worked with NUS to train a team of students from both universities to lead an evaluation process. There were two key aims for the evaluation: \\ud \\ud • To verify the quantitative outputs of the Green Capital: Student Capital project; \\ud • And to make a qualitative assessment...
Full Text Available Construction projects do not require a large capital outlay but a large working capital to start up the project. Unfortunately, for small contractors there are very limited options available from the banks or other lending institutions to cover this large working capital requirement in the absence of sufficient collateral. The “Project Finance” method presented in this paper is recommended as the most effective method for small contractors in the United States. The problems of small and start up contractors in funding their projects have been little addressed in the literature. The current financing practices were observed through both the literature review and interviews with contractors and bankers in the western Michigan area and subsequently a system has been proposed which could help a small start-up company seeking higher growth. The growth rates that can be achieved using the project finance system in contrast to the traditional “line of credit” arrangements as illustrated in this paper show that the project finance model is beneficial.
This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....
Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang
Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...
... capitalized Banks. 1229.5 Section 1229.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.5 Capital... classification of adequately capitalized. A Bank may not make a capital distribution if such distribution would...
..., Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and...
South Korea%u2019s experience is unparalleled in its combination of sustained prosperity, capital controls, and financial crisis. Over several decades, South Korea experienced rapid sustained growth in the presence of capital controls. These controls and the de-linking of domestic and international financial markets were an essential component of the country's state-led development strategy. As the country developed, opportunities for easy technological catch-up eroded, requiring more sophist...
Denise L. Anthony
Full Text Available This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods – the Internet.
Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.
Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.
Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane
The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.
Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard
marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....
Full Text Available Venture capital (VC is an important fund source for small and medium enterprises (SMEs and start up, particularly to deliver its main product of equity participation. Therefore, capital structure and factors that affect it are very crucial. This study aims to analyze the capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia using econometric model of panel data regression. This study utilizes secondary data of six years period (2009-2014 monthly financial statements of 27 samples out of 58 VC firms to form 1,944 observations. The study reveals that capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia is dominated by debt/loan rather than capital with DER on average is 136.95%. In addition, the research confirms that VC firms’ capital structure is affected simultaneously by financial aspects which are asset size, profitability, liquidity, asset/investment quality, and earning asset structure. The attentions to financial aspects that affect the VC firms’ capital structure as well as other initiatives related to capital increases are necessary so that the VC firms could carry out its role effectively.
Tabor Griswold, Mary; Nichols, Mark W.
This paper empirically analyzes the impact that the spread of casino gambling has on social capital in communities throughout the United States. Social capital is a networking process that translates into an individual's effectiveness in the community and workplace, and binds communities together. Several recent studies have also demonstrated a…
Fernando Batista Fontana
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.
Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using
Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...
Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…
Cohen, J; Holahan, J
One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs.
Lorz, Jens Oliver
This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...
Brewster, Amanda L; Lee, Suhna; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Hospital readmissions remain frequent, and are partly attributable to patients' social needs. The authors sought to examine whether local community levels of social capital are associated with hospital readmission rates. Social capital refers to the connections among members of a society that foster norms of reciprocity and trust, which may influence the availability of support for postdischarge recovery after hospitalization. Associations between hospital-wide, risk-stratified readmission rates for hospitals in the United States (n = 4298) and levels of social capital in the hospitals' service areas were examined. Social capital was measured by an index of participation in associational activities and civic affairs. A multivariate linear regression model was used to adjust for hospital and community factors such as hospital financial performance, race, income, and availability of heath care services. Results showed that higher social capital was significantly associated with lower readmission rates (P social capital in its region, but in areas of low social capital, it may be possible for public or philanthropic sectors to buttress the types of institutions that address nonmedical causes of readmission.
Mariano Seikitsi Futema
Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in
Hawley, Suzanne R; St Romain, Theresa; Rempel, Scott L; Orr, Shirley A; Molgaard, Craig A
Social capital, or a sense of partnership leading to shared goals, provides a means for addressing today's public health workforce challenges. This concept is particularly important in underserved rural areas, though efforts to intentionally generate social capital have been limited. Within the rural state of Kansas, the Kansas Public Health Leadership Institute (KPHLI) has implemented a social capital pre/post assessment to quantify the impact of KPHLI training on social capital within the state's decentralized public health system. This paper discusses 38 assessment items related to bonding, bridging and linking social capital. The assessment was completed pre and post training by 130 of 148 scholars (87.8%) in six KPHLI training cycles. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon paired t-tests in SPSS. Thirty-five of 38 items demonstrated statistically significant increases at post-test, across all 10 sub-domains. Leadership training by the KPHLI fosters quantifiable increases in characteristics of social capital, which are essential for public health systems to cope with increased workforce demands and prepare for accreditation. This study represents a key first step in examining the deliberate generation of social capital within a decentralized rural environment.
Full Text Available The presence of state also has an indirect and direct effect on the developement of the Hungarian venture capital market. Indirect effect is realized through the law legislation and the direct one by the operate of the different venture capital firms and funds which invest public financial sources. The main purpose of the direct intervention is to finance the under-capitalized small and medium-sized start-up companies with equity. The paper examines the Hungarian venture capital market from the aspect of state intervention. It starts with an European overview which summarizes the common and different attributes of state’s role in the venture capital market between several European countries. The paper focuses on the Hungarian situation, it describes concisely the effect and efficiency of the governmental instructions which were taken for the legislation of the venture capital market. Using the results of a previous research the paper also examines the characteristics of the direct instructions. The paper decribes briefly the main details of the publicprivate initiative called JEREMIE-program, which started on the Hungarian venture capital market in the recent past.
There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...
Thomas I. Palley
Full Text Available This paper reexamines the issue of international financial capital mobility, which is today's economic orthodoxy. Discussion is often framed in terms of the impossible trinity. That framing distorts discussion by representing capital mobility as having equal significance with sovereign monetary policy and control over exchange rates. It also distorts discussion by ignoring possibilities for coordinated monetary policy and exchange rates, and for managed capital flows. The case for capital mobility rests on neo-classical economic efficiency arguments and neo-liberal political arguments. The case against capital mobility is based on Keynesian macroeconomic inefficiency arguments, neo-Walrasian market failure arguments, and neo-Marxian arguments regarding distortion of the social structure of accumulation. Close examination shows the case for capital mobility to be extremely flimsy, pointing to the ideological dimension behind today's policy orthodoxy.
There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...
Fisher, William P
Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.
Karmazin, V A
Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.
The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...
Porteous, Bruce; Tapadar, Pradip
The impact that capital structure and capital asset allocation have on financial services firm economic capital and risk adjusted performance is considered. A stochastic modelling approach is used in conjunction with banking and insurance examples. It is demonstrated that gearing up Tier 1 capital with Tier 2 capital can be in the interests of bank Tier 1 capital providers, but may not always be so for insurance Tier 1 capital providers. It is also shown that, by allocating a bank or insuranc...
Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Adventistas do Sétimo Dia da capital e do interior paulista Prevalence of arterial hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists of the São Paulo state capital and inner area
Leilane Bagno Eleutério da Silva
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Sabe-se que hábitos de vida inadequados favorecem a hipertensão, e os adventistas preconizam hábitos saudáveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da hipertensão nos adventistas do sétimo dia na capital e no interior paulistas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 264 adventistas (41,17 ± 15,27 anos, 59,8% mulheres, com alto nível de religiosidade avaliada pela escala Duke-DUREL. A medida da pressão arterial foi realizada com aparelho automático validado. Nível de significância adotado foi p BACKGROUND: Inadequate life habits are known to favor hypertension, and Adventists recommend healthy life habits. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists from the inner São Paulo state and São Paulo state capital. METHODS: This study assessed 264 Adventists (mean age, 41.17 ± 15.27 years; women, 59.8% with a high religiosity level assessed by use of the Duke University Religion Index. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The total prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% (27.4% in the inner state and 15% in the capital. The Adventists from the capital differed from those of inner state as follows (p < 0.05, respectively: higher education (62% vs 36.6%; employed by a third party (44% vs self-employed (40.9%; family income (8.39 ± 6.20 vs 4.59 ± 4.75 minimum wages; individual income (4.54 ± 5.34 vs 6.35 ± 48; couple responsible for family income (35% vs 39.6%; vegetarianism (11% vs 3%; blood pressure (115.38 ± 16.52/68.74 ± 8.94 vs 123.66 ± 19.62/74.88 ± 11.85 mmHg; white ethnicity (65% vs 81.1%; married (53% vs 68.9%; lower tangible support in the social aspect (15.7 ± 5.41 vs 16.9 ± 4.32; and recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (65% vs 48.8%. On multivariate analysis, hypertension associated with the following: 1 vegetarianism (OR 0.051; 95% CI: 0.004-0.681; 2 educational level (OR 5.317; 95% CI: 1
De Wet, Lambert H
Full Text Available , which states that firms seek the most convenient form of finance available (Myers, 1984); the Market Timing Theory, which states that managements effort to time their entry to market shapes the capital structure decision (Baker and Wurgler (2002...) and the Agency theory of Jensen and Meckling (1976), Myers (1984) proposes a ‘Pecking Order theory’, which advocates a freer capital structure whereby management does not aim for a specific leverage ratio, but instead uses the cheapest source of finance...
Owen, Stephen S.
This article explores the relationship between the use of corporal punishment in the public schools and the amount of social capital (i.e., residents degree of involvement in community matters) in a state. Existing state-level data regarding social capital and incidents of corporal punishment were utilized. Results show a statistically significant…
Yarossi, M.E. (IPA Institute, The Hague (Netherlands))
The technical difficulty of incorporating new technology in capital intensive projects has been underestimated. Bio-refineries projects are no exemption. These projects in many occasions have assigned inadequate project resources, such as lean project teams and overly optimistic contingencies. Furthermore, project developers have set unrealistic expectations; for example: aggressive schedule duration, low cost targets and optimistic operability targets. These project drivers set before project's authorization compromise the project's outcome. In many cases, this translates into lower return on investment, higher costs, and lower operability. In order to counteract these outcomes, it is critical for capital intensive projects, like bio-refineries, to have a well define project which will enable to increase its chance of success. IPA's research has shown that bio-refineries projects have poor project performance due to poor project practices, lack of owner project controls and inadequate change management. An adequate risk analysis during definition is a critical component of a project's success, especially when there is new technology, like biomass conversion. It is of outmost importance to asses this technology and set realistic expectations. parallel to this, there is a need to have a well established execution strategy, which should be maintained throughout the execution of the project. In conclusion, IPA's research has indicated that bio-refineries, as any other capital intensive project, need to assign adequate resources at an early state of project development, by making sure there is and adequate team in place, reasonable schedule, technical difficulties evaluation, and keeping control during execution. Although these elements might be seen as common practices that should be taken into account when developing a project, many projects being their execution without having a proper foundation, and thus affecting the project
Azeem Fazwan Ahmad Farouk; Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar
Proponents of social capital have argued that individuals boundtogether in dense social networks, infused with norms of reciprocity and trust, are better able and more inclined to act collectively for mutual benefit and social purposes as opposed to atomised individuals. This is due to the fact that the existence of social capital enables groups and individuals to deal smoothly and efficiently with various economic and social issues. Social capital is therefore seen as “sociological superglue...
The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)
Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market
Clea Beatriz Macagnan; Fernando Batista Fontana
Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers wil...
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital
Full Text Available In the present study I first present the classification system of states by international financial institutions on economic and financial criteria, then focusing on the classification made by Morgan Stanley Capital International. According to it the capital market in Romania is currently a frontier one, the Financial Surveillance Authority pursuing the reclassification as an emerging capital market by August 2016. The findings of the study indicate this term as unrealistic, for several reasons. Thus, curently on the Romanian stock market there are only two entities out of 3 minimum required, respectively S.N.G.N Romgaz and Fondul Proprietatea, which fully meet the size and liquidity requirements imposed by MSCI in order to be reclassified as an emerging capital market. Also it is mandatory making significant progress regarding the effectiveness of the operational framework, progress made to some extent through Project S.T.E.A.M. (Set of actions Towards Establishing and Acknowledgment of the emerging Market status. On this project, after analyzing the degree of completion of the proposed measures in order to reach the primary and secondary objectives, whose deadlines have expired, according to the schedule provided, we found that only 69% of them were fulfilled. Given these considerations I can state that Romania could be reclassified as an emerging capital market at the earliest starting with 2017.
José Luis Carrillo Barradas
This work is an abstract of the doctoral thesis presented in the Combined Program of PhD. ETSA-UPM and Universidad Veracruzana (DAU-1 (Xalapa-Veracruz; Mexico; it includes modifications that the author adds to the defence made on March 4th 2003, about theoretical and methodological aspects mainly, that are not detailed in the original thesis. The doctoral research was supervised by the PhD. Architect José Fariña Tojo. The conceptual and theoretical frame is a phenomenological approximation in the search of the dialectic influences: City-Architecture-Urbanism-Territory-Economical Politics; using Mexico City and its urban phenomenon as the field of analysis. From the methodological point of view, the universal concept used is that of the Influences, subordinating concepts such as: models, paradigms, projects, utopias, processes, modes, dynamics, phenomena, relations, facts and tendencies; always related to Urban Pieces and to the Architecture of Mexico City (MC in a period circumscribed between 1940 and 2000; unimpaired of the historical references of the beginnings of the urban modernity in the Mexican Capital City at the very beginning of the 20th century. Through the diffusion and adaptation of the urban models of the French and North American schools, the Mexican State looking for the utopia of modernity, privileges the spatial sphere of Mexico City and its phenomenology of the emerging megalopolis. In the configuration the metropolitan phenomenon of MC which tendencies leads to the appearance of a megalopolitan dimension, the Mexican State with its theoretical support in the economy of market has done formal interventions, which have determined privilege urban shapes in the national capital. Conditions produced by the big public works of collective consumption. The State has also institutionalized models of urbanism and planning that involves the ideology of the economical benefit of real state in all the social and cultural strata facing the logic of the
Helder Oliveira e Silva
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of requests for serological testing for HIV infection in patients with Tuberculosis and the prevalence of such co-infection in Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District (DF, between 2004 and 2006. Methods: It was a retrospective epidemiological survey based in the data of Brazil’s Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. The data were collected in August, 2008. In the studied period, there were notified in SINAN, 35,639 cases of Tuberculosis in 2004, 37,520 in 2005 and 34,439 in 2006, in all the 26 state capitals and the DF. The percentage of patients with known serological status and the percentage of patients with positive testing for HIV infection within the patients with Tuberculosis varied widely among the capitals and among the time periods assessed. Results: The municipalities of Rio Branco and Macapá (North region showed the worse coverage of serological testing for HIV infection, with a frequency of not screening above 86.5% in the three years of the study. The best HIV screening coverage occurred in Campo Grande (Center-West region and Curitiba (South region, with frequencies of not testing fewer than 20.5%. The frequency of Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection varied from 64.5% in Florianópolis (South region, in 2004 to 0% in Rio Branco (North region, in 2006. Conclusion: In the study, the regional disparities for HIV serological testing in patients with Tuberculosis were observed. In order to achieve the goals for HIV screening in all patients with Tuberculosis there shall be necessary some operational adjustments and a greater commitment in the implantation of public policies directed for these populations.
Visser, A.; Kalb, D.P.
Looking for new ways to interpret the failings of the neo-liberal economy, this article argues that financialised capitalism at the eve of the 2008 financial crisis showed striking analogies with the characteristic combination of oligopoly and informality of the Soviet economy at the eve of its
Vladimir Cvijanovic; Denis Redzepagic
The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of instituti...
LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA
Full Text Available The main goal of any business is to maintain the financial stability not only on the short term but also on medium and long term, in other words to maintain a harmony between financial sources and financial needs, respectively the equality between the assets and liabilities from the balance sheet. On short term, maintaining the financial stability involves correlating the temporary resources with the temporary uses by using the necessary working capital, and on the long-term, the financial stability involves comparing the permanent resources with the permanent uses by working capital indicator. The determination of the financial state of the company at a certain moment represents the key moment in establishing and adopting the economic and financial decisions in the management of the company. Maintaining the financial stability of the company represents one of the main objectives of the financial analysis and management and it also provides the optimum development of the entire economic and financial activity of the company. The analysis of the working capital size is based on the financial statement data and information, and based on this analysis is considered the financial situation of the company, the financial equilibrium state at a certain moment. The purpose of this article is to highlight the fact that the maintenance of the financial stability on medium and long term is subordinated to the “working capital” indicator, its content and interpretation evolving in time and varying differently from one company to another. The results of this research may have broad applicability in the field of the companies’ activity and it materializes in the complex approach of the working capital regarded as a classic indicator, frequently used in the financial analysis and with profound significance in establishing the financial state in general and the equilibrium state in particular.
This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation.
E. G. Filimonova
Full Text Available Summary. Maintaining a stable level of the national economy is a priority objective of socio-economic policy in Russia. It is known that the economic development of the state affected by several factors, among them the paramount levels of investment, including investment in human capital, which have a huge impact on the country's economic development, especially in the current situation in the economy, because human capital is one of the most important factors of economic growth. The problem of human capital - one of the most important in a changing world today. Translational motion of society crucially depends on his level and state (level of material well-being, attitude to work, education and qualifications are recognized in the scale of society's ideals and values, they define social norms, work motivation and social behavior, and the like .The article examines the relationship of the state investment in human capital and progressive economic development opportunities, as well as depending on the public investment in human capital from the existing tax system and tax policy pursued.
... countercyclical capital buffer was designed to take into account the macro-financial environment in which large... ability to raise capital to meet the increased minimum requirements in the current environment and upon...
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; da Silva, Sara Araújo; de Oliveira, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Moura, Lenildo de
To estimate the prevalence of protective and risk factors for the most important chronic non communicable diseases in all Brazilian capitals, including the Federal District. Data used were collected in 2008 through VIGITEL, an ongoing population-based telephone survey surveillance system implemented in all Brazilian State capitals since 2006. In 2008, over 54,000 interviews were completed over the phone with a random sample of individuals living in all 27 capitals. The analyses showed differences in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases by demographic characteristics such as gender, age and schooling. Men were more likely to be current smokers, overweight, and consumers of soft drinks, fatty meat and alcohol. They were also more likely to be more active in leisure. Women reported being more likely to eat healthy, but also were more likely to have a physician diagnosis of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and overall poor health status. In general, the prevalence of risk factors studied increased with decreasing levels of schooling. The VIGITEL system was implemented to monitor changes in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases over time to inform public health workers and decision makers to adjust existing programs and policies according to the changing profile of consumers. The ultimate goal is to improve the health of the Brazilian population.
significant production factor. This work enriches such studies via integrating the analysis all forms of capital and for a wider range of countries; estimating the trade-off -as output elasticity ratios- between the accumulation of various anthropogenic capital forms and the deterioration of natural capital -considered both as resource stock and carrying capacities of the environment. Keywords: energy, fossil fuels, industrial civilization, capital, production factor, natural capital, 2nd Law, entropy, irreversibility, exergy, LINEX function, output elasticity References 1. Ayres, Robert U. and Benjamin Warr (2009), The Economic Growth Engine: How Energy and Work Drive Material Prosperity, Edward Elgar and IIASA 2. Kümmel, Reiner (2011), The Second Law of Economics: Energy, Entropy and the Origins of Wealth, Springer 3. Lindenberger, Dietmar and Reiner Kümmel (2011), Energy and the state of nations, Energy 36, 6010 - 6018 4. Wall, Goran (2005), Exergy Capital and Sustainable Development, Proceedings of the Second International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium, Kos, Greece, Paper No. XII-I49
Government intervention aimed at regional development can be justified where there are opportunities for profitable investement of public funds. Benefit: cost analysis can be an effective tool for economic evaluation of regional development project proposals, providcd the distinction between sunk costs and historical outlays is recognised. Because the cost of previous development is sunk, it is appropriate to value existing assets at their opportunity cost. In terms or ex ante project apprais...
Capital spending by oil and gas companies in and outside the US will rise in 1998, but that forecast may be jeopardized by the continuing plunge in oil prices. For operations in the US, oil and gas company capital spending is expected to move up in 1998 for the fourth year in a row. If the money is spent, it will be the highest industry investment level since 1985. Strong oil and gas prices and increased volumes have boosted company cash flow and profits the last few years, fueling increased spending. However, the near-term outlook has now been clouded by economic turmoil in a number of Asian countries and the recent collapse of oil prices. The paper discusses oil and gas prices, US upstream spending, US non-exploration and production spending, capital spending in Canada, and spending outside US and Canada
Cheng, Simon; Martin, Leslie; Werum, Regina E.
The dictum that "context matters" notwithstanding, few researchers have focused on how social capital affects educational outcomes for ethnic groups outside of the United States. Using German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) data, analyses highlight the group-specific effects of parental social capital on track placement among 11-16-year-old…
Jong, SoSon; Carrico, Adam; Cooper, Bruce; Thompson, Lisa; Portillo, Carmen
Social capital is "features of social organizations-networks, norms, and as trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit". People with high social capital have lower mortality and better health outcomes. Although utilization of social networks has grown, social capital continues to be a complex concept in relation to health promotion. This study examined 1) associations between social capital and quality of life (QoL), 2) factors of social capital leading to higher QoL among people living with HIV (PLWH), 3) role of health care providers (HCP) as a mediator between social capital and QoL. This is a secondary analysis of the International Nursing HIV Network for HIV/AIDS Research. This cross-sectional study included 1673 PLWH from 11 research sites in the United States in 2010. Using path analysis, we examined the independent effect of social capital on QoL, and the mediating effect of PLWH engagement with HCP. The majority of participants were male (71.2%), and 45.7% were African American. Eighty-nine percent of the participants were on antiretroviral therapy. Social capital consisted of three factors - social connection, tolerance toward diversity, and community participation - explaining 87% of variance of social capital. Path analysis (RMSEA = 0, CFI = 1) found that social connection, followed by tolerance toward diversity, were the principal domain of social capital leading to better QoL (std. beta = 0.50, std. error = 0.64, p capital was positively associated with QoL ( p capital on QoL was mediated by engagement with HCP ( p capital effectively, interventions should focus on strengthening PLWH's social connections and engagement to HCP.
Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica
This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin's (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide "umbrella" organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.
Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica
This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on importance of human capital in development of industrial enterprises, issues of their management and methods of achieving balance between interests of owners and employees. Difference between such concepts as human and labor potential as well as human and working capital is clarified. The special attention is paid to the fact that an effective system of motivation and incentivation of labor is to serve as means of rapprochement of human and labor capital. The authors point out the limited scope of the traditional forms of labor motivation and incentivation mechanisms and highlight the complexity of their encouragement for collective work results. The authors suggest using the cost-based approach to workforce management, which is based on assessment of market and intrinsic value of human capital in view of investment and quality characteristics. The proposed approach is attended by methodological support and operational calculations. The study states that the suggested human capital management model can be introduced into practice, as well as substantiates the necessity for boosting the performance of industrial enterprises and their cost by increasing production, stimulating the staff for selfrealization and self-improvement by bringing the owners’ corporate interests closer to the interests of the employees.
This article makes a critique of current interpretations of the crises of the western system of medicine and presents alternative explanations for those crises. It indicates that the crises of medicine--reflected in its ubiquitous problems of costs and ineffectiveness--are due to and reflect the crises of legitimation and capital accumulation of contemporary capitalism. The article is divided into six parts: the first two define the characteristics of the crises of western contemporary capitalism and of its system of medicine, with a critique of current theories which try to explain them. Parts three and four contrapose to these theories a Marxist interpretation of the crises, tracing their causes to the needs created by the process of capital accumulation and to the demands expressed by the working population. The needs and demands generated by Capital and Labor are intrinsically in conflict, and are realized in the daily practice of class struggle. The characteristics and consequences of that struggle for health and for the organization, content, and ideology of medicine are analyzed in the fifth part. This class struggle takes place within a political context in which Capital and its social expression, the bouregeoisie or corporate class, have the dominant influence on the organs of the State. The sixth part of the article shows how that dominance determines the nature of the State responses to the crises of medicine. A primary thesis of this paper is that social class, class struggle, capitalism, and imperialism are not passé categories, as most ideologists of capitalism postulate, but rather they are the most important paradigms for understanding the crises of the western system of power and its medicine.
Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Obydenkova, Anastassia V; Salahodjaev, Raufhon
The impact of democracy on governments' choice of environmental policies has attracted significant academic attention in recent years. However, less attention has been devoted to the role of the social cognitive capital of the national population. Does society's cognitive capital matter in governmental choice regarding environmental policies, if at all? This study addresses this question through a large-N analysis of 94 countries accounting for the role of both political regimes and social capital in governmental choice of climate change policies. We find that higher social cognitive capital within a democratic state radically increases that state's commitment to adopt environmental policies. More specifically, a 1-point increase in the democracy index is associated with nearly 5 points increase in the adoption of the Climate Laws, Institutions and Measures Index (CLIMI). In a similar vein, a 10 points increase in social cognitive capital is associated with a nearly 16 points increase in CLIMI. The findings presented in this study aim to contribute to the ongoing debate on the impact of democracy and the cognitive capital of society on international environmentalism. The findings will also be interesting for scholars working on the impact of political institutional factors and the role of society in environmental policy choices made at the international level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slechta, V.; Bohal, L.
The problems are discussed of requirements for investment for power plants in Czechoslovakia. Since the construction was finished of coal-burning 110 MW power plants with six power units, specific capital cost has steadily been growing. The growth amounts to 6 to 8% per year while the principle has been observed that specific capital cost decreases with increased unit power. Attention is paid to the cost of the subcontractors of the building and technological parts of a power plant and to the development of productivity of labour. A comparison is tabulated of cost for coal-burning power plants with 100 MW and 200 MW units and for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. Steps are suggested leading to a reduction of the capital cost of nuclear power plants. It is stated that should not these steps be taken, the envisaged development of nuclear power would be unbearable for the Czechoslovak national economy. (Z.M.). 8 tabs., 3 refs
Crocombe, L A; Brennan, D S; Slade, G D
Australians outside state capital cities have greater caries experience than their counterparts in capital cities. We hypothesized that differing water fluoridation exposures was associated with this disparity. Data were the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Examiners measured participant decayed, missing and filled teeth and DMFT Index and lifetime fluoridation exposure was quantified. Multivariable linear regression models estimated differences in caries experience between capital city residents and others, with and without adjustment for fluoridation exposure. There was greater mean lifetime fluoridation exposure in state capital cities (59.1%, 95% confidence interval=56.9,61.4) than outside capital cities (42.3, confidence interval=36.9,47.6). People located outside capital city areas had differing socio-demographic characteristics and dental visiting patterns, and a higher mean DMFT (Capital cities=12.9, Non-capital cities=14.3, p=0.02), than people from capital cities. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and dental visits, DMFT of people living in capital cities was less than non-capital city residents (Regression coefficient=0.8, p=0.01). The disparity was no longer statistically significant (Regression coefficient=0.6, p=0.09) after additional adjustment for fluoridation exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When approaching electronic capital market design and microstructure with the focus of analysing and improving existing markets with end-state analysis, it is necessary to name an ideal objective. This serves the purposes of technology evaluation and the development of a standard framework for structural measurement in modeling and language paradigm design. An ideal capital market architecture is presented in this paper that is feasible with current technology based on the end-to-end functionality of existing capital markets including internal requirements of participants. Various architectural and ethical issues are introduced and discussed sketching a framework for further work in quantifying electronic markets.
W. Erwin Diewert
The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...
Mohd. Shamim Ansari
Full Text Available The purpose of an efficient capital market is to mobilize funds from those who have it and route each them to those who can utilize it in the best possible way. India’s financial market is multi-facet but not balanced. It has state of art equity market but relatively less developed and immature corporate bond market. The Indian capital market in the recent year has undergone a lot of innovation in term regulation and mode of operation. A well developed corporate bond market is also essential for financial system stability, efficiency and overall economic growth. However, If we look at the scenario of capital market in India we find that Indian households have traditionally preferred parking their surpluses in bank deposits, government savings schemes and less than 10% of their investments in financial assets in shares, debentures and mutual funds. The Indian capital market has recently put the worst behind and moved towards strong growth. In this back drop the present paper aims to (i identify various grey points of Indian capital market; (ii Evaluated how it performed during post financial crisis period; and (iii suggests necessary policy reforms for a relatively mature capital market.
Mary A Kaidonis
Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.
This paper explores the issue of hegemony under transnational capitalism. It conceptualizes how transnational accumulation and supraterritorial space has altered capitalism in general and its hegemony in particular. It aims to provide a framework of understanding and analyzing the way globalization...... has reshaped the terrain and parameters of social, economic and political relations both at the national and the global levels, and exerted pressure on the resilient and hegemonic capacities of capitalism. It proposes to examine the ways social relations of domination, subordination and organic...... interplay are produced, maintained, decomposed and delinked while continuously undergoing transformations. Inspired by the Gramscian and Polanyian theoretical and analytical categories, the paper analyses the fading "organic" linkage between state, market and civil society under transnational capitalism...
Cumming, D.; Flemming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
This paper introduces an analysis of international relocation decisions of venture capital (VC)-backed companies. Relocations to the United States are motivated by economic conditions as well as an improvement in the laws of the country in which the entrepreneurial firm is based. Relocations to the
... unlevel playing field between banking organizations and other financial services providers. For example, a... for banking organizations. The final rule consolidates three separate notices of proposed rulemaking... minimum capital requirement, a higher minimum tier 1 capital requirement, and, for banking organizations...
... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Prompt Corrective Action § 325.103 Capital measures and... agreement, order, capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by the FDIC pursuant to... CFR 28.15(b), or to comply with asset maintenance requirements pursuant to 12 CFR 28.20; or (B) The...
To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...
Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.
Lachaux, Manuel; Jugean, Anne-Sophie
General meeting of shareholders of AREVA SA convened for February 3, 2017 to approve AREVA SA capital increase for an amount of 2 billion euros, subject to the approval of the European Commission; Receipt of offers from strategic investors with a view to them taking up a stake in the capital of NewCo, alongside the French State; Conditions and schedule for the completion of the capital increases to be defined subsequent to the approval of the European Commission; Signature of definitive agreements for the sale of AREVA TA. (authors)
R. Quentin Grafton; Tom Kompas; P. Dorian Owen
The paper explains the large differences in cross-country productivity performance by modeling and testing the effects of social barriers to communication on productivity and capital accumulation. In an optimal growth model, social barriers to communication that impede the formation of knowledge connections are shown to reduce both transitory and steady-state levels of total factor productivity (TFP), per capita consumption, and reproducible capital. A ‘bridging’ parameter in the growth model...
Victor S. Martyanov
Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.
