WorldWideScience

Sample records for state association activities

  1. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  2. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  3. Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Amy L; Banerjee, Shailendra N; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Wendel, Arthur M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions.

  4. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 12 CFR 362.11 - Activities of insured State savings associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... money market preferred stock. (A) An insured state savings association's investment of up to 15 percent of the association's tier one capital in adjustable rate preferred stock or money market (auction... significant risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund. Such instruments shall be included in the 15 percent of tier...

  7. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  8. Regular physical activity has differential association with reduced obesity among diverse youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Chris; Wallander, Jan L; Elliott, Marc N; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether daily or almost daily lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity, among 4824 African American, Hispanic, and White youth assessed in fifth and seventh grades. Regular lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity only among Hispanic and White males and only in seventh grade, and not among youth in fifth grade, females, or African American males or females. Findings from this study suggest that the reduced obesity risk generally attributed to physical activity may not be consistent across racial/ethnic and gender groups of early adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Atopic Disease in United States Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    To determine if eczema, asthma, and hay fever are associated with vigorous physical activity, television/video game usage, and sports participation and if sleep disturbance modifies such associations. Data were analyzed from 2 cross-sectional studies including 133 107 children age 6-17 years enrolled in the 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariate survey logistic regression models were created to calculate the odds of atopic disease and atopic disease severity on vigorous physical activity, television/video game use, and sports participation. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic factors, lifetime history of asthma was associated with decreased odds of ≥1 days of vigorous physical activity (aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and decreased odds of sports participation (0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99). Atopic disease accompanied by sleep disturbance had significantly higher odds of screen time and lower odds of sports participation compared with children with either atopic disease or sleep disturbance alone. Severe eczema (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19-0.78), asthma (aOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.14-0.61), and hay fever (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97) were all associated with decreased odds of ≥1 days of vigorous physical activity. Moderate (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99) and severe eczema (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.73), severe asthma (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.89), and hay fever (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.61) were associated with decreased odds of sports participation in the past year. Children with severe atopic disease, accompanied by sleep disturbance, have higher risk of sedentary behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  11. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  12. State-level income inequality and meeting physical activity guidelines; differential associations among US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Fuller, Daniel; Lee, Eun Young; Horino, Masako; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-23

    Previous work has identified a relationship between income inequality and risk for obesity and heart attack. We investigated the relationship between state-level income inequality and physical activity among US adults. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cross-sectional data from a population based and representative sample of n = 428 828 US adults. Multilevel models were used to determine the association between state-level income inequality and participation in physical activity and strengthening exercises in the previous month. In comparison to males, females were significantly more likely to report being physically inactive (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11), and less likely to meet aerobic activity requirements (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.93), meet strengthening activities (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.74), and meet overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.94). Cross-level Gini × sex interactions indicated that income inequality was associated with increased odds for participating in no physical activity (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.12), decreased odds in participating in strengthening physical activity (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89, 0.96), aerobic activity (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99), and in meeting overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95) among women only. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms in which income inequality leads to physical activity behavior among US women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Need Satisfaction Moderates the Association Between Physical Activity and Affective States in Adults Aged 50+: an Activity-Triggered Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Hansen, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence shows that physical activities of daily living are positively correlated with affective states in middle-aged and older adults. However, people's physical activity decreases when they grow older, and conditions that enhance older individuals' physical activities of daily living are not well understood. This study investigated need satisfaction (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and its moderating effect on the within-subject relation between physical activities of daily living and three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, and calmness) based on an ambulatory assessment that used activity-triggered e-diaries. The physical activities of daily living of 68 adults aged 50+ (mean age = 60.1 ± 7.1) were measured objectively for three consecutive days, and need satisfaction and affective states were assessed as a function of the amount of physical activity during the preceding 10 min before the affect measurement (in activity-triggered e-diaries). Hierarchical multilevel analyses were performed. Need satisfaction was significantly and positively correlated with the three dimensions of affective states. Further, physical activities of daily living were significantly associated with energetic arousal and calmness, but not valence. However, when physical activities of daily living were more autonomously regulated, the association of physical activities of daily living and valence became significant and positive. The findings regarding the significant moderating effects of need satisfaction are crucial for interventions aiming to improve the health-enhancing effects of physical activity in adults aged 50+. Positive feelings owing to physical activities in daily living depend on the extent that psychological needs are satisfied.

  14. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  15. Associations between active shooter incidents and gun ownership and storage among families with young children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2017-07-01

    The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state. Approximately one-fifth of young children lived in households with one or more guns; of these children, only two-thirds lived in homes that stored all guns in locked cabinets. Results suggest that the experience of a recent active shooter incident was associated with an increased likelihood of storing all guns locked, with the magnitude dependent on the temporal and geographic proximity of the incident. The severity of the incident, defined as the number of fatalities, predicted an increase in storing guns locked. Findings suggest that public shootings change behaviors related to firearm storage among families with young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ismaylova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN. A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  17. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pomares, Florence B; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN). A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years) regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  18. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  19. Outsourcing in State Service Activity Outsourcing in State Service Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2012-01-01

    The article gives an analysis of the problem of outsourcing in public management of the RF. It clarifies the definition of the term of public services; proposes concepts of public service and public service product; discusses the hypothesis that outsourcing really can help improve the performance of the state structures by attracting external resources.Results: the resource and contact activities are most promising for outsourcing. However, outsourcing of government activities is associated w...

  20. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author) [de

  1. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  2. United States Adolescents' Television, Computer, Videogame, Smartphone, and Tablet Use: Associations with Sugary Drinks, Sleep, Physical Activity, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    To quantify the relationships between youth use of television (TV) and other screen devices, including smartphones and tablets, and obesity risk factors. TV and other screen device use, including smartphones, tablets, computers, and/or videogames, was self-reported by a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 24 800 US high school students (2013-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys). Students also reported on health behaviors including sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, physical activity, sleep, and weight and height. Sex-stratified logistic regression models, adjusting for the sampling design, estimated associations between TV and other screen device use and SSB intake, physical activity, sleep, and obesity. Approximately 20% of participants used other screen devices for ≥5 hours daily. Watching TV ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 2.23, 3.32) and obesity (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.27). Using other screen devices ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.32), inadequate physical activity (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.25), and inadequate sleep (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.08). Using smartphones, tablets, computers, and videogames is associated with several obesity risk factors. Although further study is needed, families should be encouraged to limit both TV viewing and newer screen devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rha

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking.Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations.The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326 and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105 encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646 encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others.Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  4. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  5. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  6. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children.We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI.LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI.Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation

  7. Mittag-Leffler synchronization of delayed fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discontinuous activations: state feedback control and impulsive control schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoshuai; Cao, Jinde; Zhao, Xuan; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2017-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the drive-response synchronization for a class of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays, as well as in the presence of discontinuous activation functions. The global existence of solution under the framework of Filippov for such networks is firstly obtained based on the fixed-point theorem for condensing map. Then the state feedback and impulsive controllers are, respectively, designed to ensure the Mittag-Leffler synchronization of these neural networks and two new synchronization criteria are obtained, which are expressed in terms of a fractional comparison principle and Razumikhin techniques. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the proposed methodologies.

  8. Abnormal regional spontaneous neuronal activity associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Linlin; Fu, Xiangshuai; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Qunfeng; Chen, Xingui; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Fuquan; Zhou, Zhenhe; Tian, Lin

    2017-02-15

    A large number of neuroimaging studies have revealed the dysfunction of brain activities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during various tasks. However, regional spontaneous activity abnormalities in OCD are gradually being revealed. In this current study, we aimed to investigate cerebral regions with abnormal spontaneous activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and further explored the relationship between the spontaneous neuronal activity and symptom severity of patients with OCD. Thirty-one patients with OCD and 32 age-and sex-matched normal controls received the fMRI scans and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) approach was applied to identify the abnormal brain activity. We found that patients with OCD showed decreased fALFF not only in the cortical-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits like the thalamus, but also in other cerebral systems like the cerebellum, the parietal cortex and the temporal cortex. Additionally, OCD patients demonstrated significant associations between decreased fALFF and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in the thalamus, the paracentral lobule and the cerebellum. Our results provide evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in distributed cerebral areas and support the notion that brain areas outside the CSTC circuits may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  10. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  11. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Wang, Yiquan; Liu, Weibo; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhou, Heshan; Yang, Jinyu; Cohen, Zachary; Zhu, Yihong; Zang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  12. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Cross-sectional Association between Transit-Oriented Development Zoning and Active Travel and Transit Usage in the United States, 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eThrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to traditional zoning codes that contribute to car-dependent, sprawling, and disconnected neighborhoods, communities are reforming their land use laws to create pedestrian-friendly areas that promote physical activity. One such reform is the adoption of transit-oriented developments or districts (TODs. TODs are higher-density, compact, mixed use areas located around transit stops that are designed to encourage walking.Purpose: To identify the characteristics of communities that have adopted TODs in their land use laws and examine if communities that have included TODs in their zoning codes are more likely to have adults that commute by any form of active transportation (i.e., walking, biking, or public transportation or by using public transportation specifically.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were obtained for a purposeful sample of the largest 3,914 municipal jurisdictions located in 473 of the most populous US counties and consolidated cities within 48 states and the District of Columbia. They were evaluated to determine whether they included TOD districts or regulations using a coding tool developed by the study team. Descriptive statistics together with t-tests and Pearson’s chi-squared independence test were used to compare characteristics of jurisdictions with and without TOD zoning. Multivariate linear regressions were used to compute the adjusted association between TOD zoning and taking public or active transportation to work.Results: Jurisdictions with TOD zoning were located more in the South and West than non-TOD jurisdictions and were more populous, higher income, more racially diverse, and younger. Jurisdictions with TOD zoning had significantly higher percentages of occupied housing with no vehicle than those without TOD zoning. TOD zoning was associated with significantly higher rates of public transportation to work (β=2.10, 95% CI=0.88, 3.32 and active transportation to work (β=2.48, 95

  14. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  15. Phase Equilibria of Mixtures Containing Glycol and n-Alkane: Experimental Study of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients and Modeling Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin Peter; Théveneau, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    previously reported in the literature, along with the data measured in this work have been modeled using the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). Satisfactory results have been obtained using temperature-independent interaction parameters. Useful remarks are presented about the application...

  16. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  17. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI, obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America.

  18. Variables associated with active spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris D; Dean, Sarah; Schneiders, Anthony G

    2009-11-01

    Retrospective non-experimental study. To investigate variables associated with active spondylolysis. A retrospective study audited clinical data over a two year period from patients with suspected spondylolysis that were referred for a SPECT bone scan. Six exploratory variables were identified and analysed using uni- and multi-variate regression from 82 patient records to determine the association between symptomatic, physical and demographic characteristics, and the presence of an active spondylolysis. Tertiary level multidisciplinary private practice sports medicine clinic. All patients with low back pain that required a SPECT bone scan to confirm suspected spondylolysis. 82 subjects were included in the final sample group. The six exploratory variables included Age, Gender, Injury duration, Injury onset, Sports participation and the result of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test. The dependent outcome variable was the result of the SPECT bone scan (scan-positive or scan-negative). Adolescent males had a higher incidence of spondylolysis detected by SPECT bone scan compared to other patients and a statistically significant association was demonstrated for both age (p=0.01) and gender (p=0.01). Subjects with an active spondylolysis were nearly five times more likely to be male and aged less than 20 years. Furthermore, the likelihood ratio indicated that adolescent males with suspected spondylolysis were three and a half times more likely to have a positive bone scan result. The Single Leg Hyperextension Test did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with spondylolysis (p=0.47). Clinicians assessing for a predisposition to the development of spondylolysis should consider the gender and age of the patient and not rely on the predictive ability of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test.

  19. Spatial Navigation Impairment Is Associated with Alterations in Subcortical Intrinsic Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of spatial navigation (SN skills is one of the features of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD already at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. We used a computer-based battery of spatial navigation tests to measure the SN performance in 22 MCI patients as well as 21 normal controls (NC. In order to evaluate intrinsic activity in the subcortical regions that may play a role in SN, we measured ALFF, fALFF, and ReHo derived within 14 subcortical regions. We observed reductions of intrinsic activity in MCI patients. We also demonstrated that the MCI versus NC group difference can modulate activity-behavior relationship, that is, the correlation slopes between ReHo and allocentric SN task total errors were significantly different between NC and MCI groups in the right hippocampus (interaction F=4.44, p=0.05, pallidum (F=8.97, p=0.005, and thalamus (F=5.95, p=0.02, which were negative in NC (right hippocampus, r=−0.49; right pallidum, r=−0.50; right thalamus, r=−0.45; all p0.2. These findings may provide a novel insight of the brain mechanism associated with SN impairment in MCI and indicated a stage specificity of brain-behavior correlation in dementia. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-BRC-17011316.

  20. Association Between Brain Activation and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-04-13

    The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response. This association was significantly attenuated by a novel task signal regression (TSR) procedure, indicating that task performance enhances lFCD and ALFF in activated regions. We also show that lFCD predicts BOLD activation patterns, as was recently shown for other functional connectivity metrics, which corroborates that resting functional connectivity architecture impacts brain activation responses. Thus, our findings indicate a common source for BOLD responses, ALFF and lFCD, which is consistent with the neurovascular origin of local hemodynamic synchrony presumably reflecting coordinated fluctuations in neuronal activity. This study also supports the development of task-evoked functional connectivity density mapping.

  1. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pruner Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP. The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1. The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  2. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  3. Diversity of Active States in TMT Opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Sakai

    Full Text Available Opn3/TMT opsins belong to one of the opsin groups with vertebrate visual and non-visual opsins, and are widely distributed in eyes, brains and other internal organs in various vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrate Opn3/TMT opsins are further classified into four groups on the basis of their amino acid identities. However, there is limited information about molecular properties of these groups, due to the difficulty in preparing the recombinant proteins. Here, we successfully expressed recombinant proteins of TMT1 and TMT2 opsins of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes in cultured cells and characterized their molecular properties. Spectroscopic and biochemical studies demonstrated that TMT1 and TMT2 opsins functioned as blue light-sensitive Gi/Go-coupled receptors, but exhibited spectral properties and photo-convertibility of the active state different from each other. TMT1 opsin forms a visible light-absorbing active state containing all-trans-retinal, which can be photo-converted to 7-cis- and 9-cis-retinal states in addition to the original 11-cis-retinal state. In contrast, the active state of TMT2 opsin is a UV light-absorbing state having all-trans-retinal and does not photo-convert to any other state, including the original 11-cis-retinal state. Thus, TMT opsins are diversified so as to form a different type of active state, which may be responsible for their different functions.

  4. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  5. Coherent states associated to the Jacobi group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, S.

    2007-01-01

    .The coherent states (CS) offer a useful connection between classical and quantum mechanics. In several previous works we have constructed CS attached to the Jacobi group. It is well known that the Jacobi group appears in Quantum Mechanics, Geometric Quantization, Optics. The mathematicians have given the name 'Jacobi group' to the semidirect product of the Heisenberg-Weyl group and the symplectic group. The same group is known to physicists under other names, as the Schroedinger group. Also the name 'Weyl-symplectic' group is used for the same semi-direct product of the Heisenberg-Weyl group and the symplectic group. In this paper we review and discuss some properties of the coherent states associated to the Jacobi group. (author)

  6. Status of photovoltaics in the Newly Associated States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.; Mikolajuk, A.; Fara, L.; Fara, S.; Vitanov, P.; Stratieva, N.; Rehak, J.; Barinka, R.; Mellikov, E.; Palfy, M.; Shipkovs, P.; Krotkus, A.; Saly, V.; Nemac, F.; Swens, J.; Nowak, S.; Zachariou, A.; Fechner, H.; Passiniemi, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Status of Photovoltaics in the Central and Eastern Europe presents the state of the art of photovoltaics (PV) in the Newly Associated States (NAS): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. The attempt was made to cover all photovoltaics activities in NAS, from research to industry and markets as well as from technology development to dissemination and education. The document covers the following topics and issues: organization of PV research and demonstration activities, stakeholders involved in research and technology development (RTD), scientific potential of NAS PV community, PV activities carried out in NAS countries, PV policies and support mechanisms, achievements and barriers, challenges and needs to the development of PV in the NAS. (authors)

  7. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urruty, Kenli A.

    2009-01-01

    The "obesity epidemic" in the United States is a current health concern that has sparked research interest in physical activity as a means of weight management. However, little research has examined the physical activity behaviors of rural adolescents. The goal of the current study was to use a biopsychosocial framework to examine the physical activity behaviors of a sample of rural adolescents, and explore factors associated with physical activity participation. A sample of 162 ninth- an...

  8. Associate Status at CERN for non-European States

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    On a number of occasions in the past, the Committee of Council has examined proposals to create an Associate Status for non-European States wishing to participate in, and make substantial contributions to, a CERN activity or activities. The immediate purpose of the proposed status was to permit those States to participate in the LHC Project. In 1995, the Committee of Council decided not to follow up the matter at that stage since the mechanism of Co-operation Agreements with individual countries (USA, Japan, Russian Federation etc.) was considered more appropriate. At its meeting of 20 June 2002, the Committee of Council reviewed the proposal prepared by the Working Group appointed by the Committee of Council to examine the question of CERN's enlargement. Taking into account the comments received from the Delegations, the Working Group has finalised its proposal, which is now submitted to the Committee of Council for recommendation to the Council and to the Council for a decision.

  9. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  10. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  11. Active commuting: prevalence, barriers, and associated variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly Samara; Vasques, Daniel Giordani; Martins, Caroline de Oliveira; Williams, Laura Ashley; Lopes, Adair S

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58). This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.

  12. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  13. Contributions for territorial management of risks associated with oil activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pinto Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas that the growing complexity of technical and spatial organization of the oil activity in Espírito Santo state gives new demands for land use management to the local governments, this article addresses the issue of economic and technological risks associated with such activities. Based on the evaluation of legal instruments such as the classification of land uses and the zoning, are discussed the possibilities of insertion the risks in municipal policies for land use planning

  14. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  15. Conditional expectations associated with quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered

  16. MCID/Low Disease Activity State Workshop: low disease activity state in rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, G.A.; Boers, M.; Shea, B.; Anderson, J.; Felson, D.T.; Johnson, K.; Kirwan, J.; Lassere, M.N.; Robinson, V.; Simon, L.S.; Strand, V.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Tugwell, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The MCID (minimal clinically important difference) module of OMERACT 5 developed a research agenda that led to the conclusion that a state of low disease activity for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) would need to be defined. To develop such a definition the various concepts and terminologies, the process

  17. Mean diffusivity of basal ganglia and thalamus specifically associated with motivational states among mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we proposed that the mean diffusivity (MD), a measure of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in areas of the dopaminergic system (MDDS), is associated with motivation. In this study, we tested if and how the motivational state is associated with MD in comparison with other mood states. We also tested the associations of these mood states with multiple cognitive functions. We examined these issues in 766 right-handed healthy young adults. We employed analyses of MD and a psychological measure of the profile of mood states (POMS) as well as multiple cognitive functions. We detected associations between the higher Vigor subscale of POMS and lower MD in the right globus pallidum, right putamen to right posterior insula, right caudate body, and right thalamus, and these associations were highly specific to the Vigor subscale. Similarly, the association of the motivational state with creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) was rather specific and prominent compared with that of the other mood states and cognitive functions. In conclusion, when affective states are finely divided, only the motivational state is associated with MD in the areas related to the dopaminergic system, and psychological mechanisms that had been associated with dopaminergic system (CMDT). These results suggest that these mechanisms specifically contribute to the motivational state and not to the other states, such as depression and anxiety.

  18. Troponin C Mutations Partially Stabilize the Active State of Regulated Actin and Fully Stabilize the Active State When Paired with Δ14 TnT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Tamatha; Johnson, Dylan; Pinto, Jose R; Chalovich, Joseph M

    2017-06-13

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin-associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. The extent of activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca 2+ and activating cross-bridges (i.e., S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration stabilizes the most active state (M state) of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex (regulated actin). Ca 2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin, and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I. Cardiac dysfunction is also associated with mutations of troponin C (TnC). Troponin C mutants A8V, C84Y, and D145E increase the Ca 2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity. We show that these mutants change the distribution of regulated actin states. The A8V and C84Y TnC mutants decreased the inactive B state distribution slightly at low Ca 2+ concentrations, but the D145E mutants had no effect on that state. All TnC mutants increased the level of the active M state compared to that of the wild type, at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration. Troponin complexes that contained two mutations that stabilize the active M state, A8V TnC and Δ14 TnT, appeared to be completely in the active state in the presence of only Ca 2+ . Because Ca 2+ gives full activation, in this situation, troponin must be capable of positioning tropomyosin in the active M state without the need for rigor myosin binding.

  19. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, L.M.; Harcourt, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Female bottle nose dolphins (genus Tursiops) usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottle nose dolphins (T. aduncus). We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves). This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottle nose dolphins

  20. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Möller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.

  1. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  2. Identifying factors associated with the discharge of male State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Designated psychiatric facilities are responsible for the care, treatment and reintegration of State patients. ... State patients were associated with being a primary caregiver (p = 0.031) having good insight into illness (p = 0.025) or offence (p = 0.005) and having had multiple successful leaves of absences.

  3. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  4. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  5. Antagonistic activity of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Dharmaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the isolation and preliminary characterization of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria particularly Streptomyces species and also their antagonistic activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: The sponges were collected from Kovalam and Vizhinjam port of south-west coast of Kerala, India. Isolation of strains was carried out from sponge extracts using international Streptomyces project media. For preliminary identification of the strains, morphological (mycelial colouration, soluble pigments, melanoid pigmentation, spore morphology, nutritional uptake (carbon utilisation, amonoacids influence, sodium chloride tolerance, physiological (pH, temperature and chemotaxonomical characterization were done. Antimicrobial studies were also carried out for the selected strains. Results: With the help of the spicule structures, the collected marine sponges were identified as Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. Nearly 94 strains were primarily isolated from these sponges and further they were sub-cultured using international Streptomyces project media. The strains exhibited different mycelial colouration (aerial and substrate, soluble and melanoid pigmentations. The strains possessed three types of sporophore morphology namely rectus flexibilis, spiral and retinaculiaperti. Among the 94 isolates, seven exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with maximal zone of inhibition of 30 mm. The nutritional, physiological and chemotaxonomical characteristic study helped in the conventional identification of the seven strains and they all suggest that the strains to be grouped under the genus Streptomyces. Conclusions: The present study clearly helps in the preliminary identification of the isolates associated with marine sponges. Antagonistic activities prove the production of antimicrobial metabolites against the pathogens. Marine sponges associated Streptomyces are

  6. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  7. HIV-1 Reservoir Association with Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vallejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of EBioMedicine, Ruggiero and colleagues describe immune activation biomarkers associated with the size of the HIV reservoir in a carefully designed cross-sectional study. The cohort consists of a homogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients with long-term plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression under antiretroviral treatment (ART. It is crucial to explore the potential utility of biomarkers that are easier (less labor intensive, less expensive to measure than integrated HIV DNA load, in order to quickly and accurately quantify cellular reservoirs of HIV.

  8. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. When Traits Match States: Examining the Associations between Self-Report Trait and State Mindfulness following a State Mindfulness Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.

  10. Prediction of the association state of insulin using spectral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Garriques, Liza Nielsen; Millett, Ian S; Frokjaer, Sven; Brange, Jens; Doniach, Sebastian; Fink, Anthony L

    2003-04-01

    Human insulin exists in different association states, from monomer to hexamer, depending on the conditions. In the presence of zinc the "normal" state is a hexamer. The structural properties of 20 variants of human insulin were studied by near-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The mutants showed different degrees of association (monomer, dimers, tetramers, and hexamers) at neutral pH. A correlation was shown between the accessibility of tyrosines to acrylamide quenching and the degree of association of the insulin mutants. The near-UV CD spectra of the insulins were affected by protein association and by mutation-induced structural perturbations. However, the shape and intensity of difference CD spectra, obtained by subtraction of the spectra measured in 20% acetic acid (where all insulin species were monomeric) from the corresponding spectra measured at neutral pH, correlate well with the degree of insulin association. In fact, the near-UV CD difference spectra for monomeric, dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric insulin are very distinctive, both in terms of intensity and shape. The results show that the spectral properties of the insulins reflect their state of association, and can be used to predict their oligomeric state. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 92:847-858, 2003

  11. Stated Uptake of Physical Activity Rewards Programmes Among Active and Insufficiently Active Full-Time Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Semra; Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2017-10-01

    Employers are increasingly relying on rewards programmes in an effort to promote greater levels of activity among employees; however, if enrolment in these programmes is dominated by active employees, then they are unlikely to be a good use of resources. This study uses a stated-preference survey to better understand who participates in rewards-based physical activity programmes, and to quantify stated uptake by active and insufficiently active employees. The survey was fielded to a national sample of 950 full-time employees in Singapore between 2012 and 2013. Participants were asked to choose between hypothetical rewards programmes that varied along key dimensions and whether or not they would join their preferred programme if given the opportunity. A mixed logit model was used to analyse the data and estimate predicted uptake for specific programmes. We then simulated employer payments based on predictions for the percentage of each type of employee likely to meet the activity goal. Stated uptake ranged from 31 to 67% of employees, depending on programme features. For each programme, approximately two-thirds of those likely to enrol were insufficiently active. Results showed that insufficiently active employees, who represent the majority, are attracted to rewards-based physical activity programmes, and at approximately the same rate as active employees, even when enrolment fees are required. This suggests that a programme with generous rewards and a modest enrolment fee may have strong employee support and be within the range of what employers may be willing to spend.

  12. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  13. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  14. Social Media Activism and State Censorship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Trottier, D.; Fuchs, C.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on

  15. Neural activity associated with self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Uwe; Kaffenberger, Tina; Schell, Caroline; Jäncke, Lutz; Brühl, Annette B

    2012-05-24

    Self-referential cognitions are important for self-monitoring and self-regulation. Previous studies have addressed the neural correlates of self-referential processes in response to or related to external stimuli. We here investigated brain activity associated with a short, exclusively mental process of self-reflection in the absence of external stimuli or behavioural requirements. Healthy subjects reflected either on themselves, a personally known or an unknown person during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reflection period was initialized by a cue and followed by photographs of the respective persons (perception of pictures of oneself or the other person). Self-reflection, compared with reflecting on the other persons and to a major part also compared with perceiving photographs of one-self, was associated with more prominent dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal, insular, anterior and posterior cingulate activations. Whereas some of these areas showed activity in the "other"-conditions as well, self-selective characteristics were revealed in right dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex for self-reflection; in anterior cingulate cortex for self-perception and in the left inferior parietal lobe for self-reflection and -perception. Altogether, cingulate, medial and lateral prefrontal, insular and inferior parietal regions show relevance for self-related cognitions, with in part self-specificity in terms of comparison with the known-, unknown- and perception-conditions. Notably, the results are obtained here without behavioural response supporting the reliability of this methodological approach of applying a solely mental intervention. We suggest considering the reported structures when investigating psychopathologically affected self-related processing.

  16. Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Didem; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Staiano, Jacopo; Teso, Stefano; Passerini, Andrea; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality states in a work environment. The obtained results provide evidence that within-person variability in personality is associated with variation in face-to-face interactions. Interestingly, the effects differ by type and level of the personality states: adaptation effects for Agreeableness and Emotional Stability, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger similar states in other people interacting with them and complementarity effects for Openness to Experience, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger opposite states in other people interacting with them. Overall, these findings encourage further research to characterize face-to-face and social interactions in terms of their relevance to personality states.

  17. Selected cultural factors associated with physical activity among Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  18. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  1. Association between the degree of physical impairment from leprosy and dependence in activities of daily living among the elderly in a health unit in the State of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alisson da Costa; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida Alves; Ribeiro, Marco Túlio de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the common alterations and diseases inherent in the aging process, elderly persons with a history of leprosy are particularly vulnerable to dependence because of disease-related impairments. determine whether physical impairment from leprosy is associated with dependence among the elderly. An analytical cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with a history of leprosy and no signs of cognitive impairment was conducted using a database from a former leprosy colony-hospital. The patients were evaluated for dependence in the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), respectively) and subjected to standard leprosy physical disability grading. Subsequently, descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted, the latter using Pearson's chi-squared test. A total of 186 elderly persons were included in the study. Of these individuals, 53.8% were women, 49.5% were older than 75 years of age, 93% had four or less years of formal education, 24.2% lived in an institution for the long-term care of the elderly (ILTC), and 18.3% had lower limb amputations. Among those evaluated, 79.8% had visible physical impairments from leprosy (grade 2), 83.3% were independent in BADL, and 10.2% were independent in IADL. There was a higher impairment grade among those patients who were IADL dependent (p=0.038). The leprosy physical impairment grade is associated with dependence for IADL, creating the need for greater social support and systematic monitoring by a multidisciplinary team. The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy to prevent physical impairment and dependence in later years.