Natural Capital is a mechanism through which a value can be placed on nature allowing it to be considered alongside other assets. When the Government of the United Kingdom produced a Natural Environment White Paper (The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature) in 2012 there was no direct mention of geosites, geoheritage or geodiversity. One ambition of the Natural Environment White Paper was to stop environmental degradation and to rebuild natural capital and to value it. Whilst landscapes are mentioned in the paper geodiversity is not directly and this has been problematic for funding and recognition within the UK. Natural Capital is being used as the basis for many of the environmental reviews therefore it is essential that geodiversity can be included within this. The Natural Capital Committee defines natural capital as 'those elements of the natural environment which provide valuable goods and services to people'. In the main, these goods and services are related to ecology/biodiversity rather than to the full range of natural capital. Specifically, the values associated with abiotic nature (geodiversity) are frequently undervalued or ignored. The English Geodiversity Forum have been producing case studies as to how this might be done for different locations and this paper will present the work of this and how a value can be attributed to geodiversity. For example links to tourism and recreation within areas such as the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the Black Country proposed Geopark are easy to place a value on but it is more difficult with educational, scientific sites. Using an ecosystems services and biodiversity analogies this paper presents a framework that can be adopted for evaluation of geological sites. Defra (2015) The state of natural capital: protecting and improving natural capital for prosperity and wellbeing. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 73 pages https
Human Capital development through education is a long time investment made by the state to enhance the well being of her citizenry. By investing in education, well educated individuals bring to bear their talents, knowledge, skills and experiences as they function in the various sectors of the economy. Human Capital development is therefore a…
Full Text Available Public capital investment represents the role of state and local governments in supporting greater capacity of private enterprises to gain success in a market economy measured by revenue growth. Medium enterprises are considered as the catalysts for economic growth and competitiveness particularly in developing countries due to efficiency and flexibility in an adverse economic environment. Using aggregate data of 30 states (provinces in Indonesia from 1997-2002, the impact of public capital investment on the revenue growth of medium enterprise is examined. The paper finds that only medium enterprises in the industrial and trading sector benefited from public capital investments and the most optimum capital investment is in transport infrastructure.
The rise in the specific capital costs of nuclear power plants has caused concern in all industrialized countries in the past few years. Although the amount of this rise differed and at least did not jeopardize the cost edge of nuclear power in Europe, it did result in cost advantages of coal over nuclear power in a number of Federal States in the USA. The cost development in nuclear power plant construction up to the present level of capital costs was due chiefly to intolerable extensions of construction periods as a consequence of dragging licensing procedures, most of them entailing additional conditions which were partly a matter of dispute. There is broad agreement on the need to not detract from the nuclear safety level now attained, but also on the inability to increase it further by any significant margin. It has become evident in the past that, from a certain level onward, additional measures may in fact reduce the level of safety. In this contribution an attempt is made to delineate the framework of reasonable capital expenditure. From this point of departure, realistic considerations of safety and environmental protection can be made for future orientation. (orig.)
Full Text Available Since the late 20th century and the microelectronics revolution, capital has become thoroughly digitized, moving effortlessly around the world through electronic funds transfer systems (EFTS. This paper charts the rise of electronic money since the collapse of the Bretton-Woods regulatory system in the 1970s and the shift into extremely mobile funds that circulate through ber optics lines. Second, it examines some of the world’s largest EFTS systems and their impacts on capital markets of different types. The third part focuses on how digital money has undermined na- tional nancial regulations imposed by nation-states. In the fourth section, the role of EFTS in the growth of offshore banking centers is explored.
Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna
Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.
Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca
We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.
Zeinomar, Nur; Moslehi, Roxana
We determined the effectiveness of a community-based breast cancer education intervention among understudied populations in the New York State (NYS) Capital Region by assessing and comparing baseline and post-education breast cancer knowledge. Participants included 417 students recruited from five colleges/universities and 67 women from four community group organizations. Baseline and post-education knowledge was assessed via self-administered mostly multiple-choice questionnaires. An open-ended question soliciting opinions about public health prevention strategies against breast cancer was included on college/university students' questionnaires. Effectiveness of education intervention was estimated through a paired t test. Stratified analysis was done using demographic and descriptive variables. Answers to the open-ended questions were analyzed qualitatively. The mean percentage of correct answers increased from 39.9% at baseline to 80.8% post-education (P raising awareness about modifiable risk factors and inspiring proactive thinking about public health prevention strategies. This community-based education intervention was effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge among demographically diverse groups with low levels of baseline knowledge in the NYS Capital Region. Our findings provide leads for future public health prevention strategies.
Kurt Stanberry; Forrest Aven
This paper analyzes recent developments in crowdfunding, a new financing technique to improve access to capital. The United States Congress and President Obama, in a rare show of bipartisan action, passed the JOBS Act in 2012 (the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act). The law is designed to stimulate economic growth and expand job creation by improving access to public capital markets for emerging growth companies. Furthermore, the US is not the only nation attempting to expand access to capi...
Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...
Full Text Available In the current conditions of transformation of traditional institutes and institutions and formation of a new institutional state, the institutional content of human capital as the most valuable resource of the economy changes. Along with the existing research, the transformation of the old institutional system and the emergence of new institutes and institutions require an analysis of the updated institutional content of the human capital of the national economy. The purpose of the paper – to reveal the institutional content of the human capital of the national economy. In the process of work, the following tasks are set and solved: to study economic and institutional conditions of functioning of human capital, to determine the material content of human capital in the context of institutionalism and the process of institutionalization of human capital. Methodology. A methodological basis is a dialectical approach. To study the institutional content of human capital, abstract-logical and systemstructural methods are used. Results. Economic conditions for the formation and functioning of human capital are determined by the instability of the economic situation in Ukraine caused by the fall in the gross domestic product, the inappropriate growth of prices and wages, inflation, and military-political confrontation. Institutional conditions of Ukraine accumulate the following components: those that remained from the previous regimes; transformed components, imported components. The large financial capital, business structures, shadow economy, public sector of the country interact on a fundamentally different institutional basis. The main factor characterizing the institutional development of our country is the uncertainty of limits of institutionalization. The essential institutional conditions for the functioning of human capital are also the absence of a positive or negative experience of existence, coexistence of certain institutions in a
Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.
Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...
Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.
This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…
Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page questionnaire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the questionnaire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....
The economic theory states that the capital structure of a firm is irrelevant in a perfect frictionless world. Hence when the assumptions of the Modigliani–Miller theorem and the CAPM hold, the question about the optimal source of funding of capital investments is also irrelevant. In practice though, capital leasing is widely used and the decision to lease or own assets is hardly a matter of indifference to firms or individuals. The motivation of this thesis is to identify when and why leasin...
Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan
Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...
Hendryx, Michael S; Ahern, Melissa M; Lovrich, Nicholas P; McCurdy, Arthur H
To test the hypothesis that variation in reported access to health care is positively related to the level of social capital present in a community. The 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 22 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States (n = 19,672). Additional data for the 22 communities are from a 1996 multicity broadcast media marketing database, including key social capital indicators, the 1997 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey, and Interstudy, American Hospital Association, and American Medical Association sources. The design is cross-sectional. Self-reported access to care problems is the dependent variable. Independent variables include individual sociodemographic variables, community-level health sector variables, and social capital variables. Data are merged from the various sources and weighted to be population representative and are analyzed using hierarchical categorical modeling. Persons who live in metropolitan statistical areas featuring higher levels of social capital report fewer problems accessing health care. A higher HMO penetration rate in a metropolitan statistical area was also associated with fewer access problems. Other health sector variables were not related to health care access. The results observed for 22 major U.S. cities are consistent with the hypothesis that community social capital enables better access to care, perhaps through improving community accountability mechanisms.
Full Text Available Capital structure is described as a relation between equity and debts while the mutual consequences among items of company’s assets and resources employed as well as the cost of capital are also taken into account. Both, the theory and practice, at evaluation of approaches to capital structure are focused on creation and optimization of capital structure. Relatively less frequent approach is the analysis of a state and of changes in capital structure on the level of whole business branch. But on this basis, it is possible to investigate some “average” approaches to selection of financial resources. At capital structure optimization (the proportion between equity and debts, a wide range of criteria plays a substantial role, e.g. cost of capital, risk, expected profitability, liquidity, dividend policy. These criteria have joint effect. This way, a logic question which criteria are preferred more and which criteria are preferred less appears. The article deals with the analysis of capital structure of three branches of manufacturing industry (the branch of production of plastics, the branch of production of electric equipments, the branch of production of textile in the years 2007–2009 with the special focus on development of financial structure, capital structure and on cost of capital.
Mansour, H.H.; Khdar, S. per; Abdulla, H.Y.; Muhamad, N.Q.; Othman, M.M.; Qader, S.
Radon alpha activity concentration has been measured in 28 homes in the Erbil Capital-Iraqi Kurdistan region during the autumn season by using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors 'SSNTDs'. The radon activity concentrations in these homes range from (10.33-90.34) Bqm -3 with an average of 44+/-23Bqm -3 . The average absorption effective dose equivalent for a person living in homes for which the investigation were done was found to be 1.3+/-0.65mSvy -1 , obtained by using an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8. The average lung cancer cases per year per 10 6 person was found to be 23+/-12
Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa
Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.
Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko
Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Subhash C. Sharma; Yijian He
It is the flow of capital services, instead of the capital stock, along with the flows of other inputs which is related to the flows of outputs in economic theory of cost and production. In applied research, quite often to capture the dynamic phenomena which occurs within a year, there is a need to use quarterly data which may not be captured by annual data. However, quarterly data on capital input and the cost of capital are not readily available. Thus, in this paper the quarterly real and n...
José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior
Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.
Muntaner, Carles; Lynch, John W; Hillemeier, Marianne; Lee, Ju Hee; David, Richard; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme
This study tests two propositions from Navarro's critique of the social capital literature: that social capital's importance has been exaggerated and that class-related political factors, absent from social epidemiology and public health, might be key determinants of population health. The authors estimate cross-sectional associations between economic inequality, working-class power, and social capital and life expectancy, self-rated health, low birth weight, and age- and cause-specific mortality in 16 wealthy countries. Of all the health outcomes, the five variables related to birth and infant survival and nonintentional injuries had the most consistent association with economic inequality and working-class power (in particular with strength of the welfare state) and, less so, with social capital indicators. Rates of low birth weight and infant deaths from all causes were lower in countries with more "left" (e.g., socialist, social democratic, labor) votes, more left members of parliament, more years of social democratic government, more women in government, and various indicators of strength of the welfare state, as well as low economic inequality, as measured in a variety of ways. Similar associations were observed for injury mortality, underscoring the crucial role of unions and labor parties in promoting workplace safety. Overall, social capital shows weaker associations with population health indicators than do economic inequality and working-class power. The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds.
The emergence of Capitalism is said to always lead to extreme changes in the structure of a society. This view implies that Capitalism is a universal and unique concept that needs an explicit institutional framework and should not discriminate between a German or US Capitalism. In contrast, this work argues that the ‘ideal type’ of Capitalism in a Weberian sense does not exist. It will be demonstrated that Capitalism is not a concept that shapes a uniform institutional framework within every ...
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been regarded as one of the most important information technology developments in the past decades. While ERP systems provide the potential to bring substantial benefits, their implementations are characterized by large capital outlay, long duration, and high might be a solution to ensure the success of ERP system implementations in organizations. The overall objective of this research is to to provide detailed analysis and impacts of busines...
Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...
The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market....
Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins
Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p<0.05. Most of the adolescents were girls and the variables (gender, age, relationship with aggressor, frequency/length of time of abuse, place of occurrence and its interruption varied according to the type of violence (bullying, physical, psychological, threat, sexual, witness, harassment, cyber-bullying, abandonment, neglect, child labor and parental alienation. The results represent the scene of violence suffered by adolescents, a reality that is poorly known and reported to official bodies, however, the descriptive data represent only part of the problem, highlighting the need to develop new studies to further investigate the various facets of the theme and to suggest new measures for facing violence in adolescence.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian
How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...
Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart
Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...
The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.
Arief Tri Hardiyanto
Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series Cross-Section Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.
Arief Tri Hardiyanto
Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series CrossSection Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.
Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David
Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...
Lucyna Gornicka; Sweder van Wijnbergen
We investigate actual capital chosen by banks in presence of capital minimum requirements and ex-post penalties for violating them. The model yields excess capital that is always positive and increases during times of distress in the economy, which is in line with empirical evidence. Next, we show that in presence of ex-post violation penalties the introduction of the conservation buffer under Basel III will not contribute to lowering the pro-cyclicality of capital regulations. The countercyc...
Full Text Available What are the variables as the economic development of localities? The traditional economic view emphasizes the role of natural conditions, human capacity, the public and private investments to the process of economic growth and development, but recently the literature on social capital has been emphasizing that economic variables are not sufficient to explain the process, as the social and civic participation are also relevant. Thus, this paper has as main objective to present and discuss the relationship between social capital and local economic development, taking as a case study in southeastern state of Tocantins. The method employed to collect secondary data on the variables as the development and interviews to assess the social capital of the municipalities surveyed. They were collected in a descriptive way and also created an econometric model to assess the specific importance of social capital on the levels of development in the region. We conclude that social capital is relevant to improving development indicators, but variables related to the advancement of public policies to improve life expectancy, education and direct combat poverty are even more important.
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher...... returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....
Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...
Monzó, Lilia D.; McLaren, Peter
The demise of capitalism was theoretically prophesied by Marx who posited that the world would come to such a state of destruction and human suffering that no amount of coercion or concessions would suffice to stop the massive uprisings that would lead us into a new socialist alternative. Although the downfall of world capitalism may seem…
This is an analysis of the present state of the theory of capital. The paper contains a proposal to reformulate this theory in an ‘late-Marxian’ up-to-dated perspective. The central problem discussed is the integration of the theories of value and capital with those of money and finance. An augmented cost-of-production theory of value is advocated. Special attention is focused on the role of Marx’s ‘monetary expression of labour value’ (MEV), rediscovered and unduly modified by neo-Marxist...
The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies...
Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.
We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents
This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…
Prescott, Brian T.; Ewell, Peter
The rise of a globalized knowledge economy requires nations to understand the distribution of skills and abilities in their populations. It is no longer sufficient to know how many resources are devoted to the development of nations' human capital. Today, nations also must be able to demonstrate and understand the outcomes of their educational…
Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data diketemukan bahwa 1 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap customer capital. 2 Customer capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya, 3 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya.
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Both businesses and recent college graduates in the United States attribute the lack of soft skills in recent college graduates to the colleges' inability to prepare students for the workforce. This article explores the literature on social capital, human capital and social learning theory, offering an alternative hypothesis for why recent…
Pope John Paul II's encyclical Centesimus Annus--written in honor of the centennial anniversary of Rerum Novarum, the first papal social encyclical--examines the present world socioeconomic situation in light of traditional Catholic social teaching. The pope warns the West not to be too quick to celebrate the demise of communism as a victory for capitalism. Capitalism has some good points, the pope acknowledges, but by themselves, market mechanisms do not ensure the just distribution of food and other goods that fulfill essential human needs. When capitalism relies on market forces alone, it creates a culture of consumerism that promotes selfishness and greed. Capitalism has been in flux for decades. After World War II, developed Western societies began moving toward "Keynesian capitalism," which subjects the mechanisms of the free market to public control. After Keynesian capitalism's apparent failure in the United States in the 1970s came the "monetarist" theory and a return to an earlier, liberal form of capitalism in which society relies on market mechanisms alone to revitalize the economy and regulate the production and distribution of goods. The monetarist policies of the 1980s turned out to be part of a global plan to reorganize the economy around the giant multinational corporations. This forced individual countries to compete for capital investment and led to unemployment and neglect of low-income people. Structural adjustment policies have been adopted by governments all over the world, in poor countries as well as developed. All are moving toward the form of capitalism that is repudiated by Catholic social teaching in general and Centesimus Annus in particular.
On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development [ru
Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.
This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)
Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig
We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital......, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market...... frictions do not naturally arise in a static framework, or even in a dynamic framework if capital market frictions are reversible. But if capital market frictions can be made to p ersist over time, we show that young workers favor capital market frictions as a way to smo oth income, especially if wealth...
Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro
This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...
Виктория Александровна Цокова
Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55
The rise in the specific capital costs of nuclear power plants has caused concern in all industrialized countries in the past few years. Although the amount of this rise differed and, for instance, at least did not jeopardize the cost edge of nuclear power in Europe, it did result in cost advantages of coal over nuclear power in a number of Federal States in the USA. The cost development in nuclear power plant construction up to the present level of capital costs was due chiefly to intolerable extensions of construction periods as a consequence of dragging licensing procedures, most of them entailing additional conditions which were partly a matter of dispute. There is broad agreement on the need to not detract from the nuclear safety level now attained, but also on the inability to increase it further by any significant margin. It has become evident in the past that, from a certain level onward, additional measures may in fact reduce the level of safety. In this contribution an attempt is made to delineate the framework of reasonble capital expenditure. From this point of departure, realistic considerations of safety and environmental protection can be made for future orientation. (orig.) [de
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
... required to determine compliance with section 1452 of the Act. (c) Operating agreement. At the option of a... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization grant...
Le Trung Thanh
Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the capital structure of listed Vietnamese companies in an updated context of financial development (the recent situation of domestic equity and debt capital market. By applying Random Effect model for panel data, we analyze 05 firm-specific and 01 country-specific determinants of capital structure based on the data set of 228 firms listed on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange during the period 2010 – 2014. The results indicated that The Pecking Order theory better explains the financing behaviors of Vietnamese listed firms. Accordingly, although in recent years, Vietnam’s equity market and corporate debt capital market have evolved considerably, the capital structure of Vietnamese companies are still dominated by the use of short-term financing sources. High-growth firms or large-sized firms still rely heavily on external debt rather than equity issuance while State-owned enterprises (SOE are reported to have positive association with the use of long-term financing sources. This study proposed some recommendations to the policymakers in two dimensions: improving the efficiency and role of capital markets to mitigate the reliance on short-term funds and ensuring that bank finance is allocated on a commercial basis.
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.
Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight
Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim
This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...
Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Implicações da recepção do aporte de capital nas empresas estatais independentes: o caso do SERPRO = Implications of capital contribution reception to independent state-owned companies: the case of SERPRO
Orlando Almeda Silva
Full Text Available No estudo, avaliou-se a autossuficiência das atividades operacionais do Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados (Serpro na geração de caixa, de modo a permitir sua continuidade como empresa estatal independente ante o controlador. Para tanto, por meio de pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, do tipo descritiva e documental, analisou-se o comportamento dos fluxos de caixa das atividades operacionais, de investimento e de financiamento, em conjunto com as demonstrações contábeis, de 2005 a 2016. Observaram-se: decréscimo no saldo de caixa a partir de 2005, com recorrente insuficiência das atividades operacionais face ao consumo de caixa; recomposição do caixa mediante atividade de financiamento com constantes aportes de capital do ente controlador; indícios de pagamento de despesas correntes e dividendos com aporte de capital; recebimento financeiro em 2012 e 2014, sem perda da condição de independente, descumprindo normativos legais. A partir dos procedimentos adotados, constatou-se que, no período analisado, o Serpro encontrou-se em condições de não aderência às características e aos requisitos de estatal independente. Os resultados do estudo apresentam implicações práticas à medida que discute e propõe aspectos quanto ao planejamento e à execução das auditorias públicas voltadas à análise das condições de dependência das empresas estatais independentes sustentadas a partir das informações contábeis. This paper addresses the self-sufficiency of the operational activities carried out for cash generation purposes at the Federal Data Processing Service (Serpro aiming at its continuity as an independent state-owned company vis-à-vis the controlling shareholder. A qualitative, descriptive and documentary study is conducted to analyze the cash flow behaviors in operating, investment and financing activities, alongside the financial statements from 2005 to 2016. The analysis pointed to: a decrease in the cash
Full Text Available In the paper the optimization of capital enterprises in the economic crisis, namely the method of Modigliani–Miller. This is especially true because Ukraine is in an economic and financial crisis whose impact on businesses need to level through internal resources and companies with state tax support. Established that the values of financial leverage marginal tax benefits equal marginal cost of bankruptcy, in a model of Modigliani–Miller, taking into account taxes and compromise approach to the capital levels of financial leverage, which costs bankruptcy materialize in cash. Bankruptcy costs depend on the probability of bankruptcy and ruin the company and the value of the costs associated with it. With small loans and low probability of ruin and bankruptcy costs are low. Advantages of taxation lead to higher market price of the capital of the enterprise. Using the tools of financial and operational management, the owners of the firm's capital can allocate losses so that most of them will be in the creditors.
Beja, Edsel Jr.
Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...
Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent
Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko
Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to
Williams, S. Mitchell
The objective of this paper is to investigate if downsizing contributes to, or impedes, a firm's intellectual capital performance (ICE) based on a longitudinal analysis of 56 United States publicly listed companies that significantly downsized their workforce during the mid-1990s. Empirical analysis indicates that for the majority of firms, ICE…
... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...
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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the integration of Intellectual Capital (IC and Knowledge Management (KM on the performance of the pharmaceutical company’s business in East Java. This study included an explanatory research using finance and accounting manager 44 pharmaceutical companies in East Java as the respondent. The variables used in this study is human capital (HC, structural capital (SC, relational capital (RC, knowledge management (KM enablers, knowledge management (KM process and business performance (BP. The results stated that integration of IC and KM can be done either partially or simultaneously and proven effect on the business performance of pharmaceutical companies in East Java .
Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong
Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for pene...
Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas
We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....
The scope of protection offered to foreign investors by EU law has become a matter of intense political debate. Neo-protectionist policies are on the rise within EU Member States, who are struggling to acclimatise to increasing inward direct investment from developing countries. Strict regulations...... are being implemented to control the flow of this investment, undermining the principle of free movement of capital. Are such policies permitted under EU law? What impact does EU law have on foreign direct investment? This book addresses these questions through a coherent doctrinal reconstruction of the EC...... Treaty provisions on free movement of capital in a third country context. Opening with a timely restatement of the central features of the EU law of free movement of capital, the book then asks the central question: What rights does a private market participant, engaged in cross-border direct investment...
Marco Alberto Núñez-Ramírez
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the social capital of intercultural nursing students. We made a quantitative, exploratory and transverse study with a non-experimental design. A sample was taken composed of 55 intercultural nursing students of the Intercultural University of the State of Tabasco at Oxolotán, during the months of November and December 2014. A questionnaire for measuring social capital for indigenous peoples was administered. We found high levels of social capital; however, there were not significant differences according the State of provenance and the pertinence to a native group using student’s t distribution. Also we noted the need for the mediator intervention of the University to employ social capital as a strategic element to promote community development and ensure an inclusive access to public health through empowered nursing professionals who are subject of action for common good.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of folk festivals in transforming interconnections between people, space and culture. It interlinks three sets of theoretical ideas: social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia to suggest a new conceptual framework that will help to frame a deeper understanding of the nature of celebration. Qualitative data were collected at two long-established folk festivals, Sidmouth Folk Festival in southern England and the Feakle Traditional Music Festival in western Ireland, in order to investigate these potential links. Although Foucault did not fully develop the concept of heterotopia, his explanation that heterotopias are counter-sites, which, unlike utopias, are located in real, physical, space-time, has inspired others, including some festival researchers, to build on his ideas. This study concludes that the heterotopian concept of the festival as sacred space, with the stage as umbilicus, may be linked to the building of social capital; while it is suggested that both social capital and appropriate cultural capital are needed to gain full entry to the heterotopia.
Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper
Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.
This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.
Public capital investment represents the role of state and local governments in supporting greater capacity of private enterprises to gain success in a market economy measured by revenue growth. Medium enterprises are considered as the catalysts for economic growth and competitiveness particularly in developing countries due to efficiency and flexibility in an adverse economic environment. Using aggregate data of 30 states (provinces) in Indonesia from 1997-2002, the impact of public capital ...
Selecting, gaining access to and attending college (or university) in the United States involve markers of legitimacy and prestige as understood through symbolic capital. An entire complex of fine differentiations operate to distinguish such capital in both students and the institutions they attend. Drawing on works of Bourdieu, this article…
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian
Casino Capitalism and Its Legitimacy Impact on the Politico-administrative State in Macau Der Kasino-Kapitalismus in Macau und seine Bedeutung für die Legitimität des politisch-administrativen Systems
Full Text Available Casino capitalism has its dialectical tendencies in Macau. On the one hand, it stimulates economic growth, provides employment, and strengthens the post-colonial state in Macau during the period of economic boom. On the other hand, casino capitalism can widen the income gap between the rich and the poor, generate addictive gambling, and de-legitimize the post-colonial state in Macau during the global and regional economic downturn. The weaknesses of the politico-administrative state in Macau, including the absence of institutional checks and balances, the frail civil society and the relatively docile mass media, have magnified the negative impacts of casino capitalism on Macau. In response to the negative ramifications, the Macau government has taken measures to be more interventionist, to enhance social welfare, and to prepare contingency plans that would tackle the sudden bankruptcy of any casinos. The central government in Beijing also displays contradictory considerations when it deals with Macau’s casino development, supporting the casino industry while simultaneously encouraging the Macau government to diversify its economy. Overall, casino capitalism not only has contradictory impacts on the Macau city-state but also reveals the inherent contradictions of Beijing’s policy toward the territory’s over-dependence on the casino economy. Der Kasino-Kapitalismus ruft in Macao widersprüchliche TEndenzen hervor: Einerseits stimuliert er das wirtschaftliche Wachstum und stärkt den post-kolonialen Staat in wirtschaftlichen Boomphasen, andererseits kann er aber auch dazu beitragen, dass sich die Einkommensunterschiede zwischen ärmeren und wohlhabenderen Schichten verstärken und damit in Krisenphasen zur Deligitimierung des postkolonialen Staates beitragen.
Couto, Eduardo; Bilau, José
The aim of this study is to analyse whether the human capital of the nascent entrepreneur influences the initial capital structure of Portuguese innovative firms. The research model used includes a dependent binary variable devised to check the initial capital structure, two groups of independent variables referring to the human capital and a group of control variables. The results obtained through logistic regression show that "heterogeneity of professional experience" positively influences ...
Weitering, D.; Nooteboom, G.
This article explores the scope and limitations of social capital and local forms of social security in the informal sector through a case study of railway coolies at Dadar station, Mumbai. The complex organisation of the coolies, virtually excluded from state or enterprise social security schemes,
Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.
Horne, John; Lingard, Bob; Weiner, Gaby; Forbes, Joan
This paper draws on a research study into the existence and use of different forms of capital--including social, cultural and physical capital--in three independent schools in Scotland. We were interested in understanding how these forms of capital work to produce and reproduce "advantage" and "privilege". Analysis is framed by…
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to analyze the effect of intellectual capital performance on intellectualcapital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange(IDX period 2004-2006 and to analyze the level of intellectual capital disclosure in annualreport period 2004-2006. 50 companies was taken as samples in the research.This paper usescontent analysis to compile a measure of disclosure on each annual report of manufacturingcompany and statistical analysis to test whether intellectual capital performance has a positiveeffect to intellectual capital disclosure. Based on statistical analysis, it is concluded that theintellectual capital performance and firm size have a positive effect to intellectual capitaldisclosure. Leverage has no effect to intellectual capital disclosure. The result of content analysisshows that the intellectual capital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company period2004-2006 are less than 50%.
ère que ces transitions résultent dans la participation à leurs exigences et à leurs objectifs. Néanmoins, pour qu’il s’arrive au stage actuel d’engagement économique, se fait nécessaire analyser le processus de formation et la consolidation des entreprises agro-agroindustrielles de viandes de l’Ouest catarinense et considérer les divers changements promus dans la base économique régionale, en résultant d’investissements de différents supports institutionnels et financiers. Pour cet article, se développe une analyse critique et explicative sur base de l’argument dont l’État, de telle façon dans contexte national combien de l’état, il disposait de ressources et de joints avec les agro-industries pour diriger les investissements convoités par ce capital industriel et a commencé à intervenir dans l’économie avec l’intention de faciliter son processus d’accumulation. En étant ainsi, l’État se présente comme le support pour le développement du capital privé, dans le cas analysé le capital agro-industriel. Abstract THE RECENT DYNAMIC OF THE SEGMENT OF THE URBAN NETWORK IN TOCANTINS: THE IMPLICATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF PALMAS TO PORTO NACIONAL In the Tocantins State, the recent dynamic of the urban network reviles significant changes, reflex of the political, economic, social and cultural transformation, for it has passing this area, especially after the political device of the Tocantins State and the Goiás State and the insertion of Eastern Amazon in 1989. In this context, of the research objective to show the occurrence of the processes between Porto Nacional and Palmas towns, or, to understand the implications of the construction of Palmas, the projected capital, to Porto Nacional, one of the main centre of the antique of the north of the Goiás State, today Tocantins, considering the urban-regional role and the processes of re-hierarquization
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the capital...
Rajennd A/L Muniady
Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.
Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele
In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for modelling the dynamics of the level of capital adequacy for ensuring the financial balance of the bank, sufficient controllability and increasing the efficiency of its activities. The article explores peculiarities of banking regulation and supervision in the process of capital formation. It is shown that the issue of formation of capital by banking institutions is actualized in the context of management reform and target tasks of the development of the banking industry of Ukraine. Given the state of the banking services market and its development trends, the unsettled problem of the capitalization of banks, it becomes important to improve the mechanism of capital formation. In order to improve the efficiency of bank regulation and management of capital formation, recommendations are proposed for modelling the dynamics of the adequacy of regulatory capital on the basis of determining the forecast values of its components. Research methodology: the feasibility of using predictive models with the use of artificial neural networks is substantiated. In contrast to the classic trend, discussed in the article, the models with the architecture of the multilayer perceptron proved to be the most adequate and accurate. In addition to a point forecast of the dynamics of regulatory capital, the overall risk and the amount of the net foreign exchange position, their pessimistic and optimistic forecasts were constructed. The author’s proposals are formalized by appropriate calculation algorithms. Modelling the dynamics of the adequacy of regulatory capital and its components in practice will allow more efficiently manage systemic and individual banking risks.
Full Text Available JEREMIE (Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises program was implemented as a part of the EU cohesion policy in the framework of 2007-2013 programming period. The primary objective of the program was to enhance the financing prospects of SME’s through structural funds that provide financial engineering instruments like loan, guarantee and venture capital. This paper focuses on the effects of JEREMIE on Hungary’s venture capital market. Since 2010, 28 JEREMIE backed venture capital funds were founded in four rounds and 130 billion HUF capital was allocated into these funds with the contribution of Hungarian government. A well-established venture capital market can boost entrepreneurship and innovation, therefore economic growth which is the foundation of government involvement. On the other hand, there is an extensive literature highlighting the limits and possible drawbacks of the active role of public sector in the venture capital market. There is a consensus in the literature that in the long run the extensive role of government in venture capital industry is counterproductive. Substituting market participants by government agencies will hardly result in a competitive and efficient market. However, temporarily as a catalyst public sector can contribute to the development of venture capital market. Direct government intervention supportable temporarily only in the infancy of the industry. The primary objective of every program must be to develop the market to the level where it becomes self-sustaining. This way the success of these programs must not be measured only by the amount of invested capital, financial performance of venture capital funds and venture capital backed companies. Raising private sector awareness and the progress of necessary institutions are also the criteria of a successful program. During the design and implementation of venture capital agendas these aspects must be taken into consideration. This
The purpose of the article is to summarize capital cost experience and estimates in industrialized and developing Member States of the IAEA, and to provide some guidance for cost extrapolation. The relative merits of different types and sizes of nuclear and conventional power plants for an expanding electricity generation system are compared over an adequate planning period
Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon
This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 10/10-0194] Bancshares Capital, L.P.; Notice of Surrender Under 13 CFR 107.1900 Pursuant to the authority granted to the United States Small Business... 107.1900 of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations Bancshares Capital, L.P., 16118...