  2. NPP Decommissioning: the concept; state of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemytov, S.; Zimin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main principles of NPP decommissioning concept in Russia are given. The conditions with fulfillment of works on NPP unit pre-decommissioning and decommissioning including: development of the normative documentation, creation of special fund for financing NPP decommissioning activities, deriving the Gosatomnadzor license for decommissioning of shut down NPP units, development of the equipment and technologies for waste and spent fuel management are presented. The decommissioning cost and labour intensity of one WWER-440 unit are shown. The practical works, executed on shut down units at Beloyarsk NPP (Unit1 and 2) and Novo Voronezh NPP (Unit 1 and 2) are outlined

  3. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  4. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  5. Nonparticipant injuries associated with skating activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2006-03-01

    Children are at risk for injury even if they are not active recreational participants. This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric nonparticipant skating-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States from 1993 to 2003. Narratives of injuries identified by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System consumer product codes as ice-skating, roller-skating, and in-line skating-related were reviewed. Fifty-eight children were treated for nonparticipant skating-related injuries in National Electronic Injury Surveillance System emergency departments. Mechanisms of injury included being stepped on (36.2%), dropped (34.5%), or kicked (12.1%) by skaters and collision with skaters (17.2%). The most common body regions injured were the lower extremities (41.4%), upper extremities (24.1%), and head (20.7%). Contusions/abrasions (32.8%), lacerations (20.7%), and fractures (19.0%) were the most common diagnoses. Children who were dropped sustained more head injuries than children injured by other mechanisms (relative risk [RR], 20.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-150.5; P < 0.001) and were younger than those stepped on (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2; P = 0.02) or kicked (RR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.1-40.9; P < 0.001). Children stepped on by skaters experienced more injuries to the extremities than children who were dropped by (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5; P < 0.001) or collided with skaters (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8; P < 0.01). Children are at risk for injury when they are around skaters. The risk of such injuries can be reduced if children are never carried by skaters, young children are closely supervised to avoid collisions, and skaters are cautioned against kicking or stepping on other children.

  6. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  7. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  8. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in......-built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas...

  9. Stimulating Investment Development through Transformation of State Banks Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpinska Lidiya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significance of state corporations and state financial institutions in stimulation of investments into the fixed capital of the country and considers problems of increase of efficiency of activity of these institutions in the world and Ukraine. It considers the state sector of the developing countries through the prism of activity of state financial and non-financial corporations. It analyses theories of positive and negative features of carrying out state investing through state-owned banks. It analyses the role of state financial corporations in Ukraine, in particular, in crediting and expansion of the portfolio of acquired governmental bonds and offers ways of its increase in the context of necessity of directing funds into investment development.

  10. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  11. 34 CFR 403.70 - How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Leadership Activities? 403.70 Section 403.70 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.70 How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? A State shall use funds reserved under section...

  12. Survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Uranium marketing activity was much lower in 1977 than during 1976, which was the largest procurement year to date. Results from the survey suggest that there is an adequate supply of uranium--at least through 1985--in light of apparent buyer concepts of demand. Unfilled requirements were reduced by additional procurement and slippages in requirements. U.S. buyers continue to concentrate almost exclusively on U.S. sources for procurement. Buyer and producer inventories changed only slightly during the year. The average price reported for 1977 deliveries was $19.75 per pound of U 3 O 8 , compared to the $17.20 estimate reported as of July 1, 1977. An average of $17.40 was reported for 1978. Settlements of market prices in 1977 averaged $41.50 and for 1978 averaged $43.95. Most market price contracts have a base price. These prices are much higher than average contract prics and are closer to market price settlements. Producers estimate they will be able to offer for sale substantial additional quantities of uranium, indicating that they expect to expand production considerably

  13. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  14. Associations Between Antibullying Policies and Bullying in 25 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Schwab-Reese, Laura; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Hertz, Marci F; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2015-10-01

    Bullying is the most widespread form of peer aggression in schools. In an effort to address school bullying, 49 states have passed antibullying statutes. Despite the ubiquity of these policies, there has been limited empirical examination of their effectiveness in reducing students' risk of being bullied. To evaluate the effectiveness of antibullying legislation in reducing students' risk of being bullied and cyberbullied, using data from 25 states in the United States. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a population-based survey of 63 635 adolescents in grades 9 to 12 from 25 states participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (September 2010-December 2011). Data on antibullying legislation were obtained from the US Department of Education (DOE), which commissioned a systematic review of state laws in 2011. The report identified 16 key components that were divided into the following 4 broad categories: purpose and definition of the law, district policy development and review, school district policy components (eg, responsibilities for reporting bullying incidents), and additional components (eg, how policies are communicated). Policy variables from 25 states were linked to individual-level data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System on experiencing bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses were conducted between March 1, 2014, and December 1, 2014. State antibullying legislation. Exposure to bullying and cyberbullying in the past 12 months. There was substantial variation in the rates of bullying and cyberbullying across states. After controlling for relevant state-level confounders, students in states with at least 1 DOE legislative component in the antibullying law had a 24% (95% CI, 15%-32%) reduced odds of reporting bullying and 20% (95% CI, 9%-29%) reduced odds of reporting cyberbullying compared with students in states whose laws had no DOE legislative components. Three individual components of

  15. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p physical activity (p barriers (p physical activity (p = .91).

  16. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  17. Mercury methylation and bacterial activity associated to tropical phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2006-01-01

    The methylated form of mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), is one of the most toxic pollutants. Biotic and/or abiotic methylation, often associated to sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolism, occurs in aquatic environments and in many tropical areas, mostly in the periphyton associated to floating macrophyte roots. Data about mercury methylation by phytoplankton are scarce and the aim of this study was to verify the biotic influence in the methylation process in Microcystis aeruginosa and Sineccocystis sp. laboratory strains and in natural populations of phytoplankton from two different aquatic systems, the mesotrophic Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir and hypereutrophic oligohaline Jacarepagua lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Adapted radiochemical techniques were used to measure sulfate-reduction, mercury methylation and bacterial activity in phytoplankton samples. Methyl- 203 Hg formation from added inorganic 203 Hg and 3 H-Leucine uptake were measured by liquid scintillation as well as sulfate-reduction, estimated as H 2 35 S produced from added Na 2 35 SO 4 . There was no significant difference in low methylation potentials (0.37%) among the two cyanobacterium species studied in laboratory conditions. At Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir, there was no significant difference in methylation, bacterial activity and sulfate-reduction of surface sediment between the sampling points. Methylation in sediments (3-4%) was higher than in phytoplankton (1.5%), the opposite being true for bacterial activity (sediment mean 6.6 against 150.3 nmol gdw -1 h -1 for phytoplankton samples). At Jacarepagua lagoon, an expressive bacterial activity (477.1 x 10 3 nmol gdw -1 h -1 at a concentration of 1000 nM leucine) and sulfate-reduction (∼21% H 2 35 S trapped) associated to phytoplankton (mostly cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa) was observed, but mercury methylation was not detected

  18. Mercury methylation and bacterial activity associated to tropical phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br; Mauro, Jane B.N. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Miranda, Marcio R. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O. [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, IBCCF/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The methylated form of mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), is one of the most toxic pollutants. Biotic and/or abiotic methylation, often associated to sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolism, occurs in aquatic environments and in many tropical areas, mostly in the periphyton associated to floating macrophyte roots. Data about mercury methylation by phytoplankton are scarce and the aim of this study was to verify the biotic influence in the methylation process in Microcystis aeruginosa and Sineccocystis sp. laboratory strains and in natural populations of phytoplankton from two different aquatic systems, the mesotrophic Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir and hypereutrophic oligohaline Jacarepagua lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Adapted radiochemical techniques were used to measure sulfate-reduction, mercury methylation and bacterial activity in phytoplankton samples. Methyl-{sup 203}Hg formation from added inorganic {sup 203}Hg and {sup 3}H-Leucine uptake were measured by liquid scintillation as well as sulfate-reduction, estimated as H{sub 2} {sup 35}S produced from added Na{sub 2} {sup 35}SO{sub 4}. There was no significant difference in low methylation potentials (0.37%) among the two cyanobacterium species studied in laboratory conditions. At Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir, there was no significant difference in methylation, bacterial activity and sulfate-reduction of surface sediment between the sampling points. Methylation in sediments (3-4%) was higher than in phytoplankton (1.5%), the opposite being true for bacterial activity (sediment mean 6.6 against 150.3 nmol gdw{sup -1} h{sup -1} for phytoplankton samples). At Jacarepagua lagoon, an expressive bacterial activity (477.1 x 10{sup 3} nmol gdw{sup -1} h{sup -1} at a concentration of 1000 nM leucine) and sulfate-reduction ({approx}21% H{sub 2} {sup 35}S trapped) associated to phytoplankton (mostly cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa) was observed, but mercury methylation was not detected.

  19. State focus on health care-associated infection prevention in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Catherine C; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Carter, Eileen J; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Larson, Elaine L; Stone, Patricia W

    2014-04-01

    Despite increased focus on health care-associated infections (HAI), between 1.6 and 3.8 million HAI occur annually among the vulnerable population residing in US nursing homes (NH). This study characterized state department of health (DOH) activities and policies intended to improve quality and reduce HAI in NH. We created a 17-item standardized data collection tool informed by 20 state DOH Web sites, reviewed by experts in the field and piloted by 2 independent reviewers (Cohen's κ .45-.73). The tool and corresponding protocol were used to systematically evaluate state DOH Web sites and related links. Three categories of data were abstracted: (1) consumer-directed information intended to increase accountability of and competition between NH, including mandatory HAI reporting and NH inspection reports; (2) surveyor training for federally-mandated NH inspections; and (3) guidance for NH providers to prevent HAI and monitor incidence. Only 5 states included HAI reporting in NH with differing HAI types and reporting requirements. State DOH information and activities focused on NH quality and reducing HAI were inconsistent. Systematically characterizing state DOH efforts to reduce HAI in NH is important to interpret the effects of these activities. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association Between State Medical Malpractice Environment and Postoperative Outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Sheils, Catherine R; Pavey, Emily; Chung, Jeanette W; Stulberg, Jonah J; Odell, David D; Yang, Anthony D; Bentrem, David J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-03-01

    The US medical malpractice system assumes that the threat of liability should deter negligence, but it is unclear whether malpractice environment affects health care quality. We sought to explore the association between state malpractice environment and postoperative complication rates. This observational study included Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries undergoing one of the following operations in 2010: colorectal, lung, esophageal, or pancreatic resection, total knee arthroplasty, craniotomy, gastric bypass, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, coronary artery bypass grafting, or cystectomy. The state-specific malpractice environment was measured by 2010 medical malpractice insurance premiums, state average award size, paid malpractice claims/100 physicians, and a composite malpractice measure. Outcomes of interest included 30-day readmission, mortality, and postoperative complications (eg sepsis, myocardial infarction [MI], pneumonia). Using Medicare administrative claims data, associations between malpractice environment and postoperative outcomes were estimated using hierarchical logistic regression models with hospital random-intercepts. Measures of malpractice environment did not have significant, consistent associations with postoperative outcomes. No individual tort reform law was consistently associated with improved postoperative outcomes. Higher-risk state malpractice environment, based on the composite measure, was associated with higher likelihood of sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.39), MI (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23), pneumonia (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16), acute renal failure (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.22), deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.32), and gastrointestinal bleed (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.30). Higher risk malpractice environments were not consistently associated with a lower likelihood of surgical postoperative complications, bringing into question the ability of malpractice lawsuits to

  1. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  2. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  3. Brain activation associated with pride and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lilian; Kaffenberger, Tina; Herwig, Uwe; Brühl, Annette B

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential emotions such as shame/guilt and pride provide evaluative information about persons themselves. In addition to emotional aspects, social and self-referential processes play a role in self-referential emotions. Prior studies have rather focused on comparing self-referential and other-referential processes of one valence, triggered mostly by external stimuli. In the current study, we aimed at investigating the valence-specific neural correlates of shame/guilt and pride, evoked by the remembrance of a corresponding autobiographical event during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied. The task comprised a negative (shame/guilt), a positive (pride) and a neutral condition (expecting the distractor). Each condition was initiated by a simple cue, followed by the remembrance and finished by a distracting picture. Pride and shame/guilt conditions both activated typical emotion-processing circuits including the amygdala, insula and ventral striatum, as well as self-referential brain regions such as the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Comparing the two emotional conditions, emotion-processing circuits were more activated by pride than by shame, possibly due to either hedonic experiences or stronger involvement of the participants in positive self-referential emotions due to a self-positivity bias. However, the ventral striatum was similarly activated by pride and shame/guilt. In the whole-brain analysis, both self-referential emotion conditions activated medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, corresponding to the self-referential aspect and the autobiographical evocation of the respective emotions. Autobiographically evoked self-referential emotions activated basic emotional as well as self-referential circuits. Except for the ventral striatum, emotional circuits were more active with pride than with shame.

  4. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on self-reported physical activity (PA) level in association with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is not readily available on African populations, and there is a dearth of information on the association of adiposity with PD. This study explored the association of PA and adiposity indices with PD and associated menstrual ...

  5. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  6. Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Bassett, Danielle S; Schultz, Douglas H

    2016-12-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations.

  7. Community preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Eve; Lichter, Erika L; Ganz, Michael L; McCloskey, Laura A

    2006-08-01

    One in 4 women is affected by intimate partner violence in her lifetime. This article reports on a cross-sectional survey to estimate community preferences for health states resulting from intimate partner violence. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a convenience sample of 93 abused and 138 nonabused women (231 total) recruited for in-person interviews from hospital outpatient department waiting rooms in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. SF-12 data were converted to utilities to describe community-perspective preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between violence and utility while controlling for other health and demographic factors. Median utility for intimate partner violence was between 0.58 and 0.63 on a scale of 0 (equivalent to death) to 1.0 (equivalent to optimal health), with a range from 0.64 to 0.66 for less severe violence to 0.53 to 0.62 for more severe violence. The data do not reveal whether violence itself is responsible for lower utility or whether a constellation of factors contributes to disutility experienced by women victims of abuse. The utility of health states experienced by women exposed to intimate partner violence is substantially diminished compared with optimal health and even other health conditions. These values quantify the substantial negative health impact of the experience of intimate partner violence in terms that allow comparison across diseases. They can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses to identify the benefits and potential returns from resources allocated to violence prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Extension of the new proposed association equation of state (AEOS) to associating fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, H.; Modarress, H.; Mohsen-Nia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new statistical mechanic-based equation of state has been proposed by Mohsen-Nia and Modarress [M. Mohsen-Nia, H. Modarress, Chem. Phys. 336 (2007) 22-26] for associating pure fluids. The new association equation of state (AEOS) was successfully applied to calculate the saturated properties of water, methanol, and ammonia. In this work, the new proposed AEOS is used to evaluate the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) of 25 associating pure compounds and the adjusted parameters are reported. The new AEOS is also extended to mixtures containing associating and non-associating compounds. The calculated saturated properties of the pure compounds are compared with those calculated by other AEOSs. The results of VLE calculation for various binary mixtures such as: alcohol/hydrocarbon, alcohol/CO 2 , alcohol/aromatic-hydrocarbons, and the quaternary system (H 2 O/CH 4 /CO 2 /H 2 S) indicate the capability of the new proposed AEOS for associating pure and mixture calculations.

  9. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  10. Activities of Moroccan Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Encourage activities and information exchange in the field of radiation protection and related areas; Assist in informing both the public and the professionals on the problems and requirements related to radiation protection for the protection of man and the environment; Promote professional training in radiation protection. The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements

  11. Valsalva Retinopathy Associated with Sexual Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Rubaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old healthy male presented complaining of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Initial visual acuity was counting fingers. The patient’s acute vision loss developed after sexual activity. Color fundus photos and fluorescein angiography were performed showing a large subinternal limiting membrane hemorrhage in the macular area. A 23-gauge sutureless pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue assisted internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with best-corrected visual acuity recovery to 20/50 at 6 months of followup.

  12. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18-31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55-82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults.

  13. Active Gaming Among High School Students--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-08-01

    Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.

  14. Robust state estimation for uncertain fuzzy bidirectional associative memory networks with time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, P.; Sakthivel, R.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Arunkumar, A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of robust state estimation for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. By constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which contains the triple-integral term and using the free-weighting matrix technique, a set of sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the dynamics of the estimation error system is robustly asymptotically stable. In particular, we consider a generalized activation function in which the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. More precisely, the design of the state estimator for such BAM neural networks can be obtained by solving some LMIs, which are dependent on the size of the time derivative of the time-varying delays. Finally, a numerical example with simulation result is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  15. Robust state estimation for uncertain fuzzy bidirectional associative memory networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadivel, P; Sakthivel, R; Mathiyalagan, K; Arunkumar, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of robust state estimation for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. By constructing the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional, which contains the triple-integral term and using the free-weighting matrix technique, a set of sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the dynamics of the estimation error system is robustly asymptotically stable. In particular, we consider a generalized activation function in which the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. More precisely, the design of the state estimator for such BAM neural networks can be obtained by solving some LMIs, which are dependent on the size of the time derivative of the time-varying delays. Finally, a numerical example with simulation result is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results. (paper)

  16. A Disease-Associated Microbial and Metabolomics State in Relatives of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jonathan P; Goudarzi, Maryam; Singh, Namita; Tong, Maomeng; McHardy, Ian H; Ruegger, Paul; Asadourian, Miro; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Ayson, Allyson; Borneman, James; McGovern, Dermot P B; Fornace, Albert J; Braun, Jonathan; Dubinsky, Marla

    2016-11-01

    Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives. Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents. Fecal samples were collected for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics, and calprotectin measurement. Individuals were grouped into microbial and metabolomics states using Dirichlet multinomial models. Multivariate models were used to identify microbes and metabolites associated with these states. Individuals were classified into 2 microbial community types. One was associated with IBD but irrespective of disease status, had lower microbial diversity, and characteristic shifts in microbial composition including increased Enterobacteriaceae, consistent with dysbiosis. This microbial community type was associated similarly with IBD and reduced microbial diversity in an independent pediatric cohort. Individuals also clustered bioinformatically into 2 subsets with shared fecal metabolomics signatures. One metabotype was associated with IBD and was characterized by increased bile acids, taurine, and tryptophan. The IBD-associated microbial and metabolomics states were highly correlated, suggesting that they represented an integrated ecosystem. Healthy relatives with the IBD-associated microbial community type had an increased incidence of elevated fecal calprotectin. Healthy first-degree relatives can have dysbiosis associated with an altered intestinal metabolome that may signify a predisease microbial susceptibility state or subclinical inflammation. Longitudinal prospective

  17. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  18. Impact Of Human Activities On Ecosystem In Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the percent sample population size of people involved in selected human economic activities and the impact on ecosystem in Rivers State. The data for this study was obtained from a sample size of 1000 respondents who were purposively selected from the study area. Purposive sample was used ...

  19. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  20. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  1. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...

  2. Pediatric injuries associated with fireplaces, United States, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Bart J; Henry, Jean

    2011-02-01

    To examine injuries among pediatric patients treated in an emergency department (ED) related to contact with a fireplace. Data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for the years 2002 through 2007. National estimates of ED visits for injuries associated with fireplaces were analyzed. Average annual rates were calculated, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk estimates for patient demographic characteristics related to ED visits for injuries associated with fireplaces. From 2002 through 2007, there were an estimated 8000 ED visits annually for injuries related to fireplaces in the United States, with an average annual rate of 18.8 ED visits per 100,000 children aged birth through 10 years. The most common injuries involved lacerations (66%), burns (10%), and contusions (10%). Most injuries occurred to the face (46%) or head (31%). Most patients (98%) were treated and released the same day. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that children aged birth to 3 years (odds ratio, 12.2; 95% confidence interval, 9.1-16.5) and children aged 4 to 6 years (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-6.5) were more likely present in an ED for a fireplace-related injury when compared with older children aged 7 to 10 years. Further research is warranted in the areas of etiology, injury prevention interventions, health communications, and surveillance to facilitate more effective injury prevention efforts.

  3. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  4. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Davydova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namely, contracts, production sharing agreement, lease, joint venture. Promising areas of application of the PPP identified the transport sector, housing and utilities, energy and tourism sector. The features of cluster formations in the country and the prospects for tourism clusters.

  5. THE INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF MORDOVIAN STATE TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseyn Gardash oglu Zeynalov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at innovation management at an innovative university. Innovative processes in a modern Russian university including Mordovian State Teacher Training Institute are aimed at accomplishing the following tasks: increasing the readiness of the university staff to innovative activities, their professional mobility and involvement in innovative activities of the university and the region. The article claims it is necessary to continuously create, perfect and manage human resources involved in innovative activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-33

  6. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  7. The association between mood state and chronobiological characteristics in bipolar I disorder: a naturalistic, variable cluster analysis-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert; Suppes, Trisha; Zeitzer, Jamie; McClung, Colleen; Tamminga, Carol; Tohen, Mauricio; Forero, Angelica; Dwivedi, Alok; Alvarado, Andres

    2018-02-19

    Multiple types of chronobiological disturbances have been reported in bipolar disorder, including characteristics associated with general activity levels, sleep, and rhythmicity. Previous studies have focused on examining the individual relationships between affective state and chronobiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to conduct a variable cluster analysis in order to ascertain how mood states are associated with chronobiological traits in bipolar I disorder (BDI). We hypothesized that manic symptomatology would be associated with disturbances of rhythm. Variable cluster analysis identified five chronobiological clusters in 105 BDI subjects. Cluster 1, comprising subjective sleep quality was associated with both mania and depression. Cluster 2, which comprised variables describing the degree of rhythmicity, was associated with mania. Significant associations between mood state and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological variables were noted. Disturbances of mood were associated with subjectively assessed sleep disturbances as opposed to objectively determined, actigraphy-based sleep variables. No associations with general activity variables were noted. Relationships between gender and medication classes in use and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological characteristics were noted. Exploratory analyses noted that medication class had a larger impact on these relationships than the number of psychiatric medications in use. In a BDI sample, variable cluster analysis was able to group related chronobiological variables. The results support our primary hypothesis that mood state, particularly mania, is associated with chronobiological disturbances. Further research is required in order to define these relationships and to determine the directionality of the associations between mood state and chronobiological characteristics.

  8. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BettyAnn A. Chodkowski

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.

  9. Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ginot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.

  10. The association of state law to physical education time allocation in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Oh, April; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Atienza, Audie A; Nebeling, Linda; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether public schools in states with specific and stringent physical education (PE) laws, as assessed by the Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS), available on the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) Web site, reported more weekly PE time in the most recent School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS). Schools (n=410) were grouped by their state's PERSPCS time requirement scores (none, nonspecific requirement, or specific requirement). Average weekly school-level PE was calculated using the SHPPS-reported PE minutes. Weighted analyses determined if PE minutes/week differed by PERSPCS group. Schools in states with specific requirement laws averaged over 27 and 60 more PE minutes/week at the elementary and middle school levels, respectively, compared with schools within states with nonspecific laws and over 40 and 60 more PE minutes per week, respectively, compared with elementary and middle schools in states with no laws. High school results were nonsignificant. Public health guidelines recommend at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children, and PE may further this goal. Strong codified law with specific time requirements for PE may be an important tool contributing toward adequate PE time and daily physical activity recommendations.

  11. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws With Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O'Malley, Patrick M; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-02-01

    Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-in-difference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010-2012) with postlegalization (2013-2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2% and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010-2012 to 2013-2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3% and 0.9% over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders: % [SD], -9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders: % [SD], -9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and marijuana use (eighth graders: % [SD], 5.0 [1.9]; P = .03; 10th graders

  13. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  14. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  16. Exploring resting-state EEG brain oscillatory activity in relation to cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Hansen, Sascha; Weber, Emily; Zapf, Franziska; Habich, Juliane; Muenssinger, Jana; Wolf, Sebastian; Schönenberg, Michael; Oschmann, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring parameters related to cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sparse. Previous work reported an association between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) alpha-1 activity and information processing speed. While this remains to be replicated by more available electroencephalographic (EEG) methods, also other established EEG markers, e.g. the slow-wave/fast-wave ratio (theta/beta ratio), remain to be explored in this context. Performance on standard tests addressing information processing speed and attention (Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, SDMT; Test of Attention Performance, TAP) was examined in relation to resting-state EEG alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and the theta/beta ratio in 25MS patients. Increased global alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and an increased frontal theta/beta ratio (pronounced slow-wave relative to fast-wave activity) were associated with lower SDMT processing speed. In an exploratory analysis, clinically impaired attention was associated with a significantly increased frontal theta/beta ratio whereas alpha power did not show sensitivity to clinical impairment. EEG global alpha power and the frontal theta/beta ratio were both associated with attention. The theta/beta ratio involved potential clinical sensitivity. Resting-state EEG recordings can be obtained during the routine clinical process. The examined resting-state measures may represent feasible monitoring parameters in MS. This notion should be explored in future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...... D levels (51nmol/l) than patients who did not smoke (76nmol/l), plevels. CONCLUSIONS: Active Crohn's disease was associated with low serum 25-OH vitamin D. Patients who smoked had lower 25-OH...

  18. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  20. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer... associations at a convention or trade show if the total payments made by an industry member for all such...

  1. Association of radiowave absorption with E(sporadic)-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.

    1975-01-01

    Noontime radiowave absorption data for frequencies which are reflected below the height of sporadic-E layers show a strong positive correlation with the sporadic-E layer activity. The possibilities of atmospheric waves affecting both the sporadic-E activity as well as mesospheric ionization are suggested to explain this association

  2. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  3. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  4. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Activization of the Industrial Development on the Platform of Partnership: Measures of State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of partnership and interaction of economic actors play an important role in activization of an industrial development, achieving a critical mass, necessary for generation of essential positive results, due to special measures of state regulation. According to this, the factors influencing the choice of measures of state regulation of partner interactions and formation of their complex structure are defined and analysed. On the example of clusters possible roles of the state in formation and development of partner associations of the appropriate type are presented. The potential risks arising in the course of development and implementation of measures of state regulation of integration structures are shown. The sequence of steps for determination of measures of state regulation of development of partnership in the industrial sphere taking into account local specifics is offered in the paper.

  6. Associations between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2013-08-01

    To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (walking and cycling) was derived. Physical and mental wellbeing were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form survey (SF-8). Associations were tested using multivariable linear regression. An association was observed between physical wellbeing (PCS-8) score and time spent in active commuting after adjustment for other physical activity (adjusted regression coefficients 0.48, 0.79 and 1.21 for 30-149 min/week, 150-224 min/week and ≥ 225 min/week respectively versus mental wellbeing (MCS-8) (p=0.52). Greater time spent actively commuting is associated with higher levels of physical wellbeing. Longitudinal studies should examine the contribution of changing levels of active commuting and other forms of physical activity to overall health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  8. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Physical Activity Among Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-07-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.