Full Text Available State Civil Servants Apparatus (ASN have to be more integrity, professional, neutral and capable to carrying out a public service to the community. It was an important one that can be optimized through development of human capital. Based on previous research investigated role of Human Capital towards Services and performance of Public Service, shows that staff and head divison level only has moderate degree of human capital. While, Emotional Capital was a most dominan aspect in Human Capital. Otherwise, Social Capital aspects results in the low level. It comes with consequences to optimized them through psychological intervention with group Employee Coaching and Counseling Program (ECCP. This study was action research, experimental one group preteset and postest design. The result shows that ECCP was contribute effectively to enhance Human Capital, particularly in Emotional Capital optimization.
Silvio Salej Higgins
Full Text Available A partir de O Capital S ocia! está na moda: aná!isepara sua reconstruido teórica (Salej: 2003, ofrecemos una sinopsis sobre la arquitectura teórica de uno de los conceptos más utilizados en las ciencias sociales durante la última década. En el nivel de la discusión sobre las transformaciones de las democracias del primer mundo (putnam: 2001, cuestionamos la tesis básica de que la merma del asociativismo cívico es el resultado de la modernización tecnológica y su concomitante cultura individualista. Por el contrario y en la misma linea de Rothstein (2001, construimos la hipótesis de que la disminución del capital social, denunciada por Putnam (1995, es correlativa al desmantelamiento de las políticas de asistencia social, con la consecuente caída en los indicadores de equidad. De modo prospectivo se presentan las preguntas- clave y las hipótesis para un programa de investigación alternativo y plausible sobre el capital social. Palabras clave: capital social, asociativismo cívico, integración social, equidad.
Emmenegger, Patrick; Kvist, Jon; Marx, Paul
In this introduction to the special issue, we review the various debates spurred by Esping-Andersen’s The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Tracing its impact since the book’s publication in 1990, we show that Three Worlds continues to be the point of reference for comparative welfare state...
Jones, Gareth A
This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Full Text Available Companies must maintain the sustainability business. In order to keep their existence and competitiveness, companies must increase profitability in every year. It also applies to state fertilizer companies. However, 10 years of history (2005-2014, the state fertilizer company have been facing difficulties in maintaining business sustainability. Profitability fluctuates and tends to decrease every year. One of the causes is inefficient working capital management. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between working capital management and corporate profitability. To ensure the absence of the influence of unexamined factors, this study uses control variables of firm size, financial leverage, and gross domestic product. This research uses a positivist paradigm with a quantitative approach and multiple regression analysis.The results of this study indicate that state fertilizer companies will be able to increase ROA by accelerating Days of Sales in Inventory and Days of Payables. Higher assets, reduce profitability, and increasing debt withdrawal, which further declines the profitability. State fertilizer companies should accelerate inventory turnover and obligation payments to suppliers to minimize the risk of foreign exchange loss, considering that 80% of raw materials are still imported. In addition, state fertilizer should maintain asset quality and minimize debt withdrawal to increase profitability.
This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...
Full Text Available Recently Claus Offe has put the question that concerns the fate of the European model of social capitalism: Can the model of social capitalism survive the European integration in the context of certain contemporary tendencies? Offe has presupposed that the mentioned model is challenged by the processes of globalization and the integration of the post socialist countries into the European Union. The working hypothesis of the article is that there is an opportunity to provide a coherent answer to this question. The article consists of two parts. In the first part the author starts with the Polanyi's socio-economic theory and emphasizes the importance of this approach for the analyzing of the tendencies of capitalism in Western Europe and in the post socialist countries. The author argues that with the Polanyi's theory we are able to explicate the forms of the embedded liberalism in Western Europe after 1945 and the orientation of non-embedded neo-liberalism and the functioning of the workfare state after the crisis of the Keynesian welfare state. Despite the tendencies of the globalization projected by neo-liberalism, the central element of the social capitalism namely, the welfare state, remains with the dimensions of the continuity. In the next part the author points out that there is an asymmetrical structure between the Western-Europe and non-Western part of Europe concerning the socialization of capitalism. The neoliberalisation in accordance with the model of the transfer of ideal-type of capitalism is more strongly implemented in the countries of transition. In addition, the mentioned theoretical approach provides opportunities to explain the failures of implementing of neo-liberalism in the post socialist countries. On the basis of the endorsing of the socio-economic aspects we can address the issue pointed out by Offe.
Dika, Sandra L.; Martin, Julie P.
This study employs the notion of bridging social capital to investigate the extent to which different forms and quantity of interactions with educators predict intentions to persist in engineering among a sample of Latina/o engineering majors from five public 4-year institutions in the United States. Different forms of capital were effective for…
This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....
Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…
Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....
Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden
The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...
Full Text Available In the 2007-2013 EU's budgetary period a new program was introduced for SMEs. JEREMIE - Joint European Resources for Micro to medium Enterprises - offers to EU Member States and regions the possibility to invest some of their EU structural funds allocations in revolving funds and so recycle financial resources in order to enhance and accelerate investments in enterprises. The market for venture capital and private equity is relatively small in Central and Eastern Europe, but has matured during the past decade and yields are better than in Western Europe. In 2009 Hungary got the first notification for the venture capital part of the JEREMIE program, and started to organize the channel to distribute this renewable source for Hungarian start-up and innovative (from micro to medium enterprises. 2010 was the first year of the “JEREMIE venture capital funds” in Hungary. There are no tangible results yet, but a snapshot could be taken about how this program affects the Hungarian venture capital market.
This dissertation investigates capital market frictions across three themes. The first theme is sovereign debt. Recent experience in the EU shows that it can be complex to enforce the repayment promises of states. Furthermore, governments are better informed about their repayment capacity than
Dubbin, Leslie A; Chang, Jamie Suki; Shim, Janet K
As intuitive and inviting as it may appear, the concept of patient-centered care has been difficult to conceptualize, institutionalize and operationalize. Informed by Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, we employ the framework of cultural health capital to uncover the ways in which both patients' and providers' cultural resources, assets, and interactional styles influence their abilities to mutually achieve patient-centered care. Cultural health capital is defined as a specialized collection of cultural skills, attitudes, behaviors and interactional styles that are valued, leveraged, and exchanged by both patients and providers during clinical interactions. In this paper, we report the findings of a qualitative study conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the Western United States. We investigated the various elements of cultural health capital, how patients and providers used cultural health capital to engage with each other, and how this process shaped the patient-centeredness of interactions. We find that the accomplishment of patient-centered care is highly dependent upon habitus and the cultural health capital that both patients and providers bring to health care interactions. Not only are some cultural resources more highly valued than others, their differential mobilization can facilitate or impede engagement and communication between patients and their providers. The focus of cultural health capital on the ways fundamental social inequalities are manifest in clinical interactions enables providers, patients, and health care organizations to consider how such inequalities can confound patient-centered care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...
There is no research that links capital investments on highways with highway fatalities. Our research project aimed to fill : t : hat gap. We used state : - : level data from the 48 contiguous states of the U.S. from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the...
The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on U.S. capital services at the industry and aggregate
Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.
A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with
Frankford, David M
Competition cannot stem the rise of health care expenditures because it leaves agency diffuse and transferred in part to the institutions of advanced capitalism, which excel in generating demand for their services. The United States should turn to state rate setting to concentrate purchasing power.
De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.
We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management
... requirement, the leverage ratio requirement, the tangible capital requirement, or individual minimum capital... capital directive, it may become effective immediately. A capital directive shall remain in effect and... plan shall continue in full force and effect. (b) Relation to other administrative actions. The Office...
There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...
Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach
Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.
Hill, Dave; Lewis, Christine; Maisuria, Alpesh; Yarker, Patrick; Carr, Julia
In this article we firstly set out the facts about the current stage of capitalism, the Immiseration stage of neoliberal capitalism in England. We note its relationship with conservatism and neo-conservatism. We identify increased societal inequalities, the assault by the capitalist state on its opponents, and proceed to describe and analyse what…
Lassen Hanan, Anne
This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.
Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.
The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly
Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.
The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended
The dynamic capabilities of 74 publicly listed U.S. companies are examined to determine their knowledge management’s effects on shareholder value. R&D practices, patenting and intellectual capital are examined in a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to offer insights into the temporal dyna...
Kragh, Jonas; Rangvid, Jesper
, implying that resilience in the banking system is also increased. The increase in capital ratios is partly due to a modest reduction in lending. Using a policy changes, we show that banks react stronger to changes in capital requirements when these are public. Our results further suggest that the impact......Unique and confidential Danish data allow us to identify how changes in disclosure requirements and bank-specific time-varying capital requirements affect banks' lending and capital accumu-lation decisions. We find that banks increase their capital ratios after capital requirements are increased...... of capital requirements differ for small and large banks. Large banks raise their capital ratios more, reduce lending less, and accumulate more new capital compared to small banks....
Madsen, Susan R.
Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…
Vlies, van der R.D.; Maas, G.J.
State-of-the-art products commonly outperform construction products that are used in day to day building practice. Also construction products appear to have a diffusion curve that differs from consumer products, slower at first, more rapid later. The social capital theory helps us to understand why
... received a capitalization grant and, if the deposit was expended, it was expended in accordance with title... after it receives the payment, the RA may withhold future quarterly grant payments, and require... procedures regarding the commitment or expenditure of revenues. (h) State accounting and auditing procedures...
Full Text Available The world’s cruise corporations regularly purchase large, luxurious cruise ships. In accordance with the Cruise Line International Association, 33 new ocean cruise ships will be available on the market by 2020. These types of capital expenditures are associated with large financial outlays of up to $ 1 billion. The leading cruise corporations are not able to finance purchases of new units with their own resources and therefore look for different solutions. Available publications focus mainly on issues related to purchasing cargo ships, not cruise ships. The objective of the article is to identify sources of funding of new cruise ships. Our analysis identifies the average capital expenditure associated with purchasing new cruise ships and factors that influence it. The most popular methods for raising such capital are also provided. Our research methodology relies on data exploration method, a desk research method and comparative analysis.
Goodfellow, H. D.
The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.
Full Text Available Jason Moore. 2015. Capitalism in the Web of Life. Ecology and Accumulation of Capital [Capitalismo en la red de la vida. Ecología y acumulación de capital]. London New York: Verso Books. 336 pp. ISBN 978-1781689028.
Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.
A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731
Patricia Martínez García de Leaniz; Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque
Purpose: Intellectual capital offers a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage and is believed to be the source from which economic growth may sprout. However, not many papers analyze the effect of sustainability in the elements involving intellectual capital. This paper seeks to highlight the key role played by corporate sustainability on corporate reputation as one of the key components of relational capital based on the knowledge-based theory.Design/methodology/approach: Auth...
The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....
Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...
forms of organisation have received less attention. In this paper I discuss a recent French contribution to the analysis of the cultural aspects of networks: Boltanski & Chiapellos book Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme (Boltanski and Chiapello 1999). The contribution is important for recent discussions...... of a network perspective on organisations in several ways. First, drawing on Webers earlier discussion of the rise of the capitalist spirit, Boltanski and Chiapello proposes an interesting theoretical model of the change of capitalism relating two different types of cultural elements: the spirit...... of capitalism and criticism of capitalism to processes of change in the form of capitalism. Second, Boltanski and Chiapello directs a critical perspective on the emergent model of network capitalism and its accompanying spirit applying the theoretical framework of worlds of justification developed earlier...
Tesu Ramona Vasilica
ground we have the state of the economy, the economic problems, situation of the banking system. In Romania there is now a modern and competitive banking system, which provides circulation of the economy and domestic supplies banking products and services in accordance with trends in the European banking sector. In this way, the action line, I did a comparative study determining capital requirements under Basel 1, Basel 2, the standardized approaches, credit risk determined. Capitalization of Romanian bank’s remain comfortable, providing good conditions for meeting additional capital requirements Basel III. In what concerns the capital adequacy management, the leading structures of a credit institution need to establish strategies and effective policies in order to maintain, on a continuous base, a level, a correct structure of their own funds, proper for covering the risks that the credit institution is exposed to. We conclude that a bank needs to increase its own funds, which is achieved by several methods decided by management. Presentation of concrete cases in approaching the bank’s capital adequacy represent the personal work which completes the study concerning the purpose of back-up accounting in the banking system, adequate correlation of the risks and capitals.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger
The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....
Clausen, C C; Bauer, M; Saleh, A; Picker, O
In part 1 of this series about problems of financing capital goods the multiple and partly diametric economic effects of financing instruments were presented using the leasing procedure as an example. The result indicated that due to the complexity of these effects the choice of a specific financing instrument requires an individual consideration. Therefore, part 2 of the series introduces the method of dynamic capital budgeting which allows the instruments discussed in part 1 to be compared with each other and helps to evaluate their economic benefits. More precisely this paper focuses on a comparative analysis of the most common alternatives, leasing, credit financing and investment financing by the state. In this context, after having identified the total costs of ownership of anesthesia devices, the final asset values of the three financing instruments can be compared with each other using the method of dynamic capital budgeting. In contrast to the prevailing opinion, the results show that from a purely fiscal perspective leasing anesthesia devices is the most expensive alternative. Given the fact that no financial support is available from the state, the option of credit financing turns out to be the most preferable alternative from a relatively limited pool of possibilities. However, it still remains to be answered whether credit financing can defend this position against further, innovative forms of debt financing (e.g., factoring, asset-backed securities, hedge funds, mezzanine capital, etc.).
Kas, Kristen; Yim, Richard; Traore, Salematou; ElFadaly, Marwa; Lang, Lynn; Freeman, Robert A; Parmar, Jayesh R; Kharel, Madan K
Lethal injection is the preferred method for the execution of condemned prisoners in the United States. A recent decision of The European Union to prohibit the export of drugs used in capital punishment to the USA along with domestic firms ceasing to manufacture these drugs has resulted in a drug shortage and a search for alternative drugs and new drug combinations that have not been previously validated for inducing death. As a consequence, some of the executions did not proceed as expected and sparked public debate regarding whether recent executions by lethal injection serve the purpose of avoiding "cruel and unusual punishment" in executions. Moreover, a cottage industry comprised of compounding pharmacies as emerged as a source of drug combinations used in capital punishment. Although there is a growing trend toward the abolishment of capital punishment in United States, the controversy concerning the efficacy of drug and involvement of health care professionals in the execution procedure is far from over. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chilenski, Sarah M; Ang, Patricia M; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard
The current study examined the impact of the PROSPER delivery system for evidence-based prevention programs on multiple indicators of social capital in a rural and semi-rural community sample. Utilizing a randomized blocked design, 317 individuals in 28 communities across two states were interviewed at three time points over the course of 2.5 years. Bridging, linking, and the public life skills forms of social capital were assessed via community members' and leaders' reports on the perceptions of school functioning and the Cooperative Extension System, collaboration among organizations, communication and collaboration around youth problems, and other measures. Longitudinal mixed model results indicate significant improvements in some aspects of bridging and linking social capital in PROSPER intervention communities. Given the strength of the longitudinal and randomized research design, results advance prevention science by suggesting that community collaborative prevention initiatives can significantly impact community social capital in a rural and semi-rural sample. Future research should further investigate changes in social capital in different contexts and how changes in social capital relate to other intervention effects.
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.
This review compares Piketty and Marx's approaches to capital and time in order to argue for the importance of qualitative measures of inequality. These latter measures emphasize varying experiences across classes and through history of uncertainty and insecurity. They explore how the social rhythms of capital profoundly affect the ability to plan a life-course. Quantitative measures such as those used by Piketty that focus on the amount of capital that accrues through time cannot capture such important phenomenon. This is especially because their calculations rest on absolute amounts of capital recorded in formal state statistics. Their limits are particularly revealed if we consider issues of: informal labour, social reproduction, and changing institutional forms of public debt. If we are to build the inter-disciplinary rapprochement between social science and economics that Piketty calls for it must be through asserting the value of qualitative measures of insecurity and its effects on decision making. These are important to track both at the macro-level of institutions and at the micro-level scale of human lives. It is, therefore, through emphasizing the existing strengths of both anthropology and history that we can meet Piketty's important challenge to make our scholarship relevant to current political and social debates. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
The mining industry in Poland as well as in the world is considered to be a strategic industry, of special significance for the economy. At the same time it is an industry requiring high capital outlays. Equity plays an important role in financing of the mining enterprises. The objective of the article is to compare the cost of equity on the Polish and global coal market. The object of the research are the Polish and foreign mining enterprises listed on the stock markets. The basic research m...
Crook, T Russell; Todd, Samuel Y; Combs, James G; Woehr, David J; Ketchen, David J
Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we meta-analyzed effects drawn from 66 studies of the human capital-firm performance relationship and investigated 3 moderators suggested by resource-based theory. We found that human capital relates strongly to performance, especially when the human capital in question is not readily tradable in labor markets and when researchers use operational performance measures that are not subject to profit appropriation. Our results suggest that managers should invest in programs that increase and retain firm-specific human capital.
Bernosky de Flores, Catherine H
Mexican immigration to the United States is an intragenerational phenomenon. Young adult Mexicans leave their families of origin in search of employment opportunities that pull them to new destination communities. A conceptual framework that defines and relates the concepts of human capital, personal networks, social capital, and resources is introduced. The influence of social capital on the capacity of immigrants to access resources is described. The framework informed the design of a study to examine the approaches used by Mexican immigrant women to access resources for healthy childbearing in the absence of traditional family support systems in a new destination community.
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has a long intellectual history in the fie ld of social sciences. In recent years, interest of scholars from sociology, po litical science, economics and public administration is rapidly increasing. The reason for this increasing interest is that it has been aware of the importance of social capital in communities’ administrative, social, economic and political development. In this sense, the concept of social ca pital is an issue to be discussed with solution of current problems of public administration, subjects of governance, civil society, and participation. Social capital has a lot of definitions which are completely different from each other. Common point of these different definitions is that social capital is a resource at both individual and community level. We will use Robert Putnam’s defi nition about social cap ital in this paper. Putnam (1993 defines social capital as “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action”. In his book; Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, Putnam describes declining social capital in America. He analyzes relationship between social capital and civic participation and assumes that there is a positive relationship between social capital and civic participation. The paper aims to reveal how there is a relationshi p between social capital and civic participation in Central Florida. We will use “The Central Florida Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey that is made by The Survey Research Labora tory in the Ins titute for Social and Behavior Sciences at the University of Central Florida among central Florida residents. We use notion of civic participation not only as voting but also as concern of politics, volunteering, attending a political meeting, participating in any demonstrations, protests or boycotts, cooperating to solve problems and
Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the tax treatment of capital gains on shares of companies both in national and tax treaty law. The authors indicate that the authentic interpretation of the Art. 27 of Serbia's Tax on Profits of Legal Entities Law opens the door to taxing not only realised but also potential capital gains thus triggering certain harmful consequences. Relying on the comparative legal analysis they suggest measures how to eliminate the existing economic double taxation and plead for granting a credit for the tax on capital gains paid abroad. In order to hamper tax evasion the introduction of a security for the resident company whose shares are alienated by a non-resident company at a gain is suggested whenever the tax return has not been filed. By analysing Serbia's 58 tax treaties the authors conclude that 28 of them contain a single demarcation rule exclusively granting jurisdiction to tax the capital gains on shares to the state of residence of the alienator, while in remaining 30 treaties an additional anti-avoidance rule is prescribed.
This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....
Alisson Slider do Nascimento de Paula
Full Text Available The study seeks to understand the interests of the capital intellectuals’ movement for Brazilian higher education. We chose a bibliographical study and document, besides using the method of Marxist dialectical analysis to understand reality as a complex totality, an articulated whole. It was verified that intellectuals play a decisive role in taking action on the direction of Brazilian higher education policy, operating directly in the culture of the state university as well as orchestrating a political-juridical framework for the expansion of private higher education institutions. At the limit, intellectuals are not only manifested as individual subjects; however, as organized collective subjects, for example, international financial capital organizations with their orientations towards peripheral countries express intellectuals of capital in their parasitic phase.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of knowledge dynamics processes upon the intellectual capital in organizations. In the literature, the authors focus on knowledge dynamics and knowledge management or intellectual capital but very few papers discuss the influence of knowledge dynamics upon the structure and functionality of intellectual capital in organizations. We use a conceptual approach based on the theory of multifield organizational knowledge and the theory of organizational integrators to demonstrate that intellectual capital structure results from the organizational knowledge dynamics. The well-known model of intellectual capital based on human capital, structural capital and relational capital appears as a meta-model that can be decomposed into rational capital, emotional capital and spiritual capital in organizations.
Balázs István Tóth
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.
Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.
We use data from an online game economy and econometric matching methods to test whether social capital of players has an impact on game success. Membership in a 'clan', a voluntary organization of players, positively impacts game success. Hence, social capital has a positive effect on outcomes. Yet, top performers do not gain from access to this social capital.
Jackson, Matthew O.
I provide a typology of social capital, breaking it down into seven more fundamental forms of capital: information capital, brokerage capital, coordination and leadership capital, bridging capital, favor capital, reputation capital, and community capital. I discuss how most of these forms of social capital can be identified using different network-based measures.
Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...
This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...
... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures... level of domestic support provided by the United States complies with the commitments of the United...
Absalyamova, Svetlana; Absalyamov, Timur; Khusnullova, Asiya; Mukhametgalieva, Chulpan
The article explains the use of the human capital sustainable development index (HCSDI) to assess the quality of the reproduction of human capital. The paper provides the algorithm for calculating HCSDI and its components. Authors estimated cross-country differences of HCSDI and developed econometric model of the impact of corruption on HCSDI. The use of this model has allowed to reveal the mechanism and assess the impact of corruption on HCSDI and its components. The results of econometric analysis revealed a negative multiplier effect: an increase in the corruption of the socio-economic system of the state by 1% caused HCSDI reduce by more than 1%. The results and conclusions may be proxy-assessments of the socio-economic consequences of violations of the stability of reproduction of human capital in the conditions of the growth of corruption in the country
... commission of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid... of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid prosecution... committed a Federal or State capital crime of which he or she was not convicted due to death or flight to...
Full Text Available Este ensayo explora algunas implicaciones fundamentales de la introducción del capital humano en un sistema de equilibrio general de precios de producción. En particular, las implicaciones sobre las determinación de los salarios, los agregados, la homogeneidad del modelo de trabajo, las proporciones capital trabajo, la tasa natural del beneficio y las fluctuaciones de los precios de equilibrio.This essay explores some fundamental implications of the introduction of human capital in a system of general equilibrium of prices of production. In particular, the implications concerning the determination of wages, the aggregates, the homogenei ty of labor, the capital-labor ratio, the natural rate of profit and the fluctuations of equilibrium prices.
Amanda Santos de Paiva
Full Text Available This article highlights the determinations inherent to the corrosive movement of capital in the current context of crisis for the Brazilian Health Sector Reform Project. It is a bibliographical research that verifies the subsumption of the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System to macro determinations of finance capital. Shows the management model and privatizing healthcare, individual curative and centered procedure that has hegemonized the implementation of health policy in the context of SUS. As an expression of capital's attacks it emphasizes the obstacles to ensuring universal right to health when privatize it. It problematizes up, so the various forms of health privatization: the proposed universal health coverage-UHC, the so-called "new" management models, DAC 451 and the law n o 13.097 / 2015. And, notes the incestuous relationship between state intervention and the need for expansion of capital via appropriation of public funds.
system that is still roughly the basis for accounting today. In his Summa de Arithmetica, Geometrica , Proportions et Proportionalita, Pacioli tried... corrections . It might be said that the study of Intellectual Capital is in fact the search for ways to systematically capture, elucidate, and leverage the...Percentage of full time permanent employees (Malone 1997) Profit per employee (Sveiby 1989) Profit per employee is a useful term if you can correct
Sekhar, Nagothu Udaya
This article shows how social capital impacts fisheries management at the local level in Chilika Lake, located in the state of Orissa in India. In Chilika, the different fishing groups established norms and "rules of the game" including, but not limited to, spatial limits that determine who can fish and in what areas, temporal restrictions about when and for how long people may fish, gear constraints about what harvesting gear may be used by each group, and physical controls on size and other characteristics of fish that may be harvested. A survey of the members of fishing groups has shown that the bonding social capital is strong within the Chilika fishing groups. Bonding and bridging social capital keeps the fishers together in times of resource scarcity, checks violations of community rules and sanctions, and strengthens the community fisheries management. In contrast, linking social capital in Chilika appears to be weak, as is evident from the lack of trust in external agencies, seeking the help of formal institutions for legal support, and increasing conflicts. Trust and cooperation among fishers is crucial in helping to build the social capital. A social capital perspective on fisheries governance suggests that there should be a rethinking of priorities and funding mechanisms, from "top-down" fisheries management towards "co-management" with a focus on engendering rights and responsibilities for fishers and their communities.
Santiago Bianca Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.
Schertler, A.G.; Tykvova, T.
Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture
Byun, Soo-Yong; Schofer, Evan; Kim, Kyung-Keun
The concept of cultural capital has proved invaluable in understanding educational systems in Western countries, and recent work seeks to extend those insights to the diverse educational systems of other geographic regions. We explored cultural capital in South Korea by investigating the relationships among family socioeconomic status (SES), cultural capital, and children's academic achievement using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment. South Korea was compared with Japan, France, and the United States to understand how institutional features of South Korean education shape the role of cultural capital in academic success. Results showed that family SES had a positive effect on both parental objectified cultural capital and children's embodied cultural capital in South Korea, consistent with evidence from the other countries. Moreover, parental objectified cultural capital had a positive effect on children's academic achievement in South Korea. In contrast to other countries, however, children's embodied cultural capital had a negative effect on academic achievement in South Korea controlling for the other variables. We highlighted several institutional features of South Korean education including a standardized curriculum, extreme focus on test preparation, and extensive shadow education, which may combine to suppress the effect of children's embodied cultural capital on academic achievement.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.
Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A
This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.
its attention from duelling ideological warfare to the many intra-state, or internal armed ... reintegration and a thorough case study from Sierra Leone, this paper will ... In response to the challenge of building human security in post-conflict settings, the ... institutions, it is vital to build horizontal and vertical social capital, so that.
This 2-year qualitative study explores the ironies of educational reform in the United States as experienced by three second language learners attending a school attempting to transform itself into a high-performance elementary school in California's Silicon Valley. Drawing on the concept of fast capitalism in a globalized economic work order…
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between intellectual capital and organizational innovation in an Iranian bank named Ghavamin located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The proposed study uses a questionnaire introduced by Bontis [Bontis, N. (1999. Managing organisational knowledge by diagnosing intellectual capital: framing and advancing the state of the field. International Journal of technology management, 18(5, 433-462.] for measuring the effect of intellectual capital and designs a questionnaire to measure organizational innovation. The questionnaires are distributed among 40 randomly selected managers and regular employees and using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression model, the study has detected positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and organizational innovation.
Ion Gr. IONESCU
Full Text Available The evolution of the international economic and social-politic life, after 1821 was strongly marked by visible trends and renewing action, animated by the idea of civic freedoms and feudal privileges deleting, emancipation of the peoples and nations. As an expression of the capitalist development, we assist at the constitution intensification of the global market, at the same time, with many differences in opinions, misunderstandings, disagreements and controversies, between the developed strong states, for domination. Politically, this situation has led to convolutions interstate relations, first of all, in Western Europe. Because capitalist relationships were deeply consolidated in this part of the continent, it is easy to understand that countries regarded as great powers - economic, military - were therefore acting, for domination and expansion. The level of economic freedom, as well as the rules of private property defining, have varied, from historical stage, at historical stage. However, on the territory of Romania, the penetration and the development of capitalism and its specific relations have been carried out slower, comparatively, with the West and even the center of Europe. The present study is the fruit of a profound research, through archives, libraries, published papers, periodicals, general and special works, of which, some of them have been finalized with conclusions in order to better understand the processuality and phenomenology of the capital accumulation and capital market formation, drawing of models and templates, depending on conditions and causalities, for knowing their effects.
Full Text Available For young workers, interning is a strategy for speculating on one’s asset portfolio. Students and graduates undertake internships as a way of maintaining their self-appreciation and avoiding depreciation in a “human capital regime.” In this article, we explore the specific example of interning in the creative industries as the self-management of human capital vis-à-vis the human capital theses. Taking three cultural objects and recent representations of the issue of unpaid internships—Intern magazine, an advert for a “volunteering opportunity” student placement, and testimonies from interns—we analyze how unpaid work in the creative industries and the neoliberal version of human capital entrepreneurship can be seen as embodied by interns.
International research on the social determinants of health has increasingly started to integrate a welfare state regimes perspective. Although this is to be welcomed, to date there has been an over-reliance on Esping-Andersen's The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology (1990). This is despite the fact that it has been subjected to extensive criticism and that there are in fact a number of competing welfare state typologies within the comparative social policy literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide public health researchers with an up-to-date overview of the welfare state regime literature so that it can be reflected more accurately in future research. It outlines The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology, and it presents the criticisms it received and an overview of alternative welfare state typologies. It concludes by suggesting new avenues of study in public health that could be explored by drawing upon this broader welfare state regimes literature.
O’Hara Phillip Anthony
Full Text Available This article critically evaluates the forms of love capital being accumulated by people in capitalist economies, through the lens of some of the core general principles of heterodox political economy (HPE. We start by situating love historically in the neoliberal culture and then examine the six main love styles as well as the five critical factors through the process of circular and cumulative causation. We then scrutinise the contradictions of neoliberal capitalism involving the nurturance gap, disembedded economy and freedom constraint which inhibit the generation of holistic love capital. The path dependent nature of love is then linked to relational phases and instabilities, especially involving serial monogamy in the United States. Some of the core principles of HPE provide a vantage point for scrutinising the problems involved in stimulating holistic love capital in the contemporary environment.
This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…
Imbierowicz, Björn; Kragh, Jonas; Rangvid, Jesper
We investigate how banks' capital and lending decisions respond to changes in bank-specific capital and disclosure requirements. We find that an increase in the bank-specific regulatory capital requirement results in a higher bank capital ratio, brought about via less asset risk. A decrease...
Full Text Available A key part of Hegel’s practical philosophy is his theory of civil society and the idea of a rational regulation of the market. This is the foundation of Hegel’s theory of a social state. The copyright on the notion of a modern society of freedom and a rational, social state belongs to Hegel. Hegel proves himself to be the thinker who until now has provided the most convincing foundation for freedom in modernity. The theoretical foundation and at the same time bone of contention of Hegel’s political thought is to be found in his concept of ethical life (Sittlichkeit, in particular in his theory of civil society. The current shipwreck of deregulated capitalism does not mean the foundering of our journey towards a free society. Nevertheless the deficiencies and unsustainability of both traditional models - socialist collective ownership and market fundamentalism - exhibit two contradictory claims to a share of the wealth of nations. To take up Hegel’s project is, in essence, to aim at a new conception of an environmentally and socially sustainable and just society, and a corresponding world order. It is to further Hegel’s philosophy of freedom.
Hinton, Kip Austin
Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…
Full Text Available This paper deals with researching negative consequences of allocation of economic (virtual gains made as a result of conventional accounting concept by facing current income with historical expenses and necessity to promote additional stimulating instruments that are at disposal by the state in order to eliminate these negative consequences. one of them is certainly protective interest as a relatively new active fiscal instrument of capital protection and recognition of price of invested owner's equity in business ventures, i.e. a specific form of compensation by the state for invested capital bearing in mind, that no source is free, including ones own sources. We also showed mechanisms of protective interest which, together with other measures of macroeconomic policy, should contribute to the protection of real purchasing power of company equity and increase of net gain, left on company's disposal for new investments, new work places, more money in the budget, protection of actual assets against taxing in the conditions of inflation, etc.