  9. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  10. Factors Associated With Perceived Health Status of Multiracial/Ethnic Midlife Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and differences in the factors associated with perceived health status of midlife women in four broad racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A secondary analysis of Web-based survey data. Internet communities/groups among midlife women and Internet communities/groups of racial/ethnic minorities. Participants included 491 women 40 to 60 years of age who self-identified into four broad racial/ethnic categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic [N-H] Asian American, N-H African American, or N-H White). Data related to participants' sociodemographic, behavioral, situational, and individual health factors and their coping resources were selected based on the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and race/ethnicity-specific factors associated with perceived health status among midlife women. Perceived health status did not differ by race/ethnicity; however, factors that were associated with perceived health status did vary by race/ethnicity. Among N-H White women, educational level, level of family income, obesity, and menopausal symptoms were significantly associated with perceived not healthy status. In Hispanic women, perceived level of physical activity and obesity were significantly associated with not healthy status. Perceived level of physical activity was the only factor significantly associated with not healthy status in N-H Asian American women, and the level of family income was the only factor associated with not healthy status in N-H African American women. In future intervention development, researchers need to consider differences among racial/ethnic groups in the factors associated with women's perceived health status. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; Liang, Jennifer L; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Yu, Patricia A; Painter, John; Moore, Matthew R; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting waterborne disease and outbreak (WBDO)-related data. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize WBDOs associated with recreational water that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and one previously unreported outbreak from 2002. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. During 2003-2004, a total 62 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 26 states and Guam. Illness occurred in 2,698 persons, resulting in 58 hospitalizations and one death. The median outbreak size was 14 persons (range: 1-617 persons). Of the 62 WBDOs, 30 (48.4%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents, chemicals, or toxins; 13 (21.0%) were outbreaks of dermatitis; and seven (11.3%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness (ARI). The remaining 12 WBDOs resulted in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), meningitis (n = one), leptospirosis (n = one), otitis externa (n = one), and mixed illnesses (n = eight). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 1,945 (72

  12. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children’s independent mobility with light, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity accumulation. Methods In 2011 - 2012, 375 Australian children aged 8-13 years (62% girls) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Children’s independent mobility (i.e. independent travel to school and non-school destinations, independent outdoor play) and socio-demographics were assessed through child and parent surveys. Physical activity intensity was measured objectively through an Actiheart monitor worn on four consecutive days. Associations between independent mobility and physical activity variables were analysed using generalized linear models, accounting for clustered sampling, Actiheart wear time, socio-demographics, and assessing interactions by sex. Results Independent travel (walking, cycling, public transport) to school and non-school destinations were not associated with light, moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. However, sub-analyses revealed a positive association between independent walking and cycling (excluding public transport) to school and total physical but only in boys (b = 36.03, p physical activity (b = 29.76, p physical activity. When assessing differences by sex, the observed significant associations of independent outdoor play with light and total physical activity remained in girls but not in boys. All other associations showed no significant differences by sex. Conclusions Independent outdoor play may boost children’s daily physical activity levels

  13. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.

  14. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Brage, Søren; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gram, Jeppe; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Lauritzen, Torsten; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2015-05-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg·m and PAEE was 28.1 kJ·kg·d, with 18.9 h·d spent sedentary, 4.5 h·d in light-intensity physical activity, and 0.4 h·d in moderate-intensity physical activity. PAEE was significantly negatively associated with VAT, and in women, PAEE was also significantly negatively associated with SAT. The difference in VAT was -1.1 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8 to -0.3) per 10-kJ·kg·d increment, and the corresponding difference in SAT for women was -0.6 mm (95% CI = -1.2 to -0.04) in models adjusted for age, sex, and waist circumference. Exchanging 1 h of light physical activity with moderate physical activity was significantly associated with VAT (-4.5 mm, 95% CI = -7.6 to -1.5). Exchanging one sedentary hour with light physical activity was significantly associated with both VAT (-0.9 mm, 95% CI = -0.1 to -1.8) and SAT (-0.4 mm, 95% CI = -0.0 to -0.7). In this population with low physical activity levels, cross-sectional findings indicate that increasing overall physical activity and decreasing time spent sedentary is important to avoid the accumulation of metabolically deleterious VAT.

  15. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  17. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  18. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  19. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  20. Coronal Activity in the R CrA T Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Brian M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Brian Patten is the Principal Investigator of the NASA ROSS-ADP project Coronal Activity in the R CrA T Association. For this project we have extracted net counts and variability information for all of the X-ray sources found in 23 archival ROSAT PSPC and HRI images in the region of the R CrA T association. These data have been merged with an extensive database of optical and near-infrared photometry, optical spectroscopy, and parallax data. These data have been used to (1) identify new association members and clarify the membership status of a number of previously suspected members of the association, and (2) derive, for the first time, an accurate coronal luminosity function for the T Tauri members of this T association and make direct comparisons between the coronal luminosity functions for other T associations and those of large clusters. We have used our survey data to assess (a) the importance of the star-formation environment in initial coronal activity levels, (b) the effects of PMS evolution on dynamo activity as a function of mass and age, and (c) the level of contamination by field post-T Tauri stars on association membership surveys.

  1. Association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ju; Cho, Juhee; Ahn, Younjhin; Yim, Gyeyoon; Park, Hyun-Young

    2014-10-03

    Physical activity may be an effective way of preventing or attenuating menopause-related symptoms, and it has been shown to improve quality of life in menopausal women. However, there have been some inconsistencies regarding between exercise and menopausal symptoms, and study investigating this association has been scarce in Korea. In this study, the association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women in Korea was assessed. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between November 2012 and March 2013. In total, 2,204 healthy women aged 44-56 years were recruited from a healthcare center at the Kangbuk Samsung hospitals for investigating women's attitudes towards menopause. To investigate the influence of physical activity on perimenopause-associated symptoms, 631 perimenopausal women were selected for this study. Their physical activity levels were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. The Menopause-specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used to assess menopause-related symptoms. The study participants were, on average, 48.5 ± 2.7 years old and had a mean body mass index of 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2. The total MENQOL score and the psychosocial and physical subscores exhibited U-shaped trends in relation to the level of physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables showed that perimenopausal women who performed moderate physical activity reported significantly lower psychosocial (β = -0.413, P = 0.012) and physical symptoms (β = -0.445, P = 0.002) than women who performed low physical activity. By contrast, a high level of physical activity did not influence the MENQOL total score and subscores relative to the low activity group. In addition, no associations were observed between physical activity and the vasomotor and sexual symptoms in any group. Moderate level of physical activity was associated

  2. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  3. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  4. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  5. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  6. Presbycusis Disrupts Spontaneous Activity Revealed by Resting-State Functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI approach.Methods: Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. To identify changes in spontaneous neural activity associated with age-related hearing loss, we compared the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo of fMRI signals in presbycusis patients vs. controls and then determined if these changes were linked to clinical measures of presbycusis.Results: Compared with healthy controls, presbycusis patients manifested decreased spontaneous activity mainly in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL as well as increased neural activity in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG, cuneus and postcentral gyrus (PoCG. A significant negative correlation was observed between ALFF/ReHo activity in the STG and average hearing thresholds in presbycusis patients. Increased ALFF/ReHo activity in the MFG was positively correlated with impaired Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B scores, indicative of impaired cognitive function involving the frontal lobe.Conclusions: Presbycusis patients have disrupted spontaneous neural activity reflected by ALFF and ReHo measurements in several brain regions; these changes are associated with specific cognitive performance and speech/language processing. These findings mainly emphasize the crucial role of aberrant resting-state ALFF/ReHo patterns in presbycusis patients and will lead to a better understanding of the

  7. Presbycusis Disrupts Spontaneous Activity Revealed by Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Chen, Huiyou; Jiang, Liang; Bo, Fan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Salvi, Richard; Yin, Xindao; Lu, Guangming; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Purpose : Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. Methods : Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. To identify changes in spontaneous neural activity associated with age-related hearing loss, we compared the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) of fMRI signals in presbycusis patients vs. controls and then determined if these changes were linked to clinical measures of presbycusis. Results : Compared with healthy controls, presbycusis patients manifested decreased spontaneous activity mainly in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) as well as increased neural activity in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), cuneus and postcentral gyrus (PoCG). A significant negative correlation was observed between ALFF/ReHo activity in the STG and average hearing thresholds in presbycusis patients. Increased ALFF/ReHo activity in the MFG was positively correlated with impaired Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B) scores, indicative of impaired cognitive function involving the frontal lobe. Conclusions : Presbycusis patients have disrupted spontaneous neural activity reflected by ALFF and ReHo measurements in several brain regions; these changes are associated with specific cognitive performance and speech/language processing. These findings mainly emphasize the crucial role of aberrant resting-state ALFF/ReHo patterns in presbycusis patients and will lead to a better understanding of the

  8. Ten years with the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state. Part 2. Cross-associating and multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Folas, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    In this second article of the review on the applications of the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state, the focus is placed on cross-associating systems. Various such mixtures are investigated, including (i) systems with two self-associating compounds ( e. g., water-alcohol systems...

  9. Novel Associations of Nonstructural Loci with Paraoxonase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Quillen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density-lipoprotein-(HDL- associated esterase paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is a likely contributor to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL. Two nonsynonymous mutations in the structural gene, PON1, have been associated with variation in activity levels, but substantial interindividual differences remain unexplained and are greatest for substrates other than the eponymous paraoxon. PON1 activity levels were measured for three substrates—organophosphate paraoxon, arylester phenyl acetate, and lactone dihydrocoumarin—in 767 Mexican American individuals from San Antonio, Texas. Genetic influences on activity levels for each substrate were evaluated by association with approximately one million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs while conditioning on PON1 genotypes. Significant associations were detected at five loci including regions on chromosomes 4 and 17 known to be associated with atherosclerosis and lipoprotein regulation and loci on chromosome 3 that regulate ubiquitous transcription factors. These loci explain 7.8% of variation in PON1 activity with lactone as a substrate, 5.6% with the arylester, and 3.0% with paraoxon. In light of the potential importance of PON1 in preventing cardiovascular disease/events, these novel loci merit further investigation.

  10. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  12. Prevalence of bluetongue virus infection and associated risk factors among cattle in North Kordufan State, Western Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Ibrahim A; Abdalla, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Mohamed EH; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2014-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus causes febrile disease in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American White-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no clinical overt disease is associated with bluetongue infection. Bluetongue virus activity has been detected in Khartoum, Sennar and South Darfur states of the Sudan. Currently, no information is available in regard to previous exposure of livestock to Bluetongue virus in North Kordufan State, the larg...

  13. Associations between indoor tanning and risky health-related behaviors among high school students in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. D...

  14. Activity associated with the solar origin of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. F.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in 1980 with the HAO Coronagraph/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite are compared with other forms of solar activity that might be physically related to the ejections. The solar phenomena checked and the method of association used were intentionally patterned after those of Munro et al.'s (1979) analysis of mass ejections observed with the Skylab coronagraph to facilitate comparison of the two epochs. Comparison of the results reveals that the types and degree of CME associations are similar near solar activity minimum and at maximum. For both epochs, most CMEs with associations had associated eruptive prominences, and the proportions of association of all types of activity were similar. A high percentage of association between SMM CMEs and X-ray long duration events is also found, in agreement with Skylab results. It is concluded that most CMEs are the result of the destabilization and eruption of a prominence and its overlying coronal structure, or of a magnetic structure capable of supporting a prominence.

  15. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  17. 75 FR 39619 - Proposed Information Collection (Quarterly Report of State Approving Agency) Activities Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... information needed to accurately reimburse State Approving Agencies (SAAs) for expenses incurred in the... reimburses SAAs for expenses incurred in the approval and supervision of education and training programs. SAAs are required to report their activities to VA quarterly and provide notices regarding which...

  18. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  19. What factors are associated with state performance on provision of transition services to CSHCN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Debra J; Kasehagen, Laurin; Punyko, Judy; Carle, Adam C; Penziner, Andy; Thorson, Sarah

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether individual, condition-related, and system-related characteristics are associated with state performance (high, medium, low) on the provision of transition services to children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses of 16876 children aged 12 to 17 years by using data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Polytomous logistic regression was used to compare the characteristics of CSHCN residing within high-, medium-, and low-performance states, with low-performance states serving as the reference group. Compared with non-Hispanic white CSHCN, Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17-0.37]) and non-Hispanic black (aOR: 0.44 [95% CI: 0.30-0.62]) CSHCN were less likely to reside in a high-performance than in a low-performance state. Compared with CSHCN who had a medical home or adequate insurance coverage, CSHCN who did not have a medical home or adequate insurance coverage were less likely to reside in a high-performance than in a low-performance state (aOR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.57-0.95]; aOR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.58-0.93], respectively). Key factors found to be important in a state's performance on provision of transition services to CSHCN were race/ethnicity and having a medical home and adequate insurance coverage. Efforts to support the Maternal and Child Health Bureau's integration of system-level factors in quality-improvement activities, particularly establishing a medical home and attaining and maintaining adequate insurance, are likely to help states improve their performance on provision of transition services.

  20. Investigation of Pseudo-Active State in Z-Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Oprea, Octavian; Larsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new operating state of the Z-source inverter denoted the pseudo-active state. The pseudoactive state is a state that may boost the output voltage of the Zsource inverter to a level higher than expected. The influence of the pseudo-active state is investigated and an equation...

  1. Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12-18 years old from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3% and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1% did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week(-1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.86 increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity.

  2. Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12-18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week(-1) or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity.

  3. Sporotrichosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeremy A.W.; Derado, Gordana; Mody, Rajal K.

    2016-01-01

    To determine frequency and risk for sporotrichosis-associated hospitalizations, we analyzed the US 2000–2013 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. An estimated 1,471 hospitalizations occurred (average annual rate 0.35/1 million persons). Hospitalizations were associated with HIV/AIDS, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although rare, severe sporotrichosis should be considered for at-risk patients. PMID:27648881

  4. Sporotrichosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeremy A W; Derado, Gordana; Mody, Rajal K; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2016-10-01

    To determine frequency and risk for sporotrichosis-associated hospitalizations, we analyzed the US 2000-2013 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. An estimated 1,471 hospitalizations occurred (average annual rate 0.35/1 million persons). Hospitalizations were associated with HIV/AIDS, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although rare, severe sporotrichosis should be considered for at-risk patients.

  5. Sporotrichosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 2000?2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeremy A.W.; Derado, Gordana; Mody, Rajal K.; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    To determine frequency and risk for sporotrichosis-associated hospitalizations, we analyzed the US 2000?2013 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. An estimated 1,471 hospitalizations occurred (average annual rate 0.35/1 million persons). Hospitalizations were associated with HIV/AIDS, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although rare, severe sporotrichosis should be considered for at-risk patients.

  6. Measuring the impact of child protection through Activation States

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlaczek, Z; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pitchford, A; Russell, K; Brackenridge, CH

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and...

  7. Pregnancy-Associated Severe Sepsis: Contemporary State and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infection related to its associated mechanical and physiological changes. Sepsis remains among the top causes of maternal death worldwide and is associated with substantial maternal morbidity. However, there are sparse data on pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS), related in part to infrequent reports, varying case definitions and methodological approach, small cohort size, and often limited focus on severe sepsis in selected phases of pregnancy outcomes. Available reports vary, but indicate that PASS is a rare but likely increasing complication, and it is more likely to develop with increased maternal age, among minority women, the poor, those lacking health insurance, those with chronic illness or pregnancy-associated complications, and following invasive procedures. Obstetric sites of infection are the most prevalent, but non-obstetric infections often underlie pregnancy-associated severe sepsis, though the source of infection is often not readily apparent during initial care. Women with PASS can have a rapidly fatal course and require heightened clinician vigilance for early diagnosis and timely effective intervention. Nevertheless, available reports raise concerns about prevalent substandard care of these patients, contributing to adverse outcomes. The case fatality of PASS appears lower than that in the general population with severe sepsis, while the long-term outcomes of survivors remain unknown.

  8. State-dependent factors and attention in Whiplash Associated Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhorst, Mariëtte G.B.G.

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between state- dependent factors (headache, neck pain, fatigue, distress) and attention in WAD patients. Furthermore, the focus is on ‘noise-distractibility’ and ‘noise- intolerance’, which are symptoms related to attention and often

  9. Association of proteasomal activity with metastasis in luminal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashova, E. E.; Fesik, E. A.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Chimotrypsin-like (ChTL) and caspase-like (CL) proteasomal activities were investigated in different variants of the tumor progression of luminal breast cancer. Patients with primary luminal breast cancer (n = 123) in stage T1-3N0-2M0 who had not received neoadjuvant treatment were included in this study. Proteasome ChTL and CL activities were determined in the samples of tumor and adjacent tissues. The coefficients of chymotrypsin-like (kChTL) and caspase-like (kCL) proteasome activity were also calculated as the ratio of the corresponding activity in the tumor tissue to activity in the adjacent tissue. ChTL, CL, kChTL and kCL in the tissues of luminal A and B breast cancer with lymphogenic metastasis were compared, and their association with hematogenous metastasis was evaluated. On the one hand, CL activity of proteasomes increased in luminal A breast cancer with extensive lymphogenic metastasis (N2), on the other hand it decreased in the luminal B subtype of cancer. The ratio of proteasomal activity in the tumor and adjacent tissues plays a significant role in the hematogenic pathway of breast cancer progression and is associated with poor metastatic-free survival.

  10. Electroproduction of associated two-body final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Large Aperture Magnet Experiment at the Cornell Electron Synchrotron measured electron scattering in the region 2.98 2 and 0.5 2 2 . The 11.5 GeV extracted electron beam struck a liquid hydrogen target in an eight kilogauss magnetic field. The charged particles in the final state were tracked through the field by a multiwire proportional chamber system of 34 planes. A lead-scintillator shower counter triggered the experiment on detection of a scattered electron. Time-of-flight and water Cherenkov counters identified some of the final state hadrons. The data recorded on tape was then passed through computer programs which linked proportional chamber strikes into tracks, fit momenta to the tracks, applied particle identification algorithms, selected interesting events, and plotted histograms of invariant masses. All of this is described here in detail, with special attention to the front-end electronics and the track-finding program. Many specific final states were observed. The analysis presented here concentrates on the reaction γ/sub v/p→pπ + ππ 0 , with the final hadrons resulting from the decay of a two-body state. The states pω 0 and p eta 0 are measured. Limits are set for the production of Δ + + rho - , Δ + rho 0 , and Δp + . The conclusion the author draws is that hadron-like two-body processes are almost completely absent in virtual photon scattering in this kinematic region. Vector meson production, excitation of the nucleons, and the scattering of the photons directly from individual partons are the important processes

  11. Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males ...

  12. Immune activation is associated with decreased thymic function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduced thymic function causes poor immunological reconstitution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The association between immune activation and thymic function in asymptomatic HIVpositive treatment-naive individuals has thus far not been ...

  13. Association of leisure time physical activity, watching television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study shows the association of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and watching TV with lipid profile & obesity in a South Indian adult population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 2171 women and 2016 men in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute. The subjects were ...

  14. Arylesterase Phenotype-Specific Positive Association Between Arylesterase Activity and Cholinesterase Specific Activity in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Aoki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cholinesterase (ChE specific activity is the ratio of ChE activity to ChE mass and, as a biomarker of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, has a potential advantage over simple ChE activity. Objective: To examine the association of several potential correlates (serum arylesterase/paraoxonase activity, serum albumin, sex, age, month of blood collection, and smoking with plasma ChE specific activity. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 cancer-free controls from a nested case-control study, accounting for potential confounding. Results: Arylesterase activity had an independent, statistically significant positive association with ChE specific activity, and its magnitude was the greatest for the arylesterase phenotype corresponding to the QQ PON1192 genotype followed by phenotypes corresponding to QR and RR genotypes. Serum albumin was positively associated with ChE specific activity. Conclusions: Plasma arylesterase activity was positively associated with plasma ChE specific activity. This observation is consistent with protection conferred by a metabolic phenotype resulting in reduced internal dose.

  15. The association between the activity profile and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Foley, Louise; Scragg, Robert; Direito, Artur; Olds, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to better understand the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour and the relationship to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVDR) in adults aged 30-75 years. Cross-sectional. Data from two-year waves (2003-2004 and 2005-2006) of the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey were analysed in 2014. Accelerometer-derived time and proportion of time spent sedentary and on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated to generate four activity profiles based on cut-points to define low and high levels for the respective behaviours. Using health outcome data, CVDR was calculated for each person. Weighted multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the predicted effects of sedentary and physical activity behaviours on the CVDR score, adjusting for participants' sex, age group, race, annual household income, and accelerometer wear time. The lowest CVDR was observed among Busy Exercisers (high MVPA and low sedentary; 8.5%), whereas Couch Potatoes (low MVPA and high sedentary) had the highest (18.6%). Compared with the reference group (Busy Exercisers), the activity profile associated with the highest CVDR was Couch Potatoes (adjusted mean difference 3.6, SE 0.38, prisk landscape" was developed to better visualise the conjoint associations of MVPA and sedentary behaviour on CVDR for each activity profile. The association between MVPA was greater than that of sedentary behaviour; however, for people with low MVPA, shifts in sedentary behaviour may have the greatest impact on CVDR. Activity profiles that consider the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour differ in terms of CVDR. Future interventions may need to be tailored to specific profiles and be dynamic enough to reflect change in the profile over time. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  17. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  18. Association of Enjoyable Leisure Activities With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515

  19. Association of enjoyable leisure activities with psychological and physical well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D; Matthews, Karen A; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19-89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes.

  20. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics: Mission, Organization, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering

  1. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children

  2. State-of-the-art dry active waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.; Ingalsbe, H.; Alcorn, G.; Anderson, K.; Dahlen, D.

    1989-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) is operated by Arizona Public Service for a consortium of seven owners. The site consists of three identical single unit power plants. Each unit is a Combustion Engineering Series 80 pressurized water reactor (PWR) rated at 1270 Megawatts electric. The site is located 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, Arizona in the arid southwest desert region of the United States of America. Since the start up of Unit One in 1985, Palo Verde has aggressively pursued waste volume reduction. This includes a dry active waste (DAW) segregation program that locates and separates nonradioactive and reusable materials that have been mixed with the radioactive DAW. The DAW program is described in further detail in the paper

  3. Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.

  4. Active control of a plasmonic metamaterial for quantum state engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriri, S. A.; Tashima, T.; Zhang, X.; Asano, M.; Bechu, M.; Güney, D. Ö.; Yamamoto, T.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Wegener, M.; Tame, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the active control of a plasmonic metamaterial operating in the quantum regime. A two-dimensional metamaterial consisting of unit cells made from gold nanorods is investigated. Using an external laser, we control the temperature of the metamaterial and carry out quantum process tomography on single-photon polarization-encoded qubits sent through, characterizing the metamaterial as a variable quantum channel. The overall polarization response can be tuned by up to 33% for particular nanorod dimensions. To explain the results, we develop a theoretical model and find that the experimental results match the predicted behavior well. This work goes beyond the use of simple passive quantum plasmonic systems and shows that external control of plasmonic elements enables a flexible device that can be used for quantum state engineering.

  5. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  6. Bidirectional Modulation of Substantia Nigra Activity by Motivational State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522

  7. [Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Zhou, Q; Wang, D P; Zhang, T; Wang, H J; Song, Y; He, H Z; Wang, M; Wang, P Y; Liu, A P

    2017-06-18

    To analyze associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia among residents in Wuhai city. Data about social demographic characteristics, life style, health status and other covariate required for analysis in this study was obtained from a cross-sectional study on a total of 11 497 18-79 years old residents in Wuhai City by questionnaire, body mea-surement and laboratory examination. In this study, sedentary behavior and physical activity were evaluated using international physical activity questionnaire long version (IPAQ). IPAQ is widely used all over the world, and its reliability and validity have been tested in Chinese population. 2016 Chinese Guideline for the Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults was used to define dyslipidemia in this study. According to IPAQ scoring protocol, 124 participants were excluded as a result of reporting more than 960 min of physical activity per day. 50.58% of 11 373 participants included in the analysis reported more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day in this study, thus 49.42% participants reported no more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day; the proportions of these 11 373 participants who reached Low level physical activity, Moderate level physical activity and high level physical activity were 23.43%, 37.29% and 39.28% respectively; and the detection ratios of new cases and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in Wuhai City were 20.46% and 16.13% respectively. After controlling for confounders in this study, we found out that sedentary behavior increased the risk of new cases of dyslipidemia in women (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.36), and increased the risk of prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in both men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.44) and women (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48); as for association of physical activity with dyslipidemia, association was found between high level physical activity and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in men in this study (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98), suggested that high

  8. The Association between State Policy Environments and Self-Rated Health Disparities for Sexual Minorities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gonzales

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.

  9. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2006 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  10. Antitubercular Activity of Mycelium-Associated Ganoderma Lanostanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Chinthanom, Panida; Sappan, Malipan; Supothina, Sumalee; Vichai, Vanicha; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Hyde, Kevin D; Choeyklin, Rattaket

    2017-05-26

    In a continuation of our research into antitubercular lanostane triterpenoids from submerged cultures of Ganoderma species, three strains, Ganoderma orbiforme BCC 22325, Ganoderma sp. BCC 60695, and Ganoderma australe BCC 22314, have been investigated. Fourteen new lanostane triterpenoids, together with 35 known compounds, were isolated. Antitubercular activities of these mycelium-associated Ganoderma lanostanoids against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra were evaluated. Taken together with the assay data of previously isolated compounds, structure-activity relationships of the antitubercular activity are proposed. Most importantly, 3β- and 15α-acetoxy groups were shown to be critical for antimycobacterial activity. The most potent compound was (24E)-3β,15α-diacetoxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid (35).

  11. Characteristics Associated With Active Defects in Juvenile Spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Crawford, Charles H; Collis, Philip C; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosis is crucial in early-stage lumbar spondylolysis, as osseous healing can occur with conservative treatment. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) traditionally has been the most sensitive modality for diagnosing active (early) spondylolysis. More recently, high signal change (HSC) in the pedicle or pars interarticularis on fluid-specific (T2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be important in the diagnosis of early spondylolysis. We conducted a study to determine the clinical and radiographic characteristics associated with the diagnosis of early or active spondylolysis. Fifty-seven patients with a total of 108 pars defects and a mean age of 14.6 years were retrospectively identified. Defects with a positive SPECT or HSC on T2 MRI were classified as active. There were 49 active and 59 inactive defects. The active and inactive groups did not differ in age, body mass index, symptom duration, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, slip percentage, or laterality. There was a difference in sex (35 vs 19 males; P spondylolysis appears to be associated with male patients and the absence of listhesis, which may be important in identifying patients with a higher potential to experience osseous healing with nonoperative treatment.

  12. The objectives and activities of the Canadian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society and the Canadian Radiation Protection Association are working to develop an agreement between the organizations to facilitate working together on issues of common interest. This paper will present the objectives, the organizational structure and major areas of activity of the Canadian Radiation Protection Association. It is a reciprocal presentation of one given earlier this year by Mr. Fred Boyd of the CNS to the CRPA annual conference. The intent is to help the membership of each organization better understand the objectives and interests of the other. (author)

  13. Functional imaging reveals movement preparatory activity in the vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A Bekinschtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vegetative State (VS is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect residual conscious awareness in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining the neural correlates of motor preparation in response to verbal commands. Twenty-four patients who met the diagnostic criteria for VS were recruited for this study. Eleven of these patients showing preserved auditory evoked potentials underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test for basic speech processing. Five of these patients, who showed word related activity, were included in a second fMRI study aimed at detecting functional changes in premotor cortex elicited by specific verbal instructions to move either their left or their right hand. Despite the lack of overt muscle activity, two patients out of five activated the dorsal premotor cortex contralateral to the instructed hand, consistent with movement preparation. Given that movement preparation in response to a motor command is a sign of purposeful behavior, our results are consistent with residual conscious awareness in these patients. We believe that the identification of positive results with fMRI using this simple task, may complement the clinical assessment by helping attain a more precise diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  14. Are physical activity levels associated with better health outcomes in people with epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfele, César Augusto; Freitas, Matheus Pintanel; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Rombaldi, Airton José

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity in three categories (inactive, insufficiently active and active) with health outcomes in people with epilepsy. The dependent variables and the instruments used in the study were: a) quality of life - measured by Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 for adults and Quality of Life in Epilepsy for Adolescents, b) side effects of medication - measured by Adverse Events Profile, c) depression - measured by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, and d) state and trait anxiety - measured by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physical activity levels were analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adults in the commuting and leisure domains and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Simple and multiple linear regression was used in the statistical analysis. The cross-sectional study with one hundred and one individuals was conducted in Pelotas/RS, Brazil, at the Neurology Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Pelotas. In the crude analysis, physical activity was positively associated with quality of life (pepilepsy for improving health and life conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  16. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. 36 CFR 271.8 - Consultation with Association of State Foresters and the Advertising Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation with Association of State Foresters and the Advertising Council. 271.8 Section 271.8 Parks, Forests, and Public... Association of State Foresters and the Advertising Council. These regulations in this part have been issued...

  18. Association between Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among African Americans in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan J. Bhanushali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although there is a reported association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome, very few studies have used national level data restricted to the African Americans (AAs in the United States (US. Methods. A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2006 including men and nonpregnant women of 20 years or older. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome. Results. AA women had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (39.43% than AA men (26.77%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, no significant association was found between metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors including alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Age and marital status were significant predictors for metabolic syndrome. With increase in age, both AA men and AA women were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (AA men: ORadj=1.05, 95% CI 1.04–1.06, AA women: ORadj=1.06, 95% CI 1.04–1.07. Single AA women were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than married women (ORadj=0.66, 95% CI 0.43–0.99. Conclusion. Lifestyle factors had no significant association with metabolic syndrome but age and marital status were strong predictors for metabolic syndrome in AAs in the US.

  19. The characterization of activities associated with irradiated fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, I.L.; Bolus, D.J.; Glover, K.M.; Haynes, J.W.; Mapper, D.; Marwick, A.D.; Waterman, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The object of the present work was to characterise the natures and amounts of the various α and βγ activities associated with cladding hulls. The claddings studied were stainless steel from a Fast Reactor and from an Advanced Gas Reactor and Zircaloy from a Boiling Water Reactor, from a Pressurized Water Reactor and from a Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor. The hulls were examined by the following methods: alpha spectrometry to identify and quantify the α emitters and to estimate their depths of penetration, partial and complete dissolution of hulls followed by gross α counting, α spectrometry and γ spectrometry, fission track autoradiography to determine the distribution of fissile material associated with hulls, neutron activation to determine the total fissile content of the hulls, chemical separations followed by β counting and chemical treatment with various reagents to examine the ease of decontamination

  20. Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Johansen, Nanna B.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk for impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data-driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA...... identified subgroups in which different activity dimensions were associated with IGM. Methodology and results from this study may suggest a preliminary step toward the goal of tailoring and targeting PA interventions aimed at Type 2 diabetes prevention....... associated with IGM across age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1501 individuals (mean (SD) age, 65.6 (6.8) yr) at high risk for Type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate...

  1. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  2. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  3. State school nutrition and physical activity policy environments and youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben; Wall, Melanie; Haddad, Tarek; Kubik, Martha; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    With the epidemic of childhood obesity, there is national interest in state-level school policies related to nutrition and physical activity, policies adopted by states, and relationships to youth obesity. This study develops a comprehensive state-level approach to characterize the overall obesity prevention policy environment for schools and links the policy environments to youth obesity for each state. Using 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) state data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used (2008-2009) to construct domains of state-level school obesity prevention policies and practices, establish the validity and reliability of the domain scales, and examine their associations with state-level obesity prevalence among youth aged 10-17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Nearly 250 state-level obesity prevention-policy questions were identified from the SHPPS. Three broad policy topic areas containing 100 food service and nutrition (FSN) questionnaire items; 146 physical activity and education (PAE) items; and two weight assessment (WA) items were selected. Principal components analysis and content validity assessment were used to further categorize the items into six FSN, ten PAE, and one WA domain. Using a proportional scaled score to summarize the number of policies adopted by states, it was found that on average states adopted about half of the FSN (49%), 38% of the PAE, and 17% of the WA policies examined. After adjusting for state-level measures of ethnicity and income, the average proportion of FSN policies adopted by states was correlated with the prevalence of youth obesity at r =0.35 (p=0.01). However, no correlation was found between either PAE or WA policies and youth obesity (PAE policies at r =0.02 [p=0.53] and WA policies at r =0.16 [p=0.40]). States appear to be doing a better job adopting FSN policies than PA or WA policies, and adoption of policies is correlated with youth obesity. Continued

  4. Denitrification activity in mangrove sediments varies with associated vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Dutta, P.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Bonin, P.C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . Eng.: 95; 2016; 671-681 Denitrification activity in mangrove sediments varies with associated vegetation Sheryl Oliveira Fernandes a, #, Pinky Dutta b, Maria-Judith Gonsalves a, Patricia C. Bonin c, P. A. LokaBharathi a, *  a Biological... in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Giri et al., 2011). They provide a range of ecosystem services like soil formation, wood production, fish spawning grounds, carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling (Murdiyarso et al., 2015). However, over...

  5. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Physical Activity and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2017-11-01

    This longitudinal study examined the role of leisure-time physical activity in academic achievement at the end of compulsory basic education and educational attainment in adulthood. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based data from Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 12 yr (n = 1723, 49% boys) and 15 yr (n = 2445, 48% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed up until 2010, when their mean age was 40 yr. Physical activity was self-reported and included several measurements: overall leisure-time physical activity outside school hours, participation in sports club training sessions, and participation in sports competitions. Individuals' educational outcomes were measured with the self-reported grade point average at age 15 yr and register-based information on the years of completed postcompulsory education in adulthood. Ordinary least squares models and the instrumental variable approach were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and educational outcomes. Physical activity in adolescence was positively associated with educational outcomes. Both the physical activity level at age 15 yr and an increase in the physical activity level between the ages of 12 and 15 yr were positively related to the grade point average at age 15 yr and the years of postcompulsory education in adulthood. The results were robust to the inclusion of several individual and family background factors, including health endowments, family income, and parents' education. The results provide evidence that physical activity in adolescence may not only predict academic success during compulsory basic education but also boost educational outcomes later in life.

  7. Physical activity is associated with changes in knee cartilage microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilaj, E; Hastie, T J; Gold, G E; Delp, S L

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in knee cartilage microstructure. We used accelerometry and T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, restricting the analysis to men aged 45-60 years, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-27 kg/m 2 and no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis. After computing 4-year changes in mean T 2 relaxation time for six femoral cartilage regions and mean daily times spent in the sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity ranges, we performed canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to find a linear combination of times spent in different activity intensity ranges (Activity Index) that was maximally correlated with a linear combination of regional changes in cartilage microstructure (Cartilage Microstructure Index). We used leave-one-out pre-validation to test the robustness of the model on new data. Nineteen subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria. CCA identified an Activity Index and a Cartilage Microstructure Index that were significantly correlated (r = .82, P microstructural changes in different cartilage regions than it is with univariate or cumulative changes, likely because this index separates the effect of activity, which is greater in the medial loadbearing region, from that of patient-specific natural aging. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors associated with psychosocial services in ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Belonging to a social network group may influence a person′s decisions to engage in desired behavior. Aim: The objective of our study was to determine factors associated with utilization of psychosocial group services among people living with human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHAs in a Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. All consenting PLHAs who attended the anti-retroviral clinic (ART clinic during the study period were recruited into the study. Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and a total of 205 PLWHAs were interviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross tabulations that identify important relationships between the variables. Odds ratio (OR at 95% confidence level (CI and Chi-squared and t-tests were also computed. Results: The overall point utilization of psychosocial services among the PLWHAs was 23.4%. Utilization of psychosocial services was statistically significantly associated with religion (χ2 = 11.74, P = 0.003, disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus status (χ2 = 9.18, P = 0.01 and satisfactory self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL (χ2 = 5.67, P = 0.017 while sex (χ2 = 0.02, P = 0.96, education (χ2 = 4.67, P = 0.32 tribe (χ2 = 1.46, P = 0.48 adherence to ART drugs (χ2 = 0.44, P = 0.51, mental health status (χ2 = 0.64, P = 0.42 and occupation (χ2 = 3.61, P = 0.61 were not. The only predictor of utilization of psychosocial group services was religion (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.23-0.84. Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of the psychosocial networks group in improving the overall HRQOL of the PLWHAs.

  9. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  10. Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eDelorme

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During advanced meditative practices, unusual perceptions can arise including the sense of receiving information about unknown people who are deceased (discarnates. The reported experience of initiating mental communication with the deceased, may involve a state of consciousness similar to that achieved in contemplative meditation practices. As with meditation, this mental state involves calming mental chatter and becoming receptive to subtle feelings and sensations. Psychometric and brain electrophysiology data were collected from six individuals who had previously reported accurate information about discarnates under double-blind conditions. Each experimental participant performed two tasks with eyes closed. In the first task, the participant was given only the first name of a discarnate and asked 25 questions. After each question, the participant was asked to silently perceive information relevant to the question for 20 seconds so clean electro-encephalography data could be collected and then respond verbally. Responses were then transcribed and scored by individuals who knew the discarnates. Of the six participants, two could not be evaluated, and the four other participants scored higher than chance level (p<0.03 for 3 of the 4 participants. The correlation between accuracy and brain activity was significant in frontal theta for one participant (p < 0.01. In the second task, participants were asked to experience four mental states, each repeated three times for one minute: (1 Thinking about a known living person, (2 Listening to a biography, (3 Thinking about an imaginary person, and (4 Interacting mentally with a known discarnate. Statistically significant differences in electrocortical activity among the four conditions were obtained in all six participants, primarily at gamma frequencies. These differences suggest that the impression of communicating with the deceased may be a distinct mental state distinct from ordinary thinking or

  11. Stages of change in physical activity-related behavior in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the stages of change in physical activity-related behavior (EMCRAF and their association with gender and age. A total of 1108 high school students of both sexes, from Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, took part in this study. A questionnaire was used to assess EMCRAF. A higher proportion of boys were in the maintenance stage (48.1% and a higher proportion of girls were in contemplation (24.7% and pre-contemplation (6.4% stages. Gender factor male and age range 17-18 were protective factors, which increased the likelihood of physically active behavior. Girls aged 17-18 were twice as likely to be in the contemplation stage than boys. It is important to expand knowledge about EMCRAF in adolescents and their associations with gender and age because a considerable number of behaviors established during this period of life can last into adulthood.

  12. Intrinsic spontaneous brain activity predicts individual variability in associative memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Rui; Xiao, Fengqiu; He, Rongqiao; Zhang, Shouzi; Li, Juan

    2018-04-19

    Older adults demonstrate notable individual differences in associative memory. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was used to investigate whether intrinsic brain activity at rest could predict individual differences in associative memory among cognitively healthy older adults. Regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis and a correlation-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach were used to analyze data acquired from 102 cognitively normal elderly who completed the paired-associative learning test (PALT) and underwent fMRI scans. Participants were divided into two groups based on the retrospective self-reports on whether or not they utilized encoding strategies during the PALT. The behavioral results revealed better associative memory performance in the participants who reported utilizing memory strategies compared with participants who reported not doing so. The fMRI results showed that higher associative memory performance was associated with greater functional connectivity between the right superior frontal gyrus and the right posterior cerebellum lobe in the strategy group. The regional ALFF values in the right superior frontal gyrus were linked to associative memory performance in the no-strategy group. These findings suggest that the regional spontaneous fluctuations and functional connectivity during rest may subserve the individual differences in the associative memory in older adults, and that this is modulated by self-initiated memory strategy use. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Steel passive state stability in activated fly ash mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the behaviour of structural steel embedded in Portland cement (OPC mortars and NaOH- and NaOH-waterglass-activated fly ash, in the presence and absence of 2 % Cl- (CaCl2. Variations were determined in the corrosion potential (Ecorr, linear polarization resistance (Rp and corrosion current density (icorr under different environmental conditions (90 days at 95 % relative humidity (RH, 30 days at ≈ 30 % RH, 760 days at ≈ 95 % RH. In the absence of Cl-, fly ash mortars were able to passivate steel reinforcement, although the stability of the passive state in changing environmental conditions was found to depend heavily on the activating solution used. Steel corrosion in the presence of 2 % Cl- was observed to be similar to the corrosion reported for the material in OPC mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento del acero estructural embebido en morteros de cemento Pórtland (OPC y de cenizas volantes activadas con NaOH y una mezcla de NaOH y waterglass, en ausencia y en presencia de un 2% de Cl- (CaCl2. Se determino la evolución del potencial de corrosión (Ecorr, la resistencia de polarización lineal (Rp y la intensidad de corrosión (icorr, variando las condiciones ambientales (90 días al 95% de humedad relativa (HR-30 días a ≈ 30% HR- 760 días a ≈ 95% HR. En ausencia de Cl- los morteros de cenizas volantes activadas pueden pasivar los refuerzos de acero, si bien la estabilidad del estado pasivo ante cambios en las condiciones ambientales parece mostrar una fuerte dependencia de la solución activadora empleada. En presencia de un 2% de Cl- los aceros se corroen mostrando en comportamiento similar al observado en morteros en base OPC.

  14. What Should Be the Roles of Conscious States and Brain States in Theories of Mental Activity?**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E.

    2011-01-01

    Answers to the title’s question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and “free will” in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness? PMID:21694964

  15. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys. We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with” with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR for one standard deviation (SD change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05–1.18 and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98. Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  16. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  17. Coagulation activation anc microparticle-associated coagulant activity in cancer patients An exploratory prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kleinjan, Ankie; Berckmans, René J.; Mackman, Nigel; Manly, David; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Richel, Dick J.; Büller, Harry R.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Cancer increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Here, we investigated the contribution of microparticle (MP)-dependent procoagulant activity to the prothrombotic state in these patients. In 43 cancer patients without VIE at study entry and 22 healthy volunteers, markers of in vivo and

  18. Aeroelastic code development activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Designing wind turbines to be fatigue resistant and to have long lifetimes at minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry in the United States. To achieve this goal, we must be able to predict critical loads for a wide variety of different wind turbines operating under extreme conditions. The codes used for wind turbine dynamic analysis must be able to analyze a wide range of different wind turbine configurations as well as rapidly predict the loads due to turbulent wind inflow with a minimal set of degrees of freedom. Code development activities in the US have taken a two-pronged approach in order to satisfy both of these criteria: (1) development of a multi-purpose code which can be used to analyze a wide variety of wind turbine configurations without having to develop new equations of motion with each configuration change, and (2) development of specialized codes with minimal sets of specific degrees of freedom for analysis of two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines and calculation of machine loads due to turbulent inflow. In the first method we have adapted a commercial multi-body dynamics simulation package for wind turbine analysis. In the second approach we are developing specialized codes with limited degrees of freedom, usually specified in the modal domain. This paper will summarize progress to date in the development, validation, and application of these codes. (au) 13 refs.

  19. Environmental factors associated with physician's engagement in communication activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R

    2015-01-01

    Communication between patients and providers is a crucial component of effective care coordination and is associated with a number of desired patient and provider outcomes. Despite these benefits, physician-patient and physician-physician communication occurs infrequently. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a medical practice's external environment and physician engagement in communication activities. This was a cross-sectional examination of 4,299 U.S. physicians' self-reported engagement in communication activities. Communication was operationalized as physician's time spent on communication with patients and other providers during a typical work day. The explanatory variables were measures of environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence. Data sources were the Health Tracking Physician Survey, the Area Resource File database, and the Dartmouth Atlas. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the environmental factors and physician engagement in communication activities. Several environmental factors, including per capita income (odds ratio range, 1.17-1.38), urban location (odds ratio range, 1.08-1.45), fluctuations in Health Maintenance Organization penetration (odds ratio range, 3.47-13.22), poverty (odds ratio range, 0.80-0.97) and population rates (odds ratio range, 1.01-1.02), and the presence of a malpractice crisis (odds ratio range, 0.22-0.43), were significantly associated with communication. Certain aspects of a physician's external environment are associated with different modes of communication with different recipients (patients and providers). This knowledge can be used by health care managers and policy makers who strive to improve communication between different stakeholders within the health care system (e.g., patient and providers).

  20. The influence of state-level policy environments on the activation of the Medicaid SBIRT reimbursement codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Jesse; Bray, Jeremy; Kaiser, David; Mallonee, Erin

    2017-02-01

    To examine how institutional constraints, comprising federal actions and states' substance abuse policy environments, influence states' decisions to activate Medicaid reimbursement codes for screening and brief intervention for risky substance use in the United States. A discrete-time duration model was used to estimate the effect of institutional constraints on the likelihood of activating the Medicaid reimbursement codes. Primary constraints included federal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant funding, substance abuse priority, economic climate, political climate and interstate diffusion. Study data came from publicly available secondary data sources. Federal SBIRT grant funding did not affect significantly the likelihood of activation (P = 0.628). A $1 increase in per-capita block grant funding was associated with a 10-percentage point reduction in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.003) and a $1 increase in per-capita state substance use disorder expenditures was associated with a 2-percentage point increase in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.004). States with enacted parity laws (P = 0.016) and a Democratic-controlled state government were also more likely to activate the codes. In the United States, the determinants of state activation of Medicaid Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) reimbursement codes are complex, and include more than financial considerations. Federal block grant funding is a strong disincentive to activating the SBIRT reimbursement codes, while more direct federal SBIRT grant funding has no detectable effects. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M

    2009-07-01

    Daily disturbances of the earth's magnetic field produce variations in geomagnetic activity (GMA) that are reportedly associated with widespread effects on human health and behaviour. Some of these effects could be mediated by an established influence of GMA on the secretion of melatonin. There is evidence from unrelated research that melatonin influences dream bizarreness, and it is hypothesised here that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Also reported is a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum or = 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1-5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n=69, median bizarreness=4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n=85, median bizarreness=3; p=0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Studies with larger samples are needed to verify this association, and to determine the extent to which melatonin may be involved. Establishing that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness would have relevance for neurophysiological theories of dreaming, and for models of psychotic symptoms resembling bizarre dream events.

  2. Functional Bowel Disorders Are Associated with a Central Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Farup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subjects with depression and unexplained neurological symptoms have a high prevalence of gastrointestinal comorbidity probably related to the brain-gut communication. This study explored associations between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID and inflammatory markers in subjects with these disorders. Methods. The FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, were classified according to the Rome III criteria, and degree of symptoms was assessed with IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS. A range of interleukins (IL, chemokines and growth factors, tryptophan, and kynurenine were analysed in serum and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA were analysed in the faeces. The results are reported as partial correlation (pc and p values. Results. Sixty-six subjects were included. IBS was associated with high levels of tryptophan (p=0.048 and kynurenine (p=0.019 and low level of IL-10 (p=0.047 in the CSF. IBS-SSS was associated with high tumor necrosis factor and low IL-10 in the CSF; pc=0.341 and p=0.009 and pc=−0.299 and p=0.023, respectively. Propionic minus butyric acid in faeces was negatively associated with IL-10 in the CSF (pc=−0.416, p=0.005. Conclusions. FGID were associated with a proinflammatory immune activation in the central nervous system and a disturbed tryptophan metabolism that could have been mediated by the faecal microbiota.

  3. Does the association between leisure activities and survival in old age differ by living arrangement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Charlotta; Agahi, Neda; Shaw, Benjamin A

    2018-01-01

    Government policies to promote ageing in place have led to a growing frail population living at home in advanced old age, many of whom live alone. Living alone in old age is associated with adverse health outcomes, but we know little about whether it moderates the health impact of other risk and protective factors. Engagement in leisure activities is considered critical to successful ageing. We investigated whether the association between different types of leisure activities and survival in non-institutionalised older adults (aged 76 and above) differs by living arrangement and gender. We used the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old study from 2011 and the Swedish Cause of Death Register (until 30 June 2014) to conduct Cox regression analyses (n=669). Incident mortality was 30.2% during the follow-up period. Overall level of leisure activity was not significantly associated with survival in either living arrangement, but some specific leisure activities, and associations, were different across gender and living arrangement. More specifically, certain social activities (participation in organisations and having relatives visit) were associated with longer survival, but only in men living alone. In women, most results were statistically non-significant, with the exception of solving crosswords being associated with longer survival in women living with someone. In order to facilitate engagement with life, interventions focusing on leisure activities in the oldest age groups should take gender and living arrangement into consideration when determining the type of activity most needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  5. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  6. Effect of Geography on the Analysis of Coccidioidomycosis-Associated Deaths, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jason A; Nelson, Robert G; Fufaa, Gudeta D; Kang, Paul; Shafir, Shira Chani; Galgiani, John N

    2016-10-01

    Because coccidioidomycosis death rates vary by region, we reanalyzed coccidioidomycosis-associated mortality in the United States by race/ethnicity, then limited analysis to Arizona and California. Coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths were shown to increase among African-Americans but decrease among Native Americans and Hispanics. Separately, in a Native American cohort, diabetes co-varied with coccidioidomycosis-associated death.

  7. Interacting CMEs and their associated flare and SEP activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Prasanna Subramanian, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have analyzed a set of 25 interacting events which are associated with the DH type II bursts. These events are selected from the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed during the period 1997-2010 in SOHO/LASCO and DH type IIs observed in Wind/WAVES. Their pre and primary CMEs from nearby active regions are identified using SOHO/LASCO and EIT images and their height-time diagrams. Their interacting time and height are obtained, and their associated activities, such as, flares and Solar Energetic Particles (>10 pfu) are also investigated. Results from the analysis are: primary CMEs are much faster than the pre-CMEs, their X-ray flares are also stronger (X- and M-class) compared to the flares (C- and M-class) of pre-CMEs. Most of the events (22/25) occurred during the period 2000-2006. From the observed width and speed of pre and primary CMEs, it is found that the pre-CMEs are found to be less energetic than the primary CMEs. While the primary CMEs are tracked up to the end of LASCO field of view (30 Rs), most of the pre-CMEs can be tracked up to <26 Rs. The SEP intensity is found to be related with the integrated flux of X-ray flares associated with the primary CMEs for nine events originating from the western region.

  8. Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Finster, Sabrina; Melonek, Joanna; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2016-03-01

    Happiness refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people's perceived happiness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sector activities and lessons learned around initial implementation of the United States national physical activity plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Satinsky, Sara B

    2014-08-01

    National plans are increasingly common but infrequently evaluated. The 2010 United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) provided strategies to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper describes (i) the initial accomplishments of the NPAP sector teams, and (ii) results from a process evaluation to determine how the sectors operated, their cross-sector collaboration, challenges encountered, and positive experiences. During 2011, a quarterly reporting system was developed to capture sector-level activities. A year-end interview derived more detailed information. Interviews with 12 sector leads were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. The 6 sectors worked on goals from the implementation plan that focused broadly on education, promotion, intervention, policy, collaboration, and evaluation. Through year-end interviews, themes were generated around operations, goal setting, and cross-sector collaboration. Challenges to the NPAP work included lack of funding and time, the need for marketing and promotion, and organizational support. Positive experiences included collaboration, efficiency of work, enhanced community dynamic, and accomplishments toward NPAP goals. These initial results on the NPAP sector teams can be used as a baseline assessment for future monitoring. The lessons learned may be useful to other practitioners developing evaluations around state- or national-level plans.

  11. Adolescent resting state networks and their associations to schizotypal trait expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Lagioia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising interest in temporally coherent brain networks during baseline adult cerebral activity finds convergent evidence for an identifiable set of resting state networks (RSNs. To date, little is know concerning the earlier developmental stages of functional connectivity in RSNs. This study’s main objective is to characterize the RSNs in a sample of adolescents. We further examine our data from a developmental psychopathology perspective of psychosis-proneness, by testing the hypothesis that early schizotypal symptoms are linked to disconnection in RSNs. In this perspective, this study examines the expression of adolescent schizotypal traits and their potential associations to dysfunctional RSNs. Thirty-nine adolescents aged between 12 and 20 years old underwent an eight minute fMRI “resting state” session. In order to explore schizotypal trait manifestations, the entire population was assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. After conventional processing of the fMRI data, we applied group-level independent component analysis (ICA. Twenty ICA maps and associated time-courses were obtained, among which there were resting state networks (RSNs that are consistent with findings in the literature. We applied a regression analysis at group level between the energy of RSN-associated time courses in different temporal frequency bins and the clinical measures (3 in total. Our results highlight the engagement of six relevant RSNs; 1 a default-mode network; 2 a dorso-lateral attention network; 3 a visual network; 4 an auditory network; 5 a sensory motor network; 6 a self-referential network. The regression analysis reveals a statistically significant correlation between the clinical measures and some of the RSNs, specifically the visual and the auditory network. In particular, a positive correlation is obtained for the visual network in the low frequency range (0.05 Hz with SPQ measures, while the auditory network correlates

  12. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Factors associated with Spanish older people's membership in political organizations: the role of active aging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    This study explores older people's membership in political organizations by using data from the Survey on older people 2010, carried out by Spain's National Institute for older people and social services. The objectives were to describe the extent of this kind of participation among Spaniards aged 65 and over, and to analyze the factors that are associated with it. Results show that only slightly less than 7 % of the sample belonged to a political organization. To analyze the factors related to this membership, a set of models of multivariate analyses were run, including socioeconomic resources and participation in other types of active aging activity (participation in leisure, learning, and productive activities). Educational level, leisure activities, learning activities, and only volunteering in the case of productive activities were found to be associated with membership in political organizations. Results provide partial support for the socioeconomic resources model and suggest that engagement in leisure activities, learning activities, and volunteering might have an enhancing effect on membership in political organizations.

  14. Generalized coherent states related to the associated Bessel functions and Morse potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojaveri, B; Amiri Faseghandis, S

    2014-01-01

    Using the associated Bessel functions, a shape-invariant Lie algebra spanned by ladder operators plus the identity operator, is realized. The Hilbert space of the associated Bessel functions, representing the Lie algebra, are established and two kinds of generalized coherent states as an appropriate superposition of these functions are constructed. By implying appropriate similarity transformation on the constructed coherent states, the generalized coherent states for the Morse potential are obtained. By considering some statistical characteristics, it is revealed that the constructed coherent states indeed possess nonclassical features, such as squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics. (paper)

  15. Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C. Y.; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing. PMID:22905090

  16. Association of microparticles and neutrophil activation with decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Stephen R; Bennett, Michael; Banham, Neil D; Chin, Walter; Blake, Denise F; Rosen, Anders; Pollock, Neal W; Madden, Dennis; Barak, Otto; Marroni, Alessandro; Balestra, Costantino; Germonpre, Peter; Pieri, Massimo; Cialoni, Danilo; Le, Phi-Nga Jeannie; Logue, Christopher; Lambert, David; Hardy, Kevin R; Sward, Douglas; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena B; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a systemic disorder, assumed due to gas bubbles, but additional factors are likely to play a role. Circulating microparticles (MPs)--vesicular structures with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm--have been implicated, but data in human divers have been lacking. We hypothesized that the number of blood-borne, Annexin V-positive MPs and neutrophil activation, assessed as surface MPO staining, would differ between self-contained underwater breathing-apparatus divers suffering from DCS vs. asymptomatic divers. Blood was analyzed from 280 divers who had been exposed to maximum depths from 7 to 105 meters; 185 were control/asymptomatic divers, and 90 were diagnosed with DCS. Elevations of MPs and neutrophil activation occurred in all divers but normalized within 24 h in those who were asymptomatic. MPs, bearing the following proteins: CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142, CD235, and von Willebrand factor, were between 2.4- and 11.7-fold higher in blood from divers with DCS vs. asymptomatic divers, matched for time of sample acquisition, maximum diving depth, and breathing gas. Multiple logistic regression analysis documented significant associations (P < 0.001) between DCS and MPs and for neutrophil MPO staining. Effect estimates were not altered by gender, body mass index, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or emergency oxygen treatment and were modestly influenced by divers' age, choice of breathing gas during diving, maximum diving depth, and whether repetitive diving had been performed. There were no significant associations between DCS and number of MPs without surface proteins listed above. We conclude that MP production and neutrophil activation exhibit strong associations with DCS. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Association of the Duration of Active Pushing With Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the associations between the duration of active pushing during the second stage of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes. We performed an observational study in which data were obtained by trained abstractors from maternal and neonatal charts of deliveries at 25 hospitals over a 3-year period. In this secondary analysis, women with no prior cesarean delivery who had a term, singleton, cephalic gestation and reached complete dilation were analyzed. The duration of pushing, defined as the time from initiation of pushing to either vaginal delivery or the decision to proceed with a cesarean delivery, was determined. The primary maternal outcome was cesarean delivery and the primary neonatal outcome was a composite that included: mechanical ventilation, proven sepsis, brachial plexus palsy, clavicular fracture, skull fracture, other fracture, seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, or death. Nulliparous and parous women were analyzed separately in univariable and then multivariable analyses. A total of 53,285 women were analyzed. In both nulliparous and parous women, longer duration of pushing was associated with increased odds of both cesarean delivery and the neonatal adverse outcome composite. Nevertheless, even after 4 hours of pushing, approximately 78% of nulliparous women who continued with active pushing had a vaginal delivery and more than 97% did not have the composite adverse neonatal outcome. Similarly, after more than 2 hours of pushing, approximately 82% of parous women who continued active pushing delivered vaginally and more than 97% did not have the adverse neonatal outcome. A longer duration of pushing is associated with an increased relative risk, but small absolute difference in risk, of neonatal complications. Approximately 78% of nulliparous women delivered vaginally even after 4 hours of pushing.

  18. Age-associated changes in muscle activity during isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effect of age on the complexity of muscle activity and the variance in the force of isometric contraction. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from biceps brachii muscle and force of contraction were recorded from 96 subjects (20-70 years of age) during isometric contractions. There was a reduction in the complexity of sEMG associated with aging. The relationship of age and complexity was approximated using a bilinear fit, with the average knee point at 45 years. There was an age-associated increase in the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction, and this increase was correlated with the decrease in complexity of sEMG (r(2) = 0.76). There was an age-associated increase in CoV and also a reduction in the complexity of sEMG. The correlation between these 2 factors can be explained based on the age-associated increase in motor unit density. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars

    to and from school (very safe to very unsafe). - Area median household income (statistic records). GIS measures: -Individual network distance from home to school. -Index consisting of summed rank-score of the following three components (1-14 each; summed 3-42): Pedshed: ‘Area of 2 km school service area’ / ‘2...... km school buffer (euclidean)’1). Vehicular Traffic Exposure: ‘Length of larger roads (>6 meters wide)’ / ’minor roads (...-day active commuting was 0.58 (pdistance. To have an ‘unsafe’ or ‘very unsafe’ route to school was associated with an OR on 0.50 (p

  20. Report of Activities of the Association Euratom/Ciemat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The focal point of the work at the Spanish Association has been the flexible Heliac TJII, which since 2002 is the only stellarator in operation in Europe. The main milestone of TJ-II operation has been the generation of plasmas sustained by NBI heating (which lead to a record in TJ-II stored energy) but significant physics results have been also obtained in the continuation of existing lines (improved confinement scenarios and the role of rational surfaces, iota scaling with boronized walls, turbulence studies, impurity transport and rotation experiments, suprathermal electrons studies, plasma wall effects, etc). TJ-II improvements include the progress in the second NBI, the preparations for the Bernstein wave heating system, the installation of a Diagnostic NB and the fast camera (Ha) diagnostic (on temporal loan from PPPL- Princeton). Other activities of the Association include the Materials research programme, both in the areas of insulator materials properties and structural materials (with a new line open: studies of Tritium barriers during irradiation), the studies on the socio-economic impact of fusion and a reinforced participation in the EFDA technology work programme. The Association wants to increase technology activities and, along this line, a number of expression of interest have been submitted, leading to several task contracts : design of the European Dipole, design of the magnet for ITER field simulation on NBI test bed, IFMIF security analysis, Demo Blanket support system (finished), Main plasma reflectometry system (finished), Tritium retention/ removal studies. Finally, the Association has keep its involvement in the PhD programme Fusion and Plasma Physics that has been carried since 2001 in collaboration with several Universities and other Spanish research centres. (Author)

  1. Report of Activities of the Association Euratom/Ciemat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The focal point of the work at the Spanish Association has been the flexible Heliac TJII, which since 2002 is the only stellarator in operation in Europe. The main milestone of TJ-II operation has been the generation of plasmas sustained by NBI heating (which lead to a record in TJ-II stored energy) but significant physics results have been also obtained in the continuation of existing lines (improved confinement scenarios and the role of rational surfaces, iota scaling with boronized walls, turbulence studies, impurity transport and rotation experiments, suprathermal electrons studies, plasma wall effects, etc). TJ-II improvements include the progress in the second NBI, the preparations for the Bernstein wave heating system, the installation of a Diagnostic NB and the fast camera (Ha) diagnostic (on temporal loan from PPPL- Princeton). Other activities of the Association include the Materials research programme, both in the areas of insulator materials properties and structural materials (with a new line open: studies of Tritium barriers during irradiation), the studies on the socio-economic impact of fusion and a reinforced participation in the EFDA technology work programme. The Association wants to increase technology activities and, along this line, a number of expression of interest have been submitted, leading to several task contracts : design of the European Dipole, design of the magnet for ITER field simulation on NBI test bed, IFMIF security analysis, Demo Blanket support system (finished), Main plasma reflectometry system (finished), Tritium retention/ removal studies. Finally, the Association has keep its involvement in the PhD programme Fusion and Plasma Physics that has been carried since 2001 in collaboration with several Universities and other Spanish research centres. (Author)

  2. Lymphocytic gastritis is not associated with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. DIAGNOSTICS OF META-INSTABLE STATE OF SEISMICALLY ACTIVE FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a laboratory simulation of the seismic fault reactivation by “stick-slip” process, it was shown that the system of two blocks just before an impulse offset goes through the meta-instable dynamic state, with early and late stages of meta-instability [Ma et al., 2012]. In the first stage the offset begins in slow stationary mode with slow stresses relaxation on contact between blocks. In the second stage of the “accelerated synergies” strain rate increases and, subsequently, the deformation process through a process of self-organization came to dynamic impulse offset. The experimental results were used for interpretation of the results of spectral analysis of the deformation monitoring data. The data were held within the southern part ofLakeBaikal, where Kultuk earthquake (27.08.2008, Ms=6.1. took place. Its epicenter was located in the South end zone of the main Sayan fault. Monitoring of deformations of rocks was carried out from April to November2008 in tunnel, located at30 km from the epicenter of the earthquake. The time series data was divided into month periods and then the periods were processed by the method of spectral analysis. The results showed that before the earthquake has ordered view spectrogram, whereas in other time intervals, both before and after the earthquake such orderliness in spectrograms is missing. An ordered view spectrograms for deformation monitoring data can be interpreted as a consequence of the self-organiza­tion of deformation process in the transition of seismically active fault into meta-unstable before the Kultuk earthquake.

  4. Activities of the United States Geological Survey in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1800's, when the U.S. Geological Survey first established a presence in Pennsylvania, the focus of our work has changed from general hydrologic and geologic appraisals to issue-oriented investigations; from predominantly data collection to a balanced program of data collection, interpretation, and research; and from traditional, hand-drawn mapping to digitally produced coverages with specialized themes. Yet our basic mission has not changed. It is as relevant to the resource issues of today as it was when our geologists first arrived in western Pennsylvania in 1884. Continuing in this proud heritage and tradition, the U.S. Geological Survey is moving confidently toward the next century, evolving organizationally and technologically to better meet the needs of our many constituencies. One major organizational change is the recent accession of employees from the former National Biological Service, who now form the Survey's fourth program division, the Biological Resources Division. These employees join forces with colleagues in our other three divisions: Water Resources, Geologic, and National Mapping. More than any other change in decades, the addition of this biological expertise creates new and exciting opportunities for scientific research and public service. This report provides an overview of recent activities in Pennsylvania conducted by the four program divisions and is intended to inform those interested in U.S. Geological Survey products and services. Additional information is available on our home page (at http://wwwpah2o.er.usgs.gov/). Together with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations who are our customers and partners, we at the U.S. Geological Survey look forward to providing continued scientific contributions and public service to Pennsylvania and the Nation.

  5. Protein kinase activity associated with the corticosteroid binder IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujicic, M.; Djordjevic-Markovic, R.; Radic, O.; Krstic, M.; Kanazir, D.

    1997-01-01

    The physiological effects elicited by glucocorticoids are mediated via glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Analysis of specific glucocorticoid binding to radioactively labelled [ 3 H] triamcinolone acetonide in rat liver cytosol and analysis by ion exchange chromatography have revealed the presence of two distinct molecular species. The major form, designated as binder II appears to correspond to the well characterized glucocorticoid receptor by virtue of its size, charge, steroid binding characteristics and ability to bind to DNA.The second form, designated as corticosteroid binder IB, is a minor binding component in the liver. The binder IB differs from the binder II receptor by virtue of its lower molecular weight and its elution in the pre gradient of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column which retains the un activated binder II receptor complexes. We examined the kinase activity of partially purified corticosteroid binder IB. Using (γ 3 2 P) ATP we detected kinase activity associated with the IB fraction from the rat liver. This kinase phosphorylate mixed histones and and dose not phosphorylate IB protein in vitro. The kinase activity is completely inhibited by the addition of Mg 2 + ions and is partially inhibited by the addition of Ca 2 +ions. (author)

  6. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion.

  7. Neutron activation analysis for uranium and associated elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The samples obtained by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program are activated in the intense neutron flux from a Savannah River Plant production reactor. A pilot-scale facility was installed at the reactor site to provide analyses of samples through the initial phase of the program and to develop design data for a full-scale facility. Sediments are analyzed by direct activation of 0.5-g samples. However, to analyze ground or surface water samples, mineral elements from 1-liter samples are concentrated on ion exchange resin and then approximately 5-g samples of resin are activated. Uranium concentration is determined by counting neutrons emitted from specific short-lived products of fission induced in 235 U by the primary neutron flux. Repetitive short cycles of irradiation and counting permit detection and determination of <0.1 μg of uranium. Elements associated with uranium are determined by spectral analysis of the gamma ray activities induced by the cyclic and subsequent longer irradiations. The pilot facility consists of four irradiation positions (plus 2 spare positions), a sample loader and unloader, and counting stations with neutron and gamma ray detectors, all interconnected with a pneumatic sample transport system. A computer controls both the transport system and the data acquisition devices. Gamma ray counting data are stored on magnetic tape for further processing by a large central computer. Facility hardware and software are described. Repetitive analyses of standards have shown an accuracy within +-10% for uranium values and within +-25% for associated elements. A quality assurance program has been developed to maintain these levels of reliability

  8. Wealth-Associated Disparities in Death and Disability in the United States and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroun, Lena K; Brown, Rebecca T; Diaz-Ramirez, L Grisell; Ahalt, Cyrus; Boscardin, W John; Lang-Brown, Sean; Lee, Sei

    2017-12-01

    Low income has been associated with poor health outcomes. Owing to retirement, wealth may be a better marker of financial resources among older adults. To determine the association of wealth with mortality and disability among older adults in the United States and England. The US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) are nationally representative cohorts of community-dwelling older adults. We examined 12 173 participants enrolled in HRS and 7599 enrolled in ELSA in 2002. Analyses were stratified by age (54-64 years vs 66-76 years) because many safety-net programs commence around age 65 years. Participants were followed until 2012 for mortality and disability. Wealth quintile, based on total net worth in 2002. Mortality and disability, defined as difficulty performing an activity of daily living. A total of 6233 US respondents and 4325 English respondents aged 54 to 64 years (younger cohort) and 5940 US respondents and 3274 English respondents aged 66 to 76 years (older cohort) were analyzed for the mortality outcome. Slightly over half of respondents were women (HRS: 6570, 54%; ELSA: 3974, 52%). A higher proportion of respondents from HRS were nonwhite compared with ELSA in both the younger (14% vs 3%) and the older (13% vs 3%) age cohorts. We found increased risk of death and disability as wealth decreased. In the United States, participants aged 54 to 64 years in the lowest wealth quintile (Q1) (≤$39 000) had a 17% mortality risk and 48% disability risk over 10 years, whereas in the highest wealth quintile (Q5) (>$560 000) participants had a 5% mortality risk and 15% disability risk (mortality hazard ratio [HR], 3.3; 95% CI, 2.0-5.6; P £310,550) had a 4% mortality risk and 17% disability risk (mortality HR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-7.0; P wealth quintiles were similar. When adjusted for sex, age, race, income, and education, HR for mortality and sHR for disability were attenuated but remained statistically

  9. How Children Use Active Videogames and the Association Between Screen Time and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Cuisle; Hussey, Juliette

    2015-08-01

    The energy required to play active videogames (AVGs) has been reported on in the literature; however, little is known about how children use such games in their home environment. The aim of this study was to investigate children's use of AVGs and the association among AVG use, other screen-based activities, and physical activity levels. Eight hundred and twenty children 12.1 (0.6) years of age participated. Physical activity levels, sedentary screen-based activities, and AVG use were investigated. Differences across genders and deprivation indices were also analyzed. Fifty-eight percent of children met minimal physical activity guidelines. Forty-seven percent of children exceeded screen time recommendations. Of those who had access to AVGs, more children played sedentary games (or active games in a sedentary manner [68 percent]) than active games (55 percent) on AVG consoles. Furthermore, sedentary games were played for longer than active games. AVG play was positively correlated with reported time spent watching television (P=0.02). In free-living conditions AVG consoles are being used by more children and for longer durations as sedentary screen-based devices rather than active screen-based devices.

  10. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  11. Model Agreements for the granting of Associate Member Status Implementation arrangements concerning eligibility for personnel appointments and industrial participation for Associate Member States Progress report by the Management

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Model Agreements for the granting of Associate Member Status Implementation arrangements concerning eligibility for personnel appointments and industrial participation for Associate Member States Progress report by the Management

  12. The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qoqiauri Lamara G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

  13. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  14. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  15. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with hemifacial spasm: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in hemifacial spasm (HFS, a nervous system disorder. We used resting-state fMRI with regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis to investigate changes in spontaneous brain activity of patients with HFS and to determine the relationship of these functional changes with clinical features. Thirty patients with HFS and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with controls, HFS patients had significantly decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, left medial cingulate cortex (MCC, left lingual gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (STG and right precuneus; and increased ReHo values in left precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right brainstem, and right cerebellum. Furthermore, the mean ReHo value in brainstem showed a positive correlation with the spasm severity (r = 0.404, p = 0.027, and the mean ReHo value in MFG was inversely related with spasm severity in HFS group (r = -0.398, p = 0.028. This study reveals that HFS is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in brain regions most involved in motor control and blinking movement. The disturbances of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ReHo measurements may provide insights into the neurological pathophysiology of HFS.

  16. Bidirectional Prospective Associations Between Cardiac Autonomic Activity and Inflammatory Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy Xian; Lamers, Femke; Neijts, Melanie; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-06-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance has been cross-sectionally associated with inflammatory processes. Longitudinal studies are needed to shed light on the nature of this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and bidirectional prospective associations between cardiac autonomic measures and inflammatory markers. Analyses were conducted with baseline (n = 2823), 2-year (n = 2099), and 6-year (n = 1774) data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. To compare the pattern of results, prospective analyses with ANS (during sleep, leisure time, and work) and inflammation were conducted in two data sets from the Netherlands Twin Register measured for 4.9 years (n = 356) and 5.4 years (n = 472). Autonomic nervous system measures were heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety results showed that higher HR and lower RSA were cross-sectionally significantly associated with higher inflammatory levels. Higher HR predicted higher levels of CRP (B = .065, p < .001) and IL-6 (B = .036, p = .014) at follow-up. Higher CRP levels predicted lower RSA (B = -.024, p = .048) at follow-up. The Netherlands Twin Register results confirmed that higher HR was associated with higher CRP and IL-6 levels 4.9 years later. Higher IL-6 levels predicted higher HR and lower RSA at follow-up. Autonomic imbalance is associated with higher levels of inflammation. Independent data from two studies converge in evidence that higher HR predicts subsequent higher levels of CRP and IL-6. Inflammatory markers may also predict future ANS activity, but evidence for this was less consistent.

  17. 77 FR 43151 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...), (E), or (F) of the Home Owners Loan Act (``HOLA''). The FDIC currently may require a state savings... authorized for a Federal savings association under any statute including the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) (12...

  18. A Disease-Associated Microbial and Metabolomics State in Relatives of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease PatientsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Jacobs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives. Methods: Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn’s disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents. Fecal samples were collected for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, untargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolomics, and calprotectin measurement. Individuals were grouped into microbial and metabolomics states using Dirichlet multinomial models. Multivariate models were used to identify microbes and metabolites associated with these states. Results: Individuals were classified into 2 microbial community types. One was associated with IBD but irrespective of disease status, had lower microbial diversity, and characteristic shifts in microbial composition including increased Enterobacteriaceae, consistent with dysbiosis. This microbial community type was associated similarly with IBD and reduced microbial diversity in an independent pediatric cohort. Individuals also clustered bioinformatically into 2 subsets with shared fecal metabolomics signatures. One metabotype was associated with IBD and was characterized by increased bile acids, taurine, and tryptophan. The IBD-associated microbial and metabolomics states were highly correlated, suggesting that they represented an integrated ecosystem. Healthy relatives with the IBD-associated microbial community type had an increased incidence of elevated fecal calprotectin. Conclusions: Healthy first-degree relatives can have dysbiosis associated with an altered intestinal metabolome that may signify a predisease microbial

  19. Obesity-Associated Oxidative Stress: Strategies Finalized to Improve Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gasperi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for a plethora of severe diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. It is often accompanied by an increased risk of mortality and, in the case of non-fatal health problems, the quality of life is impaired because of associated conditions, including sleep apnea, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and infertility. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be the mechanistic link between obesity and related complications. In obese patients, antioxidant defenses are lower than normal weight counterparts and their levels inversely correlate with central adiposity; obesity is also characterized by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. Inadequacy of antioxidant defenses probably relies on different factors: obese individuals may have a lower intake of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes; otherwise, consumption of antioxidant nutrients is normal, but obese individuals may have an increased utilization of these molecules, likewise to that reported in diabetic patients and smokers. Also inadequate physical activity may account for a decreased antioxidant state. In this review, we describe current concepts in the meaning of obesity as a state of chronic oxidative stress and the potential interventions to improve redox balance.

  20. Obesity-Associated Oxidative Stress: Strategies Finalized to Improve Redox State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Isabella; Catani, Maria Valeria; Evangelista, Daniela; Gasperi, Valeria; Avigliano, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity represents a major risk factor for a plethora of severe diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. It is often accompanied by an increased risk of mortality and, in the case of non-fatal health problems, the quality of life is impaired because of associated conditions, including sleep apnea, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and infertility. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be the mechanistic link between obesity and related complications. In obese patients, antioxidant defenses are lower than normal weight counterparts and their levels inversely correlate with central adiposity; obesity is also characterized by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. Inadequacy of antioxidant defenses probably relies on different factors: obese individuals may have a lower intake of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes; otherwise, consumption of antioxidant nutrients is normal, but obese individuals may have an increased utilization of these molecules, likewise to that reported in diabetic patients and smokers. Also inadequate physical activity may account for a decreased antioxidant state. In this review, we describe current concepts in the meaning of obesity as a state of chronic oxidative stress and the potential interventions to improve redox balance. PMID:23698776

  1. Brain State Is a Major Factor in Preseizure Hippocampal Network Activity and Influences Success of Seizure Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Laura A.; Liang, Liang; Armstrong, Caren; Soltész, Ivan; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Neural dynamics preceding seizures are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms of seizure generation and could be predictive. In healthy animals, hippocampal network activity is shaped by behavioral brain state and, in epilepsy, seizures selectively emerge during specific brain states. To determine the degree to which changes in network dynamics before seizure are pathological or reflect ongoing fluctuations in brain state, dorsal hippocampal neurons were recorded during spontaneous seizures in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizures emerged from all brain states, but with a greater likelihood after REM sleep, potentially due to an observed increase in baseline excitability during periods of REM compared with other brains states also characterized by sustained theta oscillations. When comparing the firing patterns of the same neurons across brain states associated with and without seizures, activity dynamics before seizures followed patterns typical of the ongoing brain state, or brain state transitions, and did not differ until the onset of the electrographic seizure. Next, we tested whether disparate activity patterns during distinct brain states would influence the effectiveness of optogenetic curtailment of hippocampal seizures in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Optogenetic curtailment was significantly more effective for seizures preceded by non-theta states compared with seizures that emerged from theta states. Our results indicate that consideration of behavioral brain state preceding a seizure is important for the appropriate interpretation of network dynamics leading up to a seizure and for designing effective seizure intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal single-unit activity is strongly shaped by behavioral brain state, yet this relationship has been largely ignored when studying activity dynamics before spontaneous seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. In light of the increased attention on using single

  2. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of a compressible active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that respo...

  3. Acute type a aortic dissection associated with a sporting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Ryo; Kimura, Naoyuki; Itoh, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) occurring during a sporting activity. The subjects of this study were 615 patients who underwent surgery for ATAAD between 1990 and 2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether the ATAAD was associated with a sporting activity (sports group: n = 25, mean age 62.3 years; non-sports group: n = 590, mean age 63.7 years). Specific activity was assessed in the sports group, and the characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. The sports group accounted for 5% of the patients with daytime onset ATAAD (25/479). The most common sport was golf (n = 8), followed by swimming (n = 4), cycling (n = 4), and weight lifting (n = 3). The average diameter of the ascending aorta on preoperative computed tomography was 4.8 cm. The dissection characteristics of the sports group included DeBakey type I (n = 23, 92%) and malperfusion (n = 9, 36%), which were similar to those of the non-sports group. The 30-day mortality rates were 16% (4/25) for the sports group and 8% (49/590) for the non-sports group (P = 0.33). The most common sport associated with ATAAD was golf, followed by swimming cycling, and weight lifting. The findings of this study reinforce that sports-related aortic dissection is not a unique clinical condition of young syndromic patients, but can occur in all age groups.

  4. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the current state of infection preventionists through competency, role, and activity self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Marx, James F; Davis, James

    2017-06-01

    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain. Descriptive statistics and χ 2 analyses were conducted to examine differences in infection preventionist (IP) competency, roles, and activity self-assessments. The majority of IPs self-assessed their competency as Proficient compared with Novice or Expert for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. Forty percent of IPs self-rated their competency as Expert in the Preventing/Controlling the Transmission of Infectious Agents/HAIs component. IPs reported Novice competency in Employee/Occupational Health (29%); Cleaning, Sterilization, Disinfection, and Asepsis (23%); and Education and Research categories (22%). Differences in self-rated competency among IPs by discipline type (public health, nurse, and laboratory) were identified. Differences in self-rated competency were identified for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. IPs report using various resource types to gain competency. Future research is needed to identify opportunities to increase competency levels in the weakest-rated competency activities. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accident insurance plan or other employee welfare or benefit plan that is maintained by a business or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and...

  8. Teaching Children with Disabilities: Preparation through State Music Educators Association Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Meehan, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types and frequency of music and special education workshops held at state music educators association (MEA) conferences. Specifically, the researchers sought to determine the following within the past 10 years: (a) states that offered music and special education workshops at their MEA conferences,…

  9. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity

  10. The impact of the oil crisis associated with the Persian Gulf conflict on the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.S.; Boyd, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the Persian Gulf conflict on the level of economic activity, employment and inflation in the United States. Impacts on other countries are not examined in this study. Many of the impacts are difficult to quantify objectively. One factor that can be subjected to analysis is the increase in US government expenditures associated with Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The analytical results of the investigation suggest that the method of financing the increase does make a difference in how the US economy is affected. In two of the three cases considered (i.e. deficit financing and 80% financing by coalition partners), output, personal consumption expenditures, and disposable income increase, but these increases are partly associated with higher prices (i.e. inflation). In the third case (i.e. tax-offset scenario), output, personal consumption expenditures, and disposable income decline, but prices actually fall. Moreover, the magnitudes of the changes are directly proportional to the size of the expenditure increase. (author)

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease among older Nigerians in plateau state: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, E Samuel; Adeniyi, Abiola A; Enwonwu, Cyril O; Adeleke, Oyeladun A; Otoh, Emmanuel C

    2016-09-01

    To report the periodontal status of older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria, and determine its Association with alcohol consumption. Periodontal disease is common among Nigerians, and the prevalence increases with age. The role that alcohol consumption plays in the occurrence of the disease among Africans is uncertain. Sample selection was performed using a multistage cluster sampling technique among older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria. Interviews, using structured questionnaires, were conducted for each of the participants. Clinical examinations were then carried out to determine the occurrence of periodontal disease, assessed by clinical attachment loss and probing depth. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 79%, being severe in 46% of the population. Almost half of the participants (46.7%) examined were still actively consuming alcohol, among which 48% reported a history of intoxication. There was no statistically significant relationship between periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption, or quantity consumed on each occasion. However, alcohol consumption was highly correlated with periodontal disease among those who reported intoxication from the drink (r = 0.095; p = 0.033). A history of intoxication with alcohol was the only significant predictor of periodontal disease, after adjusting for age and gender. Periodontal disease was highly prevalent among older Nigerians in this study. Apart from those who reported intoxication from alcohol, there was no statistically significant relationship between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption or the quantity consumed on each occasion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Moxie matters: associations of future orientation with active life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2017-10-01

    Being oriented toward the future has been associated with better future health. We studied associations of future orientation with life expectancy and the percentage of life with disability. We used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 5249). Participants' average age in 1968 was 33.0. Six questions repeatedly measured future orientation, 1968-1976. Seven waves (1999-2011, 33,331 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living for the same individuals, whose average age in 1999 was 64.0. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death with multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, childhood health, and education. Using the probabilities, we created large populations with microsimulation, measuring disability in each month for each individual, age 55 through death. Life expectancy from age 55 for white men with high future orientation was age 77.6 (95% confidence interval 75.5-79.0), 6.9% (4.9-7.2) of those years with disability; results with low future orientation were 73.6 (72.2-75.4) and 9.6% (7.7-10.7). Comparable results for African American men were 74.8 (72.9-75.3), 8.1 (5.6-9.3), 71.0 (69.6-72.8), and 11.3 (9.1-11.7). For women, there were no significant differences associated with levels of future orientation for life expectancy. For white women with high future orientation 9.1% of remaining life from age 55 was disabled (6.3-9.9), compared to 12.4% (10.2-13.2) with low future orientation. Disability results for African American women were similar but statistically significant only at age 80 and over. High future orientation during early to middle adult ages may be associated with better health in older age.

  13. "I love you forever (more or less)" - stability and change in adolescents' romantic love status and associations with mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Farnia, Vahid; Joshaghani, Narges; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait), and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log. Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%); 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status. These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

  14. Association of telomerase activity with radio- and chemosensitivity of neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Normann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase activity compensates shortening of telomeres during cell division and enables cancer cells to escape senescent processes. It is also supposed, that telomerase is associated with radio- and chemoresistance. In the here described study we systematically investigated the influence of telomerase activity (TA and telomere length on the outcome of radio- and chemotherapy in neuroblastoma. Methods We studied the effects on dominant negative (DN mutant, wild type (WT of the telomerase catalytic unit (hTERT using neuroblastoma cell lines. The cells were irradiated with 60Co and treated with doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin and ifosfamide, respectively. Viability was determined by MTS/MTT-test and the GI50 was calculated. Telomere length was measured by southernblot analysis and TA by Trap-Assay. Results Compared to the hTERT expressing cells the dominant negative cells showed increased radiosensitivity with decreased telomere length. Independent of telomere length, telomerase negative cells are significantly more sensitive to irradiation. The effect of TA knock-down or overexpression on chemosensitivity were dependent on TA, the anticancer drug, and the chemosensitivity of the maternal cell line. Conclusions Our results supported the concept of telomerase inhibition as an antiproliferative treatment approach in neuroblastomas. Telomerase inhibition increases the outcome of radiotherapy while in combination with chemotherapy the outcome depends on drug- and cell line and can be additive/synergistic or antagonistic. High telomerase activity is one distinct cancer stem cell feature and the here described cellular constructs in combination with stem cell markers like CD133, Aldehyddehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1 or Side population (SP may help to investigate the impact of telomerase activity on cancer stem cell survival under therapy.

  15. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level..., language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with Part C of the Act to children with disabilities who are...

  16. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  17. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  18. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O' Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  19. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanafy M; O'Neill, Paul M; Hong, David W; Finn, Robert D; Henderson, Colin J; Wright, Aaron T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I

    2013-12-03

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or "pyrethrome." Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control.

  20. Association of time of occurrence of electrical heart storms with environmental physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Kusniec, Jairo; Golovchiner, Gregory; Abramson, Evgeny; Kadmon, Udi; Strasberg, Boris

    2014-08-01

    Many publications in recent decades have reported a temporal link between medical events and environmental physical activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the time of occurrence of electrical heart storms against levels of cosmological parameters. The sample included 82 patients (71 male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator at a tertiary medical center in 1999-2012 (5,114 days). The time of occurrence of all electrical heart storms, defined as three or more events of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation daily, was recorded from the defibrillator devices. Findings were analyzed against data on solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray (neutron) activity for the same time period obtained from space institutions in the United States and Russia. Electrical storms occurred in all months of the year, with a slight decrease in July, August, and September. Most events took place on days with lower-than-average levels of solar and geomagnetic activity and higher-than-average levels of cosmic ray (neutron) activity. There was a significant difference in mean daily cosmic ray activity between the whole observation period and the days of electrical storm activity (P = 0.0001). These data extend earlier findings on the association of the timing of cardiac events and space weather parameters to the most dangerous form of cardiac arrhythmia-electric storms. Further studies are needed to delineate the pathogenetic mechanism underlying this association. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optimal spatiotemporal representation of multichannel EEG for recognition of brain states associated with distinct visual stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander; Musatov, Vyacheslav Yu.; Runnova, Anastasija E.; Efremova, Tatiana Yu.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper we propose an approach based on artificial neural networks for recognition of different human brain states associated with distinct visual stimulus. Based on the developed numerical technique and the analysis of obtained experimental multichannel EEG data, we optimize the spatiotemporal representation of multichannel EEG to provide close to 97% accuracy in recognition of the EEG brain states during visual perception. Different interpretations of an ambiguous image produce different oscillatory patterns in the human EEG with similar features for every interpretation. Since these features are inherent to all subjects, a single artificial network can classify with high quality the associated brain states of other subjects.

  2. Exploring associations between state education initiatives and teachers' sleep: A social-ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Farley, Amy N; Kellemen, Marie; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2017-10-01

    Social policies that are not specifically aimed at impacting health can still have health consequences. State education reforms, such as standardized testing and stringent accountability for schools and teachers, may affect teacher health by changing their working conditions. This study explores associations between state education initiatives and teachers' sleep, an important predictor of productivity and chronic health conditions. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2013 and 2014 data sets provided sleep and demographic data for 7836 teachers in 29 states in the United States. We linked the teacher data to state education reform data from the U.S. Department of Education. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of reporting inadequate sleep (i.e., state education policies after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Teachers had significantly higher odds of reporting inadequate sleep if their state financed professional development, sanctioned or rewarded schools based on student performance, and regulated classroom materials for state-wide common core standards (ORs ranging from 1.25 to 1.84). More strictly defined inadequate sleep (states to implement reforms through regulations and legislations, was also associated with inadequate sleep (OR = 1.41, p state education policies may have impacts on teacher sleep. Consequences of education reform for teacher health deserve more attention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Determination of asphaltene onset conditions using the cubic plus association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; von Solms, Nicolas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) has already been proven to be a successful model for phase equilibrium calculations for systems containing associating components and has already been applied for asphaltene modeling by few researchers. In the present work, we apply the CPA...

  4. Self-association and infrared spectres of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulloev, N.; Nurulloev, M.; Narziev, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to self-association and infrared spectres of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol in solid state. The study results of self-association specified by molecular hydrogen bonds of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol on spectres of infrared absorption of stretching vibrations of N-H group were considered.

  5. Extension of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Mads Kristian; Derawi, Samer; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2005-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been extended to modeling mixtures containing amines. Special focus was given to primary and secondary amines, which are known to self-associate, thus forming hydrogen bonds in mixtures with alkanes. Pure-compound parameters have been determi...

  6. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-10-04

    We examine the dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that responsible for modulated phases arising at an equilibrium Lifshitz point. Tuning activity and the degree of nematic order in the passive system, we obtain a linear stability phase diagram that exhibits a nonequilibrium tricritical point where ordered, modulated and disordered phases meet. Numerical solution of the nonlinear equations yields a succession of spatial structures of increasing complexity with increasing activity, including kink walls and active turbulence, as observed in experiments on microtubule bundles confined at an oil-water interface. Our work provides a minimal model for an overdamped active nematic that reproduces all the nonequilibrium structures seen in simulations of the full active nematic hydrodynamics and provides a framework for understanding some of the mechanisms for selection of the nonequilibrium patterns in the language of equilibrium critical phenomena.

  7. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    -measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk...... states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states....

  8. Dimeric Structure of the Blue Light Sensor Protein Photozipper in the Active State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kohei; Tsukuno, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Hiroki; Hisatomi, Osamu; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-06

    The light oxygen voltage-sensing (LOV) domain plays a crucial role in blue light (BL) sensing in plants and microorganisms. LOV domains are usually associated with the effector domains and regulate the activities of effector domains in a BL-dependent manner. Photozipper (PZ) is monomeric in the dark state. BL induces reversible dimerization of PZ and subsequently increases its affinity for the target DNA sequence. In this study, we report the analyses of PZ by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR). The neutral flavin radical was formed by BL illumination in the presence of dithiothreitol in the LOV-C254S (without the bZIP domain) and PZ-C254S mutants, where the cysteine residue responsible for adduct formation was replaced with serine. The magnetic dipole interactions of 3 MHz between the neutral radicals were detected in both LOV-C254S and PZ-C254S, indicating that these mutants are dimeric in the radical state. The PELDOR simulation showed that the distance between the radical pair is close to that estimated from the dimeric crystal structure in the "light state" [Heintz, U., and Schlichting, I. (2016) eLife 5, e11860], suggesting that in the radical state, LOV domains in PZ-C254S form a dimer similar to that of LOV-C254S, which lacks the bZIP domain.

  9. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and > 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source

  10. Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While extensive evidence suggests that the economic recession has had far reaching effects on many economic sectors, little is known regarding its impact on prescription drug utilization. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between state-level unemployment rates and retail sales of seven therapeutic classes (statins, antidepressants, antipsychotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, opiates, phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibitors and oral contraceptives) in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective mixed ecological design, we examined retail prescription sales using IMS Health Xponent™ from September 2007 through July 2010, and we used the Bureau of Labor Statistics to derive population-based rates and mixed-effects modeling with state-level controls to examine the association between unemployment and utilization. Our main outcome measure was state-level utilization per 100,000 people for each class. Results Monthly unemployment levels and rates of use of each class varied substantially across the states. There were no statistically significant associations between use of ACE inhibitors or SSRIs/SNRIs and average unemployment in analyses across states, while for opioids and PDE inhibitors there were small statistically significant direct associations, and for the remaining classes inverse associations. Analyses using each state as its own control collectively exhibited statistically significant positive associations between increases in unemployment and prescription drug utilization for five of seven areas examined. This relationship was greatest for statins (on average, a 4% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment) and PDE inhibitors (3% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment), and lower for oral contraceptives and atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion We found no evidence of an association between increasing unemployment and decreasing prescription utilization, suggesting that any

  11. Trait approach and avoidance motivation: lateralized neural activity associated with executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Engels, Anna S; Herrington, John D; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Heller, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Motivation and executive function are both necessary for the completion of goal-directed behavior. Research investigating the manner in which these processes interact is beginning to emerge and has implicated middle frontal gyrus (MFG) as a site of interaction for relevant neural mechanisms. However, this research has focused on state motivation, and it has not examined functional lateralization. The present study examined the impact of trait levels of approach and avoidance motivation on neural processes associated with executive function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed a color-word Stroop task. Analyses identified brain regions in which trait approach and avoidance motivation (measured by questionnaires) moderated activation associated with executive control. Approach was hypothesized to be associated with left-lateralized MFG activation, whereas avoidance was hypothesized to be associated with right-lateralized MFG activation. Results supported both hypotheses. Present findings implicate areas of middle frontal gyrus in top-down control to guide behavior in accordance with motivational goals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Piippo, Niina; Kinnunen, Kati; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Innate immunity and dysregulation of inflammatory processes play a role in vascular diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory signalling complexes that were found in 2002. In addition to pathogens and other extracellular threats, they can be activated by various endogenous danger signals. The purpose of this study was to find out whether NLRP3 activation occurs in patients with sight-threatening forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1, inflammasome-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acute-phase cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as adaptive immunity-related cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured from the vitreous samples of 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) and 23 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) was determined using the Western blot technique. Inflammasome components were present in the vitreous of DR patients. Along with VEGF, the levels of caspase-1 and IL-18 were significantly increased, especially in PDR eyes. Interestingly, clearly higher levels of NLRP3 were found in the PDR eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) than from PDR eyes with fully attached retina. There were no significant differences in the amounts of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ that were detectable in the vitreous of both non-PDR and PDR patients. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be associated especially with the pathogenesis of PDR. The lack of differences in TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ also alludes that acute inflammation or T-cell-mediated responses do not dominate in PDR pathogenesis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation

  13. State-of-art and future development of activation autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babikova, Yu.F.; Gusakov, A.A.; Kazakov, S.S.; Minaev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Autoradiography as one of the long-term techniques of local analysis of chemical inhomogenities of materials finds a wide application. Autoradiographic techniques using sample activation by charged particles and nuclear decay radiation detection are most favourable from the analytical point of view. The same applies to activation by neutrons and gamma rays and the detection of nuclear reaction products. By choosing optimum conditions and modes of conducting activation autoradiographic research it is possible to determine selectively such elements as lithium, boron, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, silicon and phosphorus in most of the metal matrices

  14. Spiritual activity is associated with better cognitive function in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, A W T; Lam, L C W

    2013-09-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the association between late-life spiritual activity participation and cognitive function in older Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Participants aged 60 years or older without clinical dementia or major psychiatric disorders were recruited. Dementia severity and global cognitive function were assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating and Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. Cognitive performance was measured using 10-minute delayed recall, the Category Verbal Fluency Test, Visual Aural Digit Span Test, and Modified Card Sorting Test. Psychological status was assessed using the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life scale. Activities participated in were categorised into 6 domains of physical, cognitive, social, prosocial, spiritual, and recreational activities. A total of 380 participants were enrolled. Bivariate correlation showed that the composite score of cognitive function was positively correlated with aerobic exercise (r = 0.14; p = 0.01), cognitive activity (r = 0.30; p < 0.001), and spiritual activity (r = 0.16; p = 0.002). Multiple linear regression suggested that frequent participation in cognitive activity (B = 0.87, beta = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-1.25 and p < 0.001) and spiritual activity (B = 0.45, beta = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.13-0.76 and p = 0.01) were associated with better cognitive function after controlling for age and years of education. Engagement in spiritual activity may benefit cognitive function in old age. Longitudinal studies are recommended to further examine the causal relationship of spiritual activity and cognitive function.

  15. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  16. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  17. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  18. Association of neopterin as a marker of immune system activation and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neopterin plasma concentrations in patients with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA and correlate them with disease activity.METHODS: Sixty patients diagnosed as active JIA, as well as another 60 apparently healthy age- and gender-matched children as controls, were recruited from the Pediatrics Allergy and Immunology Clinic, Ain Shams University. Disease activity was assessed by the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score 27 (JADAS-27. Laboratory investigations were performed for all patients, including determination of hemoglobin concentration (Hgb, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and neopterin were measured.RESULTS: Significant differences were found between JIA patients and controls with regard to the mean levels of Hgb, ESR, TNF-a, IL-6, and MCP-1 (p 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that JADAS- 27 and ESR were the main variables associated with serum neopterin in JIA patients (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The elevation of plasma neopterin concentrations in early JIA patients may indicate stimulation of immune response. Serum neopterin can be used as a sensitive marker for assaying background inflammation and disease activity score in JIA patients.

  19. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID

  20. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.

  1. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  2. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  3. Clinical and evoked pain, personality traits, and emotional states: can familial confounding explain the associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Eric; Poeschla, Brian; Dansie, Elizabeth; Succop, Annemarie; Chopko, Laura; Afari, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by context and person-specific factors. Affective dimensions of pain involve both enduring personality traits and fleeting emotional states. We examined how personality traits and emotional states are linked with clinical and evoked pain in a twin sample. 99 female twin pairs were evaluated for clinical and evoked pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and dolorimetry, and completed the 120-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and ratings of stress and mood. Using a co-twin control design we examined a) the relationship of personality traits and emotional states with clinical and evoked pain and b) whether genetics and common environment (i.e. familial factors) may account for the associations. Neuroticism was associated with the sensory component of the MPQ; this relationship was not confounded by familial factors. None of the emotional state measures was associated with the MPQ. PANAS negative affect was associated with lower evoked pressure pain threshold and tolerance; these associations were confounded by familial factors. There were no associations between IPIP traits and evoked pain. A relationship exists between neuroticism and clinical pain that is not confounded by familial factors. There is no similar relationship between negative emotional states and clinical pain. In contrast, the relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain is strong while the relationship with enduring personality traits is weak. The relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain appears to be non-causal and due to familial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Moser, Richard P; Perna, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states' competitive food laws and children's overweight and obesity status (body mass index [BMI]-for-age ≥85th percentile). Children (N = 16,271) between the ages of 11-14 years with a BMI for age ≥5th percentile who attended public school were included. Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: state regulatory activity involved in need for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassikas, J.

    1977-04-01

    The individual views are presented of the panel members relating to the basic issues and framework for improvements of the Federal/state process for licensing of nuclear power plants, associated facilities, transmission lines, reprocessing of fuel and uranium enrichment. The synopsis supplements the initial synopsis of the views presented to the National Governors Conference Workshop ''State Perspectives on Energy Facility Siting'' in Atlanta, Georgia on December 15--16, 1976. Both synopses constitute the report of this panel

  6. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  7. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 77 FR 10475 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Notice of Intent To Hold Public Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Tri-State Generation and Transmission... proposed project in Colorado by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. (Tri-State). The... Association and Y-W Electric Association. In addition, the following repositories will have the AES and MCS...

  9. 75 FR 181 - Application for Conversion From: (a) OTS-Regulated, State-Chartered Savings Association to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Application for Conversion From: (a) OTS-Regulated, State- Chartered Savings Association to Federal Savings Association; (b) National Bank, Commercial Bank, State Savings Bank, or Credit Union to Federal Savings Association; (c) State Mutual Holding...

  10. 75 FR 10560 - Application for Conversion From: (a) OTS-Regulated, State-Chartered Savings Association to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Application for Conversion From: (a) OTS-Regulated, State- Chartered Savings Association to Federal Savings Association; (b) National Bank, Commercial Bank, State Savings Bank, or Credit Union to Federal Savings Association; (c) State Mutual Holding...

  11. Energy utilization associated with regular activity breaks and continuous physical activity: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J

    2018-06-01

    To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Breus

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  13. CSK regulatory polymorphism is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and influences B-cell signaling and activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjarrez-Orduno, N.; Marasco, E.; Chung, S.A.; Katz, M.S.; Kiridly, J.F.; Simpfendorfer, K.R.; Freudenberg, J.; Ballard, D.H.; Nashi, E.; Hopkins, T.J.; Cunninghame Graham, D.S.; Lee, A.T.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Franke, B.; Swinkels, D.W.; Graham, R.R.; Kimberly, R.P.; Gaffney, P.M.; Vyse, T.J.; Behrens, T.W.; Criswell, L.A.; Diamond, B.; Gregersen, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The c-Src tyrosine kinase, Csk, physically interacts with the intracellular phosphatase Lyp (encoded by PTPN22) and can modify the activation state of downstream Src kinases, such as Lyn, in lymphocytes. We identified an association of CSK with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and refined its

  14. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  15. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  16. Cooperation, confrontation, and communication: Key elements to a multi state LLRW generators' association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, J.R.; Slack, S.T.; McIntire, J.W.; Stigers, R.A.; Nagle, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Appalachian Compact Users of Radioactive Isotopes (ACURI) is a foul-state trade association of licensees and permit holders of radioactive materials within the Appalachian States Compact, including Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. ACURI's primary focus is on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management and disposal issues. This paper will review 1) development of an association; 2) interaction with state and federal regulators and the Compact's LLRW siting contractor; 3) special work on licensing and other user/generator issues; 4) role of ACURI at the national level; and, 5) impact of ACURI on the siting process and involvement with local and state officials, special interest groups, and the public. (author)

  17. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  18. Distributed state estimation for multi-agent based active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Along with the large-scale implementation of distributed generators, the current distribution networks have changed gradually from passive to active operation. State estimation plays a vital role to facilitate this transition. In this paper, a suitable state estimation method for the active network

  19. The Relationships of Mental States and Intellectual Processes in the Learning Activities of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander O.; Chernov, Albert V.; Yusupov, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the interaction of mental states and cognitive processes in the classroom allows us to solve the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training by activating cognitive processes and management of students' mental states. This article is concerned with the most general patterns of interaction between mental state and…

  20. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty... concerning the following information collection: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States...

  1. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  2. Models of Innovation Activity Firms and the Competitive State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasova Ekaterina, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper clarified the concept of innovation activity of firms from the perspective of the model open innovation with traditional and alternative approaches to the methods of the protection of innovation activity results outlined. With the use of institutional tools, theoretical concepts and practical study the patterns of innovative activity of firms (external, internal & cooperative strategies are analyzed and the selection criteria for models of innovation are proposed on the basis of a comparison of transaction costs and benefits specific to the closed forms and conditions for cooperation. The forms of cooperation, their pros & cons are mentioned given the results of some empirical evidence. Practical recommendations for the Russian companies to organize their innovation activities are given, as well as on the improvement of competition policy with regard to the inclusion of innovation factor in the analysis of mergers in Russia (also based on the mechanism of the use of this factor by means of merger simulation models. The paper also suggests the criteria for the evaluation of collaborative R&D projects of firms as antitrust tools aimed to use the “rule of reason” when the decisions are made.

  3. An Overview of Research Infrastructure for Medieval Studies in the United States: Associations, Institutes, and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Kocher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.

  4. Thyroid states regulate subcellular glucose phosphorylation activity in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid hormones (THs, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions were isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0.25 μg/g, i.p. during 21 days mice and HK activity was assayed. Glucose phosphorylation was increased in the particulate fraction in soleus (312.4% ± 67.1, n = 10, gastrocnemius (369.2% ± 112.4, n = 10 and heart (142.2% ± 13.6, n = 10 muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the control group. Hexokinase activity was not affected in brain or liver. No relevant changes were observed in HK activity in the soluble fraction for all tissues investigated. Acute T3 administration (single dose of T3, 1.25 μg/g, i.p. did not modulate HK activity. Interestingly, HK mRNA levels remained unchanged and HK bound to mitochondria was increased by T3 treatment, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism. Analysis of the AKT pathway showed a 2.5-fold increase in AKT and GSK3B phosphorylation in the gastrocnemius muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the euthyroid group. Taken together, we show for the first time that THs modulate HK activity specifically in particulate fractions and that this action seems to be under the control of the AKT and GSK3B pathways.

  5. Active Tension Network model reveals an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streicha, Sebastian; Shraiman, Boris

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behavior remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyze the Active Tension Network (ATN) model, which assumes that mechanical balance of cells is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension dependent active remodeling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties: i) ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times it supports external tension, like a solid; ii) its mechanical equilibrium state has extensive degeneracy associated with a discrete conformal - ''isogonal'' - deformation of cells. ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometry, which we demonstrate to hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in a fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical area of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, understanding which helps understand biological phenomena.

  6. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  7. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  8. Trait motivation moderates neural activation associated with goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Warren, Stacie L; Engels, Anna S; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Heller, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Research has indicated that regions of left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are involved in integrating the motivational and executive function processes related to, respectively, approach and avoidance goals. Given that sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli is an important feature of conceptualizations of approach and avoidance motivation, it is possible that these regions of DLPFC are preferentially activated by valenced stimuli. The present study tested this hypothesis by using a task in which goal pursuit was threatened by distraction from valenced stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. The analyses examined whether the impact of trait approach and avoidance motivation on the neural processes associated with executive function differed depending on the valence or arousal level of the distractor stimuli. The present findings support the hypothesis that the regions of DLPFC under investigation are involved in integrating motivational and executive function processes, and they also indicate the involvement of a number of other brain areas in maintaining goal pursuit. However, DLPFC did not display differential sensitivity to valence.

  9. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  10. 1982 survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This report is based on survey data from all utilities, reactor manufacturers, and uranium producers who market uranium. The survey forms are mailed in January of each year with updates in July of each year. This year 59 utilities, 5 reactor manufacturers and agents, and 57 uranium producers were surveyed. Completed survey forms were checked for errors, corrected as necessary, and processed. These data formed the basis for the development of the report. This report is intended for Congress, federal and state agencies, the nuclear industry, and the general public

  11. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  12. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design was a cross-sectional study. Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions.

  13. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  15. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association.

  16. Associations between U.S. Adult Obesity and State and County Economic Conditions in the Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between state and county unemployment rates and individuals’ body weight status during the latest recession in the U.S. We used the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data in 2007, 2009 and 2011, which were collected from 722,692 American adults aged 18 or older. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI ≥25, and ≥30, respectively. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were applied to assess the association between BMI, risks of overweight and obesity, and state and county unemployment rates. State unemployment rates were negatively associated with individual BMI across years, while county unemployment rates were significantly positively associated with BMI and obesity rates in all years (p < 0.05. However, the scale of the positive relationship was reduced in 2009 and 2011. Stratified analyses were conducted among adults with employment and without employment. The unemployed group’s body weight status was not related to state- and county-level economic conditions in most times. In the pooled analyses with all three years’ data, the relationship between unemployment rates and body weight status were consistently reduced after the recession of 2008–2009. Our results indicated that macroeconomic conditions at different levels can have different associations with individuals’ obesity risk across time.

  17. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  18. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  19. Definition and initial validation of a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Kate; Lau, Chak Sing; Navarra, Sandra V; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Lateef, Aisha; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Wahono, C Singgih; Chen, Shun Le; Jin, Ou; Morton, Susan; Hoi, Alberta; Huq, Molla; Nikpour, Mandana; Morand, Eric F

    2016-09-01

    Treating to low disease activity is routine in rheumatoid arthritis, but no comparable goal has been defined for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to define and validate a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS). A consensus definition of LLDAS was generated using Delphi and nominal group techniques. Criterion validity was determined by measuring the ability of LLDAS attainment, in a single-centre SLE cohort, to predict non-accrual of irreversible organ damage, measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI). Consensus methodology led to the following definition of LLDAS: (1) SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2K ≤4, with no activity in major organ systems (renal, central nervous system (CNS), cardiopulmonary, vasculitis, fever) and no haemolytic anaemia or gastrointestinal activity; (2) no new lupus disease activity compared with the previous assessment; (3) a Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA)-SLEDAI physician global assessment (scale 0-3) ≤1; (4) a current prednisolone (or equivalent) dose ≤7.5 mg daily; and (5) well tolerated standard maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs and approved biological agents. Achievement of LLDAS was determined in 191 patients followed for a mean of 3.9 years. Patients who spent greater than 50% of their observed time in LLDAS had significantly reduced organ damage accrual compared with patients who spent less than 50% of their time in LLDAS (p=0.0007) and were significantly less likely to have an increase in SDI of ≥1 (relative risk 0.47, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.79, p=0.005). A definition of LLDAS has been generated, and preliminary validation demonstrates its attainment to be associated with improved outcomes in SLE. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Association between district and state policies and US public elementary school competitive food and beverage environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Turner, Lindsey; Taber, Daniel R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high in fats, sugars, and/or sodium. Multivariate, pooled, cross-sectional analysis of data gathered annually during elementary school years 2008-2009 through 2010-2011 in the United States. Survey respondents at 1814 elementary schools (1485 unique) in 957 districts in 45 states (food analysis) and 1830 elementary schools (1497 unique) in 962 districts and 45 states (beverage analysis). EXPOSURES Competitive food and beverage policy restrictions at the state and/or district levels. Competitive food and beverage availability. RESULTS Sweets were 11.2 percentage points less likely to be available (32.3% vs 43.5%) when both the district and state limited sugar content, respectively. Regular-fat baked goods were less available when the state law, alone and in combination with district policy, limited fat content. Regular-fat ice cream was less available when any policy (district, state law, or both) limited competitive food fat content. Sugar-sweetened beverages were 9.5 percentage points less likely to be available when prohibited by district policy (3.6% vs 13.1%). Higher-fat milks (2% or whole milk) were less available when prohibited by district policy or state law, with either jurisdiction's policy or law associated with an approximately 15 percentage point reduction in availability. Both district and state policies and/or laws have the potential to reduce in-school availability of high-sugar, high-fat foods and beverages. Given the need to reduce empty calories in children's diets, governmental policies at all levels may be an effective tool.

  1. Modelling of phase equilibria for associating mixtures using an equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Olga; Brignole, Esteban A.; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, the group contribution with association equation of state (GCA-EoS) is extended to represent phase equilibria in mixtures containing acids, esters, and ketones, with water, alcohols, and any number of inert components. Association effects are represented by a group-contribution approach. Self- and cross-association between the associating groups present in these mixtures are considered. The GCA-EoS model is compared to the group-contribution method MHV2, which does not take into account explicitly association effects. The results obtained with the GCA-EoS model are, in general, more accurate when compared to the ones achieved by the MHV2 equation with less number of parameters. Model predictions are presented for binary self- and cross-associating mixtures

  2. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  3. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative

  4. Bidirectional Prospective Associations between Cardiac Autonomic Activity and Inflammatory Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; Neijts, Melanie; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance has been cross-sectionally associated with inflammatory processes. Longitudinal studies are needed to shed light on the nature of this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and bidirectional prospective associations between cardiac autonomic

  5. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, D.

    2011-01-01

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270 MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRIS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  6. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, D.

    2011-01-01

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRlS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. lt has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  7. Temporal Variation of Tectonic Tremor Activity Associated with Nearby Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Pu, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and slow slip events, located downdip from the seismogenic zone, hold the key to recurring patterns of typical earthquakes. Several findings of slow aseismic slip during the prenucletion processes of nearby earthquakes have provided new insight into the study of stress transform of slow earthquakes in fault zones prior to megathrust earthquakes. However, how tectonic tremor is associated with the occurrence of nearby earthquakes remains unclear. To enhance our understanding of the stress interaction between tremor and earthquakes, we developed an algorithm for the automatic detection and location of tectonic tremor in the collisional tectonic environment in Taiwan. Our analysis of a three-year data set indicates a short-term increase in the tremor rate starting at 19 days before the 2010 ML6.4 Jiashian main shock (Chao et al., JGR, 2017). Around the time when the tremor rate began to rise, one GPS station recorded a flip in its direction of motion. We hypothesize that tremor is driven by a slow-slip event that preceded the occurrence of the shallower nearby main shock, even though the inferred slip is too small to be observed by all GPS stations. To better quantify what the necessary condition for tremor to response to nearby earthquakes is, we obtained a 13-year ambient tremor catalog from 2004 to 2016 in the same region. We examine the spatiotemporal relationship between tremor and 37 ML>=5.0 (seven events with ML>=6.0) nearby earthquakes located within 0.5 degrees to the active tremor sources. The findings from this study can enhance our understanding of the interaction among tremor, slow slip, and nearby earthquakes in the high seismic hazard regions.

  8. Shallow Lunar Seismic Activity and the Current Stress State of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Weber, Renee C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    A vast, global network of more than 3200 lobate thrust fault scarps has been revealed in high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The fault scarps are very young, less than 50 Ma, based on their small scale and crisp appearance, crosscutting relations with small-diameter impact craters, and rates of infilling of associated small, shallow graben and may be actively forming today. The population of young thrust fault scarps provides a window into the recent stress state of the Moon and offers insight into the origin of global lunar stresses. The distribution of orientations of the fault scarps is non-random, inconsistent with isotropic stresses from late-stage global contraction as the sole source of stress. Modeling shows that tidal stresses contribute significantly to the current stress state of the lunar crust. Tidal stresses (orbital recession and diurnal tides) superimposed on stresses from global contraction result in non-isotropic compressional stress and may produce thrust faults consistent with lobate scarp orientations. At any particular point on the lunar surface, peak compressive stress will be reached at a certain time in the diurnal cycle. Coseismic slip events on currently active thrust faults are expected to be triggered when peak stresses are reached. Analysis of the timing of the 28 the shallow moonquakes recorded by the Apollo seismic network shows that 19 indeed occur when the Moon is closer to apogee, while only 9 shallow events occur when the Moon is closer to perigee. Here we report efforts to refine the model for the current stress state of the Moon by investigating the contribution of polar wander. Progress on relocating the epicentral locations of the shallow moonquakes using an algorithm designed for sparse networks is also reported.

  9. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in the in vitro ovarian stromal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Chuaire-Noack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing biological research field is the cellular senescence, a mechanism that has been associated, under certain circumstances, withmalignant transformation. Given the high incidence of ovarian cancerand its main origin from the ovarian surface epithelium, as well asthe possibility that an epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs, weevaluated both the in vitro growth of stromal fibroblasts from the ovarian cortex and their β-galactosidase activity at pH 6,enzyme whose expression is considered as a marker of replicativesenescence. Methods: 48 samples of ovarian cortical fibroblasts fromdonors without a history of cancer were serially cultured untilthe end of their replicative life. β-galactosidase activity at pH 6was quantified in each passage by the chemiluminiscent method. Ascontrol, we used ovarian epithelial cell cultures from the samedonors. The enzyme activity was also evaluated in fibroblastspreviously induced to senescence by exposure to hydrogen peroxide.Results: The analysis of the enzyme activity and the replicativecapacity taken together showed that the fibroblast cultures reachedthe senescent state at passages 4-5, as what happened with the control epithelial cells. Fibroblasts induced to senescence showed high variability in the values of enzymatic activity. Conclusions:The similarity between both types of cells in reaching the senescent state deserves to be taken into account in relation to theepithelialmesenchymal transition that has been proposed to explaintheir behavior in the genesis of cancer arising from ovarian surfaceepithelium. Low β-galactosidase activity values at pH 6 would suggestpossible inactivation of the response pathways to oxidative stress.

  10. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  11. National and State Estimates of the Numbers of Adults and Children with Active Epilepsy - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Matthew M; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-08-11

    Epilepsy, a brain disorder leading to recurring seizures, has garnered increased public health focus because persons with epilepsy experience pronounced and persistent health and socioeconomic disparities despite treatment advances, public awareness programs, and expanded rights for persons with disabilities (1,2). For almost all states, epilepsy prevalence estimates do not exist. CDC used national data sources including the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults (aged ≥18 years), the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), and the 2015 Current Population Survey data, describing 2014 income levels, to estimate prevalent cases of active epilepsy, overall and by state, to provide information for state public health planning. In 2015, 1.2% of the U.S. population (3.4 million persons: 3 million adults and 470,000 children) reported active epilepsy (self-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and under treatment or with recent seizures within 12 months of interview) or current epilepsy (parent-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and current epilepsy). Estimated numbers of persons with active epilepsy, after accounting for income and age differences by state, ranged from 5,900 in Wyoming to 427,700 in California. NHIS data from 2010-2015 indicate increases in the number of persons with active epilepsy, probably because of population growth. This study provides updated national and modeled state-specific numbers of active epilepsy cases. Public health practitioners, health care providers, policy makers, epilepsy researchers, and other epilepsy stakeholders, including family members and people with epilepsy, can use these findings to ensure that evidence-based programs meet the complex needs of adults and children with epilepsy and reduce the disparities resulting from it.

  12. Resting-state EEG delta power is associated with psychological pain in adults with a history of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwijk, Esther L; Ford, Judith M; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-02-01

    Psychological pain is a prominent symptom of clinical depression. We asked if frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal EEG power, and frontal fractal dimension asymmetry predicted psychological pain in adults with a history of depression. Resting-state frontal EEG (F3/F4) was recorded while participants (N=35) sat upright with their eyes closed. Frontal delta power predicted psychological pain while controlling for depressive symptoms, with participants who exhibited less power experiencing greater psychological pain. Frontal fractal dimension asymmetry, a nonlinear measure of complexity, also predicted psychological pain, such that greater left than right complexity was associated with greater psychological pain. Frontal alpha asymmetry did not contribute unique variance to any regression model of psychological pain. As resting-state delta power is associated with the brain's default mode network, results suggest that the default mode network was less activated during high psychological pain. Findings are consistent with a state of arousal associated with psychological pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Activities on Facebook reveal the depressive state of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkyu; Lee, Sang Won; Kwak, Jinah; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Bumseok

    2013-10-01

    As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform's features and users' depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom-related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants' responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants' response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and nondepressed individuals. Our results using Emotion

  14. Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation from Crude Oil with the Cubic Plus Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different modeling approaches using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) are developed to calculate the asphaltene precipitation onset condition and asphaltene yield from degassed crude oil during the addition of n-paraffin. A single model parameter is fitted...

  15. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  16. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  17. Pronouncements and Denunciations: An Analysis of State Press Association Ethics Codes from the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Mary M.; McPherson, James B.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how four situational concerns (the rise of press agents, the fallout from World War I propaganda, sensationalism's resurgence, and editorial independence) contributed to a noticeable decline of the public's trust in the press. Shows how, as a result, 12 state press association ethics codes from the 1920s consistently emphasized the…

  18. Gender Association with Stringed Instruments: A Four-Decade Analysis of Texas All-State Orchestras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the gender makeup of the five string sections (Violin 1, Violin 2, Viola, Cello, and String Bass) of Texas Music Educators Association (TMEA) All-State Orchestras from 1971 to 2010, to determine if a clear gender stereotype was evident in any of the sections and if there had been a trend towards a change in…

  19. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ study, Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/9/2013.

  20. Noise-intolerance and state-dependent factors in patients with whiplash associated disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhorst, M.G.B.G.; Meeldijk, S.J.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Toor, T. van; Lousberg, R.; Ganzevles, P.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in which the level of noise-intolerance in patients with a Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) was compared to healthy matched control subjects. In addition, the relationship between state-dependent factors (as headache, neck pain, fatigue and tension) and

  1. Burnup credit activities being conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes burnup credit activities being conducted in the U.S. where burnup credit is either being used or being planned to be used for storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Currently approved uses of burnup credit are for wet storage of PWR fuel. For dry storage of spent PWR fuel, burnup credit is used to supplement a principle of moderator exclusion. These storage applications have been pursued by the private sector. The Department of Energy (DOE) which is an organization of the U.S. Federal government is seeking approval for burnup credit for transport and disposal applications. For transport of spent fuel, regulatory review of an actinide-only PWR burnup credit method is now being conducted. A request by DOE for regulatory review of actinide and fission product burnup credit for disposal of spent BWR and PWR fuel is scheduled to occur in 1998. (author)

  2. Circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles are associated with coagulation activation in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; Schaap, Marianne C.L.; Berckmans, René J.; Nieuwland, Rienk; Sturk, Augueste; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is characterized by a hypercoagulable state as a result of multiple factors, including chronic hemolysis and circulating cell-derived microparticles. There is still no consensus on the cellular origin of such microparticles and the exact mechanism by which they may enhance coagulation activation in sickle cell disease. Design and Methods In the present study, we analyzed the origin of circulating microparticles and their procoagulant phenotype during painful crises and steady state in 25 consecutive patients with sickle cell disease. Results The majority of microparticles originated from platelets (GPIIIa,CD61) and erythrocytes (glycophorin A,CD235), and their numbers did not differ significantly between crisis and steady state. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles strongly correlated with plasma levels of markers of hemolysis, i.e. hemoglobin (r=−0.58, pmicroparticles (r=0.63, p0.05). The extent of factor XI inhibition was associated with erythrocyte-derived microparticles (r=0.50, p=0.023). Conclusions We conclude that the procoagulant state in sickle cell disease is partially explained by the factor XI-dependent procoagulant properties of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles. PMID:19815831

  3. Association of neopterin as a marker of immune system activation and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate neopterin plasma concentrations in patients with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA and correlate them with disease activity. Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as active JIA, as well as another 60 apparently healthy age- and gender-matched children as controls, were recruited from the Pediatrics Allergy and Immunology Clinic, Ain Shams University. Disease activity was assessed by the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score 27 (JADAS-27. Laboratory investigations were performed for all patients, including determination of hemoglobin concentration (Hgb, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and neopterin were measured. Results: Significant differences were found between JIA patients and controls with regard to the mean levels of Hgb, ESR, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 (p  0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that JADAS- 27 and ESR were the main variables associated with serum neopterin in JIA patients (p  0,05. A análise de regressão linear múltipla mostrou que o JADAS-27 e a TSE foram as principais variáveis associadas à neopterina sérica em pacientes com AIJ (p < 0,05. Conclusão: A elevação das concentrações plasmáticas de neopterina em pacientes com AIJ precoce pode indicar um estímulo de resposta imune. A neopterina sérica pode ser usada como um indicador sensível para analisar o histórico de inflamações e o escore de atividade da doença em pacientes com AIJ. Keywords: MCP-1, TNF-α, Rheumatoid arthritis, Palavras-chave: MCP-1, FNT-α, Artrite reumatoide

  4. Dynamic activity-travel assignment in multi-state supernetworks with road and location capacity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Liao, F.; Huang, H.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A unified framework coupling activity-based modelling and dynamic traffic assignment has recently been proposed. It formulates dynamic activity-travel assignment (DATA) in multi-state supernetworks as a dynamic user equilibrium. Choices of departure time, route, mode, activity sequence, and

  5. Extracellular localization of catalase is associated with the transformed state of malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Britta; Heinzelmann, Sonja; Motz, Manfred; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Oncogenic transformation is dependent on activated membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX). However, the resultant extracellular superoxide anions are also driving the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl pathway, which eliminates NOX-expressing transformed cells through selective apoptosis induction. Tumor progression is dependent on dominant interference with intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through membrane-associated catalase, which decomposes H2O2 and peroxynitrite and oxidizes NO. Particularly, the decomposition of extracellular peroxynitrite strictly requires membrane-associated catalase. We utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of catalase and neutralizing antibodies directed against the enzyme in combination with challenging H2O2 or peroxynitrite to determine activity and localization of catalase in cells from three distinct steps of multistage oncogenesis. Nontransformed cells did not generate extracellular superoxide anions and only showed intracellular catalase activity. Transformed cells showed superoxide anion-dependent intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling in the presence of suboptimal catalase activity in their membrane. Tumor cells exhibited tight control of intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through a high local concentration of membrane-associated catalase. These data demonstrate that translocation of catalase to the outside of the cell membrane is already associated with the transformation step. A strong local increase in the concentration of membrane-associated catalase is achieved during tumor progression and is controlled by tumor cell-derived H2O2 and by transglutaminase.

  6. A description of the roles, activities, and skills of clinical nurse specialists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R A

    1999-07-01

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) frequently adapt to meet the challenging and changing needs of patients, families, nurses, physicians, and institutions, thus creating an advance practice role that is problematic in definition and description. The two dilemmas associated with CNSs have been role confusion and ambiguity, and the inability to explicate CNSs' value in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to describe the roles, activities, skills, and the cost-saving and revenue-generating activities of Master's-prepared nurses who function in traditional CNS roles in the United States. A descriptive research design was employed, using Role Theory as a framework to guide the study. The tool used to measure CNS practice included a 68-item instrument. It was pretested and used in two pilot studies. Content validity was supported by three experienced CNSs who were, at the time, in a doctoral nursing program. Instrument reliability was 0.89. Surveys were mailed to all individuals who subscribed (n = 2379) to the Clinical Nurse Specialist Journal. From the convenience sample, 724 CNSs participated, providing a margin of error of +/- 4 percentage points with a 99% confidence level. Regarding the five role components, CNSs reported (listed from most frequently to least frequently) spending time in the role of expert practitioner, educator, consultant, administrator, and researcher. Most of the activities listed in each of the roles were typical of CNS practice. Of the advanced practice roles, the two with the most surprising results were the expert practitioner and administrator roles. The results indicated a trend toward performing advanced skills that have been in the past considered solely medical practice and toward increasing administrative responsibilities. A small number of CNSs were able to identify cost-saving and revenue-generating activities, including the monetary value of the activity.

  7. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  8. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Dahn, Jason R

    2005-03-01

    This review highlights recent work evaluating the relationship between exercise, physical activity and physical and mental health. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as randomized clinical trials, are included. Special attention is given to physical conditions, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, studies relating physical activity to depression and other mood states are reviewed. The studies include diverse ethnic populations, including men and women, as well as several age groups (e.g. adolescents, middle-aged and older adults). Results of the studies continue to support a growing literature suggesting that exercise, physical activity and physical-activity interventions have beneficial effects across several physical and mental-health outcomes. Generally, participants engaging in regular physical activity display more desirable health outcomes across a variety of physical conditions. Similarly, participants in randomized clinical trials of physical-activity interventions show better health outcomes, including better general and health-related quality of life, better functional capacity and better mood states. The studies have several implications for clinical practice and research. Most work suggests that exercise and physical activity are associated with better quality of life and health outcomes. Therefore, assessment and promotion of exercise and physical activity may be beneficial in achieving desired benefits across several populations. Several limitations were noted, particularly in research involving randomized clinical trials. These trials tend to involve limited sample sizes with short follow-up periods, thus limiting the clinical implications of the benefits associated with physical activity.

  9. Household food insecurity is associated with less physical activity among children and adults in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Frongillo, Edward A; Gallegos, Danielle; Moore, Justin B

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity and physical activity are each important public-health concerns in the United States, but the relation between them has not been investigated thoroughly. This study aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and physical activity in the U.S. population. Physical activity measured by accelerometry (PAM) and physical activity measured by questionnaire (PAQ) data from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Individuals aged 65 y, pregnant women, individuals with physical limitations, and individuals with family income >350% of the poverty line were excluded. Food insecurity was measured by the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Adjusted ORs were calculated from logistic regression to identify the association between food insecurity and adherence to the physical-activity guidelines. Adjusted coefficients were obtained from linear regression to identify the association between food insecurity with sedentary/physical-activity minutes. In children, food insecurity was not associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines measured via PAM or PAQ and with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity than food-secure children (adjusted coefficient = -5.24, P = 0.02). In adults, food insecurity was significantly associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines (adjusted OR = 0.72, P = 0.03 for PAM; and OR = 0.84, P PAQ) but was not associated with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity, and food-insecure adults were less likely to adhere to the physical-activity guidelines than those without food insecurity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. 75 FR 56663 - Agency Information Collection (Quarterly Report of State Approving Agency Activities); Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... a currently approved collection. Abstract: VA reimburses State Approving Agencies (SAAs) for expenses incurred in the approval and supervision of education and training programs. SAAs are required to...

  11. Identifying factors associated with the discharge of male State patients from Weskoppies Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan G. Prinsloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designated psychiatric facilities are responsible for the care, treatment and reintegration of State patients. The necessary long-term care places a considerable strain on health-care resources. Resource use should be optimised while managing the risks that patients pose to themselves and the community. Identifying unique factors associated with earlier discharge may decrease the length of stay. Factors associated with protracted inpatient care without discharge could identify patients who require early and urgent intervention. Aim: We identify socio-economic, demographic, psychiatric and charge-related factors associated with the discharge of male State patients. Methods: We reviewed the files of discharged and admitted forensic State patients at Weskoppies Psychiatric Hospital. Data were captured in an electronic recording sheet. The association between factors and the outcome measure (discharged vs. admitted was determined using chi-squared tests and Fischer’s exact tests. Results: Discharged State patients were associated with being a primary caregiver (p = 0.031 having good insight into illness (p = 0.025 or offence (p = 0.005 and having had multiple successful leaves of absences. A lack of substance abuse during admission (p = 0.027, an absence of a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.013 and the absence of verbal and physical aggression (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016 were associated with being discharged. Prolonged total length of stay (9–12 years, p = 0.031 and prolonged length of stay in open wards (6–9 years, p = 0.000 were associated with being discharged. A history of previous offences (p = 0.022, a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.023, recent substance abuse (p = 0.018 and a history of physical aggression since admission (p = 0.017 were associated with continued admission. Conclusion: Discharge of State patients is associated with an absence of substance abuse, lack of aggression

  12. Level of and motivation for extracurricular activity are associated with academic performance in the veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredyth L; Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine the number of school-sanctioned extracurricular opportunities available to veterinary students and characterize the policies of school administrations toward extracurricular involvement and academic standing. Further, we sought to describe the level of extracurricular involvement of veterinary students, determine the association between extracurricular activity involvement and academic performance, and determine the motivation for extracurricular involvement of veterinary students. Survey data were obtained from 18 associate deans of colleges of veterinary medicine regarding the number of extracurricular student organizations within their school and administrative recommendations regarding student involvement. Another survey was administered and responded to by 665 veterinary students enrolled in curricular years 1-3 at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University regarding their extracurricular involvement. Associate deans of 11 schools responded that they make formal or informal recommendations to students about extracurricular activities, workload, and academic priority (61.1%). In a multivariate model, students who participated two times per week or more had a significantly higher overall grade point average (GPA) than students participating once per week (pStudents for whom the primary reason for participation was networking or social enhancement had a significantly lower overall GPA than students for whom the primary reason was gaining new knowledge and skills (pstudent extracurricular involvement is a consideration for administrators when counseling students in academic difficulty. Moderate levels of extracurricular involvement can contribute to the academic success of students, but students should temper their level of involvement based upon their own motivations.

  13. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  14. Characterisation of the activities associated with fast reactor cladding hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four batches of hulls from the reprocessing of fuel from the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay have been examined visually and photographically. The appearance of the hulls (shiny or black) depended on the original location in the fuel pin. The total fissile activities measured corresponded to less than 0.1% or the original fuel. The α-emitter, fission product and activation product activities have been determined from dissolution studies. Profile diagrams have been constructed for the distribution of the principal activities along lengths of seventeen hulls. The evidence obtained suggested that much of the activity on the hulls arose through deposition from the dissolver liquors. The deposits included insoluble particulate material which was thought to be responsible for the wide variations in activity across short lengths of some of the hulls. (orig.)

  15. Unveiling the water-associated conformational mobility in the active site of ascorbate peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Li-Ju; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Han; Chen, Yi-Ting; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2018-03-01

    We carried out comprehensive spectroscopic studies of wild type and mutants of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to gain understanding of the conformational mobility of the active site. In this approach, three unnatural tryptophans were applied to replace the distal tryptophan (W41) in an aim to probe polarity/water environment near the edge of the heme-containing active site. 7-azatryptophan ((7-aza)Trp) is sensitive to environment polarity, while 2,7-azatryptophan ((2,7-aza)Trp) and 2,6-diazatryptophan ((2,6-aza)Trp) undergo excited-state water-catalyzed double and triple proton transfer, respectively, and are sensitive to the water network. The combination of their absorption, emission bands and the associated relaxation dynamics of these fluorescence probes, together with the Soret-band difference absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy, lead us to unveil the water associated conformational mobility in the active site of APX. The results are suggestive of the existence of equilibrium between two different environments surrounding W41 in APX, i.e., the water-rich and water-scant forms with distinct fluorescence relaxation. Our results thus demonstrate for the first time the power of integrating multiple sensors (7-aza)Trp, (2,7-aza)Trp and (2,6-aza)Trp in probing the water environment of a specifically targeted Trp in proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospectively Assessed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    combat, persistent risk, and multiple protracted deployments. Increased psychological symptom reporting has engen - dered heightened concern for the...have pointed to the mental health benefits of physical activity, and researchers have postulated a number of mechanisms by which physical activity may...PTSD. Because researchers have postulated a number of mechanisms by which physical activity may modulate mood and the stress response, it is possible

  18. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  19. Marital status, labour force activity and mortality: A study of the United States and 6 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, Karen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Kovács, Katalin; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-01-01

    Aims Labour force activity and marriage share some of the pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the United States and six European countries. Methods We used data from the US National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index, and national mortality registry data for Austria, England/Wales, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Spain (Basque country) during 1999-2007 for men and women aged 30-59 at baseline. Poisson regression was used to estimate both additive (the relative excess risk due to interaction) and multiplicative interactions between marriage and labour force activity on mortality. Results Labour force inactivity was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for unmarried than married individuals. Likewise, being unmarried was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for inactive than for active individuals. To illustrate, among US women out of the labour force, being unmarried was associated with a 3.98 (95%CI:3.28-4.82) times higher risk of dying than being married, whereas the relative risk was 2.49 (95%CI:2.10-2.94) for women active in the labour market. Although this interaction between marriage and labour force activity was only significant for women on a multiplicative scale, there was a significant additive interaction for both men and women. The pattern was similar across all countries. Conclusions Marriage attenuates the increased mortality risk associated with labour force inactivity, while labour force activity attenuates the mortality risk associated with being unmarried. Our study emphasizes the importance of public health and social policies that improve the health and well-being of men and women who are both unmarried and inactive. PMID:25868643

  20. Progression of symptomatic intracranial large artery atherosclerosis is associated with a proinflammatory state and impaired fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A; Chacón, Pilar; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Ribó, Marc; Delgado, Pilar; Rubiera, Marta; Penalba, Anna; Rovira, Alex; Montaner, Joan

    2008-05-01

    The molecular pathways involved in the progression of intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILA) are largely unknown. Our objective was to prospectively study the relationship between circulating levels of inflammatory markers and fibrinolysis inhibitors, and the risk of progression of symptomatic ILA. Seventy-five consecutive patients with first-ever symptomatic intracranial atherostenosis were studied. Blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 13, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and lipoprotein(a) were measured 3 months after the qualifying stroke or transient ischemic attack. Thereafter, patients underwent long-term transcranial Doppler follow-up to detect progression of ILA. During a median follow-up time of 23 months, 25 (33%) patients showed ILA progression. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves showed that high baseline level of CRP, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinase 9, PAI-1, and lipoprotein(a) predicted ILA progression independently of vascular risk factors. Of them, only CRP (CRP>5.5 mg/L; HR, 5.4 [2.3 to 12.7]; P=0.0001) and PAI-1 (PAI-1>23.1 ng/mL; HR, 2.4 [1.0 to 5.8]; P=0.05) predicted ILA progression also independently of the other studied molecules. Progression of symptomatic ILA is associated with a proinflammatory state, as reflected by high levels of inflammatory markers, and with defective fibrinolysis, as indicated by raised concentrations of endogenous fibrinolysis inhibitors.

  1. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  2. Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the relationship of physical activity with acute affective and physical feeling states is informed largely by lab-based studies, which have limited generalizability to the natural ecology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to assess subjective affective and physical feeling states in free-living settings across 4 days from 110 non-physically active adults (Age M = 40.4, SD = 9.7). Light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by an accelerometer. Multilevel modeling was used to test the bi-directional associations between affective and physical feeling states and LPA/MVPA minutes. Higher positive affect, lower negative affect and fatigue were associated with more MVPA over the subsequent 15 min, while higher negative affect and energy were associated with more LPA over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Additionally, more LPA and MVPA were associated with feeling more energetic over the subsequent 15 and 30 min, and more LPA was additionally associated with feeling more negative and less tired over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Positive and negative affective states might serve as antecedents to but not consequences of MVPA in adults' daily lives. Changes in LPA may be predicted and followed by negative affective states. Physical feeling states appear to lead up to and follow changes in both LPA and MVPA.

  3. The CD8+ memory T-cell state of readiness is actively maintained and reversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Conze, Dietrich B.; Giardino Torchia, Maria Letizia; Munitic, Ivana; Yagita, Hideo; Sowell, Ryan T.; Marzo, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond rapidly and robustly upon repeated antigen exposure is known as immunologic memory, and it is thought that acquisition of memory T-cell function is an irreversible differentiation event. In this study, we report that many phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific CD8 memory T cells are lost when they are deprived of contact with dendritic cells. Under these circumstances, memory T cells reverted from G1 to the G0 cell-cycle state and responded to stimulation like naive T cells, as assessed by proliferation, dependence upon costimulation, and interferon-γ production, without losing cell surface markers associated with memory. The memory state was maintained by signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, CD27 and 4-1BB. Foxo1, a transcription factor involved in T-cell quiescence, was reduced in memory cells, and stimulation of naive CD8 cells via CD27 caused Foxo1 to be phosphorylated and emigrate from the nucleus in a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase–dependent manner. Consistent with these results, maintenance of G1 in vivo was compromised in antigen-specific memory T cells in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected CD27-deficient mice. Therefore, sustaining the functional phenotype of T memory cells requires active signaling and maintenance. PMID:19617575

  4. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs.

  5. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  6. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  7. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Brötzner, Christina P.; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electro...

  8. Changes in mental state associated with prison environments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Illingworth, C; Canning, A; Garner, E; Woolley, J; Taylor, P; Amos, T

    2014-06-01

    To develop an understanding of the stability of mental health during imprisonment through review of existing research evidence relating physical prison environment to mental state changes in prisoners. A systematic literature search was conducted looking at changes in mental state and how this related to various aspects of imprisonment and the prison environment. Fifteen longitudinal studies were found, and from these, three broad themes were delineated: being imprisoned and aspects of the prison regime; stage of imprisonment and duration of sentence; and social density. Reception into prison results in higher levels of psychiatric symptoms that seem to improve over time; otherwise, duration of imprisonment appears to have no significant impact on mental health. Regardless of social density, larger prisons are associated with poorer mental state, as are extremes of social density. There are large gaps in the literature relating prison environments to changes in mental state; in particular, high-quality longitudinal studies are needed. Existing research suggests that although entry to prison may be associated with deterioration in mental state, it tends to improve with time. Furthermore, overcrowding, ever more likely as prison populations rise, is likely to place a particular burden on mental health services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cross-sectional associations of active transport, employment status and objectively measured physical activity: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Liang; Hipp, J Aaron; Imm, Kellie R; Schutte, Rudolph; Stubbs, Brendon; Colditz, Graham A; Smith, Lee

    2018-05-05

    To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer. Associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured MVPA were examined using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, education level, marital status, smoking status, working hour duration (among the employed only) and self-reported leisure time physical activity. Patterns of active transport were similar between the employed (n=2897) and unemployed (n=2283), such that 76.0% employed and 77.5% unemployed engaged in no active transport. For employed adults, those engaging in high levels of active transport (≥90 min/week) had higher amount of MVPA than those who did not engage in active transport. This translated to 40.8 (95% CI 15.7 to 65.9) additional minutes MVPA per week in men and 57.9 (95% CI 32.1 to 83.7) additional minutes MVPA per week in women. Among the unemployed adults, higher levels of active transport were associated with more MVPA among men (44.8 min/week MVPA, 95% CI 9.2 to 80.5) only. Findings from the present study support interventions to promote active transport to increase population level physical activity. Additional strategies are likely required to promote physical activity among unemployed women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Resting-state hemodynamics are spatiotemporally coupled to synchronized and symmetric neural activity in excitatory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Portes, Jacob P.; Timerman, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear. In this study, neural activity and hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously over the bilateral cortex of awake and anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP mice using wide-field optical mapping. Neural activity was visualized via selective expression of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore GCaMP in layer 2/3 and 5 excitatory neurons. Characteristic patterns of resting-state hemodynamics were accompanied by more rapidly changing bilateral patterns of resting-state neural activity. Spatiotemporal hemodynamics could be modeled by convolving this neural activity with hemodynamic response functions derived through both deconvolution and gamma-variate fitting. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology confirmed that Thy1-GCaMP signals are well-predicted by multiunit activity. Neurovascular coupling between resting-state neural activity and hemodynamics was robust and fast in awake animals, whereas coupling in urethane-anesthetized animals was slower, and in some cases included lower-frequency (resting-state hemodynamics in the awake and anesthetized brain are coupled to underlying patterns of excitatory neural activity. The patterns of bilaterally-symmetric spontaneous neural activity revealed by wide-field Thy1-GCaMP imaging may depict the neural foundation of functional connectivity networks detected in resting-state fMRI. PMID:27974609

  11. Association Between Perceived Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that regular participation in physical activity is favorably associated with numerous positive health outcomes, including cognitive function. Emerging work suggests that perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity behavior, is inversely associated with mortality risk. In this study, we evaluate whether perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is associated with cognitive function, a robust indicator of mortality risk. Data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed ( N = 2352; 60+ years of age). Actual physical activity was assessed via a validated survey. Perceived physical activity was assessed using the following question: "Compared with others of the same age, would you say that you are: more active, less active, or about the same?" Cognitive function was assessed from the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. When examined in separate models, both actual and perceived physical activity were positively and statistically significantly associated with cognitive function. However, when considered in the same model, actual physical activity was no longer statistically significantly associated with cognitive function, but perceived physical activity was. Perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is independently associated with cognitive function. If these findings are replicated, future work should consider evaluating perceived physical activity when examining the effects of actual physical activity behavior on cognitive function.

  12. Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state, Nigeria. ... of procuring the products, channels for marketing the products, and risks involved in procuring wildlife products sold in the market. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Underweight in 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys: prevalence and associations with physical activity and sedentary activities

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Kantanista; Wiesław Osiński

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objectives. Underweight is associated with increased mortality of adults when compared to normal weight or overweight individuals. Studies of associations between underweight and physical activity levels in adolescents are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of underweight amongst 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys in tandem with the levels of physical activity and time spent in sedentary activities. The results were compared to those observed in norma...

  14. Intellectual and physical activities, but not social activities, are associated with better global cognition: a multi-site evaluation of the cognition and lifestyle activity study for seniors in Asia (CLASSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda C W; Ong, Paulus Anam; Dikot, Yustiani; Sofiatin, Yulia; Wang, Huali; Zhao, Mei; Li, Wenxiu; Dominguez, Jacqueline; Natividad, Boots; Yusoff, Suraya; Fu, Jong-Ling; Senanarong, Vorapun; Fung, Ada W T; Lai, Ken

    2015-09-01

    population ageing will lead to a leap in the dementia population in Asia. However, information about potentials for low-cost and low-risk interventions is limited. to study the associations between lifestyle activities and global cognition from the Cognitive and Lifestyle Activity Study for Seniors in Asia (CLASSA). a cross-sectional study. we studied the association between global cognition and lifestyle activity participation in community living older adults (60 years or over) across nine sites in East Asia. A standardised lifestyle activity questionnaire exploring activities from four categories (intellectual, physical, social and recreational) was used to measure the pattern. Global cognition was categorised by locally validated versions of Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (good cognition, GC-scored at the top 25% among participants with no significant cognitive deficit (SCD); normal cognition, NC-middle 50% among participants with no SCD; mild cognitive deficit, MCD-lowest 25% among participants with no SCD; SCD-below local cut-offs for dementia). two thousand four hundred and four (1,009 men; 1,395 women) participants were recruited. The mean age was 71.0 (7.2) years. A higher variety of intellectual and physical activities were associated with GC; more social activities were associated with higher risks of having impaired cognition (multinomial logistic regression). The same association was found in participants with no SCD and had regular activities for over 10 years (n = 574). intellectual activity and physical exercise were associated with better cognitive states in Asian older adults. Community-based intervention may take considerations into specific types of activities to optimise cognition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. From to the Liberal State into the Social and Democratic State of Law: Analysis of the Emergence of Judicial Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luna da Cunha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the relationship between the judiciary and the effectiveness of social rights and, consequently, the vaunted judicial activism. More specifically, the article will answer the following question: the role of the judiciary has changed with the development of state models? Article develop their problem by analyzing the function of the judiciary in each of these rule of law models: the Liberal, Social (in spite of that State have not been fully implemented in Brazil and the Democratic. To do so, take into account the relationship between the established powers republish, social movement for the conquest of rights and assertiveness of a new generation of rights. The "Judicial activism" is analyzed as the practical consequence of a new constitutionalism, more guided in the realization of social rights outlined in the constitutions of democratic character.

  16. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, but not Commuting Physical Activity, is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk among ELSA-Brasil Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila M A; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Despite reports in the literature that both leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and commuting physical activity (CPA) can promote health benefits, the literature lacks studies comparing the associations of these domains of physical activity with cardiovascular risk scores. To investigate the association between LTPA and CPA with different cardiovascular risk scores in the cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. Cross-sectional study with data from 13,721 participants of both genders, aged 35-74 years, free of cardiovascular disease, from ELSA Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Five cardiovascular risk scores were used: Framingham score - coronary heart disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - coronary heart disease (LDL-C); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (body mass index, BMI); and pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Associations adjusted for confounding variables between physical activity and different cardiovascular risk scores were analyzed by logistic regression. Confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was considered. LTPA is inversely associated with almost all cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, while CPA shows no statistically significant association with any of them. Dose-response effect in association between LTPA and cardiovascular risk scores was also found, especially in men. LTPA was shown to be associated with the cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, but CPA not. The amount of physical activity (duration and intensity) was more significantly associated, especially in men, with cardiovascular risk scores in ELSA-Brasil.

  17. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  18. Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockaby, B.G.; Stanturf, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains and, in most cases, timber harvesting alone has little long-term effect on hydroperiod. However, there may be some instances where logging roads, built in association with harvest sites , can alter hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation productivity is altered positively or negatively. There is no documentation that harvesting followed by natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on floodplain sites, as long as Best Management Practices are followed. Harvested floodplains may increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites (i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels similar to that observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development vegetation species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly following harvests, although species composition may be different. 40 refs, 3 figs

  19. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  20. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  1. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Roberts, Virginia; Yu, Patricia A; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2008-09-12

    . Outbreaks, especially the largest ones, occurred more frequently in the summer at treated water venues and caused gastrointestinal illness. Deficiencies leading to WBDOs included problems with water-quality, venue design, usage, and maintenance. Case reports of illness associated with recreational water use expand our understanding of the scope of waterborne illness by further underscoring the contribution of less well-recognized swimming venues (e.g., oceans) and illness (e.g., nongastrointestinal illness). Aquatic facilities are also a focus for injuries involving chemicals or equipment used routinely in the operation of swimming venues, thus illustrating the lack of training of some aquatics staff. CDC uses WBDO surveillance data to 1) identify the etiologic agents, types of aquatic venues, water-treatment systems, and deficiencies associated with outbreaks and case reports; 2) evaluate the adequacy of efforts (i.e., regulations and public awareness activities) to provide safe recreational water; 3) expand the scope of understanding about waterborne disease and health events associated with swimming and aquatics facilities; and 4) establish public health prevention priorities, data, and messaging that might lead to improved regulations, guidelines, and prevention measures at the local, state, and federal levels.

  2. Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β(2) adrenoceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Choi, Hee-Jung; Fung, Juan Jose

    2011-01-01

    to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a G protein. We generated a camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) to the human β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) that exhibits G protein-like behaviour, and obtained an agonist-bound, active-state crystal structure of the receptor-nanobody complex...

  3. High Lassa Fever activity in Northern part of Edo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to establish simple statistics of the effects of lassa fever in northern part of Edo State, Nigeria. Lassa fever activity in the northern part of Edo state, Nigeria, was confirmed in 2004 by laboratory analysis of samples sent to Bernhard–Nocht Institute (BNI) for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.

  4. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... or Containers which enter the United States Duty Free. This is a proposed extension of an information..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Holders or Containers which...

  5. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  6. A STATE AS AN ACTIVATOR OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern mechanisms and instruments of state regulation of science, technology and innovation are systematized from the point of view of market failures overcoming in these areas of the economy.

  7. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Adiposity, Primary Dysmenorrhea, Physical Activity, Adolescence. Résumé. Les informations ... In addition, urinary frequency, irritability, nervous depression, abdominal .... years) was significantly higher than that of those without PD ...

  8. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, Lizzy M.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Bindraban, Navin R.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascular

  9. State-resolved Photodissociation and Radiative Association Data for the Molecular Hydrogen Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Colgan, James; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Kilcrease, David P.; Bray, Igor; Fontes, Christopher J.; Hakel, Peter; Timmermans, Eddy

    2017-12-01

    We present state-resolved (electronic, vibrational, and rotational) cross sections and rate coefficients for the photodissociation (PD) of {{{H}}}2+ and radiative association (RA) of H–H+. We developed a fully quantum mechanical approach within the nonrelativistic Born–Oppenheimer approximation to describe {{{H}}}2+ and calculate the data for transitions between the ground electronic state 1s{σ }g and the 2p{σ }u, 2p{π }u, 3p{σ }u, 3p{π }u, 4p{σ }u, 4f{σ }u, 4f{π }u, and 4p{π }u electronic states (i.e., up to {{{H}}}2+ n = 4). Tables of the dipole-matrix elements and energies needed to calculate state-resolved cross sections and rate coefficients will be made publicly available. These data could be important in astrophysical models when dealing with photon wavelengths (or radiation temperature distributions that are weighted toward such wavelengths) around 100 nm. For example, at these wavelengths and a material temperature of 8400 K, the LTE-averaged PD cross section via the (second electronically excited) 2p{π }u state is over three times larger than the PD cross section via the (first electronically excited) 2p{σ }u state.

  10. Physical activity and aerobic fitness in childhood : associated with asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Sveinung

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood asthma in the Western world has increased the last decades, whereas knowledge of asthma prevalence in districts where “Westernized lifestyle” is not adopted is inadequate. Even though there is a general lack of studies including objective physical activity measurements and direct measurements of maximal oxygen consumption, the overriding public perception of today’s children and adolescents is that they are less physical active and with lower leve...

  11. Systematic review of the association between physical activity and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczenski, Lea M; Vries, Juriena D de; Hooff, Madelon L M van; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-11-25

    Burnout constitutes a health risk, and interventions are needed to reduce it. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity and burnout by conducting a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention studies. A literature search resulted in the identification of a final set of ten studies: four longitudinal and six intervention studies. In separate analyses for each category, evidence was synthesized by extracting the study characteristics and assessing the methodological quality of each study. The strength of evidence was calculated with the standardized index of convergence (SIC). In longitudinal studies, we found moderately strong evidence (SIC (4) = -1) for a negative relationship between physical activity and the key component of burnout, i.e., exhaustion. We found strong evidence (SIC (6) = -0.86) for the effect of physical activity on reducing exhaustion in intervention studies. As only one study could be classified as a high quality study, these results of previous studies need to be interpreted with some caution. This systematic review suggests that physical activity constitutes an effective medium for the reduction of burnout. Although consistent evidence was found, there is a lack of high quality longitudinal and intervention studies considering the influence of physical activity on burnout. Therefore, future research should be conducted with the aim to produce high quality studies, to develop a full picture of physical activity as a strategy to reduce burnout.

  12. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with meta...

  13. Decline in physical activity during adolescence is not associated with changes in mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Verboon, Peter; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating associations between physical activity and mental health in adolescents have been cross-sectional in design. Potential associations between physical activity and mental health may be better examined longitudinally as physical activity levels tend to decrease in

  14. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... changes with behavioral state in a regionally specific manner, and that overall activity increases during quiet sleep, and is even more enhanced in active sleep. PVH activation could be expected to stimulate pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and affect input to autonomic regulatory...

  15. Do psychological states associate with pain and disability in chronic neck pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (pneck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.

  16. Factors associated with low birth weight in Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Minamisava

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW is public health problem, because they are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. No previous studies on factors associated with LBW carried out in central Brazil were found in the literature. The main aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LBW in children born alive in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Live Births Information System from the Brazilian Health Ministry. All 92.745 singleton births in the State of Goiás during the year of 2000 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with LBW (< 2500 g. In Goiás, the prevalence of LBW was 5.96% and the most important factors associated with LBW were: prematurity, young and older mothers, unmarried women, mother illiteracy, mothers who had less than seven prenatal care visits, non-hospital delivery, and female infants. Local public health actions are necessary to reduce inequalities in infant and maternal care. KEYWORDS: newborn, birth weight, prenatal care.

  17. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  18. Production of lepton pairs with associated final state: project of an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brom, J.-M.

    1978-01-01

    The production of Drell-Yan pairs is studied, in reactions like h+h→1 + 1 - +X---, where the charged part of the associated final state is detected. The first part presents some theoretical aspects, relative to the Drell-Yan mechanism and to models dealing with the associated final state. The second part presents a possible experimental set-up in order to study this physics, based on vertex detection with fast electronic detectors, and makes estimations for the expected number of events. In the last part, is evaluated the pattern recognition program of the events where one pair of leptons is detected. The recognition program is analysed and presented its performance [fr

  19. Estimates of state-level health-care expenditures associated with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne L; Armour, Brian S; Finkelstein, Eric A; Wiener, Joshua M

    2010-01-01

    We estimated state-level disability-associated health-care expenditures (DAHE) for the U.S. adult population. We used a two-part model to estimate DAHE for the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian adult population using data from the 2002-2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and state-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Administrative data for people in institutions were added to generate estimates for the total adult noninstitutionalized population. Individual-level data on total health-care expenditures along with demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, and payer characteristics were used in the models. The DAHE for all U.S. adults totaled $397.8 billion in 2006, with state expenditures ranging from $598 million in Wyoming to $40.1 billion in New York. Of the national total, the DAHE were $118.9 billion for the Medicare population, $161.1 billion for Medicaid recipients, and $117.8 billion for the privately insured and uninsured populations. For the total U.S. adult population, 26.7% of health-care expenditures were associated with disability, with proportions by state ranging from 16.9% in Hawaii to 32.8% in New York. This proportion varied greatly by payer, with 38.1% for Medicare expenditures, 68.7% for Medicaid expenditures, and 12.5% for nonpublic health-care expenditures associated with disability. DAHE vary greatly by state and are borne largely by the public sector, and particularly by Medicaid. Policy makers need to consider initiatives that will help reduce the prevalence of disabilities and disability-related health disparities, as well as improve the lives of people with disabilities.

  20. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togi, Sumihito; Nakasuji, Misa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR

  1. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togi, Sumihito; Nakasuji, Misa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi, E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR.

  2. Health state utilities associated with attributes of weekly injection devices for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Matza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists are often recommended as part of combination therapy for type 2 diabetes when oral medication does not result in sufficient glycemic control. Several GLP-1 receptor agonists are available as weekly injections. These medications vary in their injection delivery systems, and these differences could impact quality of life and treatment preference. The purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with attributes of injection delivery systems for weekly GLP-1 therapies. Methods Participants with type 2 diabetes in the UK valued health states in time trade-off interviews. The health states (drafted based on literature, device instructions for use, and clinician interviews had identical descriptions of type 2 diabetes, but differed in description of the treatment process. One health state described oral treatment, while six others described oral treatment plus a weekly injection. The injection health states varied in three aspects of the treatment administration process: requirements for reconstituting the medication (i.e., mixing the medication prior to the injection, waiting during medication preparation, and needle handling. Every participant valued all seven health states. Results A total of 209 participants completed interviews (57.4% male; mean age = 60.4y. The mean utility of the oral treatment health state was 0.89. All injection health states had significantly (p < 0.01 lower utilities ranging from 0.86 to 0.88. Differences among health state utilities suggest that each administration requirement had a small but measureable disutility: -0.004 (reconstitution, -0.004 (needle handling, -0.010 (reconstitution, needle handling, and -0.020 (reconstitution, waiting, needle handling. Conclusions Findings suggest it is feasible to use the TTO method to quantify preferences among injection treatment processes. It may be useful to incorporate these utility differences

  3. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  4. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  5. 75 FR 1559 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and requests public comment on a petition for rulemaking dated November 6, 2009, filed by the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) (petitioner). The petition was docketed by the NRC and has been assigned Docket No. PRM-32-6. The petitioner requests that the NRC amend its regulations and/or guidance to improve the labeling and accountability of tritium exit signs.

  6. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Obesity among US Adults in 12 States

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Njai, Rashid; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2012-01-01

    A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our analytic sample included 66,553 adults from 12 states. Food insecurity was determined by response (always/usually/sometimes) to the question,“Howoften in the past 12 months wou...

  7. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Faults Associated with the 2001 Avoca Induced(?) Seismicity Sequence of Western New York State Using Potential Field Wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, F. G.; Ebinger, C.; Jordan, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Results from recent DOE and USGS sponsored projects in the (intraplate) northeastern portions of the US and southeastern portions of Canada have identified locations of steeply dipping structures - many previously unknown - from a Poisson wavelet multiscale edge ('worm') analysis of gravity and magnetic fields. The Avoca sequence of induced(?) seismicity in western New York state occurred during January and February of 2001. The Avoca earthquake sequence is associated with industrial hydraulic fracturing activity "related to a proposed natural gas storage facility near Avoca to be constructed by solution mining" (Kim, 2001). The main Avoca event was a felt Mb = 3.2 earthquake on Feb. 3, 2001 recorded by the Lamont Cooperative Seismic Network. Earlier, smaller events were located by the Canadian Geological Survey's seismic network north of the Canadian border - implying that the event locations might be biased because they occurred off the southern edge of the array. Some of these events were also felt locally, according to local newspaper reports. By plotting the location of the seismic events and that of the injection well - reported via it's API number - we find a strong correlation with structures detected via our potential field worms. The injection occurred near a NE-SW striking structure that was not activated. All but one of the earthquakes occurred about 5 km north of the injection well on or nearby to an E-W striking structure that appears to intersect the NE-SW structure. The final, small (MN=2.2) earthquake was located on a different complex structure about 10 km north of the other events. We suggest that potential field methods such as ours might be appropriate to locating structures of concern for induced seismic activity in association with industrial activity. Reference: Kim, W.-Y. (2001). The Lamont cooperative seismic network and the national seismic system: Earthquake hazard studies in the northeastern United States. Tech. Rep. 98-01, Lamont

  9. State and local fiscal impacts associated with nuclear energy centers: some initial considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-04-01

    The concept of the nuclear energy center is designed to consolidate a number of electrical power reactors and/or related fuel cycle activities on a single site. Such a siting strategy would concentrate a great deal of economic activity in one area and, as a consequence, generate significant impacts on state and local governments by increasing tax bases and public service demands and by altering intergovernmental fiscal relations. This study was designed to place rough empirical measures on relevant impact variables and to highlight areas for which a need for further research was indicated.

  10. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Scola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song. Results: The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion: These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants.

  11. Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Andersson, Micael; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-11-01

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called "the testing effect", i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase, and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  12. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  13. Resting-State fMRI Functional Connectivity Is Associated with Sleepiness, Imagery, and Discontinuity of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; den Braber, Anouk; van ‘t Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; de Geus, Eco; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to investigate the functional architecture of the healthy human brain and how it is affected by learning, lifelong development, brain disorders or pharmacological intervention. Non-sensory experiences are prevalent during rest and must arise from ongoing brain activity, yet little is known about this relationship. Here, we used two runs of rs-fMRI both immediately followed by the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) to investigate the relationship between functional connectivity within ten large-scale functional brain networks and ten dimensions of thoughts and feelings experienced during the scan in 106 healthy participants. We identified 11 positive associations between brain-network functional connectivity and ARSQ dimensions. ‘Sleepiness’ exhibited significant associations with functional connectivity within Visual, Sensorimotor and Default Mode networks. Similar associations were observed for ‘Visual Thought’ and ‘Discontinuity of Mind’, which may relate to variation in imagery and thought control mediated by arousal fluctuations. Our findings show that self-reports of thoughts and feelings experienced during a rs-fMRI scan help understand the functional significance of variations in functional connectivity, which should be of special relevance to clinical studies. PMID:26540239

  14. Associations between physical activity and characteristics of urban green space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Bentsen, Peter; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of the nearest UGS, and the presence of certain features. However, the evidence to date is somewhat inconclusive, and dominated by studies from North America and Australia. There is a large variation in city structures, and recommendations for North American or Australian cities are not automatically valid...... was found. The amount and number of UGS within one kilometre revealed no association either. For PA in the nearest UGS positive associations with size, walking/cycling routes, wooded areas, water features, lights, pleasant views, bike rack, and parking lot were found. This indicates that PA in an UGS might...

  15. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1971, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Data presented summarize 48 outbreaks that occurred during January 2007--December 2008 and 70 previously unreported outbreaks. WBDOSS includes data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, recreational water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent (WUI). Public health agencies in the states, U.S. territories, localities, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating outbreaks and reporting them voluntarily to CDC by a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and WUI are summarized in this report. Outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported separately. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 48 outbreaks that occurred during 2007--2008. Of these 48 outbreaks, 36 were associated with drinking water, eight with WNID, and four with WUI. The 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 32 (88.9%) of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks; 21 (58.3%) outbreaks were associated with bacteria, five (13.9%) with viruses, three (8.3%) with parasites, one (2.8%) with a chemical, one (2.8%) with both bacteria and viruses, and one (2.8%) with both bacteria and parasites. Four outbreaks (11.1%) had unidentified etiologies. Of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks, 22 (61.1%) were outbreaks of

  16. Tattoo-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections--multiple states, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Permanent tattoos have become increasingly common, with 21% of adults in the United States reporting having at least one tattoo. On rare occasions, outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) skin infections have been reported after tattooing. In January 2012, public health officials in New York received reports of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infections in 14 New York residents who received tattoos during September-December 2011. All infections were associated with use of the same nationally distributed, prediluted gray ink manufactured by company A. CDC disseminated an Epi-X public health alert to identify additional tattoo-associated NTM skin infections; previously identified cases were reported from three states (Washington, Iowa, and Colorado). Public health investigations by CDC, state and local health departments, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found NTM contamination in tattoo inks used in two of five identified clusters. All infected persons were exposed to one of four different brands of ink. NTM contamination of inks can occur during the manufacturing process as a result of using contaminated ingredients or poor manufacturing practices, or when inks are diluted with nonsterile water by tattoo artists. No specific FDA regulatory requirement explicitly provides that tattoo inks must be sterile. However, CDC recommends that ink manufacturers ensure ink is sterile and that tattoo artists avoid contamination of ink through dilution with nonsterile water. Consumers also should be aware of the health risks associated with getting an intradermal tattoo.

  17. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002-20121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Sara; Lionakis, Michail S; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002-2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005-2012 for men (annual change -3.9%) and women (annual change -4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease.

  18. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–20121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Sara; Lionakis, Michail S.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis–associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002–2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005–2012 for men (annual change –3.9%) and women (annual change –4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease. PMID:27983497

  19. Smoking in the United States Air Force: Trends, Most Prevalent Diseases and their Association with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    alcohol use (University of Minnesota, 2010). Tobacco use is one of the most significant health issues that the U.S. military faces today . In 2002, it...rates among the active duty members of the Air Force of the United States. Smoking is a severe phenomenon for the Air Force today because it is...allurement. In addition, they launch special tobacco products for women, the so called “ feminized cigarettes”, trying to create more female smokers

  20. Idiopathic Mast Cell Activation Syndrome With Associated Salicylate Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenauer, Tobias; Raithel, Martin; Götze, Thomas; Siebenlist, Gregor; Rückel, Aline; Baenkler, Hanns-Wolf; Hartmann, Arndt; Haller, Florian; Hoerning, André

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic mast cell activation syndrome can be a rare cause for chronic abdominal pain in children. It remains a diagnosis by exclusion that can be particularly challenging due to the vast variety of possible clinical manifestations. We present a 13-year-old boy who suffered from a multitude of unspecific complaints over a long period of time. In this case, an assessment of mast cell-derived metabolites and immunohistochemical analysis of bioptic specimen was worthwhile. After ruling out, primary (oncologic) and secondary causes for mast cell activation, pharmacologic treatment adapted to the patient's salicylate intolerance resulted in a major relief of symptoms.

  1. Neural activation to monetary reward is associated with amphetamine reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Gorka, Stephanie M; Weafer, Jessica; Langenecker, Scott A; de Wit, Harriet; Phan, K Luan

    2018-03-14

    One known risk factor for drug use and abuse is sensitivity to rewarding effects of drugs. It is not known whether this risk factor extends to sensitivity to non-drug rewards. In this study with healthy young adults, we examined the association between sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine and a neural indicator of anticipation of monetary reward. We hypothesized that greater euphorigenic response to amphetamine would be associated with greater neural activation to anticipation of monetary reward (Win > Loss). Healthy participants (N = 61) completed four laboratory sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation at regular intervals. At a separate visit 1-3 weeks later, participants completed the guessing reward task (GRT) during fMRI in a drug-free state. Participants reporting greater euphoria after amphetamine also exhibited greater neural activation during monetary reward anticipation in mesolimbic reward regions, including the bilateral caudate and putamen. This is the first study to show a relationship between neural correlates of monetary reward and sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine in humans. These findings support growing evidence that sensitivity to reward in general is a risk factor for drug use and abuse, and suggest that sensitivity of drug-induced euphoria may reflect a general sensitivity to rewards. This may be an index of vulnerability for drug use or abuse.

  2. Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with primary active Epstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common form of childhood vasculitis. Various viral and bacterial infections, drugs, vaccines, food allergy and even insect bites have been considered as triggering factors in pathogenesis of HSP. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with HSP, have been rarely ...

  3. Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Braskie, Meredith N; Mather, Mara

    2017-06-01

    Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks. In addition, we observed age-related decline in functional connectivity in 3 visual and 3 motor/visuospatial networks. Older adults showed greater functional connectivity in regions outside 4 out of the 5 identified cognitive networks, consistent with the dedifferentiation effect previously observed in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Both reduced within-network connectivity and increased out-of-network connectivity were correlated with poor cognitive performance, providing potential biomarkers for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful “thoughtless emptiness (TE),” a “focused attention,” and an “open monitoring” task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness. PMID:24596562

  5. Assessment of brain activities during an emotional stress state using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takuto; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Kawasaki, Aika; Kato, Makoto; Murata, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated cerebrum activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a mental stress state. Thirty-four healthy adults participated. Before the experiment, we assessed their stress states using the Stress Self-rating Scale and divided the participants into Stress and Non-stress groups. The experiment consisted of 6 trials. Each trial consisted of a 20-s block of emotional audio-visual stimuli (4-s stimulation x 5 slides) and a fixation point. These processes were performed 3 times continuously (Relaxed, Pleasant, Unpleasant stimuli) in a random order. These results showed that the Non-stress group indicated activation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the Pleasant and Unpleasant stimuli while the Stress group indicated activation of the hippocampus in Pleasant stimuli, and the amygdala and hippocampus in Unpleasant stimuli. These findings suggested that the mental stress state engages the reduction of emotional processing. Also, the responsiveness of the memory system remained during and after the emotional stress state. (author)

  6. Antimicrobial Activities of Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Bolhuis, H.; Ahmed, M.; Boudabbous, A.; Stal, L.J.; Cretoiu, M.S.; El Bour, M.

    2016-01-01

    Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here

  7. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  8. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  9. Activities of some enzymes associated with oxygen metablolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... SOD and CAT activities in 20 days seedlings were higher than those in ... content and cell permeability in leaves were lower than those in root which in turn .... The water soluble protein content of all crude SOD, CAT and MDA.

  10. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  11. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  12. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  13. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager, Harriët; Visser, M.; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  14. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  16. Assessment of the bacteriological activity associated with granular activated carbon treatment of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L; Means, E G

    1990-01-01

    Bacteriological analyses were performed on the effluent from a conventional water treatment pilot plant in which granular activated carbon (GAC) had been used as the final process to assess the impact of GAC on the microbial quality of the water produced. Samples were collected twice weekly for 160 days from the effluents of six GAC columns, each of which used one of four different empty-bed contact times (7.5, 15, 30, and 60 min). The samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate counts and total coliforms. Effluent samples were also exposed to chloramines and free chlorine for 60 min (pH 8.2, 23 degrees C). Bacterial identifications were performed on the disinfected and nondisinfected effluents. Additional studies were conducted to assess the bacteriological activity associated with released GAC particles. The results indicated that heterotrophic plate counts in the effluents from all columns increased to 10(5) CFU/ml within 5 days and subsequently stabilized at 10(4) CFU/ml. The heterotrophic plate counts did not differ at different empty-bed contact times. Coliforms (identified as Enterobacter spp.) were recovered from the nondisinfected effluent on only two occasions. The disinfection results indicated that 1.5 mg of chloramines per liter inactivated approximately 50% more bacteria than did 1.0 mg of free chlorine per liter after 1 h of contact time. Chloramines and chlorine selected for the development of different bacterial species--Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp., respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2082828

  17. Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal interoceptive activity and functional connectivity in the insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jason A; Drevets, Wayne C; Moseman, Scott E; Bodurka, Jerzy; Barcalow, Joel C; Simmons, W Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Somatic complaints and altered interoceptive awareness are common features in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, neurobiological evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the insula is one of the primary cortical structures underlying interoceptive awareness. Abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula may thus contribute to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of MDD. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses between 20 unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy control participants during a task requiring attention to visceral interoceptive sensations and also assessed the relationship of this blood oxygenation level-dependent response to depression severity, as rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, we examined between-group differences in insula resting-state functional connectivity and its relationship to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ratings of depression severity. Relative to the healthy control subjects, unmedicated MDD subjects exhibited decreased activity bilaterally in the dorsal mid-insula cortex (dmIC) during interoception. Activity within the insula during the interoceptive attention task was negatively correlated with both depression severity and somatic symptom severity in depressed subjects. Major depressive disorder also was associated with greater resting-state functional connectivity between the dmIC and limbic brain regions implicated previously in MDD, including the amygdala, subgenual prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, functional connectivity between these regions and the dmIC was positively correlated with depression severity. Major depressive disorder and the somatic symptoms of depression are associated with abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  18. Dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time......, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability...... than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability...

  19. The attitude of the state sphere towards singing associations in Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial dependence of singing societies in the state of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia is particularly analyzed in the paper, with a view to pointing to problems which hindered the advancement of music culture in the civil society. As other similar institutions of civic type, choirs did not have at their disposal sufficient financial, social and symbolic capital independent of the state, so they did not possess the power to influence on the government authorities. Although the period between World Wars brought evident improvement in the state treatment of music institutions, it could not be interpreted as a fundamental shift. The treatment of the Yugoslav singing union (Južnoslovenski pevački savez, which fought for promotion of music culture in the Yugoslav society, is particularly indicative. This largest music organization in the country, fostering ideology of integral Yugoslavism, strived to contribute to ethnic and social cohesion of different regions through singing. In its plans for improving singing practice this organization exhibited a clear vision for activism in favor of the nation and state, but the state authorities did not know how or did not desire to make use of it. Certain information suggests indolent and at times negative, discouraging attitude of authorities towards different ways of improvement of music practice, both art and society wise, which opens a new horizon for future studies and for better comprehension of contemporary problems as well.

  20. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  1. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  2. Leisure time physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of p