... total capital-to-asset ratio (both of which shall be based on the same financial data used for the... the liquidity, capital, earnings or continuing operations of the Bank, including those affecting...
This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...
Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi
Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182... PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if not...
This paper analyses economic power, state power and ideological power in the age of Donald Trump with the help of critical theory. It applies the critical theory approaches of thinkers such as Franz Neumann, Theodor W. Adorno and Erich Fromm. It analyses changes of US capitalism that have together with political anxiety and demagoguery brought about the rise of Donald Trump. This article draws attention to the importance of state theory for understanding Trump and the changes of politics that...
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202
Horváth, Roman; Seidler, Jakub; Weill, Laurent
This paper examines the relation between banks’ capital and liquidity creation. This issue is of interest to determine the potential impact of higher capital requirements for banks on their liquidity creation, which may have particular importance with new Basel III reform demanding from banks higher capital. We perform Granger-causality tests in a dynamic GMM panel estimator framework on an exhaustive dataset of Czech banks from 2000 to 2010.
Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.
Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching
This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.
Hakim Ali Kanasro
Full Text Available This paper is to examine the stock markets role in the capital formation in Pakistan from the period 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2008. This analytical study is based on the data collected from the secondary sources such as State Bank of Pakistan and three stock exchanges; Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad Stock exchanges. The stock market size of capital, number of listed companies and liquidity positions has been examined in the study. The study reveals that Karachi Stock exchange is the oldest and biggest Stock exchange of Pakistan and it is the first mover to adapt institutional developments, new policies and procedures in the business of securities exchange and shares a big role in the capital formation in Pakistan. In recent years all stock exchanges have implemented the advanced technology and fully automated trading systems. This has changed the stock markets role in the capital formation as great boom has been observed during the study period.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.
Full Text Available The paper examines a modified real business cycle model of a small open economy such as the Korean economy. The model economy is assumed to produce output with two types of capital: traded capital and non¡ⓒtraded capital. Domestic individuals can borrow from the world capital market only by using traded capital as collateral, and investment in non¡ⓒtraded capital must be financed by domestic savings. It implies that the capital mobility is partial rather than perfect although domestic residents have free access to the world capital market. By incorporating externalities into the production technology, the model economy is able to generate dynamic path of equilibrium time series solely driven by non¡ⓒfundamental shocks such as animal spirits of investors or self¡ⓒfulfilling expectations if the ratio of traded capital to total capital is sufficiently high. The paper shows that the second moment properties of the Korean aggregate data could be reproduced in a modified real business cycle framework where fluctuations are driven only by non¡ⓒfundamental shocks, not by the disturbances to economic fundamentals such as technology. This requires a high value of traded capital relative to total capital, which means that the domestic capital market must be highly integrated with the world capital market. It implies that there exists some critical level of capital mobility beyond which the business cycles of an open economy becomes highly vulnerable to non¡ⓒfundamental shocks such as self¡ⓒfulfilling expectations.
Full Text Available Every company is constructed through two kinds of capital, which is financial capital and intellectual capital. If the company's capital is described as a tree, the human capital, an essential part of intellectual capital, is the resin. Resin allows the tree grows, and only the human capital that enables organizations to grow and develop. Considering the strategic position of human capital, it is a compulsion for a company to develop it. The problem is how to build human capital effectively? This study aimed to identify the factors that determine the development of human capital in an organization. There are 2 (two major factors that hypothetically influence human capital, which is leadership and organizational commitment. Leadership does not directly affect human capital. Leadership influence human capital through organizational commitment. In other words, organizational commitment is an intervening variable for the relationship or the influence of leadership on human capital. This hypothesis is based on a 'fact' that the function of leadership is oriented and intended to obtain or build the commitment of each personnel. Only committed personnel will provide their best for the organization. Only through the best contributions of every personnel, human capital can be built and developed. Leadership is useless if it can not obtain and create commitment. Personnel are useless, no matter how many and how skilfull they are, if they do not contribute the best for the organization. The presence of personnel without their comitment will be the same with their absence; even they may actually be detrimental to the organization.
Danthine, Jean-Pierre; Jin, Xiangrong
Recent studies have found unmeasured intangible capital to be large and important. In this paper we observe that by nature intangible capital is also very different from physical capital. We find it plausible to argue that the accumulation process for intangible capital differs significantly from the process by which physical capital accumulates. We study the implications of this hypothesis for rational firm valuation and asset pricing using a two-sector general equilibrium model. Our main fi...
Full Text Available The article highlights the process of reflection in accounting the capital costs for land improvement. The main legislation governing this issue is covered. Also the article has agreed the key issues that ensure in accounting for capital expenditures for farmland improving. The survey has benefited such general scientific methods as: induction and deduction, dialectic, historical and systematic methods and specific methods of accounting. Due to the land reform the ownership of the land was changed. Lands which were owned by farms have been privatized and have received a particular owner. Now privatized lands constitute a significant part of farmland. The land managers require quality accounting information about composition and state of the land and improvements that occur to make an effective management. The numerous changes in legislation generate controversies in their interpretation and, consequently, it results in appearance of the discrepancies in the conduct of cost accounting for capital land improvement which will effect on the amount of net profit in future. The article reflects the economic substance of the process and fundamentally describes the implementation method of accounting for capital expenditure for land in accordance with the applicable law.
Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo
Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.
Robinson, J C
Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.
Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk
An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however, the influe......An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however......, the influence of human capital on the development of low-tech industries is yet to be analysed. This paper provides such an examination of low-tech industries based on an analysis of employment data within manufacturing industries in Denmark in the period 1993–2006. The findings highlight, first, that human...... capital appears to be equally important for economic development in low-tech industries and, second, that the divide between the large urban regions, especially Copenhagen, and the rest of the country plays the primary role in explaining the geography of human capital. These findings stress the relevance...
The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...
Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.
Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)
Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, labor migration is an important source of remittances and other transfers of migrants to their homeland, which expands the country’s capacity for the development of the national economy and financial markets in particular. Due to the transformational changes in the domestic economy in the 1990th many citizens became migrant workers and their remittances now exceed foreign direct investment in the country. Until 2013 remittances in Ukraine were mainly coming through the banking system, but recently the dominant role is being played by international payment systems, as well as quite a significant amount is incoming by informal channels. In order to increase the role of formal financial market infrastructure in providing capital inflows of migrants first of all the cost of transfer must be reduced.Unfortunately, the capital of Ukrainian migrant workers is directed primarily at the consumer market, real estate market, as well as the shadow economy. The investment focus has actually only investments in real estate and private business (own entrepreneurship. Migrant workers invest in those areas of the economy that are the least compliant to investment and bank lending standards. At the same time, migrants almost do not use capital to purchase shares and bonds, but use it actively to invest in such financial market tool as deposits. Regardless of significant efforts by the Government of Ukraine to attract funds in the state budget by selling different variations of bonds a notable success in modern conditions was not achieved. Nowadays remittances have enabled us to soften financial instability, balance of payments deficit; to strengthen the exchange rate of the national currency and they also have the positive impact on international credit ratings of Ukraine. However, the effectiveness of government policy to direct remittances into investment is very low, and it actualizes the search of effective tools to realize
Bassi, Laurie J.
Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)
Plagens, Gregory K.
Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...
Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data. Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship. Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.
Daigneau, William A.
Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)
Jæger, Mads Meier
do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...
a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and identifying five main issues that need to be addressed....... Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks...
Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinlaender, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika
Background: Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature.This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of ruralSri Lankan pregnant women.Methods: An exploratory qualitative study......-diary interviews.Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers.We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domesticand neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs....... Social support was limited to supportfrom close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in themicro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by whichsocial capital could influence health...
Full Text Available The article brings a detailed formal analysis of the Roman capitals from Sirmium, in the light of the stone analysis conducted on the material at the Museum of Srem and elsewhere in Sremska Mitrovica. The capitals dot the historical development of the town from the first half of the 2nd century until the 4th century. First made of regional limestone, they were later joined by those of limestone and marbles of distant source, whereby different stones in capitals coexisted almost throughout the town’s development. This was certainly the situation during the flourishing times of the late 3rd and the 4th century, when Sirmium, as one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire, stood within several formal circles of capitals. The plain-leaved capitals tie it to the rest of Pannonia, the Corinthianizing capitals to the provinces to the east and south, while part of the Asiatic capitals, the largest group, tie it to the wider area of the Mediterranean.
Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.
Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration
Vaughan, J; Wise, J
Physician group practices and networks must have ready access to capital to finance their working capital needs, capital equipment acquisitions, and real estate purchases, as well as to fund the acquisition of additional practices. At least three options for capitalization are available to group practices and networks: debt financing, equity financing, or a combination of the two. The best option for physician group practices and networks depends on the costs of capital and the impact the strategy will have on decision making and governance.
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided...
Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.
Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…
This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…
Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K
Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.
Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M
Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. Each Bank's credit risk capital requirement shall be equal to the sum of the Bank's...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New capital... revision of the debt instrument. (iii) If short-term financing was used to acquire old capital assets and...
... otherwise be allowable as State or local-level administrative costs. (1) Cash. An allowable cash... State- or local-level administrative costs for which there has been a cash outlay by the State agency...-cash goods or services specifically identifiable with allowable State-level administrative costs or...
SHI Junwei; FU Haiyan; HU Lijun
Vertical relationships with the government, particular relational capital and organizational social network capital, constitute corporate social capital (CSC). Using the empirical data of 97 listed companies in China, this paper examines the impact of CSC on corporate performance, finds that CSC has a positive impact on sales revenue but an insignificant impact on the improvement of ROA. More specifically, when a firm enlarges its sales revenue, the function of organizational network capital is stronger than that of a particular relational capital and that of governmental connections. The paper also finds that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have more advantages in using governmental connections, therefore leading to better social status than non-SOEs do, who have fewer advantages in using any particular relational capital. The article suggests that managers should appraise carefully the effectiveness of CSC, and combine it with other resources; firms should distinguish the structure of the impact of CSC on performance improvement in a dynamic way. With respect to the implication of this paper, it could help in analyzing firm behaviors in the transitional China.
Carlijn B M Kamphuis
Full Text Available Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1 to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2 to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3 to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices.We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011.The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills. Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items, and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices.Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in food choices.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....
This study evaluate the importance of human capital on the performance of small firms in the construction sector in developing countries. Primary data was obtained from 255 small contractors in the construction sector in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Analysis of the study was carried out through descriptive and multiple ...
Intellectual capital (IC) is a vital to the functionality of information technology (IT) businesses. Many companies recognize that enhancing and maintaining IC is critical to sustainability. The problem is that Fortune 500 IT businesses lack human resources in the United States needed for innovative development, resulting in an overreliance on…
Carbonell Boria, María José
Estado de la cuestión de los trabajos sobre la Capital Cursiva. Análisis de la misma y muestras de su existencia y uso en la cultura occidental, incluida España. The matter of the study of Italic Capital letters. Its analysis, samples, and use in Western cultur, including Spain.
Full Text Available Thomas Piketty’s international best selling Capital in the Twenty-First Century lays out his theory of a long-run rise in income inequality under capitalism. It is written as a manifesto urging reintegration of social sciences. A number of reviewers judged it on ideological grounds, labeling it either as a revolution in economic thinking, or dismissing it offhandedly. Piketty’s theory of rising inequality is based on the two Fundamental Laws of Capitalism, developed after the Solow growth model. However, this model is inconsistent with Piketty’s own characterization of modern capitalism. Moreover, his sole justification for the constant discrepancy between rate of return and rate of income growth (r > g is based on the high elasticity of substitution between capital and labor. However, that is just one factor that can have an influence on factor income shares. By failing to offer a consistent theory of rising inequality, his piece can hardly be considered as a useful founding stone for a new social science.
Juchem Neto, J. P.; Claeyssen, J. C. R.; Pôrto Júnior, S. S.
In this paper we introduce capital transport cost in a unidimensional spatial Solow-Swan model of economic growth with capital-induced labor migration, considered in an unbounded domain. Proceeding with a stability analysis, we show that there is a critical value for the capital transport cost where the dynamic behavior of the economy changes, provided that the intensity of capital-induced labor migration is strong enough. On the one hand, if the capital transport cost is higher than this critical value, the spatially homogeneous equilibrium of coexistence of the model is stable, and the economy converges to this spatially homogeneous state in the long run; on the other hand, if transport cost is lower than this critical value, the equilibrium is unstable, and the economy may develop different spatio-temporal dynamics, including the formation of stable economic agglomerations and spatio-temporal economic cycles, depending on the other parameters in the model. Finally, numerical simulations support the results of the stability analysis, and illustrate the spatio-temporal dynamics generated by the model, suggesting that the economy as a whole benefits from the formation of economic agglomerations and cycles, with a higher capital transport cost reducing this gain.
Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a evolução da migração de partos do interior do Estado de Sergipe para a capital (Aracaju, no período compreendido entre 1970 e 1996. Para tanto utilizou-se a informação "município de residência da mãe" cujo parto ocorreu nas maternidades de Aracaju, nos anos de 1970, 1976, 1986 e 1996. Ao se estudar as proporções de mães não residentes em Aracaju, verificaram-se diferenças significativas, sendo que o período com maiores percentuais de migração ocorreu entre 1976 e 1986. A migração foi estimulada pela melhoria das rodovias que dão acesso à capital (a partir de 1970 e pelo incentivo político com fins eleitoreiros (clientelismo. Assim, a melhoria na estrutura hospitalar do interior não impediu o aumento da migração para a capital. Em Sergipe, no período em estudo, houve um crescimento de 134,6% do número de partos ocorridos na capital, provenientes de outras localidades. Além disso, observa-se intensidades de variação diferenciadas, quando se analisa o fenômeno por regiões, tendo em vista a melhoria das condições de acessibilidade. Faz-se necessária a regionalização e hierarquização da assistência ao parto e ao recém-nascido, para que se possa dar um atendimento adequado às gestantes e aos seus filhos.This study analyzes trends in the migration of childbirth from rural areas of Sergipe State, Brazil, to the capital city, Aracaju, from 1970 to 1996. Data on "mother's place of residence" were obtained from mothers whose children were born in maternity hospitals in Aracaju in 1970, 1976, 1986, and 1996. Significant differences occurred in the proportion of mothers who resided outside of Aracaju but came there to give birth, especially from 1976 to 1986. This shift was stimulated by improvement of State highways and the granting of personal political favors in exchange for votes. Changes in the State hospital structure did not appear to have influenced the childbirth shift
G. S. Merzlikina
Full Text Available The article presents the basic problems of fixed capital reproduction. There are considered a significant depreciation of fixed assets of Russian enterprises. There are presented arguments in favor of urgency of the problem of reproduction of fixed assets of the Russian Federation. The paper presents theoretical evidence base basic types of fixed capital reproduction. There are identified all possible sources of simple and expanded reproduction of capital. There are considered the role of value and feasibility of depreciation in the formation of Reserve reproduction. Suggested the formation of accounting and analytical management provision fixed capital, as well as an innovative system of fixed capital reproduction, which implies the creation of depreciation , capital, revaluation, liquidation reserves. The algorithm of business valuation based on an innovative system of capital reproduction. The algorithm and the possibility of formation of reserves are considered on a concrete example of one of the industrial enterprises of the city Volgograd. On the basis of the algorithm presented calculations of business valuation of the enterprise. Calculations have shown an increase in value of the business condition of the formation of special reserves, which underlines the necessary and urgency of their formation in accounting policy and economy organizations and enterprises of Russia as a whole.
Full Text Available Theories of human capital are becoming an increasingly common reference in both newer pedagogical theories as well as political documents, outlining the plans for reforms of science and education. As a part of broader ideology of knowledge society, human capital theories represent ideological legitimation of neoliberal trends in science and education policies. Increased investment in human capital on both social and individual level is supposed to increase the competitiveness of the economy as a whole as well as employability and welfare of individuals. In the first part of the article, we sketch the intellectual history and the socio-political context of the development of theories of human capital. Second part is dedicated to a critique of characteristically neoliberal equalization of labor with capital and of a theory, according to which investment in human capital brings profits to individual workers. In the third part, we outline a general socio-historical dynamics of the development of high-tech capitalism and show that “investments in human capital” and economic innovations do not bring about increased social welfare. In the fourth, final part, we analyze in detail how current educational reforms impact the learning process and working conditions at public universities.
O. E. Ustinova
Full Text Available Intellectual capital is of strategic importance for a modern company. At the same time, its effective management, including a stimulating and creative approach to solving problems, will help to increase the competitiveness and development of economic entities. The article considers intellectual capital as an object of analysis of the internal environment. In the context of the proposed approaches to its study, its impact on the development of the company is also considered. The intellectual capital has a special significance and influence on internal processes, since on each of them the intellectual component allows to achieve a positive synergetic effect from the interaction of different objects. In more detail, it is proposed to consider it in terms of the position of the company it occupies on the market, the principles of its activities, the formation of marketing policies, the use of resources, methods and means of making managerial decisions, and the organizational culture formed. For the analysis of the state of the internal environment, the main approaches are proposed, in which the intellectual capital is considered, among them: methods for analyzing cash flows, economic efficiency and financial feasibility of the project, analysis of the consolidated financial flow by group of objects, assessment of the potential of the business entity, technology of choice of investment policy, technology Selection of incentive mechanisms. In this regard, it is advisable to analyze the company's internal environment from the position of influencing its state of intellectual capital. The scheme of interaction of intellectual capital and objects of an estimation of an internal environment of the managing subject is offered. The results of this study should be considered as initial data for the further development of the economic evaluation of the influence of intellectual capital on the competitiveness of companies.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan...
Full Text Available O artigo aborda a retomada do conceito de capital humano nas últimas décadas no contexto da hegemonia de organismos multilaterais mais diretamente vinculados ao pensamento e aos interesses norte-americanos na área educacional, e de demandas que resultam da reestruturação produtiva e sociocultural na Nova Era Capitalista. Ressalta a amplitude das noções metafóricas dele derivadas (Bourdieu e outros e indica o trecho dos Grundrisse em que Marx refere-se ao homem como sendo o próprio capital fixo criado pelo desenvolvimento de suas capacidades no tempo livre.The article treats the retaking of the concept of human capital in recent decades in the context of the hegemony of the multilateral organizations more directly linked to the North American thinking and interests in the educational area and the demands which have resulted from the productive, social and cultural restructuring of the New Age of Capitalism. It highlights the breadth of the metaphorical notions derived from it (Bourdieu and others and cites the excerpt from the Grundrisse in which Marx refers to humans as fixed assets created by the development of their abilities in their free time.
Marrakchi Charfi Fatma
Full Text Available This paper deals with an important aspect of Tunisian economic and political decisions related to the opportunity for currency convertibility. Tunisia has established its current currency convertibility and has taken steps to achieve full convertibility of the dinar by gradually removing capital flow obstacles. Theoretical and empirical literature suggests that capital account liberalization generally leads to capital inflow in developing countries, generating an appreciation in the real exchange rate (RER and thus a loss in competitiveness. However, preserving competitiveness is a key challenge for monetary authorities, who have to conciliate these two apparently conflicting purposes. To guide their decisions with respect to the prescribed procedure for capital liberalization, we need to evaluate the impact of each capital component flow on the RER. The question is addressed by analyzing impulse response functions (IRF resulting from a VAR model, covering 1970 to 2010 and gathering the RER, its fundamental determinants, monetary variables and an estimated capital control (CC variable. Results show that a relaxation of CC overappreciates the RER to its long-term level, and liberalizing portfolio investment is the most compromising for competitiveness.
Lotze, C.D.; Riordan, B.J.
The capital costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants are found to be comparable when costs for pollution control are included. Trends in capital costs reveal a similar rate gain that retains the same economic balance. Graphs of selected cost indices are used to show that the rapid increase in direct construction costs is not unique to nuclear plants, those of hydroelectric plants as well as coal-fired having the same pattern. Comparisons of indirect capital costs, based on analyses of direct capital and total capital costs, show estimated average growth rates of total costs to be 14% for coal and 13.6% for nuclear, while direct cost growth rates are 10.2% and 10.4%. The economics of market competition can be expected to push alternative energy source projects into balance
The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the evolution offinancial reporting on capital market. Due to the worlwide changes, the role of financial reportingin capital market is constantly growing. Financial reporting analyzed through market perspective isstrongly correlated with issues like: capital allocation, financial statements, internationalaccounting standards and informational valences. Capital market research emphasizes the need forqualitative and transparent...
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano
The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...
Full Text Available Este artículo sugiere que la metamorfosis de las deudas en derivados y títulos financieros, y de estos en deudas, genera redes de activos y obligaciones, que inducen la emergencia de distintos tiempos del capital, articulados en un sistema complejo, cuya dinámica hace posible sincronizarlos en forma de crisis de carácter global. La crisis se trata como un cambio de estado en un sistema complejo, precipitada por la conectividad generada por el apalancamiento creciente. Es un desarrollo de las teorías de la crisis y de la socialización de la deuda planteadas por Marx en El Capital.
Full Text Available The role and importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR is highlighted as an important factor of accumulation of intellectual, social, reputational and cultural capital, ensuring the global competitiveness of modern market economies. The world experience of CSR development in the context of increasing the level of trust in society, accumulation and effective implementation of social capital is analyzed. The peculiarities of CSR development in Ukraine are emphasized, and the state priority actions are grounded in order to promote social responsibility of the business as a factor of accumulation of new forms of capital, namely: institutionally-organizational arrangement of effective interaction of private business and state, state encouragement of private business to implement CSR by providing tax privileges and benefits, informational support for CSR development, promotion of corporate social responsibility principles, spreading the ideas of CSR among employees, customers, communities, deepening of business cooperation with universities and research institutions towards adapting international best practices and training in the field of CSR.
Stephen Bond; Jing Xing
We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...
Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin
Full Text Available In the article, the main theoretical questions of the organizational capital of the enterprise are considered. The concept of «organizational capital of the enterprise» as a system consisting of three subsystems (organization of production, labour organization and management is introduced. It is shown that the organizational capital forms the labour relations system at the enterprise consisting of the cooperation, technological, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of workers’ responsibility. The model of cyclic evolution of crisis at the enterprise caused by shortcomings of the organizational capital is revealed. It is shown that the organizational capital is a basis for the realization of the human capital, which creates value added. A considerable attention is paid to the experience of the creation and functioning of the organizational capital at the enterprises of the Japanese corporation «Toyota». The Russian economic literature on crisis management quite often considers only the financial aspects of diagnostics, proposing the optimization of cash flows, elimination of excess stocks, transition to the medium-term budgeting and others. However, the deep reasons of crisis need to be found not only in financial streams, but also in the system of the work relationships. The shortcomings in the development of technological, cooperation, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of responsibility directly reflects the shortcomings in the development of the elements of the organizational capital as they «are adjusted» by these elements. In turn, organizational problems affect the product quality leading to the customer attrition and decrease in the enterprise’s financial performance. The lack of financial resources cause the need to save costs (first of all, on personnel, that was brightly shown by the economic crisis of 2009 that even more weakens the enterprise and system of labour relations. Finally, the
Robinson, J C; Casalino, L P
In California, it is common for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to contract with large medical groups that are paid through capitation and are responsible for managing a full spectrum of medical services. We studied six large medical groups in California--Bristol Park Medical, Friendly Hills HealthCare Network, HealthCare Partners Medical Group, Mullikin Medical Centers, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, and San Jose Medical Group--that are paid through capitation and that are growing as a result of contracts with managed-care organizations. We conducted interviews and obtained data on factors such as patient enrollment, capitation and other revenue, numbers of days spent by enrollees in the hospital, and numbers of visits to physicians per enrollee. Between 1990 and 1994, the number of HMO enrollees whose care was paid for through capitation in the six medical groups increased by 91 percent, from 398,359 to 759,474. In 1994, the mean number of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees ranged from 120 to 149 for non-Medicare patients and from 643 to 936 days for Medicare patients. By comparison, in 1993 the mean numbers of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees not covered by Medicare were 232 for California and 297 for the United States; for HMO enrollees covered by Medicare, the numbers were 1337 for California and 1698 for the United States. In 1994, the average annual number of visits to physicians for HMO patients in the six groups not covered by Medicare ranged from 3.1 to 3.9; for Medicare patients, it ranged from 7.2 to 9.3; these rates were slightly lower than statewide and national rates. Four of the groups have sold their assets (such as facilities, supplies, equipment, and patients' charts) to outside investors; the physicians remain employed by physician-owned professional corporations. Medical groups paid through capitation offer a model for the status of physicians in managed-care systems that differs from the employee status offered by staff-model HMOs
The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts
Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship of the intellectual capital of a company (proxied by its intangible assets, with leverage and equity and capital structure. Our empirical results indicate that there is a negative relation between the intellectual capital (intangible assets of a company and its leverage based on the Warsaw Stock Exchange main market and NewConnect alternative market. Moreover, the equity capital is found positively related to the level of intangibles in each of the two markets. These results support the thesis that intellectual capital (intangible assets influences the capital structure of a company.
Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova
Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes, aspirat......Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes......, aspirations and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenbergs Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...... for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems by adding the innate...
Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas
We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much
Norhayati Mat Husin
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the extent of human capital (HC reporting among top Malaysian companies and introduce an HC reporting guideline that can be used by Malaysian companies and regulator. It begins by developing the HC framework based on previous intellectual capital (IC frameworks. This framework is then used to examine each of the top 100 Malaysian companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia in year 2008. Using the content analysis method, it reviews the annual reports of these companies to determine the extent of HC reporting. The findings of this paper highlight the need for the development of IC framework particularly on HC. HC differences were also identified between Malaysia and other countries such as Sri Lanka and Australia, and it is argued that these differences can be attributed to the social, economic, and political factors.Keywords: Human capital, intellectual capital, Malaysia
Fine, Allan; Bacchetti, J Alex
With operating margins showing some improvement in 2003, Y2K being a distant memory, and many critical capital investment decisions delayed as long as possible, hospitals have been on a relative spending spree, building new facilities, renovating operating rooms and inpatient units, and investing in new medical and information technologies. However, with pressure on both cost and revenue expected to continue, if not increase, this spending spree may be short-lived, and hospitals must improve their capital planning efforts; align them with their mission, vision, and strategies; and ensure that capital is available when unplanned or even expected needs arise. This article explores some of the challenges that hospitals face in their capital planning efforts and, more importantly, suggests the necessity for hospitals to integrate capital and strategic planning. Capital planning must be driven by an organization's strategies; however, we also argue that an organization's ability to execute its strategies is highly dependent on the existence of a cohesive capital prioritization and planning process. In this article, we explore a number of issues critical to developing a comprehensive capital plan, including estimating capital costs, evaluating and designing strategies to contend with risk, saving for the proverbial "rainy day," and recognizing the role and value of philanthropy, while challenging some conventional thinking of hospital executives with respect to investment, growth, and planning.
This article critically examines the state (extent of provision) and status (public esteem) of modern language education in Scotland, which as a constituent part of the United Kingdom has its own independent education system. The notion of social capital, as conceptualized by Putnam and others, is used to show how attempts by language…
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Full Text Available There is a general consensus that human capital is a major determinant of economic growth. Reflections on how human capital is related to growth can be extended by viewing on the market value of the human capital. The concept of the market value of human capital reflects the efficiency of allocation and utilisation of the human capital in the economy. To measure this efficiency the concept of the market value of human capital is explained and developed in the present paper. The aim of the paper is to introduce the concept of market value of human capital and the specific objectives are targeted to define his content, to propose a method for estimating it and to provide calculations of it for OECD countries. The concept of human capital is complex and multifaceted one, consisting of: native human capital (biological, educational capital, health capital and social skills (Neagu, 2010. Clearly, human capital is intangible, a stock that is not directly observable as physical capital. Therefore, the estimation of human capital must be constructed indirectly. The stock of human capital in economy creates economic value, expressed through the economic output per capita. In order to estimate this economic value we have to find an appropriate proxy for the human capital stock producing that value. In the purpose of our paper, we consider that the economic value of human capital can be estimated by calculating the aggregate value created by the active human capital in the economy. In this view, GDP per person employed is a relevant estimation of value created by the employed labour force. The aggregate value is created by the employed persons with different educational level. The market value of human capital is calculated by dividing the GDP per person employed to the human capital stocks active in the economy. The human capital stock depends on educational costs ( on primary, seconadry, tertiary education as a the share of GDP per capita weighted by the
... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies...
Full Text Available El artículo expone el análisis de los conceptos de gestión del conocimiento y de capital intelectual, así como la valoración de 12 modelos para la medición del capital intelectual; los cuales, por sus características y conceptos de aplicación, pudieran, de manera total o parcial, emplearse en las condiciones de las empresas hoteleras cubanas. Se identifican insuficiencias en los modelos analizados, que no imposibilitan utilizar los indicadores contenidos en ellos en la medición del capital intelectual en empresas hoteleras. Como resultado, se deciden utilizar los indicadores del modelo Skandia, concentrados en 4 grupos: cliente, recursos humanos, renovación y desarrollo y procesos. De los 85 indicadores de este modelo, los expertos consideran que 23 de ellos resultan de posible aplicación en las empresas hoteleras cubanas.AbstractThe article presents an analysis of the concepts of knowledge management and intellectual capital, as well as the assessment of 12 models for measuring intellectual capital, which could be used, totally or partially, in Cuban hotel companies, due to their characteristics and application concepts. Some inadequacies in the above mentioned models are identified, which do not limit the use of their indicators in measuring intellectual capital in hotel companies. As a result, the decision is to use the indicators of the Skandia model, concentrated into 4 groups: client, human resources, renovation and development, and processes. Out of the 85 indicators of this model, experts consider that 23 can be applied in Cuban hotel companies.
This study consists of two models. Model one is conducted to check if there is a target adjustment toward optimal capital structure, in the context of Turkish firm listed on the stock market, over the period 2003-2014. Model 2 captures the interaction between firm size, profitability, market value and capital structure using the moderation mediation model. The results of model 1 have shown that there is a partial adjustment of the capital structure to reach target levels. The results of...
Halil Ibrahim Bulut
The important part of this study attempts to explain that both venture capital and interest-free financing are based on similar ground, if not the same. Two new models called Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-End Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-End Mutual Funds, based on both the similarities and the needs of financial innovation in the interest-free financing system, are detailed. It is believed that the development of these two models could make some improvements not only in th...
Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.
Full Text Available The novelty and use of current technology in stock exchange trading operations are just a few reasons for which the capital market domain is a controversial one, and the number of crimes already committed in the financial market raises the issue of securing the supply-demand relationship of capital and capital investment protection. If in the Community law there is no incrimination of market abuse, Romanian legislature sanctioned the capital market manipulation as criminal acts committed intentionally in order to discourage such practices and also to increase the confidence of investors in the financial market
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in thefinancing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determinesthe incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitaliststo finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well...... assubsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backedentrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes onmature firms have important consequences for start-up firms as well.JEL Classification: D82, G24, H24 and H25Keywords: double moral hazard, entrepreneurship, taxes...
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
(Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....
Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.
Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen
The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technological literacy. Age, gender, education, income, web access, and social capital were included as independent variables. The results show that age, gender, education, web access, and social capital were good predictors of technological literacy. It is concluded that social capital is helpful in coping with rapid technological change. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed.
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...
The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series, some entailing differing assumptions about firm behaviour. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their
Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.
Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical