WorldWideScience

Sample records for state anxiety inventory-2

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A M; Sewell, D F; Terry, P C; Bartram, D; Nesti, M S

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) using confirmatory factor analysis. Volunteer participants (n = 1213) completed the CSAI-2 approximately 1 h before competition and the data were analysed in two samples. The hypothesized model showed poor fit indices in both samples independently (Robust Comparative Fit Index: sample A = 0.82, sample B = 0.84) and simultaneously (Comparative Fit Index = 0.83), suggesting that the factor structure proposed by Martens et al. is flawed. Our findings suggest that a limitation of the Cognitive Anxiety scale derives from phrasing items around the word 'concerned' rather than 'worried'. We suggest that being concerned about an impending performance does not necessarily mean that an athlete is experiencing negative thoughts, but that the athlete is acknowledging the importance and difficulty of the challenge and is attempting to mobilize resources to cope. The present results question the use of the CSAI-2 as a valid measure of competitive state anxiety.

  2. Responses to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 by the Athletes Participated in the (IJF) Judo Grand Prix Competition, Samsun 2015 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2016-01-01

    The judo is a popular sport which people engaged in more than 178 countries at any age in the world. Besides its popularity, the studies on this field continue to increase gradually. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to measure pre-competition anxieties, and to evaluate data obtained of the pre-competition concerns of the judo athletes who…

  3. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  4. Effects of confidence and anxiety on flow state in competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Confidence and anxiety are important variables that underlie the experience of flow in sport. Specifically, research has indicated that confidence displays a positive relationship and anxiety a negative relationship with flow. The aim of this study was to assess potential direct and indirect effects of confidence and anxiety dimensions on flow state in tennis competition. A sample of 59 junior tennis players completed measures of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2d and Flow State Scale-2. Following predictive analysis, results showed significant positive correlations between confidence (intensity and direction) and anxiety symptoms (only directional perceptions) with flow state. Standard multiple regression analysis indicated confidence as the only significant predictor of flow. The results confirmed a protective function of confidence against debilitating anxiety interpretations, but there were no significant interaction effects between confidence and anxiety on flow state.

  5. Psychomertic Properties Spielberger\\'s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 Among of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodayari-Fard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since Spielberger's State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory–2 (STAXI–2 has enormous potential for research and therapy, the current study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and normalization of STAXI–2 among Iranian college students. Materials & Methods: Descriptive–survey research method, developing an instrument one, was used. 1140 students (Mean age=21.92, SD=2.89 were drawn from Tehran University via cluster sampling method. 554 (48.6% and 586 (51.4% participants were females and males respectively. Among participants 1080 were singles. The participants were asked to complete two instruments. One of these instruments STAXI–2 and other was one of Multi–dimensional Anger Inventory, Over controlled Hostility Scale, Oxford Happiness inventory, Emotional and NEO– Five Factor Inventory. Results: There were not observed significant differences between females and males participants in most sub–scales of STAXI–2. Also data analysis demonstrated that STAXI–2 and its subscales had significant relationship with parallel instruments. Moreover, the results showed significant mean differences between two groups including high and low emotion intelligence groups and all subscales of STAXI–2. Factor analysis also extracted as many as factors in any part of STAXI–2 in comparison with original version. Based on T scores, separate norms tables were reported. Conclusion: STAXI–2 has an appropriate validity and reliability to measure anger in Iranian young population. Therefore, STAXI–2 as a state and trait assessment device can be used in clinical sets and research

  6. Statistics Anxiety, State Anxiety during an Examination, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…

  7. Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Predicting precompetitive state anxiety: using the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2013-10-01

    The goal was to examine the predictiveness of achievement goals for self-confidence, cognitive anxiety, and somatic anxiety using a prospective design. 160 high school athletes completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport after daily practice and the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 before an official competition. Using hierarchical regression analyses, mastery-approach goals were found as positive predictors of self-confidence and negative predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, performance- and mastery-avoidance goals positively predicted cognitive and somatic anxiety. Also, performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted self-confidence. Generally, athletes who pursued task mastery and improvement of competence were less physically and cognitively anxious and more self-confident. However, athletes felt tense, worried, and had lower confidence when they endorsed avoidance forms of achievement goals.

  9. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  10. Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety as interpreted by rugby players and rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, S; Jones, G; Mullen, R

    2000-04-01

    This study reports the findings of part of an ongoing research program examining sports performers' interpretations of competitive anxiety prior to competition. The notion of 'directional perceptions' has questioned the limited utility of examining only the intensity of competitive anxiety responses as has Jones. The purpose of this study was to examine intensity and direction, i.e., interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative, of anxiety symptoms as a function of two types of sport. The types of sport were explosive (rugby league) versus fine motor skills (target rifle shooting). The sample comprised 50 male rugby league participants and 50 target rifle shooters who completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 prior to competition. Contingency analysis yielded a significant difference in the number of rugby players who reported somatic anxiety as facilitative and the number of rifle shooters who reported somatic states as debilitative. No such differences were evident for cognitive anxiety. Analysis of variance indicated no differences between the two groups on the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety, but the performers competing in rugby league interpreted both states as being more facilitative to performance; the rugby league players also had higher scores on self-confidence than the shooters. These findings provide continuing support for the measurement of directional perceptions of competitive anxiety and highlight the importance of examining individual sports.

  11. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  12. The role of state anxiety in children's memories for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the impact of experimentally manipulated state anxiety and the influence of anxiety-related variables on children's memories for pain. A total of 110 children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years were randomly assigned to complete a state anxiety induction task or a control task. Following experimental manipulation, children completed a laboratory pain task, pain ratings, and questionnaire measures of anxiety-related variables. 2 weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories of the pain task. The experimental manipulation effectively induced state anxiety; however, pain memories did not differ between groups. Irrespective of group assignment, children with higher state anxiety had more negative pain memories. State anxiety uniquely predicted children's pain memories over and above other well established factors. Anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety were significant predictors of recalled pain-related fear. These data highlight the importance of anxiety in the development of children's memories for pain.

  13. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  14. Alternate Forms of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Anthony J.; Kubis, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    Alternate forms of the state anxiety (A-State) and trait anxiety (A-Trait) scales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were constructed by dividing the 20 items of each scale into two briefer forms having 10 items each. The alternate forms and item statistics are presented. (Author/BW)

  15. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  16. State anxiety and emotional face recognition in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, Angela S.; Easey, Kayleigh E.; Dalili, Michael N.; Skinner, Andrew L.; Woods, Andy; Crick, Lana; Ilett, Elizabeth; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced glob...

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

  18. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers’ actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  19. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers' actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  20. Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Rykert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideal performance state is manifested by psychological and physiological efficiency. The psychological effects of anxiety and self-confidence has been shown to alter the efficiency of performance. This study attempted to identify the state anxiety and self-confidence of high school athletes just prior to a one repetition maximum (1-RM back squat and determine if the number of spotters affects an athlete’s level of state anxiety and/or self-confidence. Male high school athletes (10th and 11th grades were randomly separated into two experimental groups who performed the 1-RM back squat (BSQ with either 1 spotter (1SG: n=52 or 3 spotters (3SG: n=54. Following a dynamic warm-up period and several progressive BSQ warm-up sets, and just prior to attempts at a 1-RM BSQ, the participants completed the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R. The CSAI-2R included the number of spotters (1 or 3 that would be present during the subsequent 1-RM BSQ attempts. The CSAI-2R is a17-question instrument with three subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. The subscale scores were compared between the 1SG and 3SG with an independent t-test (alpha≤0.05. None of the subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety were significantly different between the 1SG and 3SG experimental groups (p>0.05. Within the parameters of this study, the number of spotters present during the execution of the 1-RM BSQ had no practical or statistical impact on self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. Coaches and athletes could use this information in the training environment in order to make best use of personnel (assigned to spotting tasks, physical resources (ex. squat racks, and time management.

  1. COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY: IMPACT OF POSITIVE SELF TALK TRAINING ON JUNIOR LEVEL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam Kanniyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011. Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive Self-Talk training on the Competition anxiety and self-confidence of junior level football players. 36 junior level football players, aged 18.7 ± 2.8 years, were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 was used to assess cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Positive Self-Talk training was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference between the pre- test and post test scores of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self- confidence in the experimental group while no significant difference in the control group.

  2. Ansiedad estado y autoconfianza precompetitiva en gimnastas. (Precompetitive anxiety state and self-confidence in gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Fuentes García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe describen las diferencias en los niveles de ansiedad y sus interpretaciones en gimnastas de diferente edad, género y niveles competitivos ante una competición importante y se analizan las diferencias ante competiciones de diferente importancia en las gimnastas de bajo nivel. El grupo (G1 estuvo formado por 8 gimnastas de la Selección Nacional de Gimnasia Artística Masculina y el grupo (G2 por 8 gimnastas de nivel nacional de Gimnasia Artística Femenina. Se administró una versión reducida del Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 en tres competiciones, dos importantes para cada grupo (G1 y G2a y la tercera de menor importancia para el grupo 2 (G2b. Los gimnastas del G1 tuvieron mayores niveles de autoconfianza e interpretaron dichos síntomas como muy facilitadores para su rendimiento competitivo e interpretaron los síntomas de ansiedad cognitiva más intensamente que los del G2. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre niveles e interpretación de ansiedad y autoconfianza en G2 cuando se evalúan en dos competiciones de diferente importancia.AbstractThe purpose was to describe the intensity and directional interpretation of anxiety and self-confidence in gymnasts of different ages, gender and competitive level in a major competition and analyze their differences in two meeting of very different importance in minor-level gymnasts. Were evaluated eight elite men gymnasts (G1; International level and 8 national level female gymnasts (G2; National level. We administered a shortened version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in three competitions, among which two were most important in the season for each group (G1 and G2a and the minor third for the group minor-level (G2b. The G1 have higher levels of self-confidence that G2. Moreover their interpretation of symptoms of anxiety as facilitators for their competitive performance was very high. The G1 had interpretations of the cognitive symptoms of

  3. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  4. Interpretation bias and social anxiety: does interpretation bias mediate the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Milne, Kirby; Dayman, Janet; Kemps, Eva

    2018-05-23

    Two studies aimed to examine whether high socially anxious individuals are more likely to negatively interpret ambiguous social scenarios and facial expressions compared to low socially anxious individuals. We also examined whether interpretation bias serves as a mediator of the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses, in particular current state anxiety, bodily sensations, and perceived probability and cost of negative evaluation pertaining to a speech task. Study 1 used ambiguous social scenarios and Study 2 used ambiguous facial expressions as stimuli to objectively assess interpretation bias. Undergraduate students with high and low social anxiety completed measures of state anxiety responses at three time points: baseline, after the interpretation bias task, and after the preparation for an impromptu speech. Results showed that high socially anxious individuals were more likely to endorse threat interpretations for ambiguous social scenarios and to interpret ambiguous faces as negative than low socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, negative interpretations mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation pertaining to the speech task in Study 1 but not Study 2. The present studies provide new insight into the role of interpretation bias in social anxiety.

  5. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Parental state anxiety correlates with preoperative anxiety in Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xulei; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Yuguang; Luo, Ailun; Wei, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative anxiety in children is largely dependent on age and is influenced by anxiety level in parents. The current study compared the level of preoperative anxiety in preschool children versus school-aged children and its relationship with the state and trait anxiety of the parents. This study included 54 preschool children (2-5 years of age) and 48 school-age children (6-12 years) scheduled to receive ear, nose and throat, plastic or ophthalmologic surgeries. Preoperative anxiety of children was assessed in the holding area immediately prior to the surgery using a modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS). Compliance with anaesthesia induction was assessed using an Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The state and trait anxiety of the parent who accompanied the child was assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. Both m-YPAS and ICC scores were higher in preschool children than in school-age children with significant correlation between the two measures. The STAI-S score of parents was higher in the preschool group than in the school-age group. No significant difference was found in STAI-T score between the two age groups. Children's m-YPAS score correlated with parental STAI-T score in both groups (rho = 0.297, P = 0.029 and rho = 0.338, P = 0.019, respectively) but only with STAI-S score in the preschool group (rho = 0.400, P = 0.003). Both preschool children and their parents are more anxious than school-age dyads prior to surgery. The anxiety level of the children correlates with state anxiety of the parents in preschool children but not in school-age children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Neuroticism Negatively Affects Multitasking Performance through State Anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poposki, Elizabeth M; Oswald, Frederick L; Chen, Hubert T

    2009-01-01

    .... Results supported the hypothesis that neuroticism, but not the other personality characteristics measured, significantly predicts performance at multitasking, and that this relationship is mediated by state anxiety experienced during multitasking. Implications for the impact of personality and anxiety on multitasking performance are discussed.

  8. Examining Teachers' Trait, State and Cursive Handwriting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Arslan, Derya; Karatas, Mustafa Erdal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the trait and state anxiety and cursive handwriting anxiety of teachers differs according to assorted variables. The study group for this research project is composed of 381 teachers from the city of Burdur and the district centre of Bucak, Turkey. Of these participants, 44% were female and 56% were male. As for the…

  9. The Effect of Istighfar on State and Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Canan Karakaş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Istighfar (seeking forgiveness of Allah and tawbah (repentance are as old as at least the human history. Anxiety is also a need of human nature. Human develops the strategies to cope with challenges. One of them is religious coping. One of the religious coping ways is istighfar. Constantly performing istighfar may make easier to deal with anxiety. Thus, in this study, the state-trait anxiety scale was applied to the final year undergraduate students. The experimental and control groups of 20 persons were comprised of students with higher anxiety level. The experimental group was told to do istighfar 100 times per day during one month. In the end of this practice, a decrease was observed in the state-trait anxiety average of experimental group.

  10. STATE ANXIETY, SUBJECTIVE IMBALANCE AND HANDICAP IN VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougan Saman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEvidence is emerging of a significant clinical and neuro-anatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. Aims1.To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit.2.To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. MethodsTwo separate cohorts Vestibular Schwannoma (VS patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric responses and questionnaire assessment (Vertigo handicap Questionnaire, Vertigo Symptom Scale, State Trait Anxiety InventoryFifteen post resection Vestibular schwannoma patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1. Forty-five patients with VS in-situ and with preserved vestibular function formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2. Experiment 1: VS subjects (N=15 with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a State anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterwards with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1. Experiment 2: State anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1 N=26 and without balance symptoms (Group 2 N=11 (Aim 2. The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER.ResultsIn experiment 1, a significant difference (p<0.01 was found when comparing

  11. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Ladd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants’ trait (Study 1 and state (Study 2 anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  12. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Sandra L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants' trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test) were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  13. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  14. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Kristjan; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2004-04-01

    This study considered the influence of competitive anxiety and self-confidence state responses upon athletic performance. 66 male beach volleyball players completed the translated and modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. Players' performance was scored from the video records using a standard rating scales. Correlations indicated scores on Direction subscale of modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Self-confidence were moderately positively (r=.27 to .51) correlated with different skill components and sum of skill components of beach volleyball. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that, as anticipated, directional perceptions of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence were significant predictors of beach volleyball performance but accounted for only 42% of variance. Original Intensity subscales of somatic and cognitive anxiety did not predict performance. Findings support the notion that direction of anxiety responses must be taken into consideration when examining anxiety-performance association in sport.

  15. Interaction between Gender and Skill on Competitive State Anxiety Using the Time-to-Event Paradigm: What Roles Do Intensity, Direction, and Frequency Dimensions Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hagan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The functional understanding and examination of competitive anxiety responses as temporal events that unfold as time-to-competition moves closer has emerged as a topical research area within the domains of sport psychology. However, little is known from an inclusive and interaction oriented perspective. Using the multidimensional anxiety theory as a framework, the present study examined the temporal patterning of competitive anxiety, focusing on the dimensions of intensity, direction, and frequency of intrusions in athletes across gender and skill level.Methods: Elite and semi-elite table tennis athletes from the Ghanaian league (N = 90 completed a modified version of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 with the inclusion of the directional and frequency of intrusion scales at three temporal phases (7 days, 2 days, and 1 h prior to a competitive fixture.Results: Multivariate Analyses of Variance repeated measures with follow-up analyses revealed significant interactions for between-subjects factors on all anxiety dimensions (intensity, direction, and frequency. Notably, elite (international female athletes were less cognitively anxious, showed more facilitative interpretation toward somatic anxiety symptoms and experienced less frequency of somatic anxiety symptoms than their male counterparts. However, both elite groups displayed appreciable level of self-confidence. For time-to-event effects, both cognitive and somatic anxiety intensity fluctuated whereas self-confidence showed a steady rise as competition neared. Somatic anxiety debilitative interpretation slightly improved 1 h before competition whereas cognitive anxiety frequencies also increased progressively during the entire preparatory phase.Conclusion: Findings suggest a more dynamic image of elite athletes’ pre-competitive anxiety responses than suggested by former studies, potentially influenced by cultural differences. The use of psychological

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  17. The role of self-control strength in the development of state anxiety in test situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C; Bertrams, A

    2013-06-01

    Self-control strength may affect state anxiety because emotion regulation is impaired in individuals whose self-control strength has been temporarily depleted. Increases in state anxiety were expected to be larger for participants with depleted compared to nondepleted self-control strength, and trait test anxiety should predict increases in state anxiety more strongly if self-control strength is depleted. In a sample of 76 university students, trait test anxiety was assessed, self-control strength experimentally manipulated, and state anxiety measured before and after the announcement of a test. State anxiety increased after the announcement. Trait test anxiety predicted increases in state anxiety only in students with depleted self-control strength, suggesting that increased self-control strength may be useful for coping with anxiety.

  18. The Blood Donor Anxiety Scale: a six-item state anxiety measure based on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chell, Kathleen; Waller, Daniel; Masser, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Research demonstrates that anxiety elevates the risk of blood donors experiencing adverse events, which in turn deters the performance of repeat blood donations. Identifying donors suffering from heightened state anxiety is important to assess the impact of evidence-based interventions. This study analyzed the appropriateness of a shortened version of the state subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in a blood donation context. STAI-State questionnaire data were collected from two separate samples of Australian blood donors (n = 919 and n = 824 after cleaning). Responses to demographic, donation history, and adverse reaction questions were also obtained. Identification of items and analysis was performed systematically to assess and compare internal reliability and content, construct, convergent, and criterion validity of three potential short-form state anxiety scales. Of the three short-form scales tested, STAI-State six-item scale demonstrated the best metric properties with the least number of items across both sample groups. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (α = 0.844 and α = 0.820), correlated positively with the original measure (r = 0.927 and r = 0.931) and criterion-related variables, and maintained the two-dimension factorial structure of the original measure. The six-item short version of the STAI-State subscale presented the most reliable and valid scale for use with blood donors. A validated donor anxiety tool provides a standardized assessment and record of donor anxiety to gauge the effectiveness of ongoing efforts to enhance the donation experience. © 2016 AABB.

  19. Evaluating the Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients Using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otori, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Genichiro; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Yasuaki

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate anxiety felt by glaucoma patients. In total, 472 glaucoma patients responded to a questionnaire on anxiety, subjective symptoms, and vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) associated with glaucoma. Anxiety was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), state anxiety (STAI-State) subscale along with our novel questionnaire, assessing visual function and subjective symptoms, specialized for glaucoma. VR-QOL was evaluated using 5 subitems from the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Adherence to ophthalmic antiglaucoma agents was confirmed. As indexes of visual function, corrected visual acuity (measured by eye chart), mean deviation (MD) score (measured with static perimetry), and 4 thresholds at the center of vision were determined. Stages were classified according to the Aulhorn Classification. From the STAI-State scores, the prevalence of anxiety in glaucoma patients was evaluated. We analyzed the correlation between the STAI-State and VFQ-25, anxiety, subjective symptoms, adherence, and visual function indexes. In total, 78% of glaucoma patients experienced at least an intermediate level of anxiety. The STAI-State correlated significantly with anxiety and subjective symptoms as measured by our novel questionnaire, particularly for questions "current anxiety about loss of vision" and "current anxiety in life" (r=0.468 and 0.500; both Pglaucoma patients feel anxiety. The STAI-State is correlated with the VR-QOL and anxiety in glaucoma patients, making it useful for understanding the anxiety present in glaucoma patients.

  20. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra L Ladd; Sandra L Ladd; John D E Gabrieli; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effe...

  1. Relations among Social Anxiety, Eye Contact Avoidance, State Anxiety, and Perception of Interaction Performance during a Live Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Zibulsky, Devin A; Srivastav, Akanksha; Weeks, Justin W

    2016-01-01

    There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked. Participants included undergraduate women who conversed with same-sex confederates. Results indicated that trait social anxiety was inversely related to eye contact duration and frequency averaged across the four minutes, and positively related to state social anxiety and negative self-ratings. In addition, greater anticipatory state anxiety was associated with reduced eye contact throughout the first minute of the conversation. Eye contact was not related to post-task state anxiety or self-perception of poor performance; although, trends emerged in which these relations may be positive for HSA individuals. The current findings provide enhanced support for the notion that eye contact avoidance is an important feature of social anxiety.

  2. The Effects of Social Anxiety and State Anxiety on Visual Attention: Testing the Vigilance-Avoidance Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J Suzanne; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Dodd, Michael D; Hope, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    A growing theoretical and research literature suggests that trait and state social anxiety can predict attentional patterns in the presence of emotional stimuli. The current study adds to this literature by examining the effects of state anxiety on visual attention and testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, using a method of continuous visual attentional assessment. Participants were 91 undergraduate college students with high or low trait fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a core aspect of social anxiety, who were randomly assigned to either a high or low state anxiety condition. Participants engaged in a free view task in which pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented and eye movements were continuously monitored. Overall, participants with high FNE avoided angry stimuli and participants with high state anxiety attended to positive stimuli. Participants with high state anxiety and high FNE were avoidant of angry faces, whereas participants with low state and low FNE exhibited a bias toward angry faces. The study provided partial support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. The findings add to the mixed results in the literature that suggest that both positive and negative emotional stimuli may be important in understanding the complex attention patterns associated with social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  5. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0–30 and 60–150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state. PMID:25540618

  6. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  7. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety and trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Mehroof, M; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an ...

  8. Examination anxiety among secondary school students in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage stakeholders in the learning process to promote good study habits, provide learning materials and facilities that will build self confidence in the students, thereby reducing anxiety over examination. Keywords: Examination Anxiety, Adolescents, Secondary School Students, Examination Phobia, Test Anxiety ...

  9. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Riese, Hariette; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Background: Neuroticism and extraversion are affected by depressive disorder state. Less is known about depressive state effects on conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Furthermore, state effects of anxiety disorders on personality have been far less studied than those of depressive

  10. Trait anxiety but not state anxiety during critical Illness was associated with anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B.; Aitken, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: \\ud To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. \\ud \\ud Design: \\ud Longitudinal study. \\ud \\ud Setting: \\ud One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. \\ud \\ud Patients: \\ud Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, unde...

  11. The relationship between evaluative concerns and sport competition state anxiety among youth skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, S R; Martin, K A; Widmeyer, W N

    2000-05-01

    Thirty-four youth competitive skiers (mean age = 13.74 years) completed measures of social evaluative concern and competitive anxiety. Consistent with past research, regression analyses showed that cognitive anxiety was related to performance-specific evaluative concerns. However, contrary to current conceptualizations of sport competition anxiety, somatic anxiety was correlated with concerns about evaluation of other non-performance aspects of ski racing. Competitive skiers were most concerned about parents' and friends' evaluations of their performance, and other competitors' and friends' evaluations of their skiing in general. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory and management of sport competition state anxiety.

  12. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  13. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  14. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  15. Thanatophobia (Death Anxiety) in the Elderly: The Problem of the Child's Inability to Assess Their Own Parent's Death Anxiety State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinoff, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Thanatophobia is omnipresent in our lives. Research has shown separate but connected constructs: fear of death or fear of the dying process. The influences on death anxiety are varied including religiosity, gender, psychological state, and age. It is often assumed by the children of the elderly that the fear of death is prevalent in their parents. Daily the medical staff encounters the presence of death anxiety: from family members or the staff itself. In order to understand this phenomenon, a three-tier study was conducted on non-terminal elderly inpatients in an acute geriatric care ward. The study showed that the elderly had low levels of anxiety (scoring 4/15 on Templer's Death Anxiety Scale) but their children scored higher for themselves (6.9/15) and for their parents (8.9/15). A regression model showed that only the presence of generalized anxiety and religiosity of parent had an effect explaining 33.6% of the variance. Death anxiety of death is usually absent in the elderly but rather they fear the dying process. On the other hand, their children do fear death, which they extrapolate onto their parents. This causes conflicts since the children prevent disclosure of relevant medical information to their parents. This has to be addressed by the staff when dealing with family members, to allow open and honest communication with their patients. The staff need to explain to the family that the elderly are not afraid of death but of the suffering from the dying process.

  16. Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Yan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

  17. Temporal estimation of threatening stimuli in social anxiety disorder: investigation of the effects of state anxiety and fearfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Prior studies suggest that particularly negative emotional events tend to be experienced as temporally dilated. Perceptual characteristics of the threat cue (averted or directed angry face), state as well as individual anxiety levels have been shown to contribute to the temporal distortions, but the interplay between these factors is not well understood. The present study investigated the relative contributions of these factors in a first study using clinical sample with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls (HC). Participants performed a temporal bisection task (TBT) before and after a stress provocation phase, which served to induce state anxiety. During the TBT task, angry and neutral faces with averted vs. direct gaze were presented for the length of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms, and judged regarding their similarity to the standard durations. A temporal overestimation effect for angry vs. neutral facial expressions was evident in both the HC and the SAD groups. An effect of experimentally induced state anxiety was evident solely in the SAD group, reflected in an overall increased temporal overestimation of angry vs. neutral expressions following the mood manipulation. The clinical sample may represent a high-functioning group, as the study was conducted on college students. Replication in more heterogeneous SAD samples is needed in order to draw further conclusions. These results may be relevant for the understanding of the etiology and maintenance of SAD and potentially for the development of novel intervention methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety management training for anxiety states: positive compared with negative self-statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, E; Marks, I M; Yuksel, S; Stern, R S

    1982-04-01

    Twelve patients complaining of chronic free-floating anxiety, usually also with panic attacks, were assigned at random to treatment by six hour-long sessions of anxiety-management training, either with positive or with negative self-statements, given over six weeks. Patients in both treatment conditions improved, with a small trend favouring positive over negative self-instruction, especially at follow-up. It is unclear how much self-instruction, rather than therapeutic attention or mere passage of time, accounted for the bulk of the modest improvement obtained.

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Mathematical Thinking States of Form Teachers on Their Mathematics Teaching Anxieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Alper; Altintas, Sedat; Sidekli, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    The state of mathematical thinking is considered to have an effect on the formation of anxiety regarding teaching mathematics. It is hypothesized that with the formation of mathematical thinking, the anxiety in teachers regarding teaching mathematics will be reduced. Since mathematical thinking is a skill acquired starting from the early years of…

  20. State-trait anxiety levels during pregnancy and foetal parameters following intervention with music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J; Ventura-Miranda, M I; Requena-Mullor, M; Parron-Carreño, T; Alarcon-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates that anxiety during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of alterations in the mental health of the pregnant woman and of obstetric complications. to investigate the effect of music therapy on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of maternal anxiety on the birthing process and birth size. 409 nulliparous women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music therapy (n = 204) or no music therapy (n = 205) during an NST. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory before and after the NST. After the NST, the women from the music group showed significantly lower scores in state anxiety (OR = 0.87; p < 0.001) as well as trait anxiety (p < 0.001) than the control group. Furthermore, the pregnant women from the music group presented lower levels of state-trait anxiety than the control group in relation to the variables of birth process, and higher birth weight and chest circumference in the newborn (OR = 3.5 and OR = 0.81, respectively; p < 0.05). This study was limited by the fact that it was a single-centre study; the observers conducting the NST were not blinded to the allocation, although neither midwife had any knowledge of the maternal anxiety scores, and we could not apply the double-blind method due to the nature of the observation. Our findings confirm that music therapy intervention during pregnancy could reduce elevated state-trait anxiety levels during the third trimester. Further research into the influence of music therapy as intervention on maternal anxiety and on the birthing process and birth size is required during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Riese, Hariëtte; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A; Hartman, Catharina A

    2012-05-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are affected by depressive disorder state. Less is known about depressive state effects on conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Furthermore, state effects of anxiety disorders on personality have been far less studied than those of depressive disorder. Here, we aim to determine the extent of change in all five personality traits associated with the occurrence of or recovery from depressive and anxiety disorders. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at baseline and two-year follow-up, respondents from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were divided into four groups: unaffected at baseline and follow-up, occurrence, recovery, and affected at baseline and follow-up. Personality change (NEO-five factor inventory) was examined in the occurrence and recovery groups relative to the unaffected and affected groups, respectively. Analyses were repeated, differentiating between (specific) depressive and anxiety disorders. We found small state effects of affective disorders on neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness. Corrected for each other, both depressive and anxiety disorders showed small state effects on neuroticism, but effects on extraversion and conscientiousness were mainly associated with depressive disorders. State effects were small. When assessing neuroticism, the presence of both depressive and anxiety disorders should be taken into account, as both may independently increase neuroticism scores. However, when assessing extraversion and conscientiousness, depressive disorders but not anxiety disorders are likely to be of influence. Agreeableness and openness are influenced by neither. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Vuong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Displays of anxiety in table tennis were assessed through subjective (a self-report questionnaire, physiological (heart-rate variability and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Anxiety manipulation was achieved through the introduction of a national standard table tennis player, known to the participants, to receive serves in the high-anxiety condition, whilst serves were received by no opponent in the low-anxiety condition. Automated motion capture systems consisting of high-speed 3D motion cameras and analytical software (QUALISYS determined the subject’s movement kinematics: bat face angle (degrees and serve routine duration (s. Self-reported state anxiety (MRF-Likert and heart rate measurements were collected to examine changes between conditions. Contrary to the hypothesis, bat face angles did not change significantly between anxiety conditions (F (1.8 = 2.791, p = 0.133 and movement times were faster in the high-anxiety condition. In light of these findings, research into other facets of movement behaviour must be analysed to gain further understanding of the effects of anxiety on performance, which remain unclear.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...

  4. The Relationship between Task Cohesion and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Hardy, James; Carron, Albert V.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group-Task and Group Integration-Task) and the degree to which they viewed their perceptions of the presence of pre-competition anxiety symptoms as facilitative or debilitative. Survey data indicated that the more positive their perceptions of…

  5. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on state anxiety levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andreia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-08-01

    Increased anxiety levels have been widely recognized as one of the most important consequences of sleep deprivation. However, despite this general consensus, there are still aspects of this relationship, such as the extent of the anxiogenic potential and the specific effects of different types of sleep deprivation, which remain unclear. As no broad review has been undertaken to evaluate this relationship, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on state anxiety. Our search strategy encompassed two databases - Pubmed/Medline and Scopus - through which we were able to identify 756 articles. After the selection process, 18 articles, encompassing 34 experiments, composed our final sample. Our analyses indicate that sleep deprivation, whether total or not, leads to a significant increase in state anxiety levels, but sleep restriction does not. Regarding the effect of the length of the period of sleep deprivation, no significant results were observed, but there was a notable tendency for an increase in anxiety in longer sleep deprivations. With regard to tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) seems to be the best one to measure sleep-induced anxiogenesis, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) presented inconclusive results. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that sleep deprivation induces a state of increased anxiety, with similar results also in the case of total sleep deprivation; however, results in more specific experimental conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing Children's Anxiety Using the Modified Short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Talking Mats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children’s anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.

  7. Transient state-dependent fluctuations in anxiety measured using STAI, POMS, PANAS or VAS: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Several psychometric instruments can be used to measure state-dependent variations in anxiety, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Visual Analog Scales (VAS). Each of these instruments rests on specific theoretical assumptions about the construct of state anxiety, and has been widely used for this purpose in different research domains. However, it remains difficult to determine what ma...

  8. Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder: Evidence for a Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabany, Liron; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Bragdon, Laura B; Pittman, Brian P; Zertuche, Luis; Tolin, David F; Goethe, John W; Assaf, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD and healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rsFC was estimated between all regions of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and bilateral amygdala (N = 37: HC-19; GAD-10; SAD-8). Thereafter, rsFC was predicted by both ER, (using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale [DERS]), and diagnosis (DSM-5) within a single unified analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). For the ER dimension, there was a significant association between impaired ER abilities and anticorrelated rsFC of amygdala and DMN (L.amygdala-ACC: p = 0.011, beta = -0.345), as well as amygdala and SN (L.amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex [PCC]: p = 0.032, beta = -0.409). Diagnostic status was significantly associated with rsFC differences between the SAD and HC groups, both within the DMN (PCC-MPFC: p = 0.009) and between the DMN and SN (R.LP-ACC: p = 0.010). Although preliminary, our results exemplify the potential contribution of the dimensional approach to the study of GAD and SAD and support a combined categorical and dimensional model of rsFC of anxiety disorders.

  9. Relations of competitive state anxiety and efficacy of young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavić, Boris; Jurko, Damir; Grgantov, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of validating the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory on a population of young Croatian volleyball players, 286 examinees, 106 male and 180 female volleyball players (average age of 16.09+/-1.83), filled out the CSAI-2, constructed by Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump and Smith (1990)1. Given the fact that all scales of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory have good homogeneity, reliability and sensitivity, it can be concluded that they represent high-quality measuring instruments for measuring psychological characteristics of young volleyball players. Young male and female volleyball players generally have a moderate level of self-confidence, and their cognitive anxiety is more prominent that somatic anxiety. In order to determine the age and gender differences in somatic and cognitive anxiety and self-confidence, parametric analysis of differences was performed and coefficients of the independent samples t-test were calculated. By analysis of differences according to age, it has been established that female junior players, in relation to female youth players, express a significantly lower level of somatic and cognitive anxiety and a significantly higher level of self-confidence. As opposed to female players, male youth and junior players do not differ in any of the analysed variables. By analysis of differences according to gender, it has been established that male youth players have a significantly higher level of self-confidence in comparison to female youth players. No significant differences were found in the level of competitive anxiety and self-confidence by analysis of variance between different player roles. No significant differences were found by discriminant analysis in somatic and cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence of female volleyball players of different situational efficacy. The group of least efficient male volleyball players is characterized by a very low level of self-confidence, while the most efficient group of volleyball

  10. Effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on memory scores and state anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Shirley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest (called cyclic meditation was previously shown to improve performance in attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana. This was ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed. Methods In fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age ± S.D., 26.6 ± 4.5 years the immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i Cyclic meditation (CM practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii an equal duration of Supine rest (SR or the corpse posture (shavasana, on another day. Sections of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS were used to assess; (i attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward, and (ii associate learning. State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results There was a significant improvement in the scores of all sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for either session. Conclusion A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana.

  11. The Relationship between Disgust, State-Anxiety and Motivation during a Dissection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wust-Ackermann, Peter; Vollmer, Christian; Hummel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Emotions influence motivation, but emotions, such as disgust, have attracted less attention in learning research. We assessed the influence of disgust measured as trait and specific state component, state anxiety and self-efficacy on intrinsic motivation during the dissection of a fish using a pre-/post-design in science teacher students. Anxiety…

  12. A systematic review of yoga for state anxiety: considerations for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh-Gupta, Neha; Baldassarre, Fulvia G; Vrkljan, Brenda H

    2013-06-01

    State anxiety can result from a variety of life situations. This type of anxiety can disrupt occupational engagement and performance, thereby affecting rehabilitation and recovery. Occupational therapists need to address the connection between mind-body-spirit and its relationship to performance and engagement in meaningful occupations. Yoga, when used as an adjunct to therapy, has the potential to address state anxiety. The aim was to systematically review the evidence concerning the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment approach for state anxiety. Six electronic databases, the authors' own files, and the references of included studies from 1990 to July 2011 were searched. A total of 25 unique studies represented by 26 publications made up the sample: two systematic reviews; 16 randomized controlled trials, and seven prospective, controlled, non-randomized studies. Evidence suggests yoga can be a viable therapeutic option for reducing state anxiety in certain situations. In making the determination to recommend yoga as an intervention, occupational therapists should consider the client's circumstances and values as well as the type and intensity of the yoga program.

  13. Suggestibility and state anxiety: how the two concepts relate in a source identification paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Anne M; Clifford, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    Source identification tests provide a stringent method for testing the suggestibility of memory because they reduce response bias and experimental demand characteristics. Using the techniques and materials of Maria Zaragoza and her colleagues, we investigated how state anxiety affects the ability of undergraduates to identify correctly the source of misleading post-event information. The results showed that individuals high in state anxiety were less likely to make source misattributions of misleading information, indicating lower levels of suggestibility. This effect was strengthened when forgotten or non-recognised misleading items (for which a source identification task is not possible) were excluded from the analysis. Confidence in the correct attribution of misleading post-event information to its source was significantly less than confidence in source misattributions. Participants who were high in state anxiety tended to be less confident than those lower in state anxiety when they correctly identified the source of both misleading post-event information and non-misled items. The implications of these findings are discussed, drawing on the literature on anxiety and cognition as well as suggestibility.

  14. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  15. Cannabis use and schizotypy: the role of social anxiety and other negative affective states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

    2012-12-30

    Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  17. EXAMINING HOW WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND MOTIVATION LEVELS IMPACT ON THEIR STATE AND TRAIT ANXIETY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kolayis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.

  18. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  19. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  20. Examining the Effect of Exposure Therapy on Public Speaking State Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Schrodt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Increased public speaking confidence is often cited as a major benefit for undergraduates taking the basic communication course. Several scholars have reported that the state anxiety of novice speakers declines progressively during performance, a phenomenon called within-session habituation. However, the contributions of these short-term…

  1. Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Holding oral presentations in a university course is perceived as stressful and can increase stress hormone concentrations and state anxiety. In such a naturalistic setting, further attention should be paid to the relationship between psychological and hormonal measures of acute stress, as well as women's intake of hormonal contraceptives as a potential moderating variable. In the present study, 76 healthy students gave saliva samples before and after their oral presentations in a university course as well as on a second, control day in the same course without giving an oral presentation. Anticipatory state anxiety was rated on both days. Cortisol concentrations as well as state anxiety were substantially higher on the presentation relative to the control day. During the oral presentation, an increase in cortisol concentrations was observed, whereas a decrease occurred on the control day. Nearly the same picture emerged for both variables when looking at men, women taking hormonal contraceptives and free-cycling women separately. A positive correlation was found between the change in anticipatory state anxiety in the presentation compared to the control day and cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Concluding, oral presentations constitute a potent stressor and do not seem to be substantially different between men, free-cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives. Future studies may want to explore changes associated with specific menstrual cycle phases and with specific hormonal contraceptives.

  2. Computer Self-Efficacy, Competitive Anxiety and Flow State: Escaping from Firing Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Pei-Yu, Chiu; Shih, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Pei-Shin; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Flow state in game playing affected by computer self-efficacy and game competitive anxiety was studied. In order to examine the effect of those constructs with high competition, this study select "Escaping from firing online game" which require college students to escape from fire and rescue people and eliminate the fire damage along the way of…

  3. Measuring the Potential for Child Maltreatment: The Reliability and Validity of the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Deere, David; Ledet, Toni; Edwards, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The field of child protection needs reliable and valid methods of assessing the potential for child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory--2 (AAPI-2), Form B, using a sample of 309 low-income, rural families in a southern state. Method: The…

  4. Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E. Ganella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While deficits in fear extinction recall have been suggested to underlie vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adolescents, the neurobiology of these deficits remain underexplored. Here we investigate the functional connectivity (FC of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC underlying extinction recall in healthy adolescents, and assess associations between FC and state/trait anxiety. Adolescents (17 and adults (14, for comparison completed a fear-learning paradigm involving extinction and extinction recall during a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, in which skin conductance response (SCR was recorded. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that during extinction recall there was significant negative connectivity between the vmPFC and amygdala in adults, but not adolescents. vmPFC-amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with SCR. Adolescents showed significant negative FC between the dlPFC and the left and right hippocampus, and the amygdala, which was positively correlated with state anxiety. Recall was also associated with negative connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pallidum in adolescents. These results demonstrate that fear extinction recall in healthy adolescents is associated with FC between prefrontal and limbic brain regions, and suggest that alterations in connectivity may be associated with vulnerability to anxiety in adolescence.

  5. Relationship between group cohesion and anxiety in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Carla Chicau; Cid, Luis; Silva, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal's championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.

  6. How Anxious Do You Think I Am? Relationship between State and Trait Anxiety in Children with and without ASD during Social Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, J.; Zane, E. R.; Neumeyer, K.; Grossman, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit increased anxiety, even in non-stressful situations. We investigate general anxiousness (anxiety trait) and responses to stressful situations (anxiety state) in 22 adolescents with ASD and 32 typically developing controls. We measured trait anxiety with standardized self- and…

  7. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giner-Bartolome

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  8. State test-anxiety, selective attention and concentration in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Caurcel, María J

    2015-08-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the level of selective attention and mental concentration before exams in a sample of university students and to determine a possible relationship between anxiety and reduction of levels of attention in this circumstance. A total of 403 university students, 176 men and 227 women, aged from 18 to 46 years, participated in the study. Of them, 169 were first-year undergraduates, 118 were second to fourth-year undergraduates and 116 were postgraduate Master's degree students. All of them completed the Spanish version of the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory and the D2 Attention Test just before taking an exam. Our results showed that participants with lower levels of anxiety had higher levels of selective attention and mental concentration before the exam. These results specifically indicate that when anxiety levels are very high, this could over-activate the orientating and alerting functions and to reduce the capacity of attentional control. These processes could have a negative impact on specific attentional processes and become a negative influence on performance in exams. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. [Wuling Capsule for climacteric patients with depression and anxiety state: a randomized, positive parallel controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-juan; Li, Ji; Zou, Qin-di; Jin, Ling

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of menopausal anxiety and depression is increasing. It can induce and aggravate a variety of somatic symptoms. Despite of the good effects of psychotropic drugs on the disease, patients' compliance is poor. Therefore, it is necessary to find a drug which is practical, effective, and easy for patients to take. To evaluate the efficacy of Wuling Capsule (WC), a Chinese herbal medicine, in treatment of female climacteric syndrome with depression and anxiety state. A total of 96 outpatients of female climacteric syndrome from Department of Gynecology of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Department of Gynecology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University were included. The study was designed as a randomized, positive drug parallel controlled trial. The patients were divided into WC group (64 cases) and control group (32 cases) and were orally administered Wuling Capsule and Gengnianan Tablet, respectively. The efficacy was evaluated with Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before treatment, and after 3-week and 6-week treatment. The total response rate was 89.66% (52/58) in the WC group, which was superior to that in the control group [76.67% (23/30)]. Ridit test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (Pstate. Wuling Capsule is more effective to alleviate depression and anxiety as compared with Gengnianan Tablet.

  10. Psychological skills, state anxiety and coping of South African rugby players : a cognitive perspective / Pieter Kruger

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the research in this thesis was to investigate the psychological skills, state anxiety and coping of senior rugby players in South Africa. Methodology: The first manuscript (Chapter 2) was a literature review that investigated whether the coping model suggested by Moos and Shaefer (1993) could be applied to investigate the interaction between various psychological factors involved in the coping process, within a sports context. The model was ev...

  11. Resting-state theta band connectivity and graph analysis in generalized social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqi Xing

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Theta-dependent interconnectivity was associated with state anxiety in gSAD and an increase in information processing efficiency in gSAD (compared to controls. Results may represent enhanced baseline self-focused attention, which is consistent with cognitive models of gSAD and fMRI studies implicating emotion dysregulation and disturbances in task negative networks (e.g., default mode network in gSAD.

  12. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, STRESS, AND THEIR ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG CORPS MEMBERS SERVING IN KEBBI STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balami, Ahmed D

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress, are not only health problems by themselves, but also associated with other negative health consequences. The national youth service is usually characterized by a number of new challenges and experiences which may require life style adjustments by the corps member. However, no previous study on psychological factors has been conducted among corps members. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and, stress and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi state. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 corps members from four local government areas of the state. Selection of the local government areas and the individual participants was by simple random sampling. Data was collected from May to June 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test to identify the relationship between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for depression, anxiety and stress each. The response rate was 97%. Most of the respondents were males (63.6%), single (85.5%), and above 20 years of age (71.6%). The overall prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents were 36.4%, 54.5% and 18.2% respectively. The independent factors for depression were; being from the North central (OR = 5.99; 95% CI: 2.194-16.354) or South-south; and the perception of earning enough income (OR = 2.987; 95% CI: 1.062-8.400). For anxiety, male gender (OR = 0.411; 95% CI: 0.169-0.999); and being from the North central were significant risk factors (OR = 3.731; 95% CI: 1.450-9.599). Being above 26 years of age was an independent risk factor for stress (OR = 0.083; 95% CI: 0.018-0.381). Also, those who had ever schooled outside their towns of residence were less likely to be stressed compared to those who had never (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.110-0.855). All other factors did not show any significant association with any of

  13. Immediate effect of mind sound resonance technique on state anxiety and cognitive functions in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder: A self-controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Dhansoia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that MSRT may have a potential role in reducing state anxiety and enhancing psychomotor performance in patients suffering from GAD immediately after the practice. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.

  14. Test anxiety inventory-State: Preliminary analysis of validity and reliability in psychology college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Dominguez-Lara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the internal structure of the Test anxiety inventory-State (TAI-State in Spanish version. A sample of 125 college students from Lima (84.8% female between 18 and 31 years old (M = 22.51 was evaluated. The internal structure of the STAI was analyzed by a confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating three models: oblique, bifactor and unidimensional. The results indicate that a single dimension constitutes the STAI and there are coefficients of reliability with high magnitudes. In conclusion, the version studied shows favorable psychometric properties that support its use in Lima.

  15. Relationships between adaptation-innovation, experienced control, and state-trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, R L

    1989-08-01

    This study examines correlations among scores on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory, the Tiffany Control Scales, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for 104 undergraduates enrolled in the general psychology classes at a middle-sized midwestern university. Analysis indicated that adaptors and innovators perceive control from and/or over some aspects of their lives differently. Innovators feel control over internal (self) and over external (environment) while adaptors feel control from internal (self) and from external (environment). These results suggest innovators generally feel that they are in control of both themselves and the environment. Adaptors, however, generally feel they are controlled by internal drives and impulses or environmental events. The present study yielded no correlation between choice of college major and adaption-innovation but more research is needed. A relation between adaption and state anxiety was found, which may suggest adaptors feel more pressure when completing a novel task (answering questionnaires) than innovators. Finally, no significant correlation was found between the Kirton scores and trait anxiety.

  16. Anxiety state affects information processing speed in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretti, Benedetta; Viterbo, R G; Portaccio, E; Niccolai, C; Hakiki, B; Piscolla, E; Iaffaldano, P; Trojano, M; Amato, M P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anxiety on the cognitive performance of a clinical sample of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients. One hundred ninety patients (140 females) were included in the study and assessed through the beck depression inventory, the state-trait anxiety inventory and the Rao's brief repeatable battery which assesses cognitive domains most frequently impaired in MS. As for neuropsychological performance, a total of 76 (40%) subjects fulfilled our criterion for cognitive impairment. Tests most frequently failed by cognitive impairment (CI) patients were those assessing complex attention and information processing speed [Simbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Paced Auditory Serial Auditory Test (PASAT) 3 and 2] and verbal memory. In the univariate analysis, state anxiety was related to failure on the SDMT (p = 0.042), and marginally, to failure on the PASAT-3 (p = 0.068), and to the presence of CI (p = 0.082). Moderate/severe depression was detected in 38 (20%) patients and fatigue in 109 (57%). Higher depression scores were related to impairment on the ST (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10; p = 0.029).

  17. Sustained anxiety increases amygdala–dorsomedial prefrontal coupling: a mechanism for maintaining an anxious state in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Charney, Danielle R.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Grillon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging research has traditionally explored fear and anxiety in response to discrete threat cues (e.g., during fear conditioning). However, anxiety is a sustained aversive state that can persist in the absence of discrete threats. Little is known about mechanisms that maintain anxiety states over a prolonged period. Here, we used a robust translational paradigm (threat of shock) to induce sustained anxiety. Recent translational work has implicated an amygdala–prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuit in the maintenance of anxiety in rodents. To explore the functional homologues of this circuitry in humans, we used a novel paradigm to examine the impact of sustained anticipatory anxiety on amygdala–PFC intrinsic connectivity. Methods Task-independent fMRI data were collected in healthy participants during long-duration periods of shock anticipation and safety. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity. Results Our study involved 20 healthy participants. During sustained anxiety, amygdala activity was positively coupled with dorsomedial PFC (DMPFC) activity. High trait anxiety was associated with increased amygdala–DMPFC coupling. In addition, induced anxiety was associated with positive coupling between regions involved in defensive responding, and decreased coupling between regions involved in emotional control and the default mode network. Limitations Inferences regarding anxious pathology should be made with caution because this study was conducted in healthy participants. Conclusion Findings suggest that anticipatory anxiety increases intrinsic amygdala–DMPFC coupling and that the DMPFC may serve as a functional homologue for the rodent prefrontal regions by sustaining anxiety. Future research may use this defensive neural context to identify bio-markers of risk for anxious pathology and target these circuits for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24886788

  18. [Levels of state-trait anxiety between mothers and fathers who have children in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.

  19. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Is...

  20. Resting-state theta band connectivity and graph analysis in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengqi; Tadayonnejad, Reza; MacNamara, Annmarie; Ajilore, Olusola; DiGangi, Julia; Phan, K Luan; Leow, Alex; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state. Resting-state EEG data was recorded for 32 patients with gSAD and 32 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC). Sensor-level connectivity analysis was applied on EEG data by using Weighted Phase Lag Index (WPLI) and graph analysis based on WPLI was used to determine clustering coefficient and characteristic path length to estimate local integration and global segregation of networks. WPLI results showed increased oscillatory midline coherence in the theta frequency band indicating higher connectivity in the gSAD relative to HC group during rest. Additionally, WPLI values positively correlated with state anxiety levels within the gSAD group but not the HC group. Our graph theory based connectomics analysis demonstrated increased clustering coefficient and decreased characteristic path length in theta-based whole brain functional organization in subjects with gSAD compared to HC. Theta-dependent interconnectivity was associated with state anxiety in gSAD and an increase in information processing efficiency in gSAD (compared to controls). Results may represent enhanced baseline self-focused attention, which is consistent with cognitive models of gSAD and fMRI studies implicating emotion dysregulation and disturbances in task negative networks (e.g., default mode network) in gSAD.

  1. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H

    1995-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.

  2. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  3. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  4. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  5. Can we identify mothers at-risk for postpartum anxiety in the immediate postpartum period using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Coghlan, Michelle; Vigod, Simone

    2013-09-25

    This study assessed the stability of maternal anxiety and concordance between State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores in the immediate postpartum period to 8 weeks postpartum. A population-based sample of 522 mothers completed the STAI at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week STAI in relation to identifying mothers with elevated STAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks was determined. Predictive power of the STAI was further assessed using odds ratios and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. At 1 week postpartum, 22.6% of mothers scored >40 on the STAI, decreasing to 17.2% at 4 weeks and 14.8% at 8 weeks. Using the cut-off score of >40, the 1-week STAI accurately classified 84.0% mothers at 4 weeks and 83.6% at 8 weeks with or without anxiety symptomatology. The 1-week STAI was significantly correlated to the 4-week (r=0.68, p40 were 15.2 times more likely at 4 weeks (95% CI=8.9-26.1) and 14.0 times more likely at 8 weeks (95% CI=7.9-24.8) to exhibit postpartum anxiety symptomatology. Psychiatric interviews were not completed in collaboration with the STAI and specific types of anxiety disorders were not identified. A cut-off score of >40 on the STAI administered early in the postpartum period is recommended in a 2-phase identification program in order to not miss mothers with postpartum anxiety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration from Mexico to the United States and subsequent risk for depressive and anxiety disorders: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel; Saito, Naomi; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Vega, William; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Migration is suspected to increase risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders after arrival in the United States among Mexican migrants. We combined data from surveys conducted separately in Mexico and the United States that used the same diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive disorders (major depressive episode and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) among migrants after their arrival in the United States compared with nonmigrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Population surveys in the United States and Mexico. Two thousand five hundred nineteen nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico and 554 Mexican migrants in the United States. First onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder. After arrival in the United States, migrants had a significantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than did nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to nonmigrants was restricted to the 2 younger cohorts (those aged 18-25 or 26-35 years at interview). In the most recent birth cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-5.53). This is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychiatric disorder between representative samples of migrants in the United States and nonmigrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the United States on the mental health of migrants, but only among

  7. [Justifying measures to correct functional state of operators varying in personal anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Workers of operating and dispatching occupations are exposed to high nervous and emotional exertion that result in increased personal anxiety, working stress and overstrain. That requires physiologically justified correction of hazardous psycho-physiologic states via various prophylactic measures (stay in schungite room, autogenous training, central electric analgesia, electric acupuncture). Attempted relaxation sessions in schungite room revealed in highly anxious individuals an increased velocity of visual signals perception, of attention concentration and shifting. Autogenous training sessions improve memory and have significant hypotensive effect in highly anxious individuals.

  8. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriev, Dimitriy A; Saperova, Elena V; Dimitriev, Aleksey D

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  9. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriy A Dimitriev

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate.A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA.Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE, and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2, and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1 during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2, and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure, entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA.The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  10. Psychometric properties of a new short version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for the assessment of anxiety in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blázquez, M A; Ávila-Villanueva, M; López-Pina, J A; Zea-Sevilla, M A; Frades-Payo, B

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety has negative effects on the cognitive performance and psychosocial adjustment of elderly people. Given the high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in patients suffering from cognitive impairment, it has been suggested that these symptoms may be an early marker of dementia. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is one of the most widely-used scales for evaluating anxiety in elderly people. However, inasmuch as the STAI may be difficult to apply to older people, having a short form of it would be desirable. The participants comprised 489 community-dwelling individuals aged 68 years and over. All of them were volunteers in a longitudinal study for early detection of Alzheimer' Disease (Proyecto Vallecas). The full sample was divided in two homogeneous subgroups: Group A, used to reduce the number of items and response options, and Group B, the group used to determine the psychometric properties of the new short form (STAIr). A dichotomous Rasch model was used to obtain the STAIr. No statistically significant differences for STAIr scores were found with respect to sociodemographic variables. Psychometric properties and normative data were obtained for the new short version. The STAIr is composed of 13 items and data fits the model well. Since it is short and easy to apply to elderly people, STAIr will be very useful in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of pre-procedural state anxiety and negative affect in first-time colposcopy patients: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, S; Walsh, J C

    2012-07-01

    Women experience significant emotional distress in relation to further diagnostic evaluation of pre-cancerous cell changes of the cervix. However, less is known about the specific variables that contribute to elevated state anxiety and negative affect prior to colposcopy. The study aims to identify psychosocial factors that predict distress in this patient group, which can help in the development of more sophisticated interventions to reduce psychological distress. Socio-demographic variables, scores for state anxiety, negative affect, trait anxiety, fear of pain, coping style, pain-related expectancy and knowledge were assessed in 164 first-time colposcopy patients immediately before the colposcopy examination. Twenty-six per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy state anxiety was significantly explained by marital status, parity, trait anxiety, fear of minor pain and expectations of discomfort. Twenty-nine per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy negative affect was significantly explained by trait anxiety and expectations of pain. Women who are single, have children, are high trait anxious, and anticipate pain and discomfort appear to be at risk for pre-colposcopy distress. Interventions aimed at reducing pre-colposcopy psychological distress should include situation-specific variables that are amenable to change, and trait anxious women are likely to benefit from interventions to reduce distress. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Critical thinking, self-esteem, and state anxiety of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.

  13. The mediating role of state maladaptive emotion regulation in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and self-evaluation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfan, Laurel D; Cody, Meghan W; Clerkin, Elise M

    2018-03-16

    Although social anxiety symptoms are robustly linked to biased self-evaluations across time, the mechanisms of this relation remain unclear. The present study tested three maladaptive emotion regulation strategies - state post-event processing, state experiential avoidance, and state expressive suppression - as potential mediators of this relation. Undergraduate participants (N = 88; 61.4% Female) rated their social skill in an impromptu conversation task and then returned to the laboratory approximately two days later to evaluate their social skill in the conversation again. Consistent with expectations, state post-event processing and state experiential avoidance mediated the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluations of social skill (controlling for research assistant evaluations), particularly for positive qualities (e.g. appeared confident, demonstrated social skill). State expressive suppression did not mediate the relation between social anxiety symptoms and changes in self-evaluation bias across time. These findings highlight the role that spontaneous, state experiential avoidance and state post-event processing may play in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluation biases of social skill across time.

  14. Interaction between examination type, anxiety state, and academic achievement in college science; an action-oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri; Ben-Chaim, David

    The trait anxiety profile of future science teachers, as well as their preferences concerning types of examinations in science and mathematics, have been surveyed prior to the administration - within the various science courses - of several traditional and nontraditional types of examinations and the assessment of students' state anxieties as well as their respective performance, i.e., their academic achievements. Our major findings are that(a)Our students prefer by far examinations in which the emphasis is on understanding and analyzing rather than on knowing and remembering, that the use of any relevant material during the examinations be permitted, and that the time duration be practically unlimited (e.g., take-home-type examinations).(b)Students' state anxiety correlates with the type of the examination, with a tendency towards somewhat higher anxiety for females. The preferred types of examinations reduce test anxiety significantly, and result in higher grades accordingly.(c)The reduction of anxiety and the improvement in achievements as a function of the examination type are far more significant for low achievers compared with medium and high achievers.(d)Although teachers are aware of the student preferences, they persist in giving their students their own pet-type examinations.These results are discussed in terms of the implications for upgrading both science education and college student testing and assessment mechanisms.

  15. Relationship of perceived stress with depression: complete mediation by perceived control and anxiety in Iran and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Krauss, Stephen W; Watson, P J; Lebreton, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to clarify the importance and cross-cultural relevance of associations between generalized perceived stress and depression. Also tested was the hypothesis that perceived stress would correlate more strongly with anxiety than with depression, whereas control would be more predictive of depression than of anxiety. Relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived control were examined in samples of Iranian (n = 191) and American (n = 197) undergraduates. Correlations among these variables were generally similar across the two societies. Perceived stress did predict anxiety better than depression, but perceptions of control predicted depression significantly better than anxiety only in the United States. Best fitting structural equation models revealed that anxiety and perceived control completely accounted for the linkage between perceived stress and depression in both societies. An equally acceptable and more parsimonious model described perceived stress as a consequence rather than as an antecedent of anxiety and perceived control. Structural equation models were essentially identical across the two cultures except that internal control displayed a significant negative relationship with anxiety only in Iran. This result seemed to disconfirm any possible suggestion that a supposedly individualistic process like internal control could have no noteworthy role within a presumably more collectivistic Muslim society like Iran. Overall, these data documented the importance of anxiety and perceived control in explaining the perceived stress-depression relationship cross-culturally and therefore questioned the usefulness of perceived stress in predicting depression. Whether this understanding of the stress-depression relationship deserves general acceptance will require additional studies that measure the frequency of stressful life events and that utilize a longitudinal design.

  16. Effectiveness of music therapy in state-trait anxiety rate of addicts in drug-free rehabilitation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Soleimani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of music therapy on addicts’ state-trait anxiety rate in the stage of drug-free rehabilitation. Method: A quasi-experimental research design, along with pretest-posttest and control group was employed for the conduct of this study. The statistical population of the study included the addicts in the rehabilitation stage who had referred to the clean collaborators rehabilitation camp in Ardebil province in November 2014. From this population, the number of 32 addicts in 16-50-year-old age range was selected as the participants of the study by convenience sampling method. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used for data collection. Results: The results of multivariate covariant analysis showed that there is a significant difference between control and experimental groups in state and trait anxiety. In other words, the state and trait anxiety of addicts in the experimental group had been reduced after music therapy. Conclusion: Considering the obtained results, it can be concluded that music therapy alone or along other psychological interventions can be an effective method for reducing addicts’ anxiety in drug-free rehabilitation stage.

  17. Trait and state anxiety across academic evaluative contexts: development and validation of the MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A

    2018-05-01

    Educational measures of anxiety focus heavily on students' experiences with tests yet overlook other assessment contexts. In this research, two brief multiscale questionnaires were developed and validated to measure trait evaluation anxiety (MTEA-12) and state evaluation anxiety (MSEA-12) for use in various assessment contexts in non-clinical, educational settings. The research included a cross-sectional analysis of self-report data using authentic assessment settings in which evaluation anxiety was measured. Instruments were tested using a validation sample of 241 first-year university students in New Zealand. Scale development included component structures for state and trait scales based on existing theoretical frameworks. Analyses using confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistics indicate that the scales are reliable and structurally valid. Multivariate general linear modeling using subscales from the MTEA-12, MSEA-12, and student grades suggest adequate criterion-related validity. Initial predictive validity in which one relevant MTEA-12 factor explained between 21% and 54% of the variance in three MSEA-12 factors. Results document MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 as reliable measures of trait and state dimensions of evaluation anxiety for test and writing contexts. Initial estimates suggest the scales as having promising validity, and recommendations for further validation are outlined.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  19. Modelling Affective Pain in Mice: Effects of Inflammatory Hypersensitivity on Place Escape/Avoidance Behaviour, Anxiety and Hedonic State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Louise Konradsen; Hoffmann-Petersen, Julie; Sahlholt, Maj

    2016-01-01

    and the dark area of a box while being stimulated with a suprathreshold filament on the untreated or treated paw, respectively. This was followed by a 30-min test with unrestricted movement. Anxiety-like behaviour, locomotor activity, and hedonic state were assessed with the elevated zero maze (EZM), an open...... PEAP and other behavioural responses, namely anxiety-like behaviour, locomotor activity, and hedonic state. New Method A novel paradigm assessing the affective component of pain in mice was developed by modifying the setup known from rat studies: Animals were forced to stay 2x5 min in the light...... field setup, and a saccharin preference test, respectively, and correlated with the PEAP behaviour to examine potentially confounding parameters of the novel paradigm. Results In the PEAP, CFA-treated animals spent more time in the light area. CFA also increased anxiety-like behaviour significantly...

  20. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  1. Changes in trait brainwave power and coherence, state and trait anxiety after three-month transcendental meditation (TM) practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Helena; Begić, Dražen; Maštrović, Zora

    2016-03-01

    The amount of studies showing different benefits of practicing meditation is growing. EEG brainwave patterns objectively reflect both the cognitive processes and objects of meditation. This study aimed to examine the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) practice on baseline EEG brainwave patterns (outside of meditation) and to examine weather TM reduces state and trait anxiety. Standard EEG recordings were conducted on volunteer participants (N=12), all students or younger employed people, before and after a three-month meditation training. Artifact-free 100-second epochs were selected and analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis. Endlers Multidimensional Anxiety Scales (EMAS) were used to assess anxiety levels. Power (μV(2)) and coherence levels were compared in the alpha, beta, theta and delta frequency band. Changes in EEG patterns after meditation practice were found mostly in the theta band. An interaction effect was found on the left hemisphere (pmeditation practice. Most of the changes were found in the occipital and temporal areas, less in the central and frontal areas. State anxiety decreased after TM practice. Findings suggest TM practice could be helpful in treating different kinds of disorders, especially anxiety disorders.

  2. Anxiety- and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Patients With Breast Cancer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin You

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Literature has documented the prevalence of anxiety and its adverse effect on quality of life among patients with breast cancer from Western countries, yet cross-cultural examinations with non-Western patients are rare. This cross-cultural study investigated differences in anxiety and its association with quality of life between US and Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancer from the United States and China completed measures for anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast. Results: After controlling for demographic and medical characteristics, Chinese patients reported higher levels of trait and state anxiety than US patients. Although there was an association between anxiety and quality of life in both groups of patients, the association between state anxiety and quality of life was stronger among Chinese patients than among US patients, with the association between trait anxiety and quality of life the same between the two cultural samples. Conclusion: These findings suggest that anxiety and its association with quality of life among patients with breast cancer varies depending on cultural context, which reveals greater anxiety and poorer quality of life among Chinese patients compared with US patients. This suggests greater unmet psychosocial needs among Chinese patients and highlights the need to build comprehensive cancer care systems for a better quality of life in Chinese populations.

  3. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [State and trait anxiety level and increase of depression among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.

  5. Effects of Temperament and Character Profiles on State and Trait Depression and Anxiety: A Prospective Study of a Japanese Youth Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2, separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1 only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2 trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3 trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety.

  6. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Correlation between SA and sleep quality was -0.664(P thermal comfort was -0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses.

  7. Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Classroom Communication Climate in Relation to Student State Motivation and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Durbin, James M.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student perceptions of math/statistics instructors' argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness are related to student perceptions of classroom communication climate, student state motivation, and student math anxiety. A total of 216 completed questionnaires were returned by the student participants (96 males and 120…

  8. A Test of Attention Control Theory in Public Speaking: Cognitive Load Influences the Relationship between State Anxiety and Verbal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E.; Finn, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between public-speaking state anxiety (PSA) and verbal communication performance when delivering a speech. In Study 1, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute classroom speech behind a lectern, and in Study 2, to increase cognitive load, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute…

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Werff, Steven J. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  10. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J.N.; Veer, I.M.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Werff, S.J.A.; Demenescu, L.R.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  11. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  12. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Hemispheric Asymmetry in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ha Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD.Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups. Furthermore, we investigated group differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity maps of the left and right amygdala.Results: Compared with healthy controls, the rs-FCN between the left amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced in patients with SAD, whereas left amygdala connectivity with the fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, supramarginal gyrus, and precuneus was increased or positively deflected in the patient group. Additionally, the strength rs-FCN between the left amygdala and anterior insula was positively associated with the severity of the fear of negative evaluation in patients with SAD (r = 0.338, p = 0.044. The rs-FCN between the right amygdala and medial frontal gyrus was decreased in patients with SAD compared with healthy controls, whereas connectivity with the parahippocampal gyrus was greater in the patient group than in the control group. The hemispheric asymmetry patterns in the anterior insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and inferior frontal gyrus of the patient group were opposite those of the control group, and functional lateralization of the connectivity between the amygdala and the IPS was associated with the severity of social anxiety symptoms (r = 0.365, p = 0.037.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in addition to impaired fronto-amygdala communication, the functional lateralization of amygdala function

  13. State Anxiety Carried Over From Prior Threat Increases Late Positive Potential Amplitude During an Instructed Emotion Regulation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S.; Larson, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation has important consequences for emotional and mental health (Saxena, Dubey & Pandey, 2011) and is dependent on executive function (Eisenberg, Smith & Spinrad, 2011). Because state anxiety disrupts executive function (Robinson, Vytal, Cornwell & Grillon, 2013), we tested whether state anxiety disrupts emotion regulation by having participants complete an instructed emotion regulation task, while under threat of unpredictable shock and while safe from shock. We used the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event related potential to measure emotion regulation success. We predicted that LPP responses to negatively valenced images would be modulated by participants’ attempts to increase and decrease their emotions when safe from shock, but not while under threat of shock. Our manipulation check revealed an order effect such that for participants who completed the threat of shock condition first self-reported state anxiety carried over into the subsequent safe condition. Additionally, we found that although instructions to regulate affected participants’ ratings of how unpleasant the images made them feel, instructions to regulate had no effect on LPP amplitude regardless of threat condition. Instead we found that participants who received the threat condition prior to safe had greater LPP responses to all images in the safe condition. We posit that the carryover of anxiety resulted in misattribution of arousal and potentiation of neural responses to the images in the safe condition. Thus, our results imply that physiological arousal and cognition combine to influence the basic neural response to emotional stimuli. PMID:27055095

  14. Anxiety- and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Patients With Breast Cancer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jin You; Qian Lu; Michael J. Zvolensky; Zhiqiang Meng; Kay Garcia; Lorenzo Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Literature has documented the prevalence of anxiety and its adverse effect on quality of life among patients with breast cancer from Western countries, yet cross-cultural examinations with non-Western patients are rare. This cross-cultural study investigated differences in anxiety and its association with quality of life between US and Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancer from the United States and China completed measures for anxiety (Spielberger...

  15. Anxiety and Death Anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…

  16. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on state/trait anxiety and quality of life in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity affects the cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions and usually produces mood and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR on promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety among the obese women. Materials and Methods: In this pre-post-test designed experimental study with a 2 mouth follow- up, 24 obese women (BMI≥30 were randomly selected in the Obesity Treatment Center in (Tehran, Iran and assigned in Experimental and Control groups. Data were collected using the questionnaires of anxiety of Spiel-Berger (1970 and quality of life of Viyear (1988. The MBSR interventions of Kabat-Zinn were performed for experimental group in 8 sessions, followed by the assessment of anxiety and quality of life. Results: The pre- post-test and follow- up scores for quality of life of participants in MBSR program, in terms of general health; physical limitations; physical function; social function; state anxiety and trait anxiety were: (7.66±0.88, 9.50±1.67, 9.58±1.66; (22.83±1.58, 27.91±1.16, 27±1.53; (4.50±0.67, 6.16±1.11, 5±0.95; (2.91± 0.28, 5.91±0.66, 5.75±0.38; (52.25±3.51, 43.08±2.39, 44±2.29 and (68.08±1.78, 46.75±1.71, 47.25±2, respectively. The scores of quality of life was significantly increased in participants in MBSR compared to the Control group (P<0.01. In addition, the scores of state and trait anxiety were significantly decreased (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of research provide some evidence to suggest that MBSR is an appropriate therapy for promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety in obese women.

  17. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions.

  18. Who gets afraid in the MRI-scanner? Neurogenetics of state-anxiety changes during an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Isabella; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Meyer, Andrea H; Schweizer, Tina; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2014-11-07

    Experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) play a fundamental role in affective neuroscience. When placed in an MR scanner, some volunteers feel safe and relaxed in this situation, while others experience uneasiness and fear. Little is known about the basis and consequences of such inter-individually different responses to the general experimental fMRI setting. In this study emotional stimuli were presented during fMRI and subjects' state-anxiety was assessed at the onset and end of the experiment while they were within the scanner. We show that Val/Val but neither Met/Met nor Val/Met carriers of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism-a prime candidate for anxiety vulnerability-became significantly more anxious during the fMRI experiment (N=97 females: 24 Val/Val, 51 Val/Met, and 22 Met/Met). Met carriers demonstrated brain responses with increased stability over time in the right parietal cortex and significantly better cognitive performances likely mediated by lower levels of anxiety. Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met did not significantly differ in state-anxiety at the beginning of the experiment. The exposure of a control group (N=56 females) to the same experiment outside the scanner did not cause a significant increase in state-anxiety, suggesting that the increase we observe in the fMRI experiment may be specific to the fMRI setting. Our findings reveal that genetics may play an important role in shaping inter-individual different emotional, cognitive and neuronal responses during fMRI experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Moderating Effect of Self-Reported State and Trait Anxiety on the Late Positive Potential to Emotional Faces in 6–11-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Chronaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergence of anxiety during childhood is accompanied by the development of attentional biases to threat. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these biases are poorly understood. In addition, previous research has not examined whether state and trait anxiety are independently associated with threat-related biases.Methods: We compared ERP waveforms during the processing of emotional faces in a population sample of 58 6–11-year-olds who completed self-reported measures of trait and state anxiety and depression.Results: The results showed that the P1 was larger to angry than neutral faces in the left hemisphere, though early components (P1, N170 were not strongly associated with child anxiety or depression. In contrast, Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes to angry (vs. neutral faces were significantly and positively associated with symptoms of anxiety/depression. In addition, the difference between LPPs for angry (vs. neutral faces was independently associated with state and trait anxiety symptoms.Discussion: The results showed that neural responses to facial emotion in children with elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were most evident at later processing stages characterized as evaluative and effortful. The findings support cognitive models of threat perception in anxiety and indicate that trait elements of anxiety and more transitory fluctuations in anxious affect are important in understanding individual variation in the neural response to threat in late childhood.

  20. Short form of the Spanish adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/objetivos: El State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI es uno de los instru- mentos de evaluación más empleados por psicólogos en todo el mundo y el séptimo más utilizado por psicólogos clínicos en Espa ̃ na. Desde su creación, se han llevado a cabo varias versiones breves del mismo; pese a ello, no existe ninguna para población general con mues- tra espa ̃ nola. El objetivo del presente artículo es establecer y validar una versión breve. Método: Para ello, se aplicó el STAI completo a 1.157 adultos y 30 pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada. Mediante dichos grupos, se realizó un análisis discriminante. Resultados: Para la ansiedad estado y rasgo, respectivamente, se obtuvieron reducciones de cuatro ítems y se compararon con otras versiones breves mediante análisis factorial confirmato- rio. La versión establecida mediante análisis discriminante muestra el mejor ajuste en muestra espa ̃ nola. Conclusiones: estos ocho ítems pueden ser usados para facilitar la evaluación de la ansiedad estado y rasgo.

  1. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression: from trait to state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. In 333 patients (≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder, anxiety was assessed with the BAI, personality traits with the NEO-FFI and the Mastery Scale, and life-events with the Brugha questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with anxiety severity as dependent and life-events and personality traits as independent variables. 147 patients (44.1%) had recently experienced one or more life-events. The presence of a life-event is not associated with anxiety (p = .161) or depression severity (p = .440). However, certain personality traits interacted with life-events in explaining anxiety severity. Stratified analyses showed that life-events were associated with higher anxiety levels in case of high levels of neuroticism and openness and low levels of conscientiousness or mastery. In the face of a life-event, personality traits may play a central role in increased anxiety levels in late-life depression.

  2. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  3. Depression and state anxiety scores during assisted reproductive treatment are associated with outcome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, Sarah C E; van den Akker, Olga B A

    2018-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigated whether state anxiety and depression scores during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and changes in state anxiety and depression scores between baseline and during ART treatment are associated with treatment outcome. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Scopus were searched and meta-analytic data analysed using random effects models to estimate standardized mean differences. Eleven studies (2202 patients) were included. Women who achieved pregnancy had significantly lower depression scores during treatment than women who did not become pregnant (-0.302; 95% CI: -0.551 to -0.054, z = -2.387, P = 0.017; I 2 = 77.142%, P = 0.001). State anxiety scores were also lower in women who became pregnant (-0.335; 95% CI: -0.582 to -0.087, z = -2.649, P = 0.008; I 2 = 81.339%, P = 0.001). However, changes in state anxiety (d = -0.056; 95% CI: -0.195 to 0.082, z = -0.794; I 2 = 0.00%) and depression scores (d = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.296 to 0.085, z = -1.088; I 2 = 0.00%) from baseline to treatment were not associated with ART outcome. Clinics should aim to promote better psychosocial care to help patients manage the psychological and physical demands of ART treatment, giving realistic expectations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-medication of mood and anxiety disorders with marijuana: Higher in states with medical marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Olfson, Mark; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314). Weighted logistic regression models predicted the prevalence of self-medication with drugs in U.S. states with and without MML, adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. As a negative control, analyses were repeated for self-medication with alcohol. Overall, self-medication with drugs was 3.73 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-6.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.01). For the subpopulation that only used marijuana, self-medication with drugs was 21.22 percentage points higher (95% CI: 3.91-38.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.02). In contrast, self-medication with alcohol had nearly identical prevalence in MML and non-MML states, overall and for drinkers. Among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, living in a medical marijuana law state is associated with self-medication with marijuana. While additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this association, clinical screening for self-medication with marijuana may be particularly important in states with medical marijuana laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 with Persons Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Danielle; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2009-01-01

    Counselors who assess persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; T. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) may find scale elevations on Scales 1, 2, 3, and 8. These elevations may be due, at least in part, to specific questions on the MMPI-2 that…

  6. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  7. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  8. Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: the state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Brahnam, S.; Jain, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become a viable alternative for exposure in vivo, the gold standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. VRET is often regarded as a natural extension of the systematic exposure component of (cognitive) behavior therapy. The

  9. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  10. Dimensions of Sexual Orientation and the Prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used data from a nationally representative sample to examine the associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), lifetime and past-year mood and anxiety disorders, and sex. Methods. We analyzed data from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Mental health outcomes differed by sex, dimension of sexual orientation, and sexual minority group. Whereas a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity was associated with higher odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both men and women, women reporting only same-sex sexual partners in their lifetime had the lowest rates of most disorders. Higher odds of any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder were more consistent and pronounced among sexual minority men than among sexual minority women. Finally, bisexual behavior conferred the highest odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both males and females. Conclusions. Findings point to mental health disparities among some, but not all, sexual minority groups and emphasize the importance of including multiple measures of sexual orientation in population-based health studies. PMID:19696380

  11. Using Mobile Sensing to Test Clinical Models of Depression, Social Anxiety, State Affect, and Social Isolation Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Barnes, Laura E; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-03

    Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants' personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was associated with more time or greater

  12. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  13. Validation of the trait anxiety scale for state-trait anxiety inventory in suicide victims and living controls of Chinese rural youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Gao, Qi

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validation of STAI Trait-Anxiety Scale in suicide cases and community living controls in rural China. The participants were 392 suicides and 416 controls. Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the internal consistency. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient between Trait-Anxiety Scale and other instrument was calculated to evaluate the external validity, and the Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity. The results showed the Cronbach's Alpha was .891 and .787 respectively in case and control groups. Most of the correlations between instruments were significant. We found 2 factors in cases and 3 factors in controls. We could cautiously infer that the Trait Anxiety Scale was an adequate tool to measure trait anxiety through proxy data in suicide victims and living controls in rural China.

  14. Cigarette craving and stressful social interactions: The roles of state and trait social anxiety and smoking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Cohen, Lee M

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is a risk factor for the maintenance and relapse of smoking behaviors. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the effects of state and trait levels of SA as well as smoking to cope with symptoms of SA on craving during a social stressor task in abstinent conditions. Participants (n = 60) were daily smokers, aged 18-30. Participants attended two sessions: a baseline session and a second session, wherein they engaged in a social stressor task while deprived from nicotine for 24 h. Subjective ratings of cigarette craving and state levels of SA were assessed six times throughout the task. Data were analyzed via multilevel modeling. Both trait SA and some forms of smoking to cope with symptoms of SA were more likely to predict increased craving during times of high, relative to low, social stress. Further, individuals with higher state SA, greater smoking to cope behaviors, and those who experience greater relief of social distress by smoking experienced greater craving throughout the task. These effects remained after controlling for nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depression, and other symptoms of anxiety and stress. Smoking to cope with symptoms of SA did not moderate the relationship between state SA and craving. Smokers high in SA (state and trait) and smoking to cope with symptoms of SA may be at risk for continued smoking and relapse because of the intensity of cravings they experience during stressful social situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of depression and anxiety state and changes of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiangyuan; Li Yaming; Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Han Chunqi; Li Deshun; Liu Hao; Li Na; Liang Chenrong; Sun Zhenqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the incidence of depression and anxiety state and the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods: Twenty-one GD patients underwent rCBF SPECT imaging, and their mental state was evaluated by Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) respectively. Results: Total scores obtained from SDS and SAS were both significantly greater in the GD group than that in the control group (t SDS =7.26, t SAS =5.35, P 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels. In SPECT imaging, GD group had decreased uptake of radioactivity in frontal lobs, temporal lobs, basal ganglia and thalamus mainly. There was also no significant correlation between the decrease of rCBF and SDS or SAS scores. Conclusions: The psychiatric symptoms in GD group are more significant than normal controls, rCBF of GD group decreases mainly in bilateral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, basal ganglia and thalamus. (authors)

  16. The effects of cognitive anxiety on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA De Ste Croix

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive anxiety (CA on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing. Written informed consent was obtained from 9 subjects, with a range of golf experience (handicap range 4-23. Each subject was filmed under a low anxiety condition (during practice, and a high anxiety condition (during competition and completed a revised version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2. Human movement analysis (Hu-m-an software package was used to identify the clubhead speeds during the backswing, downswing, and impact time, along with the completion times for each phase. The absolute angle of the club to the vertical, and the relative angle of the forearm, wrist, and club hinge, at the completion of the backswing stage were also examined. CA intensity scores were significantly lower during practice than competition (p<0.05. CA interpretation scores indicate that anxiety symptoms during practice were significantly more facilitative to performance (p<0.05. The time taken to complete the downswing phase was significantly lower during competition (p<0.05. The combined backswing and downswing times were significantly lower during the competition trial (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between the practice and competition trials on any of the remaining swing variables measured.

  17. The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2003-06-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 48) investigated two relationships in competitive sport: (1) state cognitive anxiety with performance and (2) state self-confidence with performance. The cognitive anxiety mean effect size was r = -0.10 (P cognitive anxiety mean effect size. The moderator variables for the cognitive anxiety-performance relationship were sex and standard of competition. The mean effect size for men (r = -0.22) was significantly greater than the mean effect size for women (r = -0.03). The mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = -0.27) was significantly greater than that for comparatively low-standard competition (r = -0.06). The significant moderator variables for the self-confidence-performance relationship were sex, standard of competition and measurement. The mean effect size for men (r = 0.29) was significantly greater than that for women (r = 0.04) and the mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = 0.33) was significantly greater than that for low-standard competition (r = 0.16). The mean effect size derived from studies employing the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (r = 0.19) was significantly smaller than the mean effect size derived from studies using other measures of self-confidence (r = 0.38). Measurement issues are discussed and future research directions are offered in light of the results.

  18. Chemogenetic and Optogenetic Activation of Gαs Signaling in the Basolateral Amygdala Induces Acute and Social Anxiety-Like States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, Edward R; Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Bhatti, Dionnet L; Bruchas, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric illnesses with detrimental effects on human health. These heightened states of arousal are often in the absence of obvious threatening cues and are difficult to treat owing to a lack of understanding of the neural circuitry and cellular machinery mediating these conditions. Activation of noradrenergic circuitry in the basolateral amygdala is thought to have a role in stress, fear, and anxiety, and the specific cell and receptor types responsible is an active area of investigation. Here we take advantage of two novel cellular approaches to dissect the contributions of G-protein signaling in acute and social anxiety-like states. We used a chemogenetic approach utilizing the Gαs DREADD (rM3Ds) receptor and show that selective activation of generic Gαs signaling is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavioral states in mice. Second, we use a recently characterized chimeric receptor composed of rhodopsin and the β2-adrenergic receptor (Opto-β2AR) with in vivo optogenetic techniques to selectively activate Gαs β-adrenergic signaling exclusively within excitatory neurons of the basolateral amygdala. We found that optogenetic induction of β-adrenergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavior. These findings support the conclusion that activation of Gαs signaling in the basolateral amygdala has a role in anxiety. These data also suggest that acute and social anxiety-like states may be mediated through signaling pathways identical to β-adrenergic receptors, thus providing support that inhibition of this system may be an effective anxiolytic therapy.

  19. The clinical effect of clomipramine in chronic idiopathic pain disorder revisited using the Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) as outcome scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    -malignant pain were included (87 patients received placebo and 84 clomipramine). On the SSASS, clomipramine's (mean dose 125 mg daily) advantage over placebo in the planned 6-weeks' treatment period for all patients (intention-to-treat analysis) showed an effect size of 0.37. For completers only, the effect size......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale......BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including...

  20. ADHD symptomatology, fear of intimacy, and sexual anxiety and behavior among college students in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lyndsey E; Norvilitis, Jill M; Ingersoll, Travis S; Li, Bin

    2015-03-01

    ADHD is marked by an apparent contradiction in social relationships: Those with the disorder have more difficulty establishing close relationships but report increased rates of risky sexual behavior. Two studies examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and fear of intimacy, sexual anxiety, and sexual behavior in college students. In the first study, college students in China (n = 300) and the United States (n = 233) completed a series of questionnaires. In the second, 192 American college students completed a follow-up series of measures. In the first study, those with more ADHD symptoms did not report lower levels of sexual anxiety but did report greater fear of intimacy. In the second, students partially replicated the results of the first study, reporting greater fear of intimacy in those with more symptoms of ADHD. Those with more symptoms also reported lower expectations for the intimacy in their relationships and lower levels of relationship self-competence on one of four domains. ADHD symptomatology, particularly inattention, was related to multiple aspects of risky sexual behavior. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  1. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  2. State anxiety, psychological stress and positive well-being responses to yoga and aerobic exercise in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Wampers, Martien; Demunter, Hella; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Probst, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Worsening of schizophrenia symptoms is related to stress and anxiety. People with schizophrenia often experience difficulties in coping with stress and possess a limited repertoire of coping strategies. A randomised comparative trial was undertaken in patients with schizophrenia to evaluate changes in state anxiety, psychological stress and subjective well-being after single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise compared with a control condition. Forty participants performed a single 30-min yoga session, 20-min of aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometre at self-selected intensity and a 20-min no exercise control condition in random order. After single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder showed significantly decreased state anxiety (p stress (p exercise control condition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.82 for psychological stress after aerobic exercise to 1.01 for state anxiety after yoga. The magnitude of the changes did not differ significantly between yoga and aerobic exercise. People with schizophrenia and physiotherapists can choose either yoga or aerobic exercise in reducing acute stress and anxiety taking into account the personal preference of each individual.

  3. Effects of Desktop Virtual Reality Environment Training on State Anxiety and Vocational Identity Scores among Persons with Disabilities during Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Andre Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how desktop virtual reality environment training (DVRET) affected state anxiety and vocational identity of vocational rehabilitation services consumers during job placement/job readiness activities. It utilized a quantitative research model with a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design plus some qualitative descriptive…

  4. An in-situ investigation of the acute effects of Bikram yoga on positive- and negative affect, and state-anxiety in context of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Nikházy, Letícia; Tihanyi, Benedek; Boros, Szilvia

    2017-04-01

    Bikram yoga is a relatively new, but an increasingly popular form of exercise. Its health benefits were demonstrated on physical and psychological measures. The current field study tested the acute effects of Bikram yoga on practitioners' positive-/negative-affect and state-anxiety, and their link to the self-perceived stress, in Bikram yoga participants. Field study, within-participants design, testing perceived stress and its relation to changes in positive-/negative-affect and state-anxiety in 53 habitual Bikram yoga participants. Statistically significant positive changes emerged in all three psychological measures after the 90-min Bikram yoga session. The decrease in negative-affect and state-anxiety were significantly and positively related to the perceived stress. Estimated effort was unrelated to the magnitude of the changes recorded in the psychological measures. Heart rates and self-report measures indicated that physically Bikram yoga is only mildly challenging. The findings illustrate that, independently of the physical effort, Bikram yoga is a new mild form of exercise that reduces negative-affect and state-anxiety, and the reduction is directly related to the perceived stress. Therefore, Bikram yoga appears to be beneficial for all practitioners, but even more so for the individuals who experience substantial stress in the daily life.

  5. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  6. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  7. Students' anxiety in a senior thesis course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M R; Palm, L J

    2000-06-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered on Weeks 8, 12, and 15 of a semester to 16 students enrolled in a senior thesis course. State anxiety scores were elevated when oral presentations began and declined following the presentations. Trait anxiety scores remained constant across test administrations. The influence of situational variables on students' anxiety was discussed.

  8. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency) using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender. Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females) Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures. Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition) with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition. Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained. PMID:29312103

  9. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on state/trait anxiety in full-term pregnancy and its influence on childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R

    2018-04-01

    Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were

  10. Comparing Learners' State Anxiety during Task-Based Interaction in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralt, Melissa; Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The construct of anxiety is often believed to be the affective factor with the greatest potential to pervasively affect the learning process (Horwitz, 2001), and recent research has demonstrated that anxiety can mediate whether learners are able to notice feedback and subsequently produce output (Sheen, 2008). In order to reduce the negative…

  11. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J. Troup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of mood assessment, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Relationships between cannabis use groups and scores on these measures were then analyzed using both correlations and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate a relationship between casual cannabis use and scoring highly for depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There were no significant relationships between cannabis use and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

  12. Anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in palliative care: from neuro-psychobiological response to stress, to symptoms' management with clinical hypnosis and meditative states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, Anirudh Kumar; Brugnoli, Maria Paola

    2018-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatic medicine in palliative care, integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse clinical specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, internal medicine, allergy, dermatology, psychoneuroimmunology, psychosocial oncology and spiritual care. Clinical conditions where psychological processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence. Thus, the psychosomatic symptom develops as a physiological connected of an emotional state. In a state of rage or fear, for example, the stressed person's blood pressure is likely to be elevated and his pulse and respiratory rate to be increased. When the fear passes, the heightened physiologic processes usually subside. If the person has a persistent fear (chronic anxiety), however, which he is unable to express overtly, the emotional state remains unchanged, though unexpressed in the overt behavior, and the physiological symptoms associated with the anxiety state persist. This paper wants highlight how clinical hypnosis and meditative states can be important psychosocial and spiritual care, for the symptom management on neuro-psychobiological response to stress.

  13. Combined Audience and Video Feedback With Cognitive Review Improves State Anxiety and Self-Perceptions During Speech Tasks in Socially Anxious Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; McLean, Jordan E; Kemps, Eva

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined audience feedback with video feedback plus cognitive preparation, and cognitive review (enabling deeper processing of feedback) on state anxiety and self-perceptions including perception of performance and perceived probability of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals during a speech performance. One hundred and forty socially anxious students were randomly assigned to four conditions: Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Audience Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+AF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback only (CP+VF), and Control. They were asked to deliver two impromptu speeches that were evaluated by confederates. Participants' levels of anxiety and self-perceptions pertaining to the speech task were assessed before and after feedback, and after the second speech. Compared to participants in the other conditions, participants in the CP+VF+AF+CR condition reported a significant decrease in their state anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation scores, and a significant increase in their positive perception of speech performance from before to after the feedback. These effects generalized to the second speech. Our results suggest that adding audience feedback to video feedback plus cognitive preparation and cognitive review may improve the effects of existing video feedback procedures in reducing anxiety symptoms and distorted self-representations in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effects of an Inquiry-Based Short Intervention on State Test Anxiety in Comparison to Alternative Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krispenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Test anxiety can have undesirable consequences for learning and academic achievement. The control-value theory of achievement emotions assumes that test anxiety is experienced if a student appraises an achievement situation as important (value appraisal, but feels that the situation and its outcome are not fully under his or her control (control appraisal. Accordingly, modification of cognitive appraisals is assumed to reduce test anxiety. One method aiming at the modification of appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction. In the present study (N = 162, we assessed the effects of an inquiry-based short intervention on test anxiety.Design: Short-term longitudinal, randomized control trial.Methods: Focusing on an individual worry thought, 53 university students received an inquiry-based short intervention. Control participants reflected on their worry thought (n = 55 or were distracted (n = 52. Thought related test anxiety was assessed before, immediately after, and 2 days after the experimental treatment.Results: After the intervention as well as 2 days later, individuals who had received the inquiry-based intervention demonstrated significantly lower test anxiety than participants from the pooled control groups. Further analyses showed that the inquiry-based short intervention was more effective than reflecting on a worry thought but had no advantage over distraction.Conclusions: Our findings provide first experimental evidence for the effectiveness of an inquiry-based short intervention in reducing students’ test anxiety.

  15. Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Wilson, Mark R; Skultety, Jessica K; Lyons, James L

    2018-04-01

    The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback ("play-it-safe"), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control ("go-for-it"). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arousal, anxiety, and performance: a reexamination of the Inverted-U hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Shawn M; Landers, Daniel M

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, the traditional Inverted-U hypothesis had been the primary model used by sport psychologists to describe the arousal-performance relationship. However, many sport psychology researchers have challenged this relationship, and the current trend is a shift toward a more "multidimensional" view of arousal-anxiety and its effects on performance. In the current study, 104 college-age participants performed a simple response time task while riding a bicycle ergometer. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight arousal groups (between 20 and 90% of heart rate reserve) and were told they were competing for a cash prize. Prior to the task, the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to assess the influence of cognitive and somatic anxiety. As hypothesized, regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic trend for arousal and reaction time. This accounted for 13.2% of the variance, F change (1, 101) = 15.10, p performance beyond that accounted for by the nonsignificant linear trend. As predicted by the Inverted-U hypothesis, optimal performance on the simple task was seen at 60 and 70% of maximum arousal. Furthermore, for the simple task used in this study, only somatic anxiety as measured by the SAS accounted for significant variance in performance beyond that accounted for by arousal alone. These findings support predictions of the Inverted-U hypothesis and raise doubts about the utility theories that rely on differentiation of cognitive and somatic anxiety to predict performance on simple tasks that are not cognitively loaded.

  17. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...

  18. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  19. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, François-Pierre J.; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with thr...

  20. In an absolute state: elevated use of absolutist words is a marker specific to anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Johnstone, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Absolutist thinking is considered a cognitive distortion by most cognitive therapies for anxiety and depression. Yet, there is little empirical evidence of its prevalence or specificity. Across three studies, we conducted a text analysis of 63 internet forums (over 6,400 members) using the Linguistic- Inquiry and Word Count software (Pennebaker, Booth, Boyd, & Francis, 2015) to examine absolutism at the linguistic level. We predicted and found that anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation fo...

  1. Equivalence of Laptop and Tablet Administrations of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menton, William H; Crighton, Adam H; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Hicks, Adam D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated the comparability of laptop computer- and tablet-based administration modes for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Employing a counterbalanced within-subjects design, the MMPI-2-RF was administered via both modes to a sample of college undergraduates ( N = 133). Administration modes were compared in terms of mean scale scores, internal consistency, test-retest consistency, external validity, and administration time. Mean scores were generally similar, and scores produced via both methods appeared approximately equal in terms of internal consistency and test-retest consistency. Scores from the two modalities also evidenced highly similar patterns of associations with external criteria. Notably, tablet administration of the MMPI-2-RF was substantially longer than laptop administration in the present study (mean difference 7.2 minutes, Cohen's d = .95). Overall, results suggest that varying administration mode between laptop and tablet has a negligible influence on MMPI-2-RF scores, providing evidence that these modes of administration can be considered psychometrically equivalent.

  2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a sample of law enforcement officers. MMPI-2-RF scores were collected from preemployment psychological evaluations of 136 male police officers, and supervisor ratings of performance and problem behavior were subsequently obtained during the initial probationary period. The sample produced meaningfully lower and less variant substantive scale scores than the general population and the MMPI-2-RF Police Candidate comparison group, which significantly affected effect sizes for the zero-order correlations. After applying a correction for range restriction, MMPI-2-RF substantive scales demonstrated moderate to strong associations with criteria, particularly in the Emotional Dysfunction and Interpersonal Functioning domains. Relative risk ratio analyses showed that cutoffs of 45T and 50T maintained reasonable selection ratios because of the exceptionally low scores in this sample and were associated with significantly increased risk for problematic behavior. These results provide support for the predictive validity of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales in this setting. Implications of these findings and limitations of these results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Results of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 among gestational surrogacy candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Susan C; Covington, Sharon N

    2015-09-01

    To obtain normative data on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) personality test for gestational surrogate (GS) candidates. A retrospective study was undertaken through chart review of all GS candidates assessed at Shady Grove Fertility Center, Rockville, MD, USA, between June 2007 and December 2009. Participants completed the MMPI-2 test during screening. MMPI-2 scores, demographic information, and screening outcome were retrieved. Among 153 included candidates, 132 (86.3%) were accepted to be a GS, 6 (3.9%) were ruled out because of medical reasons, and 15 (9.8%) were ruled out because of psychological reasons. The mean scores on each of the MMPI-2 scales were within the normal range. A score of more than 65 (the clinical cutoff) was recorded on the L scale for 46 (30.1%) candidates, on the K scale for 61 (39.9%), and on the S scale for 84 (54.9%). Women who were ruled out for psychological reasons had significantly higher mean scores on the validity scales F and L, and on clinical scale 8 than did women who were accepted (P<0.05 for all). Most GS candidates are well adjusted and free of psychopathology, but candidates tend to present themselves in an overly positive way. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Altered Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naive Adult Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Using Resting-State Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Changjian; Feng, Yuan; Meng, Yajing; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Huafu; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) is involved in the altered regional baseline brain function in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the study was to analyze the altered baseline brain activity in drug-naive adult patients with SAD. Methods We investigated spontaneous and baseline brain activities by obtaining the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 drug-na?ve adult SAD patients and 19 healthy controls. Voxels wer...

  5. Analyzing the Anxiety States of Canditates Applying f or Special Talent Examination in the School of Physical Education and Sports in Terms of Several Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim SONGÜN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anxiety states of candidates who were going to attend special talent examination in the School of Physical Education and Sports were analyzed in terms of various variables such as age, gender, residence and socio - economic level of the family , parents’ educational levels and professions, active sports status, the number of exams taken, and applied training methods. Within the scope of this study, 244 candidates who applied for the special talent examination held by the School of Physical Educa tion and Sports in Gümüşhane University in 2014 - 2015 academic year volunteered to participate. Regarding the data collection tool, a personal information form and State - Trait Anxiety Scale developed by Spielberger et. al were used. For the analysis of gath ered data, for paramedic variables, t test and test of One Way Anova were applied. For non paramedic variables, Kruskal Wallis test was applied. In order to determine the source of difference between the means Post Hoc Tukey test was applied. All the analy ses during the research process were carried out by SPSS 20.00 package program. As a result, it was found out that the only significant diff erence between the anxiety scores and the stated variables was in terms of candidates’ mothers’ occupation variable (F 239 = 2,507, p<.05 whereas no other significant difference was determined concerning other variables.

  6. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV on adolescents’ body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19 from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y. Results: The main factors contributing to females’ eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends’ desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Conclusion: Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents’ eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  7. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaccia, Barbara; Balestrini, Viviana; Saliani, Angelo M; Baiocco, Roberto; Mancini, Francesco; Schneider, Barry H

    2018-01-01

    Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV) on adolescents' body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19) from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Form Y. The main factors contributing to females' eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends' desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents' eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  8. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  9. Effectiveness of a nursing intervention during transfusion of packed red cells on the patient´s anxiety state receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Fernando Martín Díaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion provokes anxiety and this one compromises the improvement of the patient. Objetive: The study aims to evaluate whether a nursing intervention protocol-through oral and written submissions previous to the transfusion of packed red blood cells decreases anxiety levels in pretransfusion and postransfusion recipient patients through a randomized clinical trial. Methodology: Be conducted in patients over 18 years admitted in the Hospitable complex of Toledo, prescription transfusion of packed red blood cells. For an alpha error 0.05, beta error of 0.90, with an expected effect of 10%, need 70 subjects in each group. The allocation to the intervention group and the control group was randomly made simple. The performance in the normal control group will be done in the hospital, patients receiving transfusion. As dependent variables evaluated:- The anxiety level pretransfusion and postransfusion. Using the questionnaire was validated by Spielberger (STAI. - The level of satisfaction perceived by the user on the information received prior to transfusion. By design developed for this study. Also recorded other control variables: sex, age, socio-cultural level, marital status, reason for transfusion, or no knowledge of the prescription of transfusion, incidents during transfusion.Scientific and sociosanitary relevancy of the study: The results will allow to know if the transfusion increases the anxiety and if an educational intervention nurse can diminish it; and to do the intervention before every transfusion.

  10. In Iranian female and male adolescents, romantic love is related to hypomania and low depressive symptoms, but also to higher state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Joshaghani, Narges; Gerber, Markus; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2013-06-01

    Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was to explore romantic love among Iranian male and female adolescents. A total of 201 adolescents (mean age: 17.73 years) took part in the study; of these, 81 indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 120 indicated they were not in love. Participants answered questionnaires related to affective states (hypomania, depressive symptoms, state and trait anxiety) and exercise, and completed a sleep log for seven consecutive nights. Compared to controls, participants in love displayed favourable hypomania scores, fewer depressive symptoms and increased concentration during the day. However, participants in love also had higher state anxiety scores. Moreover, hypomanic-like stages increased with duration of relationship in female, but not in male participants. The pattern of results suggests a favourable association between being currently in love and emotional and cognitive processes. Sleep, however, seemed unrelated to this specific state.

  11. General Health Status, Music Performance Anxiety, and Coping Methods of Musicians Working in Turkish State Symphony Orchestras: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoğlu, Onur; Karagülle, Derya; Keskin, Tuba U; Abacigil, Filiz; Okyay, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the general health, music performance anxiety (MPA), and coping methods of musicians working in six state orchestras in Turkey. All musicians working in the state symphony orchestras (n=384) were invited to participate in the study. In face-to-face interviews, the authors administered a questionnaire, which consisted of five sections: sociodemographic information, history of musical performance, health status, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and MPA scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation test were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The 220 musicians who participated included 121 (55%) males and 99 (45%) females, with a mean age of 42.4±11.3 yrs. For musculoskeletal symptoms, 87.6% reported at least one symptom with the most common being pain. For general health status, the GHQ-12 showed 64% of musicians were at low risk, 18.7% at moderate risk, and 17.3% at high risk in terms of mental health. The prevalence of MPA before or during performance was 81.8%, and 60% of musicians stated that performance anxiety negatively affected their performances. Results indicate that musicians working in Turkish state symphony orchestras encounter numerous health problems (tinnitus, hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, etc.) due to their profession. No specific health support is provided, especially education and health service provision.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: the effects on state and trait anxiety and the autonomic nervous system during induced rectal distensions - An uncontrolled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Boersma, Katja; Linton, Steven; Brummer, Robert Jan

    2018-01-26

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is a common multifactorial gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the microbe gut-brain axis. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in face-to-face format has showed promising results on IBS and its associated psychological symptoms. The present study explored for the first time if CBT for IBS affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress, respectively. The levels of state and trait anxiety, current and perceived stress were also evaluated. In this uncontrolled trial, individual CBT was performed in face-to-face format for 12 weeks in 18 subjects with IBS. Heart rate variability and skin conductance were measured during experimentally induced visceral pain and during a cognitive task (Stroop color-word test), before and after intervention. The levels of state and trait anxiety as well as self-rated current and perceived stress were also measured before and after the intervention. CBT did not affect ANS activity during experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress. The sympathetic activity was high, typical for IBS and triggered during both visceral pain and cognitive stress. The levels of state and trait anxiety significantly decreased after the intervention. No significant changes in self-rated current or perceived stress were found. Results suggest that face-to-face CBT for IBS improved anxiety- a key psychological mechanism for the IBS pathophysiology, rather than the autonomic stress response to experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress, respectively. This study indicates that IBS patients present high levels of stress and difficulties coping with anxiety and ANS activity during visceral pain and a cognitive stress test, respectively. These manifestations of IBS are however not targeted by CBT, and do not seem to be central for the study participants IBS symptoms according to the current and our previous study. Face-to-face CBT

  13. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  14. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  15. Reduced heart rate variability and vagal tone in anxiety: trait versus state, and the effects of autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Heilman, Renata M; Miclea, Mircea

    2009-01-28

    This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy volunteers that were selected for extreme scores of trait anxiety (TA), during two opposite psychophysiological conditions of mental stress, and relaxation induced by autogenic training. R-R intervals, HF and LF powers, and LF/HF ratios were derived from short-term electrocardiographic recordings made during mental stress and relaxation by autogenic training, with respiratory rate and skin conductance being controlled for in all the analyses. The main finding was that high TA was associated with reduced R-R intervals and HF power across conditions. In comparison to mental stress, autogenic training increased HRV and facilitated the vagal control of the heart. There were no significant effects of TA or the psychophysiological conditions on LF power, or LF/HF ratio. These results support the view that TA, which is an important risk factor for anxiety disorders and predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is associated with autonomic dysfunction that seems likely to play a pathogenetic role in the long term.

  16. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  17. Heart-related anxieties in relation to general anxiety and severity of illness in cardiology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness.

  18. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of emotionally salient events, often when both rewarding and aversive outcomes are possible. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the neural circuits regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior with an emphasis on the role of brainstem serotonergic systems in modulating...... anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...

  19. Inferring other people's states of mind: Comparison across social anxiety, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Wacker, Renata; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by fears of negative evaluation by others (related to one's own incompetence or flawed appearance, respectively). Previous research has shown that individuals with SAD and BDD exhibit difficulty identifying facial expressions and interpretive biases for threat in social situations. The current study aimed at further investigating social cognition in SAD, BDD, and mentally healthy controls (35 individuals per group, respectively). Further, 35 individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as a clinical control group not characterized by evaluation fears were included. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) was applied. It consists of 45 video sequences depicting interactions among four people at a dinner party. Participants are instructed to evaluate each scenario with respect to the characters' emotions, thoughts, and intentions from a bystander perspective (i.e. other-referent context). Only the socially anxious groups (SAD and BDD) were overall less accurate than the other groups in correctly interpreting the social situations, whereas no difference was obtained between the OCD and the control group. Further analyses indicated that the SAD and BDD groups were less accurate in identifying other people's thoughts and intentions, whereas, again, no difference was observed between the OCD and control groups. In addition, the SAD group was less accurate in inferring thoughts and intentions than the OCD group. Interestingly, the groups did not differ with respect to identifying other people's emotions. These results mostly confirm existing cognitive-behavioral models of SAD and BDD emphasizing that biased interpretation of what others think or intend is one of the key factors maintaining social anxiety and appearance-related concerns. Our study shows that this bias generalizes to social situations in which individuals take a third-person observer perspective

  20. Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments

  1. The efficiency of MMPI-2 validity scales in detecting malingering of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Tamara; Galić, Slavka; Matešić, Krunoslav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of the validity scales (F, Fb, Fp, F-K, K, L, S, VRIN and TRIN) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in the detection of malingering mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and the possibility of differentiating between groups of persons with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and persons instructed to malinger the mixed anxiety-depressive disorder on the basis of basic and content scales. The participants in the study were...

  2. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Cao

    and A6 was significantly correlated with moderate anxiety (r = 0.87, but A7 remained because of its higher frequency (35.9% vs 22.6%. Using frequency and Spearman correlations, the final order of the faces assigned to the categories none, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high and highest anxiety levels was A0, A1, A5, A7, A8 and A10, respectively (Fig 4.The proposed VFAS was a valid tool for assessing the severity of acute [state] anxiety, and could be easy to administer in routine clinical practice.

  3. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  4. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression.

  5. Treatment response in child anxiety is differentially related to the form of maternal anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, P. J.; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C.

    2008-01-01

    An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...

  6. Effects of dance on anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesté, A; Rust, J

    1984-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control groups were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity training, and (3) a mathematics group. Several concomitant variables were measured: age, sex, attitude towards dance, and previous experience in sport, dance, and relaxation. Dance training significantly reduced anxiety, but no control activities did so. Examination of the concomitant variables showed that the result could not be accounted for by any obvious artifacts.

  7. Dress anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Salecl, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Each of the contributions to this issue addresses the interplay between conformity and transgression or resistance involved in fashion and fashion choices. Using a range of disciplinary perspectives and critical frameworks, they each explore particular aspects of how the laws of fashion are established, maintained and negotiated, and the social, psychical or political consequences of such negotiations.\\ud \\ud This introductory article examines fashion anxiety, in particular the wedding-dress ...

  8. Bruxism. Masticatory implications and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anne C; Alchieri, João C; Barbosa, Gustavo A S

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigate the phenomenon of bruxism, defined as the act of clenching and/or grinding the teeth, a habit that compromises the orofacial region. It is often associated with emotional aspects, such as anxiety and stress, and may result in alterations to orofacial structures, functional modifications and social repercussions. The aim of this study was to determine a possible association between bruxism and anxiety underscoring the primary complaints related to masticatory function. Eighty volunteers participated in the study. They were divided into bruxers (N = 40) and non-bruxers (N = 40) of both sexes. The diagnosis of bruxism was made by clinical examination. The Trait-State Anxiety Inventory was used to assess anxiety levels and a questionnaire with structured questions related to daily activities, focusing on masticatory function (for the bruxism group), was applied to evaluate psychosocial aspects. The results of the study show a significant difference in state anxiety. Mean and standard deviation of state anxiety in the bruxism and non-bruxism groups was 42.7 +/- 9.6 and 38.6 +/- 8.2 (p bruxism, resulting in compromised masticatory function.

  9. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  10. No relationship between baseline salivary alpha-amylase and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Score in drug-naïve patients with short-illness-duration first episode major depressive disorder: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarmach, Joanna; Cubała, Wiesław-Jerzy; Landowski, Jerzy; Chrzanowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity alternations are observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) being associated with depression severity and its specific psychopathological dimensions with anxiety being attributed to distress. No data is available on sAA in MDD according to Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The exploratory study examines whether and to what extent baseline sAA level is interrelated to the psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions. The basal, non-stimulated sAA activity was studied in 20 non-late-life adult, treatment-naïve MDD patients with short-illness-duration and in 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls along with psychometric assessments with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significantly lower ( p =0.011) sAA activity was observed in MDD as compared to controls. No significant correlations were observed between sAA activity and the total HAMD-17 score as well as with regard to the specific core depression, insomnia, anxiety and somatic HAM-D psychopathological dimensions. No significant correlations were also found between sAA and STAIX-1 and STAIX-2 scores. Low baseline sAA levels in MDD with no correlations between sAA and psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions was found. Key words: Salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.

  11. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, T C; Davies, M J; Farooqi, A M; Jarvis, J; Tringham, J R; Khunti, K

    2005-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; sd = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64% and 61% agreed that diabetes was caused by diet or hereditary factors, respectively. Only 155 individuals (12%) agreed that diabetes was serious, shortens life and causes complications. The results of this study replicate that of previous studies, indicating that screening for diabetes does not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety.

  12. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2-restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of violating probation after felonious crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Luna-Jones, Lynn; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2014-12-01

    We compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores of 25 individuals convicted of felonies who violated probation within 1 year of sentencing with those of 45 similarly sentenced defendants who completed probation successfully. The sample (51 males, 19 females) ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (M = 35.2, SD = 13.8) and had 8 to 16 years of education (M = 11.7, SD = 2.1). The majority were Caucasian (85.7%), but African Americans were also represented (14.3%). Individuals in the sample were primarily convicted of mid-level felonies (F-1: 2.9%; F-2: 14.3%; F-3: 22.9%; F-4: 31.4%; F-5: 12.9%). As hypothesized, moderate to large statistically significant differences between probation completers and violators were found on several MMPI-2-RF scales, including Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Substance Abuse, Aggression, Activation, and Disconstraint. Relative risk ratio analyses indicated that probationers who produced elevated scores on these scales were up to 3 times more likely to violate probation than were those with non-elevated scores. Implications of these results and limitations of our findings are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Creating state of the art, next-generation Virtual Reality exposure therapies for anxiety disorders using consumer hardware platforms: design considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Philip; Miloff, Alexander; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Powers, Mark B; Carlbring, Per

    2017-09-01

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic "Big Data" that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  14. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  15. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  16. Test Review: Kovacs, M. "Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2)" (2nd ed.). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yunhee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2), published by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess depressive symptoms in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents. Given the importance of early diagnosis and treatment (Kovacs & Devlin, 1998), the CDI 2 can assist professionals to pinpoint critical depressive…

  17. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  18. There is an app for that! The current state of mobile applications (apps) for DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Turna, Jasmine; Khalesi, Zahra; Pullia, Katrina; Patterson, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Mental health apps are viewed as a promising modality to extend the reach of mental health care beyond the clinic. They do so by providing a means of assessment, tracking, and treatment through a smartphone. Given that nearly 2/3 of the American population owns a smartphone, mental health apps offer the possibility of overcoming treatment barriers such as geographic location or financial barriers. Unfortunately, the excitement surrounding mental health apps may be premature as the current supporting literature regarding their efficacy is limited. The app marketplace is littered with apps claiming to treat or assess symptoms, but even those created by reputable organizations or those incorporating components of evidence-based treatments have not yet been validated in terms of their efficacy. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the mental health app literature by examining published reports of apps designed for DSM-5 anxiety and mood disorders, OCD, and PTSD. The breadth of apps reviewed includes those oriented around assessment, symptom tracking, and treatment as well as "multipurpose" apps, which incorporate several of these components. This review will also present some of the most popular mental health apps which may have clinical utility and could be prescribed to clients. While we discuss many potential benefits of mental health apps, we focus on a number of issues that the current state of the app literature presents. Overall there is a significant disconnect between app developers, the scientific community and health care, leaving the utility of existing apps questionable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Validation of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: psychometric properties and cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki; Kim, Kyung Ran

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences.

  20. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  1. Understanding Pregnancy Anxiety: Concepts, Correlates, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a particular emotional state tied to pregnancy-specific concerns, such as worries about the health of the baby and childbirth. A growing body of research demonstrates that pregnancy anxiety is an important risk factor for preterm birth and other adverse birth and child development outcomes. This article defines and describes…

  2. Social anxiety in three Western societies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam-Baggen, R.M.J. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Elal, G.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates whether empirical data support the notion that people in Western societies do not differ with regard to social anxiety. Social anxiety in Dutch students (N = 425) was compared with that experienced by students in the United States (N = 440) and Turkey (N = 349). Social

  3. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  4. Language Anxiety and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the literature on language learning anxiety in an effort to clarify the relationship between anxiety and second language learning. Suggests that anxiety is indeed a cause of poor language learning in some individuals and discusses possible sources of this anxiety. (Author/VWL)

  5. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions. To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted. Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials. patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition. Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation. Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list. Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information. Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study

  6. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  7. Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Claudio; Vanello, Nicola; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-05-30

    To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. We also obtained the fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) of the BOLD signal as an independent control measure for HE data. BFNE scores correlated positively with HE in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, while LSAS scores correlated positively with HE in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal sulci and in the parahippocamus. Results from fALFF were highly consistent with those obtained using LSAS and BFNE to predict HE. Overall our data indicate that spontaneous brain activity is influenced by the degree of social anxiety, on a continuum and in the absence of social stimuli. These findings suggest that social anxiety is a trait characteristic that shapes brain activity and predisposes to different reactions in social contexts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  9. [French translation and validation of a short version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2-VF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Bigault, C; Audouard-Marzin, Y; Scouarnec, P; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M; Walter, M

    2017-10-30

    Training health professionals about suicidal crisis is one major line of suicide prevention worldwide. France has one of the highest suicide rates in Europe, and although crisis intervention training has been set up since 2001, there presently is no training assessment tool in the French language for health professionals trained in suicide prevention. In the four levels of Kirpatrick's education pyramid, training that takes place in France today solely assesses level one status, that is to say relative to the level of satisfaction of participants (self-report). This study proposes a validated short French version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2) of Neimeyer & Mc Innes. The SIRI-2 questionnaire assesses the ability of first line intervention in dealing with suicidal individuals. The translation methodology was inspired from Vallerand's model of cross-cultural back translation. This method is regularly used for translating from the English language to a French version. In order to translate the English version, we used an extensive 7-step methodology implicating several bilingual translators, expert reviewers (psychologists and psychiatrists) and a scientific committee. Participants were 107 students from different French universities and study programs: psychology, medicine and nursing (17 were men; average age was 26.6). Fifteen of these participants answered the SIRI-2-VF on two occasions (separated by a 15-day interval) in order to estimate the temporal stability of the instrument. The scores of the students were compared to six French experts in suicide prevention and with the original expert group who worked on the development of SIRI-2 (n=7). We used Student t Test for construct validity, Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency and Pearson's correlation coefficient for temporal stability. Following a fidelity comparison of the results of the French experts with those of the American experts, ten items presenting the least good

  10. Surgery information reduces anxiety in the pre-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohara Leandro Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients preparing to undergo surgery should not suffer needless anxiety. This study aimed to evaluate anxiety levels on the day before surgery as related to the information known by the patient regarding the diagnosis, surgical procedure, or anesthesia. METHOD: Patients reported their knowledge of diagnosis, surgery, and anesthesia. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used to measure patient anxiety levels. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine patients were selected, and 82 females and 38 males were interviewed. Twenty-nine patients were excluded due to illiteracy. The state-anxiety levels were alike for males and females (36.10 ± 11.94 vs. 37.61 ± 8.76 (mean ± SD. Trait-anxiety levels were higher for women (42.55 ± 10.39 vs. 38.08 ± 12.25, P = 0.041. Patient education level did not influence the state-anxiety level but was inversely related to the trait-anxiety level. Knowledge of the diagnosis was clear for 91.7% of patients, of the surgery for 75.0%, and of anesthesia for 37.5%. Unfamiliarity with the surgical procedure raised state-anxiety levels (P = 0.021. A lower state-anxiety level was found among patients who did not know the diagnosis but knew about the surgery (P = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: Increased knowledge of patients regarding the surgery they are about to undergo may reduce their state-anxiety levels.

  11. Cueing and Anxiety in a Visual Concept Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip M.

    This study investigated the relationship of two anxiety measures (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form and the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness-Exam Form) to performance on a visual concept-learning task with embedded criterial information. The effect on anxiety reduction of cueing criterial information was also examined, and two levels of…

  12. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  13. A history of anxiety: from Hippocrates to DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the history of the nosology of anxiety disorders. Greek and Latin physicians and philosophers distinguished anxiety from other types of negative affect, and identified it as a medical disorder. Ancient Epicurean and Stoic philosophers suggested techniques to reach an anxiety-free state of mind that are reminiscent of modern cognitive psychology. Between classical antiquity and the late 19th century there was a long interval during which anxiety was not classified as a s...

  14. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hums along like background noise. For some teenagers, anxiety becomes a chronic, highpitched state, interfering with their ability to attend school and to perform up to their academic potential. Participating in extracurricular activities, making and keeping ...

  15. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  16. The relation between public speaking anxiety and social anxiety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöte, Anke W; Kint, Marcia J W; Miers, Anne C; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2009-04-01

    This article reviewed the literature on public speaking anxiety in the context of social phobia subtyping. In total, 18 empirical studies on subtype issues related to public speaking anxiety were analyzed. Results of the reviewed studies are discussed in relation to their research method, that is, whether it focused on qualitative or quantitative aspects of subtype differences and whether it used a clinical or community sample. Evidence supported the premise that public speaking anxiety is a distinct subtype, qualitatively and quantitatively different from other subtypes of social phobia. The significance of this finding for social phobia studies using speech tasks to assess participants' state anxiety and behavioral performance is discussed.

  17. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall treatment regimen. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  19. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding a therapist . Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  20. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  1. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad; Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and state and

  2. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  3. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...

  4. School Nurse Perceptions of Student Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeo, Michela A; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in youth. Because somatic complaints are a hallmark feature of anxiety, these students frequently visit their school nurse, creating an ideal opportunity for nurses to identify and assist them. In an effort to better understand current practices, we surveyed a large sample ( N = 93) of school nurses. Results indicated that the majority of nurses perceived anxiety as the most prevalent mental health issue in their students. Moreover, the majority of nurses reported that they did not use any formal screening tool or intervention protocol and stated wanting to expand their training in anxiety intervention. These data suggest that school nurses identify anxiety as a top problem but do not receive adequate training to address it. Data from this survey may be used to plan how best to fill gaps in nurse training and practices that can enhance nurses' capacity to optimize outcomes for anxious students.

  5. Anxiety Levels of Children Living in Intact, Single Parent, and Blended Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tammie D.; And Others

    Researchers have not yet been able to determine the effect of divorce on children's level of anxiety. Many studies suggest that divorce and remarriage can cause a great deal of anxiety in children. A study was conducted to determine if elementary, middle, and high school students differ in levels of state anxiety (level of anxiety at a particular…

  6. Anxious? Depressed? You might be suffering from capitalism: Contradictory class locations and the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Seth J.; Bates, Lisa M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Despite a well-established social gradient for many mental disorders, evidence suggests that individuals near the middle of the social hierarchy suffer higher rates of depression and anxiety than those at the top or bottom. Although prevailing indicators of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., SES) cannot detect or easily explain such patterns, relational theories of social class, which emphasise political-economic processes and dimensions of power, might. We test whether the relational construct of contradictory class location, which embodies aspects of both ownership and labour, can explain this nonlinear pattern. Data on full-time workers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=21,859) show that occupants of contradictory class locations have higher prevalence and odds of depression and anxiety than occupants of non-contradictory class locations. These findings suggest that the effects of class relations on depression and anxiety extend beyond those of SES, pointing to under-studied mechanisms in social epidemiology, e.g., domination and exploitation. PMID:26385581

  7. Generalised anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Avguštin Avčin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, somatic illness, pain, fatigue and problems sleeping. The evaluation of prognosis is complicated by frequent comorbidity with other anxiety disorders and depression, which worsen the long-term outcome and accompanying burden of disability. The two main treatments for generalised anxiety disorder are medications and psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors represent first-line psychopharmacologic treatment for generalised anxiety disorder. The most extensively studied psychotherapy for anxiety is cognitive behavioural therapy which has demonstrated efficacy throughout controlled studies.

  8. Hubness of strategic planning and sociality influences depressive mood and anxiety in College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Choi, Yoobin; Kwon, Yoonhee; Lee, Hwa Young; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan

    2017-12-19

    Depressive mood and anxiety can reduce cognitive performance. Conversely, the presence of a biased cognitive tendency may serve as a trigger for depressive mood-anxiety. Previous studies have largely focused on group-wise correlations between clinical-neurocognitive variables. Using network analyses for intra-individual covariance, we sought to decipher the most influential clinical-neurocognitive hub in the differential severity of depressive-anxiety symptoms in a college population. Ninety college students were evaluated for depressive-anxiety symptoms, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2(MMPI-2), and neuro-cognition. Weighted and undirected version of the intra-individual covariance networks, comprised of 18 clinical-neurocognitive variables satisfied small-worldness and modular organization in the sparsity range of K = 0.20-0.21. Furthermore, betweenness centrality of perseverative error for the Wisconsin card sorting test was reduced in more depressive individuals; higher anxiety was related to the increased betweenness centrality of MMPI-2 clinical scale 0(Si). Elevated edge-betweenness centrality of covariance between the MMPI-2 clinical scale 7(Pt) versus commission error of the continuous performance test predicted more anxiety higher than depressive mood. With intra-individual covariance network of clinical-neurocognitive variables, this study demonstrated critical drivers of depressive mood[attenuated influence of strategic planning] or anxiety[domination of social introversion/extroversion, in addition to the influence of compulsivity-impulsivity covariance as a shortcut component among various clinical-neurocognitive features].

  9. Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Bieg, Madeleine; Lüdtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students' beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed.

  10. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  11. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study data was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The questionnaire, STAI and BDI were applied to couples who initiated ART treatment. Couples' state anxiety scores were re-evaluated after ...

  12. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  13. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M. Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Kunik, Mark E.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examined the presence and frequency of alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and their relation to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety. We expected alcohol-use distribution to be similar to previous reports and alcohol use to be associated with higher anxiety and insomnia. A third aim was to examine the moderating role of alcohol use on the relation between anxiety and insomnia. We expected alcohol use to worsen the relation between anxiety and insomnia. Design Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial Sample 223 patients, age 60 and older, with DSM-IV GAD diagnoses Setting Patients were recruited through internal medicine, family practice, and geriatric clinics at 2 diverse healthcare settings: Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Administration Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. Measurements Measures addressed alcohol use (presence and frequency); insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index); self-reported worry severity (Penn State Worry Questionnaire − Abbreviated); clinician-rated worry severity (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale); self-reported anxiety severity (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait); and clinician-rated anxiety (Structured Interview Guidelines for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale). Results Most patients endorsed alcohol use in the past month, but overall weekly frequency was low. Presence and frequency of use among patients with GAD were greater than in prior reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use among patients with GAD was associated with higher education and female gender. Higher education also was associated with more drinks per week, and Caucasians reported more drinks per week than African Americans. Alcohol use was associated with less severe insomnia, lower self-reported anxiety, and less clinician-rated worry and anxiety. More drinks per week were associated with lower clinician-rated anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed lower

  15. Anxiety and retrieval inhibition: support for an enhanced inhibition account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Mia; Gregory, Josh; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Retrieval inhibition of negative associations is important for exposure therapy for anxiety, but the relationship between memory inhibition and anxiety is not well understood-anxiety could either be associated with enhanced or deficient inhibition. The present study tested these two competing hypotheses by measuring retrieval inhibition of negative stimuli by related neutral stimuli. Non-clinically anxious undergraduates completed measures of trait and state anxiety and completed a retrieval induced forgetting task. Adaptive forgetting varied with state anxiety. Low levels of state anxiety were associated with no evidence for retrieval inhibition for either threatening or non-threatening categories. Participants in the middle tertile of state anxiety scores exhibited retrieval inhibition for non-threatening categories but not for threatening categories. Participants in the highest tertile of state anxiety, however, exhibited retrieval inhibition for both threatening and non-threatening categories with the magnitude of retrieval inhibition being greater for threatening than non-threatening categories. The data are in line with the avoidance aspect of the vigilance-avoidance theory of anxiety and inhibition. Implications for cognitive behavioural therapy practices are discussed.

  16. Anxiety and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Andrew A; Singh, Rumani; Hunter, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. A number of anxiety disorder subtypes are considered "stress related." A large focus of research has been on the epigenetic and anxiety-like behavioral consequences of stress. Animal models of anxiety-related disorders have provided strong evidence for the role of stress on the epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of stress-responsive brain regions. Neuroepigenetics may continue to explain individual variation in susceptibility to environmental perturbations and consequently anxious behavior. Behavioral and pharmacological interventions aimed at targeting epigenetic marks associated with anxiety may prove fruitful in developing treatments.

  17. Betaxolol in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, C M

    1998-03-01

    Betaxolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic blocker that enters the central nervous system, was examined for therapeutic effects on the persistent anxiety of anxiety disorders. Prior studies of beta-blockers examined only agents that were short-acting or did not enter the brain. Betaxolol was administered to 31 patients in open trials. Of 13 outpatients, 11 had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Five with GAD had concurrent panic disorder. Of 18 inpatients, 16 had GAD and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Betaxolol doses were increased until the patient responded or declined further dosage. Severity was rated on a 4-point global scale. Before betaxolol, all were moderately or severely ill. In all patients with panic disorder panic attacks stopped within 2 days (pAnxiety decreased to no more than marginally ill in 85% of outpatients (panxiety and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Preliminary observations in posttraumatic stress disorder are similar.

  18. Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems, yet little is known about the antecedents of cannabis-related behaviors among this high-risk population. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relations among social anxiety, cannabis craving, state anxiety, situational variables, and cannabis use in the natural environment during ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users. During the two-week EMA period, social anxiety significantly interacted with cannabis craving to predict cannabis use both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Specifically, individuals with higher social anxiety and craving were most likely to use cannabis. There was a significant social anxiety X state anxiety X others’ use interaction such that when others were using cannabis, those with elevations in both trait social anxiety and state anxiety were the most likely to use cannabis. PMID:22246109

  19. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.

  20. Generalised anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Christopher K; Millichamp, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, ...

  1. Emerging Drugs for the Treatment of Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrough, James W.; Yaqubi, Sahab; Sayed, Sehrish; Charney, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorders in the United States and worldwide. Basic research has provided critical insights into the mechanism regulating fear behavior in animals and a host of animal models have been developed in order to screen compounds for anxiolytic properties. Despite this progress, no mechanistically novel agents for the treatment of anxiety have come to market in more than two decades. Areas covered The current review will provide a critical summary of current pharmacological approaches to the treatment of anxiety and will examine the pharmacotherapeutic pipeline for treatments in development. Anxiety and related disorders considered herein include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. The glutamate, neuropeptide and endocannabinoid systems show particular promise as future targets for novel drug development. Expert opinion In the face of an ever-growing understanding of fear related behavior, the field awaits the translation of this research into mechanistically novel treatments. Obstacles will be overcome through close collaboration between basic and clinical researchers with the goal of aligning valid endophenotypes of human anxiety disorders with improved animal models. Novel approaches are needed to move basic discoveries into new, more effective treatments for our patients. PMID:26012843

  2. Social Anxiety and the Severity and Typography of Stuttering in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  4. Effect of Preoperative Play Interventions on Post Surgery Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Alirezaei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control group. The anxiety symptoms were assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Yale modified Pre operative Anxiety Scale. The mean differences of pre and post operative anxiety scores were calculated and compared using the ANCOVA statistical method. "n "nResults: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for age which was higher in the control group. The baseline anxiety score was lower in the intervention compare to the control group and was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the trend of anxiety increment after surgery in the intervention group in comparison to the control group. "n "nConclusion: Attending in playrooms and using play activities may reduce the trend of increment in the anxiety level induced by surgical procedures.

  5. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  6. Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, rates of social anxiety disorder(SAD or social phobia range from 3% to 16% in the generalpopulation.[1,2]Social phobia and specific phobias have an earlier ageof onset than other anxiety disorders.

  7. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  8. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...

  9. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  10. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias

  11. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  13. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  14. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  15. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Masoomeh Aghamohammadi; Karimollahi, Mansoureh

    2007-06-29

    Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  16. Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...

  17. Change of anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zuo; Wu Zonggui; Wang Yongmei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was carried out in hundred and forty five patients, 104 men, 41 women, mean age (63 ± 9) years, before and after the coronary angiography procedure respectively. Results: The state anxiety score after the procedure was significantly decreased from 35.8 ± 10.2 to 31.7 ± 9.9 (P<0.01). The trait anxiety score after the procedure was slighytly lowered from 35.7 ± 8.8 to 34.4 ± 9.4 (P=0.019). Sub- group analysis showed that the state anxiety score in 55 patients with normal coronary artery was markedly decreased from 37.5 ± 10.5 to 28.8 ± 8.2 (P<0.01) while the state anxiety score in 90 patients with abnormal coronary artery was unchanged. The score in those patients with abnormal coronary artery was much higher than that of patients with normal coronary artery (33.5 ± 10.4 vs 28.8 ± 8.2, P<0.01). The trait anxiety scores in both group were not changed. Conclusion: Good news about normal coronary artery after angiography may reduce the anxiety in patients suspected of coronary heart disease. (authors)

  18. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  19. Risk Factor Research and Prevention for Anxiety Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series on Risk and Prevention of Anxiety Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In relation to treatment-related research in the United States, there is relatively little systematic effort focused on the combination of risk and prevention for anxiety pathology. This article broadly discusses risk factor research and prevention program development for anxiety psychopathology. The authors also specifically discuss papers in…

  20. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  1. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (p<0.001) of HF power during 20 to 36 gestation weeks. Compared with the non-trait-anxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  4. WORRY, ANXIETY AND TENSION — IMPORTANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    cognitive. Tension: Increased and unpleasant motor and psychological activity or a state of mental or ... MRC Research Unit on Anxiety and Stress. Disorders ... and brain imaging. Worry ... serve an adaptive function to the daily challenges of our environment. ... connection to physical symptoms ... Experience-conditioning.

  5. Selective processing of threatening information: effects of attachment representation and anxiety disorder on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichhoven, I.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; de Ruiter, C.; Brosschot, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule?Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also

  6. The independent association of anxiety with non-cardiac chest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeijers, Loes; van de Pas, Harm; Nyklicek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    the association between anxiety and NCCP is independent of personality factors. Participants with NCCP (N = 46; mean age 44.9 ± 14.7; 67% women) were evaluated for anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory[STAI]), clinical measures and personality factors (negative affectivity and social inhibition...

  7. The Communication of Public Speaking Anxiety: Perceptions of Asian and American Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marianne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Finds that U.S. audiences perceive Asian speakers to have more speech anxiety than U.S. speakers, even though Asian speakers do not self-report higher anxiety levels. Confirms that speech state anxiety is not communicated effectively between speakers and audiences for Asian or U.S. speakers. (SR)

  8. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chaieb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and gamma (40 Hz beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  9. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz), alpha (10 Hz) and gamma (40 Hz) beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  10. A pilot study on the Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders: Simulators classified by using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2017-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Associations between DSM-5 section III personality traits and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales in a psychiatric patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay; Quilty, Lena C; Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our aim in the current study was to evaluate the convergence between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III dimensional personality traits, as operationalized via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scale scores in a psychiatric patient sample. We used a sample of 346 (171 men, 175 women) patients who were recruited through a university-affiliated psychiatric facility in Toronto, Canada. We estimated zero-order correlations between the PID-5 and MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores, as well as a series of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyses to examine how these scales converged in multivariate latent space. Results generally showed empirical convergence between the scales of these two measures that were thematically meaningful and in accordance with conceptual expectations. Correlation analyses showed significant associations between conceptually expected scales, and the highest associations tended to be between scales that were theoretically related. ESEM analyses generated evidence for distinct internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism factors across all analyses. These findings indicate convergence between these two measures and help further elucidate the associations between dysfunctional personality traits and general psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior and collateral self-report test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Use of Prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Police Candidate Scores to Predict Supervisor Ratings of Posthire Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Brewster, JoAnne; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-08-01

    We examined associations between prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and posthire performance ratings for a sample of 131 male police officers. Substantive scale scores in this sample were meaningfully lower than those obtained by the test's normative sample and substantially range restricted, but scores were consistent with those produced by members of the police candidate comparison group (Corey & Ben-Porath). After applying a statistical correction for range restriction, we found several associations between MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores and supervisor ratings of job-related performance. Findings for scales from the emotional dysfunction and interpersonal functioning domains of the test were particularly strong. For example, scales assessing low positive emotions and social avoidance were associated with several criteria that may be affected by lack of engagement with one's environment and other people, including problems with routine task performance, decision making, assertiveness, conscientiousness, and social competence. Implications of these findings for assessment science and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier, C. J.; Hindocha, C.; Roiser, J. P.; Robinson, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range ...

  15. A history of anxiety: from Hippocrates to DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the history of the nosology of anxiety disorders. Greek and Latin physicians and philosophers distinguished anxiety from other types of negative affect, and identified it as a medical disorder. Ancient Epicurean and Stoic philosophers suggested techniques to reach an anxiety-free state of mind that are reminiscent of modern cognitive psychology. Between classical antiquity and the late 19(th) century there was a long interval during which anxiety was not classified as a separate illness. However, typical cases of anxiety disorders kept being reported, even if under different names. In the 17(th) century, Robert Burton described anxiety in The Anatomy of Melancholy. Panic attacks and generalized anxiety disorder may be recognized in the "panophobias" in the nosology published by Boissier de Sauvages in the 18(th) century. Also, anxiety symptoms were an important component of new disease constructs, culminating in neurasthenia in the 19(th) century. Emil Kraepelin devoted much attention to the possible presence of severe anxiety in manic-depressive illness, thereby anticipating the "anxious distress" specifier of bipolar disorders in DSM-5. A pitfall to consider is that the meaning of common medical terms, such as melancholia, evolves according to places and epochs.

  16. A history of anxiety: from Hippocrates to DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the history of the nosology of anxiety disorders. Greek and Latin physicians and philosophers distinguished anxiety from other types of negative affect, and identified it as a medical disorder. Ancient Epicurean and Stoic philosophers suggested techniques to reach an anxiety-free state of mind that are reminiscent of modern cognitive psychology. Between classical antiquity and the late 19th century there was a long interval during which anxiety was not classified as a separate illness. However, typical cases of anxiety disorders kept being reported, even if under different names. In the 17th century, Robert Burton described anxiety in The Anatomy of Melancholy. Panic attacks and generalized anxiety disorder may be recognized in the “panophobias” in the nosology published by Boissier de Sauvages in the 18th century. Also, anxiety symptoms were an important component of new disease constructs, culminating in neurasthenia in the 19th century. Emil Kraepelin devoted much attention to the possible presence of severe anxiety in manic-depressive illness, thereby anticipating the “anxious distress” specifier of bipolar disorders in DSM-5. A pitfall to consider is that the meaning of common medical terms, such as melancholia, evolves according to places and epochs. PMID:26487812

  17. Factors associated with social anxiety disorder in a group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özşahin, Akatlı Kürşad; Altıntaş, Ebru

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Mental disorders may accompany obesity. This study aims to evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obesity and the risk factors for SAD in obese female patients. Materials and methods: A total of 114 obese patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were administered to assess anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels. Scale scores were analyzed statistically. Results: The rate of SAD in obese female patients was found to be 8.8%. Anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels were significantly higher in the obesity group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). According to linear regression analyses, a significant association between LSAS anxiety level and age, prior surgery, social support, history of being teased, BDI, and BAI was found. Conclusion: The present study shows that many factors are related to obesity and SAD in obese female patients. The clinical implications of these findings should be considered. Interventions for these factors may help prevent SAD in obese female patients.

  18. Social Activities and Manifest Anxiety among Freshmen in Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in tertiary institutions in Lagos state of Nigeria were analysed to determine the relationship between social activities and manifest anxiety. Social activities in the study were measured in terms of freshmen adjustment to religious activities and ...

  19. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  20. The role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-08-01

    With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity....... Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom.......3% of total). After adjustment for age, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, urgency of surgery and time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass generalized anxiety disorder was associated with cardiac morbidity (odds ratio [OR]=3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-9.67, p=0.03). Adjusted...

  2. Relational anxiety in interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Shelton, J Nicole; Trail, Thomas E

    2009-03-01

    Most of the research on intergroup anxiety has examined the impact of people's own anxiety on their own outcomes. In contrast, we show that in intergroup interactions, one's partner's anxiety is just as important as one's own anxiety (if not more important). Using a diary study among college roommates, we show that partners' anxiety predicts respondents' anxiety across time on a daily basis, as well as respondents' interest in living together again the next year. We discuss the importance of taking a relational approach to understanding intergroup interactions.

  3. The changes of state-trait anxiety and blood plasma cortisol as well systolic pressure of armymen turned to sea training%部队转场海训后军人状态-特质焦虑与其收缩压和血皮质醇的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱媛; 吴志颖; 付晓丽; 王丽杰

    2014-01-01

    Through investigating the state-trait anxiety of mental characteristics change of armymen in military activity,to provide the basis for early warning prevention. Methods Transition to sea training for the 15th day,state-trait anxiety based on a questionnaire of 420 people,and blood pressure,pulse rate and blood cortisol (08:00am-09:00am) were investigated and detected whose results were compared to the norm or the normal value. Results State anxiety was 2 values in 185 persons higher than the standard deviation of the norm, accounting for 44% of the total person-number. Trait anxiety values was 2 votes in 113 higher than the standard deviation of the norm (high trait anxiety), accounting for 26.9% of the total person-number, value of trait-anxiety was less than the standard deviation of the norm 2 votes(low trait anxiety) in 85 persons, accounting for 20.2% of the total number. Systolic blood pressure and cortisol changed significantly (P<0.01). State anxiety and serum cortisol and systolic blood pressure changed at the same time significantly in total person-number of 30.2%,but changes in diastolic blood pressure was not evident. Higher trait anxiety anxiety , blood cortisol and elevated systolic blood pressure in high trait anxiety persons were of 61.9%(70/113);state anxiety,elevated blood cortisol and systolic blood pressure were in 23.7% of the total number of non-higher trait anxiety persons (79/334),low trait anxiety of trait-anxiety were of 15% of total person-number(13/85). Conclusion Sea training is a stress event, trait anxiety refers to the relative stability,as personality trait anxiety tendency has individual differences. So coping anxiety active has military significance to physical and mental health and enhancing fighting capacity.%目的:通过调查状态-特质焦虑心理特质在军事活动中的变化,为预警预防提供依据。方法转场海训的第15天时,对420人进行状态-特质焦虑问卷、血

  4. [Premorbid stage in the development of anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savost'ianova, O L

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of premorbid stage in children, aged 5-15 years, with ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety-phobic disorders have been studied. The patient's mental state has been described earlier (Savostyanova, 2001). Retrospective evaluation of the patient's state in premorbid allowed to detect the disturbances in personality formation, anxiety phobic reactions and autochthon phases, represented by continuum of subclinical disorders, from floating anxiety to the signs of vital anxiety. These traits are distinguished by instability and inconsistency as well as by mild expression, which did not reach a level of manifest disorders. Personality of the children, who develop anxiety phobic disorders, may be emotionally labile as well as rigid one inclining to negative effectiveness. Hereditable and environment factors influencing anxiety phobic disorders development were detected. The premorbid traits are concluded to reflect inherited anxiety diathesis, which determines the peculiarities of reaction to negative environment and results not only in personality development but also in the large spectrum of future anxiety phobic symptoms.

  5. The role of anxiety in stuttering: Evidence from functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2017-03-27

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19). During the speech task, people who stutter (PWS) showed increased functional connectivity of the right amygdala with the prefrontal gyrus (the left ventromedial frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus) and the left insula compared to controls. During rest, PWS showed stronger functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left orbital frontal gyrus, and between the left hippocampus and left motor areas than controls. Taken together, our results suggest aberrant bottom-up and/or top-down interactions for anxiety regulation, which might be responsible for the higher level of state anxiety during speech and for the anxiety-prone trait in PWS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural underpinnings of anxiety in PWS, thus yielding new insight into the causes of stuttering which might aid strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of diagnosis and trait anxiety on psychological distress in women with early stage breast cancer : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer-Dekker, Claudia M. G.; de Vries, Jolanda; Mertens, Marlies C.; Roukema, Jan A.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.

    ObjectivesHigh trait anxiety (HTA) determines depressive symptoms and state anxiety in women with breast cancer (BC) or benign breast disease (BBD). Before implementing screening for psychological counselling in these women, it is important to evaluate whether high state anxiety and depressive

  7. The impact of diagnosis and trait anxiety on psychological distress in women with early stage breast cancer : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer-Dekker, C.M.G.; de Vries, J.; Mertens, M.C.; Roukema, J.A.; van der Steeg, A.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High trait anxiety (HTA) determines depressive symptoms and state anxiety in women with breast cancer (BC) or benign breast disease (BBD). Before implementing screening for psychological counselling in these women, it is important to evaluate whether high state anxiety and depressive

  8. The impact of diagnosis and trait anxiety on psychological distress in women with early stage breast cancer: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer-Dekker, Claudia M. G.; de Vries, Jolanda; Mertens, Marlies C.; Roukema, Jan A.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.

    2014-01-01

    High trait anxiety (HTA) determines depressive symptoms and state anxiety in women with breast cancer (BC) or benign breast disease (BBD). Before implementing screening for psychological counselling in these women, it is important to evaluate whether high state anxiety and depressive symptoms are

  9. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  10. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  12. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at BetterHelp.com. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  14. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  15. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias KidsHealth / For Parents / Anxiety, Fears, ... unsettling experiences and challenging situations of life. Many Anxieties and Fears Are Normal Anxiety is defined as " ...

  16. Difference in anxiety symptoms between children and their parents facing a first seizure or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save-Pédebos, Jessica; Bellavoine, Vanina; Goujon, Estelle; Danse, Marion; Merdariu, Dana; Dournaud, Pascal; Auvin, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown that anxiety disorders are common in children with epilepsy. We explored symptoms of anxiety simultaneously in children and their parents. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale in children and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adult in parents. We included 118 parents and 67 children, who were divided into three groups: (1) first seizure, (2) epilepsy, and (3) nonepileptic paroxysmal event. We found that the level of anxiety in parents and children differed. We observed a significant increase in the anxiety level of parents whose children have had a first seizure, while we found a significant increase in the anxiety level of children and adolescents followed for epilepsy. These findings suggest that there is no direct relationship in the anxiety of the parents and their child. Further studies are needed to understand this variation over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Emotion Reactivity in Health Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Johnson, Adrienne L

    2017-11-01

    Emotion reactivity, defined as heightened sensitivity, intensity, and persistence of emotional states, has been shown to contribute to the exacerbation of anxiety. However, the association between emotion reactivity and health anxiety has yet to be examined. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of emotion reactivity in terms of health anxiety in a sample of medically healthy undergraduates ( n = 194; 59.3% female, M age = 19.42, SD = 1.51, range = 18-26 years; 84.0% Caucasian). Findings indicated that, after controlling for the effects of gender, age, and anxiety sensitivity, greater emotion reactivity significantly predicted greater overall health anxiety (3.1% variance), as well as higher levels of affective (4.1% unique variance) and behavioral (4.8% unique variance) components. Findings suggest that experiencing emotions more frequently, intensely, and for longer durations of time prior to returning to baseline are associated with greater health preoccupations.

  18. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child is often worried or anxious about many things and finds it hard to control this anxiety. Causes The cause of GAD is unknown. Genes may play a role. Children with family members who have ... factor in developing GAD. Things in a child's life that can cause stress ...

  19. Migraine, Osmophobia, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio; Marques, Karine Sobral; Torres, Rinailda Cascia Santos; Leal, Kamila Nazare Ribas

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between osmophobia and the characteristics of patients and their headaches, among migraine patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who consecutively sought medical attendance in a primary care unit were asked about their headaches over the last 12 months. Those who had migraine were included. A semi-structured interview, the Headache Impact Test and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. 147 patients had migraine; 78 had osmophobia; 60 had significant anxiety symptoms; and 78 had significant depression symptoms. The mean age of these patients was 43.2 years (± 13.7); 91.2% were women. The mean length of time with complaints of headache was 13.8 years (± 12). Among the migraine patients, those with anxiety, more years of headache history, and phonophobia presented significantly more osmophobia (multivariate logistic regression). Osmophobia in migraine patients is associated with significant anxiety symptoms, length of headache history, and phonophobia. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mobile Computer Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Patricia Brisotti

    2012-01-01

    As the basis of a society undergoes a fundamental change, such as progression from the industrial age to the knowledge/information age, the massive change affects every aspect of life. Change causes stress in individuals that often manifest itself as anxiety. Using an economic model of the endogenous growth, which includes technology as input,…

  1. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  2. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  3. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  4. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  5. Social Anxiety in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Guzin

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others. Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate. Social…

  6. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  7. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-04-21

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.

  8. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meades, Rose; Ayers, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Research and screening of anxiety in the perinatal period is hampered by a lack of psychometric data on self-report anxiety measures used in perinatal populations. This paper aimed to review self-report measures that have been validated with perinatal women. A systematic search was carried out of four electronic databases. Additional papers were obtained through searching identified articles. Thirty studies were identified that reported validation of an anxiety measure with perinatal women. Most commonly validated self-report measures were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Of the 30 studies included, 11 used a clinical interview to provide criterion validity. Remaining studies reported one or more other forms of validity (factorial, discriminant, concurrent and predictive) or reliability. The STAI shows criterion, discriminant and predictive validity and may be most useful for research purposes as a specific measure of anxiety. The Kessler 10 (K-10) may be the best short screening measure due to its ability to differentiate anxiety disorders. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) measures multiple types of distress, shows appropriate content, and remains to be validated against clinical interview in perinatal populations. Nineteen studies did not report sensitivity or specificity data. The early stages of research into perinatal anxiety, the multitude of measures in use, and methodological differences restrict comparison of measures across studies. There is a need for further validation of self-report measures of anxiety in the perinatal period to enable accurate screening and detection of anxiety symptoms and disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient anxiety before invasive diagnostic examinations: coronarography, arteriography, and colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryz, J.; Izdebski, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to answer such questions as: 1) Do patients show higher levels of anxiety (cognitive and/or physiological rates) before invasive examinations? 2) Does the type of invasive diagnostic examinations influence the patients' anxiety level? 3) Does the level of the patients' knowledge about coronarography, arteriography, or colonoscopy cause differences in their anxiety levels? The study was conducted at the Military Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz in the Departments of Gastroenteriology, Radiology, and Cardiology and in the Clinic of General Surgery, Chest and Vessels, and lasted seven months, from August 2002 to February 2003. 93 patients (29 women and 64 men) qualifying for different invasive examinations participated in the study. The participants were divided in three groups. The first consisted of patients awaiting coronarography, the second arteriography of the lower limbs, and the third colonoscopy. The participants were chosen on the basis of medical criteria. A structured interview was used to assess their levels of knowledge about the invasive examination they were to undergo. Anxiety was assessed with the Inventory of State and Trait Anxiety and by blood pressure measurement. On the basis of the obtained data we conclude that patients awaiting invasive examinations have higher physiological anxiety rates and that the type of invasive examination significantly influences patient anxiety levels. The type of examination did not differentiate patients according to their cognitive rates of anxiety: the level was average. The levels of patient knowledge about coronarography, colonoscopy, and arteriography did not cause any differences in physiological and cognitive rates of anxiety. The authors conclude that the cognitive aspects of anxiety do not influence the way patients experience physiological anxiety before invasive examinations. (author)

  10. A pilot study into the anxiety induced by various assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G. E-mail: g.marshall@ucsm.ac.uk; Jones, N. E-mail: n.jones@ucsm.ac.uk

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: To quantify the anxiety associated with various assessment methods undertaken by post-graduate students and to contextualise this with other life experiences. Method: Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory was anonymously completed prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) students undertaking assessments. The data were analysed as follows. The mean state and trait anxiety scores and standard deviations, associated with the assessment methods were calculated. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the state and trait anxiety scores recorded. Post hoc tests (Sidak) were then performed and finally an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) completed the analysis. Results: The seminar was the most anxiety provoking assessment method, followed by the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and the staged assessment, with the unseen written examination being the least anxiety provoking assessment. However, even the unseen written examination provoked more anxiety than elective surgery. There was a significant difference between the anxiety provoked by the aforementioned assessments only in the state anxiety scores, but not the trait anxiety scores (ANOVA). The significant differences were between both the OSCE and seminar and the unseen written examination, with the other differences not being significant as demonstrated by post hoc tests. ANCOVA, which controls for differences in the individual's trait score, also showed significant differences between the state anxiety scores between the OSCE and seminar and unseen written examinations. Conclusion: OSCEs and seminars are both significantly more anxiety provoking than unseen written examinations, but even unseen written examinations are more anxiety provoking than elective surgery. The anxiety provoking potential of assessments should not be underestimated.

  11. A pilot study into the anxiety induced by various assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, G.; Jones, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the anxiety associated with various assessment methods undertaken by post-graduate students and to contextualise this with other life experiences. Method: Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory was anonymously completed prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) students undertaking assessments. The data were analysed as follows. The mean state and trait anxiety scores and standard deviations, associated with the assessment methods were calculated. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the state and trait anxiety scores recorded. Post hoc tests (Sidak) were then performed and finally an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) completed the analysis. Results: The seminar was the most anxiety provoking assessment method, followed by the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and the staged assessment, with the unseen written examination being the least anxiety provoking assessment. However, even the unseen written examination provoked more anxiety than elective surgery. There was a significant difference between the anxiety provoked by the aforementioned assessments only in the state anxiety scores, but not the trait anxiety scores (ANOVA). The significant differences were between both the OSCE and seminar and the unseen written examination, with the other differences not being significant as demonstrated by post hoc tests. ANCOVA, which controls for differences in the individual's trait score, also showed significant differences between the state anxiety scores between the OSCE and seminar and unseen written examinations. Conclusion: OSCEs and seminars are both significantly more anxiety provoking than unseen written examinations, but even unseen written examinations are more anxiety provoking than elective surgery. The anxiety provoking potential of assessments should not be underestimated

  12. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  13. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  14. Effect of preoperative multimedia information on perioperative anxiety in patients undergoing procedures under regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlala, H A; French, J L; Foxall, G L; Hardman, J G; Bedforth, N M

    2010-03-01

    Provision of preoperative information can alleviate patients' anxiety. However, the ideal method of delivering this information is unknown. Video information has been shown to reduce patients' anxiety, although little is known regarding the effect of preoperative multimedia information on anxiety in patients undergoing regional anaesthesia. We randomized 110 patients undergoing upper or lower limb surgery under regional anaesthesia into the study and control groups. The study group watched a short film (created by the authors) depicting the patient's in-hospital journey including either a spinal anaesthetic or a brachial plexus block. Patients' anxiety was assessed before and after the film and 1 h before and within 8 h after their operation, using the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory and a visual analogue scale. There was no difference in state and trait anxiety between the two groups at enrollment. Women had higher baseline state and trait anxiety than men (P=0.02). Patients in the control group experienced an increase in state anxiety immediately before surgery (P<0.001), and patients in the film group were less anxious before operation than those in the control group (P=0.04). After operation, there was a decrease in state anxiety from baseline in both groups, but patients in the film group were less anxious than the control group (P=0.005). Preoperative multimedia information reduces the anxiety of patients undergoing surgery under regional anaesthesia. This type of information is easily delivered and can benefit many patients.

  15. Effects of acculturation on prenatal anxiety among Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relatively few studies have investigated how acculturation affects mental health in pregnancy among Latinas. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with anxiety over the course of pregnancy in a sample of predominantly Puerto Rican women. Women were recruited in pregnancy for participation in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Latina women (n = 1412). Acculturation was measured via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference and generation in the USA. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Instrument. Linear and logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. After adjustment, women with bicultural identification had significantly lower trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = -3.62, SE = 1.1, p acculturated women. Women with higher levels of acculturation as indicated by English-language preference (β = 1.41, SE = 0.7, p = 0.04) and second or third generation in the USA had significantly higher trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = 1.83, SE = 0.6, p acculturation was associated with lower trait anxiety in early pregnancy, while English-language preference and higher generation in the USA were associated with higher trait anxiety in early pregnancy.

  16. Impact of occupation on stress and anxiety among Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinal A; Patel, Prerna P; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, S A; Patel, Ashish D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of anxiety and stress in Indian women; and (2) evaluate the relationship of occupation to the prevalence of anxiety and stress. A cross-sectional study was performed from January 2013 to June 2014, on women (aged 18-50 years) randomly selected from different occupations in Gujarat, India. Anxiety was evaluated using Spielberg's State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scale and stress was assessed using the International Stress Management Association questionnaire. Serum cortisol concentration was measured in a sub-sample. The association of occupation with stress and anxiety was analyzed by a generalized linear model adjusted for age. Among all participants, 26% were the most prone and 66% were somewhat more prone to stress; 35% of women showed high anxiety levels. Homemakers had 1.2 times higher anxiety and 1.3 times higher stress than working women (p women and students. Serum cortisol levels did not differ significantly (p > .05) by occupation. This study revealed high prevalence rates of stress and anxiety in Indian women. Involvement in activities outside the home may help women to reduce stress.

  17. Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Lam, L T; Jin, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers.

  18. Environmental Conservation Consciousness and Anxiety From the Persective of Personal Anxiety and Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    保坂, 稔

    2014-01-01

    The system of lifetime employment tends to collapse recently, the rise of anxiety reduces some kinds of aspirations. This paper analyzes the relation between environmental conservation consciousness and anxiety by using the data of 260 university students in Nagasaki. Then I find that the affirmative side which anxiety brings to environmental protection.

  19. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  20. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Anxiety in Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Farzaneh; Nasiri, Ahmad; Akbari, Negarin; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is the most common mental disorder in end-stage renal disease patients. The use of aromatherapy as a treatment for anxiety has increased substantially in most countries. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhaling rose water aromatherapy on anxiety in hemodialysis patients. Methods This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in the hemodialysis ward of Birjand Vali-Asr hospital on 46 patients who were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The standard state-trait anxiety inventory of Spielberger was used to investigate the anxiety level of the samples. The experimental group inhaled rose water for 4 weeks, but the control group did not undergo any intervention. At the end of week 2 and week 4, the participants’ anxiety was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results Mean scores of state and trait anxiety in the experimental group before intervention were 47/47 ± 7/6 and 49/56 ± 13/8, respectively; those after week 4 following the intervention were reduced to 37/1 ± 6/5 and 42/9 ± 10/1; inhalation of rose water fragrance in the experimental group caused a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the state and trait anxiety levels compared with controls (P = 0.43). Conclusions According to the present study, rose water noticeably reduces the anxiety of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, inhalation of rose water can improve the patient’s emotional and spiritual condition during hemodialysis treatment. PMID:27878109

  1. Anxiety disorders: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R A; Mathew, R J

    1985-07-01

    Pathologic anxiety, marked by inappropriate apprehension and/or fear, causes patients to seek help. Anxiety is associated with a wide variety of physical illnesses, and these must be initially considered when making a diagnosis. Similarly, anxiety associated with a wide variety of psychiatric syndromes must also be considered. Finally, the possibility of transient situational anxiety is ever present. Once it is determined that a primary anxiety disorder exists, then the presence or absence of phobias, panic attacks, and chronic "free-floating" anxiety will fully characterize the disorder. With an accurate diagnosis in hand, a multifaceted treatment approach can be designed. Effective treatments now exist for phobic and panic disorders, and more effective treatment for chronic generalized anxiety may be forthcoming.

  2. [Predictive factors of anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, K

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent mental disorders in Europe (12-month prevalence 14%) and impose a high socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is complex with an interaction of biological, environmental and psychosocial factors contributing to the overall disease risk (diathesis-stress model). In this article, risk factors for anxiety disorders will be presented on several levels, e.g. genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, neuronal networks ("brain fear circuit"), psychophysiological factors (e.g. startle response and CO2 sensitivity) and dimensional/subclinical phenotypes of anxiety (e.g. anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition), and critically discussed regarding their potential predictive value. The identification of factors predictive of anxiety disorders will possibly allow for effective preventive measures or early treatment interventions, respectively, and reduce the individual patient's suffering as well as the overall socioeconomic burden of anxiety disorders.

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure of wounds and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Karabekmez, Furkan E; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tosun, Zekeriya; Savaci, Nedim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of anxiety in patients in whom the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) of wounds was used. Psychological evaluations were made on the day before VAC was applied and at the 10(th) day of treatment in 20 patients with traumatic wounds of the lower extremity. Anxiety was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and with the State Anxiety Inventory test. The same measurements were also made in 20 further patients with similar wounds but managed with classic treatment as controls. Both groups showed a significant increase in anxiety during the 10 days. The mean (SD) differences in the anxiety scores measured during the 10-day period were significantly higher in the group treated by VAC than in the control group, State Anxiety Inventory test (14.0 (2.3) compared with 2.6 (1.2), pVAC is an effective tool for treating lower extremity wounds, we have concerns about possible accompanying psychological effects.

  4. Predictors variables of anxiety in the Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Spain has seen a very significant increase in adults over 35 who often train and compete at all levels in athletics tracks. They are master athletes and, above them, there is no nationwide study and very few internationally there. Therefore, the objective of this research is on the one hand, know their training habits, athletic history and their anxiety level, analyzing gender differences, and secondly, obtain predictive models of anxiety based on their training habits and athletic history. We start from the assumption that, in the Spanish veteran athletes, in both sexes, there should be a moderate pre-competitive anxiety (cognitive and somatic and high self-confidence, and anxiety will be predict by a high score in the other state of anxiety, by scoring low in self-confidence as well as to train fewer days a week and take less years training, for the highest level of competition in which they participates and not having support from a coach. By contrast, self-confidence can be predicted by low rate in the two states of anxiety, by training more days a week and have more years training, by the lower level of the competition in which it participates and for having supported a coach. The results confirmed the hypothesis regarding levels of anxiety and self-confidence but, however, unexpected results were obtained regarding the prediction thereof which are discussed later

  5. Effect of juggling therapy on anxiety disorders in female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakahara Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juggling therapy for anxiety disorder patients. Design and Method Subjects were 17 female outpatients who met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. Subjects were treated with standard psychotherapy, medication and counseling for 6 months. For the last 3 months of treatment, subjects were randomized into either a non-juggling group (n = 9 or a juggling therapy group (juggling group: n = 8. The juggling group gradually acquired juggling skills by practicing juggling beanbags (otedama in Japan with both hands. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using scores of psychological testing (STAI: State and Trate Anxiety Inventry, POMS: Profile of Mood Status and of ADL (FAI: Franchay Activity Index collected before treatment, 3 months after treatment (before juggling therapy, and at the end of both treatments. Results After 6 months, an analysis of variance revealed that scores on the state anxiety, trait anxiety subscales of STAI and tension-anxiety (T-A score of POMS were significantly lower in the juggling group than in the non-juggling group (p Conclusion These findings suggest that juggling therapy may be effective for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. When sex hurts, anxiety and fear orient attention towards pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kimberley A; Binik, Yitzchak M; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir

    2005-08-01

    Hypervigilance for pain-relevant stimuli has been associated with anxiety, fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity. This attentional bias has been primarily investigated in heterogeneous pain groups or pain-free controls, but has not been examined in pain conditions where anxiety and fear are likely to play a central role. Due to the intimate and interpersonal nature of genital pain experienced during sexual intercourse, Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) constitutes an ideal sample in which to investigate the role of cognitive and affective factors in pain perception and maintenance. Seventeen women suffering from VVS and an equal number of age and education matched control women completed an emotional Stroop and memory recall task in addition to a series of questionnaires assessing pain-hypervigilance, state and trait anxiety, fear of pain, and anxiety sensitivity. VVS sufferers reported hypervigilance for coital pain and also exhibited a selective attentional bias towards pain stimuli on the emotional Stroop task as compared with controls. This effect was predicted by state and trait anxiety and fear of pain. According to these data, treament strategies for VVS should target anxiety and fear in addition to sensory systems.

  7. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-05-04

    This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun

    2018-01-01

    Despite the significant growth of the Asian population in the United States, current knowledge on their mental health and service utilization behaviors is very limited. The study examined the prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. A total of 602 Koreans completed a self-administered survey on physical and mental well-being, and the study found that 18.2% and 16.9% of the participants had severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Acculturative stress and perceived social support were common predictors for depression and anxiety, and the effects of demographic factors were minimal.

  9. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Evaluation of Fathers\\' Anxiety Level in the First 8 Weeks after Mothers\\' Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Maleki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy and transition to parenthood lead to major psychological and social changes in women and men. This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the fathers' anxiety level in the first 8 weeks after mothers' delivery. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling method, the anxiety level was evaluated in 403 fathers. The data collection tools were demographic characteristics questionnaire and standard State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S with cutoff of 45, which were completed after obtaining a written informed consent from each participant. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression model at 95% level of confidence. Results: The mean state and trait anxiety scores of fathers' were 34.04±9.24 and 34.57±9.80, respectively. Approximately 14% of the fathers had state and 15% had trait anxiety. There was a significant relationship between state anxiety of fathers and their income, and between trait anxiety and age, occupation, and having insurance. Fathers' anxiety level decreased with increasing age. the odds of having trait anxiety was higher in men with low education and no insurance. Conclusion: Considering the increasing level of fathers’ anxiety after mothers' delivery compared to the general population and its relationship with individual and social factors, it seems necessary to improve social supports, especially for young men.

  11. Effect of NICU Department Orientation Program on Mother’s Anxiety: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal intensive care unit induces the high level of anxiety for mothers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of NICU orientation program on the anxiety of mothers who had preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (three parallel groups. Participants included 99 mothers with preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU of Al- Zahra hospital, affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (film, booklet, and control. Mothers completed the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory before entering to the NICU, and then mothers in the experiment groups became familiar with the NICU environment through watching a film or reading booklet. After the first NICU visit, all mothers completed the STAI and Cattell's Anxiety Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 13 software. Results: There was no significant difference between three groups regarding state- trait anxiety before the intervention. After the first NICU visit, a significant reduction in maternal state anxiety was seen in the both experiment groups. There was no statistical significant difference regarding trait anxiety. Data obtained from Cattell's anxiety questionnaire after intervention, showed significant difference in state anxiety between groups. Conclusion: Employing film and booklet orientation strategy after preterm delivery can reduce the mother’s anxiety and beneficent for the mother, baby, family and health care system.

  12. [Effectiveness of prayer in reducing anxiety in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila Csizmar; Chaves, Erika de Cássia Lopes; Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Simão, Talita Prado; Grasselli, Cristiane da Silva Marciano; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of prayer on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Quasi-experimental study, with pre and post-intervention. Twenty patients admitted to treatment of continuous intravenous chemotherapy were recruited. The volunteers were evaluated through interviews using a questionnaire of sociodemographic, clinical and spiritual characteristics, the Index of Religiosity Duke University and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Vital signs were measured and collected salivary cortisol. The intervention was applied prayer and data collection occurred in three phases: first collection (baseline), pre and post-intervention. The data found between the pre and post-intervention samples showed different statistically significant for state anxiety (p= Prayer, therefore, proved to be an effective strategy in reducing the anxiety of the patient undergoing chemotherapy.

  13. Death and Death Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...

  14. The Influence of Resistance Exercise Training on the Levels of Anxiety in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Aidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effect of a strength training program on indicators of trait and state anxiety in patients with ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG consisting of 11 subjects aged years and a control group (CG with 13 subjects aged years. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training, with a frequency of three times a week. For data collection, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used. Significant differences were found between pre- and posttest in EG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest with no differences in CG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest. In the evaluation between the groups, significant differences were found for all indicators of trait anxiety ( EG; CG and state anxiety ( EG; CG. This pilot study indicates that strength training may provide an improvement in trait and state anxiety more than one year after stroke.

  15. Social anxiety and post-event processing among African-American individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2017-03-01

    Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African-American (AA; n = 127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n = 127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Data were collected online among undergraduates. PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr = .30, p = .001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β = -1.57, 95% CI: -5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.02. PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety.

  16. Social Anxiety and Post-Event Processing: The Impact of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. Design We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African American (AA; n=127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n=127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Method Data were collected online among undergraduates. Results PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr=.30, p=.001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β=−1.57, 95% C.I.: −5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β=0.00, 95% C.I.: −0.02, 0.02. Conclusions PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety. PMID:27576610

  17. Obesity and anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Linde, Katja; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and anxiety during the perinatal period are common and associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. Despite the well-documented health risks of both pregnancy obesity and anxiety, associations between the two have rarely been explored. With this review we aim to provide a systematic overview of the current state of evidence concerning associations between ante- and postnatal anxiety and pregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO. 13 Records matched our inclusion criteria. Five out of seven studies focusing on pregnancy obesity and anxiety suggest a positive association with ante- or postnatal anxiety. Surprisingly, no study examined anxiety disorders according to DSM and it remains unknown whether anxiety symptomatology reaches clinical relevance. Results from a small number of life-style intervention studies (n=3) suggest that interventions could benefit from a stronger focus on mental health. There were not enough studies on associations between excessive gestational weight gain (n=2) or postpartum weight retention (n=3) and anxiety making it difficult to draw conclusions about possible associations. The number of included studies is rather small and studies were included irrespective of the study quality which might limit the generalizability of the results. The majority of the included studies suggest that obese pregnant women might constitute a subgroup that is especially vulnerable for comorbid anxiety and in need of targeted psychological support. However, further high-quality studies, particularly including anxiety disorders, are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  19. Heart-rate variability and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes Blásquez, Julio César

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility of heart-rate variability (HRV) analyses as a noninvasive means of quantifying cardiac autonomic regulation during precompetitive anxiety situations in swimmers. Psychophysiological state evaluation of 10 volunteer «master» swimmers (6 women and 4 men) was obtained by comparing baseline training condition (TC) with competition condition (CC). Self-evaluation of precompetitive somatic anxiety measured by CSAI-2 showed significant increase from the ...

  20. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  1. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease

  2. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com [City Unity College, Thiseos 15-17, Athens, 105 62 (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  3. The role of anxiety in vaginismus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gayle; Nettle, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiety may play a large role in the symptoms of vaginismus. We aimed to (i) determine the degree of self-reported general anxiety in women with vaginismus; and (ii) establish whether general anxiety is a consequence of the condition or a predisposing factor. Participants reported state and trait anxiety, five-factor personality scores, history of anxiety disorders, and their perceptions of their symptoms and history. We compared responses of 244 self-identified women with vaginismus with a control group of 101 women using an online questionnaire. The women with vaginismus were higher in trait anxiety and neuroticism, and lower in extraversion, than the controls. There was also a trend toward a greater prevalence of diagnosed anxiety disorders in the vaginismus group. Levels of state anxiety were high among the women with vaginismus, particularly when they felt unsupported by their partners or pressured to cure the condition. Levels of general anxiety are elevated among women with vaginismus and the data suggest that anxiety-proneness may be a predisposing factor for the condition. We conclude that although vaginismus is a multidimensional condition, it may have common predisposing factors with anxiety disorders.

  4. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  5. Effectiveness of a Death-Education Program in Reducing Death Anxiety of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Noreen; Lally, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of death education program in reducing death anxiety experienced by 22 junior and senior nursing students. Subjects were pre- and posttested with State Form of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and viewed film of death experience. Posttest analysis indicated that death education program was effective in decreasing death anxiety…

  6. Persistent and fluctuating anxiety levels in the 18 months following acute myocardial infarction: the role of personality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, H; Roest, Annelieke; Denollet, J.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the varying courses of anxiety symptoms in the first 18 months after a myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the importance of personality in determining elevated anxiety. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-six MI patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory during

  7. Anxiety and anxiety disorders. Toward a conceptual reorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G C

    1985-03-01

    Traditionally, it has been assumed that there is only one type of anxiety; recent pharmacologic evidence suggests that there may be several. The psychoanalytic concept of "neurotic" symptoms as depressurizing mechanisms is out of keeping with most evidence now available. Spontaneous or "free-floating" anxiety may be partly biologic and genetic in origin. Anxiety symptoms evoked by specific stimuli behave in part like conditioned responses. Where conditioning theory has failed to propose a plausible unconditioned stimulus for pathologic anxiety, biology, ethology, and psychoanalysis may have been more successful.

  8. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  9. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Davies, M. J.; Farooqi, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Results: Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate...... amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; SD = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64...... not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety....

  10. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  11. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  12. Peer Mentoring During Practicum to Reduce Anxiety in First-Semester Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Danielle; Verklan, Terese

    2016-11-01

    The clinical setting creates significant anxiety for students that can decrease their ability to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined whether nursing students who participate in peer mentoring during their first clinical experience (n = 18) experienced less anxiety than those in traditional clinical experiences (n = 19). Anxiety was measured using the standardized State Trait Anxiety Index and the Clinical Experiences Anxiety Form (CEAF). Data were analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. A significant decrease was demonstrated in clinical situation-specific anxiety, as measured by the CEAF, among students who were peer mentored as compared with students who were not. Peer mentoring shows promise as an effective strategy to reduce anxiety among novice nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):651-654.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitativ...

  14. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  15. Grit, anxiety, and stress in emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Matthew L; Anderson, Jared; Knorr, Thomas; Joseph, Joshua W; Sanchez, Leon D

    2018-02-26

    The personality traits of emergency physicians are infrequently studied, though interest in physician wellness is increasing. The objective of this study is to acquire pilot data about the amount of grit, anxiety, and stress in emergency physicians using established psychological survey instruments, and to examine their associations of each of these traits with each other. Thirty-six emergency medicine resident and attending physicians from an urban academic medical center consented for enrollment. Participants were administered the Duckworth 12-point Grit Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), which measure grit, anxiousness, and perceived stress, respectively. These are the gold standard psychological instruments for each of their areas. We analyzed the results with descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and linear regression. Nineteen residents and 17 attending physicians completed the surveys during the first quarter of a new academic year. The mean grit score was 3.7 (95% CI 3.5-3.8, SD: 0.56), the mean trait-anxiety score was 32.61 (95% CI 30.15-35.07, SD: 7.26), and the mean PSS score was 12.28 (95% CI 10.58-13.97, SD: 4.99). Only trait-anxiety and perceived stress were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.70, panxious reported more stress. Levels of grit were not associated with trait-anxiety. These psychological concepts should be studied further as they relate to the function and health of emergency medicine providers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Anxiety: its role in the history of psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J M; Leighton, A H

    2009-07-01

    The role played by anxiety in the history of psychiatric epidemiology has not been well recognized. Such lack of understanding retarded the incremental growth of psychiatric research in general populations. It seems useful to look back on this history while deliberations are being carried out about how anxiety will be presented in DSM-V. Drawing on the literature and our own research, we examined work that was carried out during and after the Second World War by a Research Branch of the United States War Department, by the Stirling County Study, and by the Midtown Manhattan Study. The differential influences of Meyerian psychobiology and Freudian psychoanalysis are noted. The instruments developed in the early epidemiologic endeavors used questions about nervousness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc. These symptoms are important features of what the clinical literature called 'manifest', 'free-floating' or 'chronic anxiety'. A useful descriptive name is 'autonomic anxiety'. Although not focusing on specific circumstances as in Panic and Phobic disorders, a non-specific form of autonomic anxiety is a common, disabling and usually chronic disorder that received empirical verification in studies of several community populations. It is suggested that two types of general anxiety may need to be recognized, one dominated by excessive worry and feelings of stress, as in the current DSM-IV definition of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and another emphasizing frequent unexplainable autonomic fearfulness, as in the early epidemiologic studies.

  17. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  18. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  19. A summary on anxiety and phobic neuroses

    OpenAIRE

    Gauci, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Although anxiety and the phobic neuroses are classified as separate entities, most patients with phobic anxiety also suffer from an elevation of their general (free floating) level of anxiety, and nearly all patients with generalized anxiety may experience an aggravation of their anxiety, often to panic intensity.'

  20. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  1. Self-esteem and trait anxiety in relation to drug misuse in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Najjar, M; Clarke, D D

    1996-05-01

    This study was designed to document knowledge about Kuwaiti drug users and to investigate whether or not there is an association between their poor self-concept and high level of anxiety. One hundred and seven incarcerated drug users, 107 individuals serving prison terms for offenses other than drug use, and 107 "normal" individuals were included in this pilot study. The Arabic version of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the subjects' self-esteem and state-trait anxiety, respectively. The results documented revealed that there is a relationship between levels of self-esteem and anxiety in Kuwaiti drug user behavior.

  2. Referral for Fetal Echocardiography is Associated with Increased Maternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Katherine B.; Monk, Catherine; Kleinman, Charles S.; Glickstein, Julie S.; Levasseur, Stephanie M.; Simpson, Lynne L.; Williams, Ismee A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Referral for fetal echocardiography is an acute stressor that may induce significant maternal anxiety. To promote good clinical management of expectant mothers in this situation, including adequate screening for possible psychiatric interventions, data is needed regarding the psychosocial functioning of women scheduled for fECHO procedures. Objective To investigate the association between fECHO and maternal anxiety. Methods Pregnant women answered two questionnaires prior to first fECHO. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) assessed how subjects feel “now” (state) versus how they “usually feel” (trait). Separate state and trait anxiety scores were calculated; scores were compared between the study cohort and a gestational age-matched historical cohort of 31 pregnant women who did not undergo fECHO. A second questionnaire developed by the investigators ascertained pregnancy specific concerns and characteristics. Results 40 subjects were enrolled. The mean state score of the fECHO cohort (42.1±15.1) differed from the historical cohort (32.8±11.3; p=0.006); however there was no difference between trait scores (34.7±10.8 vs. 35.4 ±12.8; p=0.8). A multivariate linear regression model controlling for race and maternal age demonstrated that fECHO was a strong independent predictor of maternal state anxiety score (p=0.004, β=10.4). Conclusions Pregnant women presenting for fECHO report high anxiety levels compared with women not presenting for fECHO. Clinician awareness and sensitivity is recommended and further investigation of modifiers of anxiety in this high risk group should be explored. PMID:20443657

  3. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...

  4. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  5. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  6. Relationship between computer anxiety and internet satisfaction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between computer anxiety and the Internet satisfaction of secondary school students in Lagos State. This study adopted the ex-post-facto type of survey design. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 637 respondents across the 12 education zones in Lagos State ...

  7. Metaanálisis de comparación de grupos y metaanálisis de generalización de la fiabilidad del cuestionario State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guillén-Riquelme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Desde su creación, el STAI se ha citado en más de 14.000 documentos, contando con más de 60 adaptaciones en diversos países. En algunas de ellas este cuestionario no cuenta con puntuaciones clínicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si el cuestionario State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI tiene puntuaciones superiores en personas diagnosticadas de ansiedad respecto a la población general. Además, se pretende analizar si la consistencia interna es adecuada en personas con ansiedad. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Tripdatabase, Cochrane, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, PyscINFO y Scholar Google de documentos publicados entre 2008 y 2012. Se seleccionaron 131 artículos para la comparación entre pacientes diagnosticados de ansiedad respecto a la población general y 25 para la generalización de la fiabilidad. En los análisis se utilizó la d de Cohen para la comparación de medias (método de efectos aleatorios y para la generalización de la fiabilidad el alfa de Cronbach (método de efectos fijos. Resultados: En la comparación entre grupos, en la ansiedad estado (d = 1,39; IC95%: 1,22-1,56 y en la ansiedad rasgo (d = 1,74; IC95%: 1,56-1,91 las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Además de ello, la fiabilidad para pacientes con algún trastorno de ansiedad abarcó de 0,87 a 0,93. Conclusiones: El STAI es un cuestionario sensible para medir el nivel de ansiedad y fiable en personas diagnosticadas de crisis de angustia, fobia específica, fobia social, fobia social generalizada, trastorno de ansiedad generalizada, trastorno de estrés post-traumático, trastorno obsesivo compulsivo o trastorno por estrés agudo.

  8. Audiovisual aid viewing immediately before pediatric induction moderates the accompanying parents' anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, Johan; Weber, Frank; van Akoleyen, Candyce; Utens, Elisabeth; Adriaenssens, Peter; Klein, Jan; Himpe, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    Parents accompanying their child during induction of anesthesia experience stress. The impact of audiovisual aid (AVA) on parental state anxiety and assessment of the child's anxiety at induction have been studied previously but need closer scrutiny. One hundred and twenty parents whose children were scheduled for day-care surgery entered this randomized, controlled study. The intervention group (n = 60) was exposed to an AVA in the holding area. Parental anxiety was measured with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) at three time points: (i) on admission [T1]; (ii) in the holding area just before entering the operating theater [T2]; and (iii) after leaving [T3]. Additionally, at [T3], both parent and attending anesthetist evaluated the child's anxiety using a visual analogue scale. The anesthetist also filled out the Induction Compliance Checklist. On the state anxiety subscale, APAIS parental anxiety at T2 (P = 0.015) and T3 (P = 0.009) was lower in the AVA intervention group than in the control group. After induction, the child's anxiety rating by the anesthetist was significantly lower than by the parent, in both intervention and control groups. Preoperative AVA shown to parents immediately before induction moderates the increase in anxiety associated with the anesthetic induction of their child. Present results suggest that behavioral characteristics seem better predictors of child's anxiety during induction than anxiety ratings per se and that anesthetists are better than parents in predicting child's anxiety during induction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Relationship of Anxiety and Depression in the Development of Mixed Anxiety/Depression Disorder. An Experimental Study of Comorbidity Mechanisms (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyamina, A G; Kovalenko, I L; Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2016-01-01

    As clinical practice and experimental studies show, symptoms of depression and anxiety often accompany each other. It is well known that combination of anxiety and depression in patients is treated more slowly, requires large doses of drugs, increases the likelihood of suicide and often leads to relapse. Furthermore, antidepressants and anxiolytics exert its therapeutic effect in limited cases even in monopolar anxiety or depression state. In this review of literature and our own data the relationship of anxiety and depression is analyzed. It has been shown with using the model of mixed anxiety/depression disorder caused by chronic social defeat stress, that the anxiety and depression are changed under the influence of psychotropic drugs independently.

  10. Anxiety and coping in women with breast cancer in chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Vicente da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the coping strategies used by women with breast cancer in chemotherapy and to verify the association with the anxiety profile presented by them. Method: cross-sectional study of the analytical type. We used a random sample of 307 women with cancer in previous chemotherapy, adjuvant or palliative treatment. The data was collected using an interview technique with form registration, active search in medical records, Scale of Mode of Confronting Problems and Inventory of Anxiety and State. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences 19.0, Pearson correlation coefficient and the test Mann-Whitney were used. Results: there was a significant association of the anxiety trait and problem-focused coping strategies with a focus on emotion (p<0,000 and the anxiety state with problem-focused coping (p=0,001 and with focus on emotion (p=0,004. The results demonstrate weak associations between different coping strategies. Conclusion: the coping strategy chosen by women with breast cancer is directly related to anxiety. Patients with low-level anxiety tend to use problem-solving strategies while emotion-focused coping is applied if the level is medium to high.

  11. Depression and anxiety are not related to nummular headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; López-López, Almudena; Valle, Begoña; Cuadrado, María Luz; Barriga, Francisco J; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-12-01

    Nummular headache (NH) is a clinical picture characterized by head pain that is exclusively felt in a round, elliptical, or oval area of the head. Although there is evidence supporting an organic origin for NH, some authors question this origin, hypothesizing a potential role for psychological factors. Our aims were to investigate the differences in anxiety and depression between NH patients and healthy controls, and to analyse if these conditions were related to pain parameters in NH patients. The Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and the trait anxiety scale from state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were administered to 26 patients with NH and 34 comparable matched controls. No significant interactions between group (NH patients, controls) in either depression (U = 391; p = 0.443) or anxiety levels (U = 336; p = 0.113) were found. Both groups showed similar scores in the BDI-II (patients: 3.9 +/- 2.9; controls: 3.46 +/- 3.15) and STAI (patients: 17.23 +/- 10.3; controls: 13.5 +/- 7.9). Moreover, neither depression nor anxiety showed association with mean pain intensity, pain intensity in exacerbations, size of pain area, or pain frequency. Our study demonstrated that self-reported depression and anxiety were not related to the presence of NH. Further, longitudinal studies are still needed to elucidate the role of mood state in the course of NH.

  12. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Valim, André; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2009-09-01

    To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.

  13. Comparison of anxiety between smokers and nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Rayens, Mary K; An, Kyungeh; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn; Garvin, Bonnie J; Moser, Debra K

    2006-11-01

    Increased anxiety correlates with increased complications after acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety levels and use of anxiolytic agents have not been compared between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized because of acute myocardial infarction. To compare anxiety level, sociodemographic factors, and clinical variables between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction and to examine predictors of use of beta-blockers and anxiolytic agents among smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary data analysis of a prospective multisite study on anxiety in 181 smokers and 351 nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety was measured by using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the anxiety subscale of the Basic Symptom Inventory within 72 hours of admission. Smokers reported higher anxiety levels than nonsmokers reported on both anxiety scales. Female smokers reported the highest anxiety and peak pain levels of all, yet women were the least likely to receive anxiolytic agents. Smoking status was not a predictor for anxiety level when sex, peak pain, use of beta-blockers in the hospital, and age were controlled for. However, smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent and 60% more likely to receive a beta-blocker in the emergency department, and smokers were 80% more likely than nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent during hospitalization when these variables were controlled. Older female smokers are at risk for complications because they are older than their male counterparts and less likely to receive beta-blockers and antianxiety medications in the emergency department.

  14. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  15. Meta-worry, worry, and anxiety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya

    2015-01-01

    to children, but empirical support is lacking. The aim of the 2 presented studies was to explore the applicability of the model in a childhood sample. The first study employed a Danish community sample of youth (n = 587) ages 7 to 17 and investigated the relationship between metacognitions, worry and anxiety......The metacognitive model has increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorders in adults. It states that the combination of positive and negative beliefs about worry creates and sustains anxiety. A recent review argues that the model can be applied....... Two multiple regression analyses were performed using worry and metacognitive processes as outcome variables. The second study sampled Danish children ages 7 to 12, and compared the metacognitions of children with a GAD diagnosis (n = 22) to children with a non-GAD anxiety diagnosis (n = 19...

  16. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  17. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social anxiety disorder Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  18. Social Anxiety Disorder: More Than Just Shyness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social anxiety disorder treated? Finding Help Reprints Share Social Anxiety Disorder: More Than Just Shyness Download PDF ... overcome your symptoms. What is it like having social anxiety disorder? “In school, I was always afraid ...

  19. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial stressors ... were present for 98.1% of patients and 36.9% had multiple anxiety disorders. ... and the comorbidity of anxiety and personality disorders should receive further attention.

  20. The Effects of Distraction on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aynur; Doru, Özlem; Kucukoglu, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distraction on the preoperative anxiety levels of pediatric patients. A prospective, two-group experimental design was used. This study was conducted in the clinic of pediatric surgery of a university hospital in Turkey between November 20, 2013 and January 25, 2014. The population of the study was composed of a total of 83 children (40 in the study group and 43 in the control group) who met the inclusion. The data were collected using the "Personal Information Form," "Separation Scoring," and "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State Form." Distraction was performed on the children in the study group during the preoperative period. No intervention was applied to the children in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated that the separation scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State scores of the children in the study group, on whom distraction was applied, were lower than those of the control group. Distraction applied to children in the preoperative period significantly reduced anxiety and separation anxiety. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety Impacts Cognitive Inhibition in Remitted Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders, associated with alterations in neural and cognitive functioning. Research suggests inhibition and set-shifting deficits in anorexia nervosa (AN), but less is known about the persistence of these deficits after recovery, or their relationship to comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Women aged 19-45 remitted from AN (RAN, N = 47) and controls (CW, N = 24) completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test. It was hypothesized that RAN, and those with higher anxiety or depression, would demonstrate worse Inhibition and Switching task performance than CW. Differences in performance between groups trended toward significance on Inhibition Ratio (p = 0.08) but were nonsignificant on Inhibition/Switching Ratio (p = 0.93). A model including State Anxiety and diagnosis revealed a significant independent effect of State Anxiety (p = 0.026), but not of diagnosis nor their interaction. Regressing State Anxiety on Color-Word Interference Test Inhibition among just the RAN group was significant [β = 0.37, t(46) = 2.63, p = 0.012] but among just CW was not (p = 0.54). Interference control for neutral stimuli is influenced by anxiety in women with a history of AN. Anxiety is linked with greater symptom severity among AN individuals, and state anxiety may account for larger deficits seen on tasks using disorder-specific stimuli. Future research is warranted to elucidate the nature of neuropsychological deficits in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  3. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  4. Illusory correlation and social anxiety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.J.; Boegels, S.; Kindt, M.; Merckelbach, H.

    1998-01-01

    An illusory correlation (IC) experiment examined the presence of a phobia-relevant covariation bias in the context of social anxiety. 60 female college students (28 with low and 32 with high social anxiety) were shown a series of slides comprising pictures of angry, happy, and neutral faces which

  5. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  6. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  7. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

  8. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  9. Library Anxiety of Teacher Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Attri, Poonam

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the library anxiety in Teacher Trainees and found it to be a prevalent phenomenon in students. The five dimensions of library anxiety, namely, barriers with staff, affective barriers, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, and mechanical barriers have been identified. The sample of the study constituted 58…

  10. Mood-, Anxiety-, and Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 United States Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders (SUD) were based on treatment encounters. Risk for suicide associated with anxiety disorders were lower compared to mood disorder...

  11. Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Namazi, Masoumeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Seddigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefe; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Jannesari, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is the most common psychological response of women to labor. Aromatherapy, i.e. the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system, can create a state of calmness and help to alleviate anxiety. Objectives: The present study tried to determine the efficacy of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil in reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on two groups of pregnant women, referred...

  12. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwei Yao; Yongliang Yang; Xiang Xie; Wenxin Xu; Xiushi Ding

    2013-01-01

    Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and f...

  13. Anxiety and its time courses during radiotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; COUCKE, Philippe; Salamon, Emile; Razavi, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To our knowledge, no study has specifically assessed the time course of anxiety during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to assess anxiety time courses in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Material and methods: This multicenter, descriptive longitudinal study included 213 consecutive patients with breast cancer who completed visual analog scales (VASs) assessing state anxiety before and after the RT simulation and the first and last five RT se...

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment of anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiglazova, M V; Krasnov, V N; Dovzhenko, T V; Lebedev, A V

    2012-01-01

    The results of the study of psychopathological, somatic and functional characteristics of anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with acute myocardial infarction are presented. The authors confirmed the wide prevalence of these disorders in acute myocardial infarction and described the features of their diagnostics, dynamics and response to complex treatment. The impact of anxiety-depressive disorders on the clinical and functional state of the cardiovascular system and the dynamics of the patient's status due the concomitant anxiety-depressive disorder are considered.

  15. Quality of life and anxiety in women with breast cancer before and after treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, Raquel Rey; Fernández, Salvador Pita; Garea, Carmen Cereijo; Pillado, Mª Teresa Seoane; Barreiro, Vanesa Balboa; Martín, Cristina González

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to determine the quality of life and anxiety in patients with breast cancer and the changes they experience after treatments. Method: prospective study. Breast cancer statistics (n=339, confidence=95%, accuracy= ± 5.32%). The quality of life questionnaires (QLQ) used were QLQ C-30 and QLQ Br23, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used for anxiety. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with baseline quality of life and anxiet...

  16. Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Kristy L; Boyes, Allison W; Carey, Mariko L; Hall, Alix E; Symonds, Michael; Brown, Sandy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W

    2018-04-01

    To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score ≥ 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Referee Anxiety in Health Researches: A Challenge of Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi-rizi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the researchers, referees have important roles for publishing a valuable scholarly paper. A scientific work is evaluated in different phases from the beginning till it is published. In each of these phases, unpleasant experiences may happen for researchers and referees. Researchers as the producers of scientific papers experience research anxiety, library anxiety, information seeking anxiety, and referee anxiety. On the other hand, referees experience referees’ anxiety. So it is very important to recognize the effective factors causing anxiety and try to eliminate these problems. As the research area is very broad, all these mentioned concepts are parts of the research process. But one of the most critical stages of research is the review of scientific works particularly in the field of health. “The selection of the referee is the most important decision that the editors make about a scientific work” (1. Referee selection is very important in the area of health because the results of these researches have direct or indirect effects on public health (2. If the facilities are not properly provided for referees, many problems may occur including anxiety referee. Findings of Von Glinow and Novelli showed that there was an unpleasant sense for referees when they feel particular biases from the editor (3. Weller also states that there is an unpleasant sensation if the authors identify their referees (4. Other factors that cause anxiety during the referee process are: receiving several papers to review (5, selecting an inappropriate referee for a paper by the editor (6, lack of clear guidelines and standards of review (4, young and inexperienced referees and inappropriate behavior of journal staff and research centers, lack of scientific knowledge of the referee, and lack of enough ability for the referee to reject the article, all causing unpleasant feelings. In a simple definition, referee anxiety includes any discomfort of

  18. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Snieder, N.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their

  19. The impact of injection anxiety on education of travelers about common travel risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lorraine M; Farquharson, Lorna; O'Dwyer, Niamh A; Behrens, Ron H

    2014-01-01

    Despite many travelers receiving at least one vaccination during the pre-travel consultation, little is known about travelers' fear of injections and the impact this may have on educating travelers about health risks associated with their trip. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence of injection anxiety in travelers attending a pre-travel consultation, (2) whether anxiety due to anticipating a vaccination adversely affects recall of information and advice, and (3) whether clinicians can recognize travelers' anxiety, and how they respond to anxious travelers. Consecutive adult travelers (N = 105) attending one of two inner-city travel clinics completed self-report measures of state anxiety, injection anxiety, and symptoms of needle phobia immediately before and after their pre-travel consultation. Clinicians were also asked to rate travelers' anxiety and report any anxiety management strategies. Standardized information was presented during the consultation and recall of information and advice was assessed immediately post-consultation. Delayed recall (24 hours) was assessed for a subsample (20%) of participants. More than one third of travelers reported feeling nervous or afraid when having an injection (39%). Travelers' state anxiety was related to their psychological and physiological reactions to needles, and reduced significantly post-consultation. Recall of information and advice varied, with failure of recall ranging from 2 to 70% across 15 items, and delayed recall being significantly lower. No relationship was found between recall and anxiety. Clinician-rated anxiety moderately correlated with travelers' self-reported anxiety. A significant proportion of travelers experienced injection anxiety when attending the pre-travel consultation, with some travelers reporting symptoms consistent with criteria for Blood Injection Injury phobia. There were important gaps in recall of information and advice about common travel risks. Although no

  20. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were...... assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression......; they showed continuity from early childhood and association with emotional disorders, unspecific somatic complaints, and increased healthcare expenditure. Further research in the clinical significance of childhood HA is required....

  1. Health anxiety by proxy in women with severe health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgaard, Mette Viller; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Walker, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Health anxiety (HA) refers to excessive worries and anxiety about harbouring serious illness based on misinterpretation of bodily sensations or changes as signs of serious illness. Severe HA is associated with disability and high health care costs. However, the impact of parental HA on excessive...... concern with their children's health (health anxiety by proxy) is scantly investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate HA by proxy in mothers with severe HA. Fifty mothers with severe HA and two control groups were included, i.e. mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (N = 49) and healthy mothers (N...

  2. Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate personal and institutional factors related to depression and anxiety prevalence of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Methods The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012, examining personal factors (age, sex, housing, tuition scholarship and institutional factors (year of the medical training, school legal status, location and support service in association with scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8 % completed the study. The depressive symptoms prevalence was 41 % (BDI > 9, state-anxiety 81.7 % and trait-anxiety in 85.6 % (STAI > 33. There was a positive relationship between levels of state (r = 0,591, p < 0.001 and trait (r = 0,718, p < 0.001 anxiety and depression scores. All three symptoms were positively associated with female sex and students from medical schools located in capital cities of both sexes. Tuition scholarship students had higher state-anxiety but not trait-anxiety or depression scores. Medical students with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms disagree more than their peers with the statements “I have adequate access to psychological support” and “There is a good support system for students who get stressed”. Conclusions The factors associated with the increase of medical students’ depression and anxiety symptoms were female sex, school location and tuition scholarship. It is interesting that tuition scholarship students showed state-anxiety, but not depression and trait-anxiety symptoms.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on relationship between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety subscales in children

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, H.M.S.; Eley, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, a belief that symptoms of anxiety are harmful, has been proposed to influence development of panic disorder. Recent research suggests it may be a vulnerability factor for many anxiety subtypes. Moderate genetic influences have been implicated for both anxiety sensitivity and anxiety, however, little is known about the aetiology of the relationship between these traits in children. Self-reports of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms were collected from approximately 3...

  4. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  5. Children's experiences of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Annie G; Rodd, Helen D; Porritt, Jenny M; Baker, Sarah R; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Williams, Chris; Marshman, Zoe

    2017-03-01

    Dental anxiety is common among children. Although there is a wealth of research investigating childhood dental anxiety, little consideration has been given to the child's perspective. This qualitative study sought to explore with children their own experiences of dental anxiety using a cognitive behavioural therapy assessment model. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with dentally anxious children aged 11-16 years. The Five Areas model was used to inform the topic guide and analysis. Data were analysed using a framework approach. In total, 13 children were interviewed. Participants described their experiences of dental anxiety across multiple dimensions (situational factors and altered thoughts, feelings, physical symptoms, and behaviours). Participants placed considerable value on communication by dental professionals, with poor communication having a negative influence on dental anxiety and the dentist-patient relationship. This study confirms the Five Areas model as an applicable theoretical model for the assessment of childhood dental anxiety. Children provided insights about their own dental anxiety experiences that have not previously been described. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  8. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training - a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD patients, on the depression and anxiety. Methods: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used in the study. Results: A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1 and final examination (t2 indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2 in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1. The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2. Conclusions: Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction.

  9. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ANXIETY AND STYLE OF FAMILY UPBRINGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.

  12. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  13. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  14. Measuring anxiety after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank and linkage with GAD-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Heinemann, Allen W; Pohlig, Ryan T; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7.

  15. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  16. The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2017-06-01

    From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included "pantophobia" and "anxiety neurosis." Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-III ) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder. The distinct responses these two disorders had to imipramine therapy was one reason to distinguish between the two. Since the revised DSM-III ( DSM-III-R ), worry about a number of life circumstances has been gradually emphasized as the distinctive symptom of GAD. Thus, a cognitive aspect of anxiety has become the core criterion of GAD. The validity of GAD as an independent category has been questioned from DSM-III up to preparation of DSM-5 . Areas of concern have included the difficulty to establish clear boundaries between GAD and (i) personality dimensions, (ii) other anxiety-spectrum disorders, and (iii) nonbipolar depression. The National Institute of Mental Health has recently proposed the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework destined to facilitate biological research into the etiology of mental symptoms. Within the RDoC framework, generalized anxiety might be studied as a dimension denominated "anxious apprehension" that would typically fit into the research domain called "negative valence systems" and the more specific construct termed "potential threat."

  17. A prospective examination of depression, anxiety and stress throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgert van Jaarsveld

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety. A secondary objective was to determine whether there are gender and ethnic differences in the levels of anxiety of those police recruits. To investigate the stated objectives the NEO Personality Inventory, Locus of Control Inventory and the IPAT Anxiety Scale were applied to 487 police recruits. Complete records were obtained for 259 participants. In comparing the personality profiles of participants who are high on anxiety and those who are low, it turned out that the biggest differences were in respect of Neuroticism, External Locus of Control and Agreeableness.

  19. Mood-, Anxiety-, and Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 United States Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders (SUD) were based on treatment encounters. Risk for suicide associated with anxiety disorders were lower compared to mood disorders and similar to SUD. Moreover, the associations between mood and anxiety disorders with suicide were greatest within a year of treatment presentation. PMID:23094649

  20. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p students' achievement motivation.

  1. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Es...

  2. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  3. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders: A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, M.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cath, D.C.; van Hout, M.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  4. Performance Anxiety at English PBL Groups Among Taiwanese Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  5. Influence of Competitive-Anxiety on Heart Rate Variability in Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo S; da Costa, Bruna D V; Paes, Pedro P; do Nascimento Júnior, José R A; Fiorese, Lenamar; Ferreira, Maria E C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between competitive anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) in swimming athletes. A total of 66 volunteers (41 male and 27 female) who swam the 400-m freestyle in the Brazilian Swimming Championships participated. Thirty minutes before the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes answered the Competitive Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) questionnaire, then underwent anthropometric (body weight, height, and skinfold thickness) and HRV measurements. Then, at a second meeting, held 3 h after the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes returned to the evaluation room for HRV measurement (Polar ® RS800cx, Kempele, Finland). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between competitive anxiety and HRV. The multiple linear regression was performed in three blocks (block 1: cognitive anxiety, block 2: somatic anxiety, and block 3: self-confidence), adopting the forward model. The results indicated a significant association between cognitive anxiety (p = 0.001) and HRV. An increased magnitude of the association was observed when somatic anxiety was inserted in the model (p = 0.001). In contrast, self-confidence showed, which was inserted in block 3, no relationship with HRV (p = 0.27). It was concluded that cognitive and somatic anxieties were associated with the HRV of swimmers. Athletes with a high magnitude of cognitive and/or somatic anxiety demonstrated more significant autonomic nervous system disturbance. Practically, psychological interventions are needed to improve anxiety states that are specific to perform well, and to improve HRV.

  6. Current irritability robustly related to current and prior anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Laura D; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Holtzman, Jessica N; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-08-01

    Although current irritability and current/prior anxiety have been associated in unipolar depression, these relationships are less well understood in bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated relationships between current irritability and current/prior anxiety as well as other current emotions and BD illness characteristics. Outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorders Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prevalence and clinical correlates of current irritability and current/prior anxiety and other illness characteristics were examined. Among 497 BD outpatients (239 Type I, 258 Type II; 58.1% female; mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years), 301 (60.6%) had baseline current irritability. Patients with versus without current irritability had significantly higher rates of current anxiety (77.1% versus 42.9%, p anxiety disorder (73.1% versus 52.6%, p anxiety than to current anhedonia, sadness, or euphoria (all p anxiety associations persisted across current predominant mood states. Current irritability was more robustly related to past anxiety than to all other assessed illness characteristics, including 1° family history of mood disorder, history of alcohol/substance use disorder, bipolar subtype, and current syndromal/subsyndromal depression (all p anxiety. Further studies are warranted to assess longitudinal clinical implications of relationships between irritability and anxiety in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contextual Factors Related to Math Anxiety in Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research. The…

  8. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  9. Exploration of Problematic Internet Use and Social Interaction Anxiety among Turkish Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadar, Cem

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between problematic Internet use and social interaction anxiety among pre-service teachers. Participants were 1235 students attending teacher training programs at a Turkish state university. The "Problematic Internet Use Scale" and "Social Interaction Anxiety Scale" were used to…

  10. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  11. Audiovisual aid viewing immediately before pediatric induction moderates the accompanying parents' anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghmans, Johan; Weber, Frank; van Akoleyen, Candyce; Utens, Elisabeth; Adriaenssens, Peter; Klein, Jan; Himpe, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Parents accompanying their child during induction of anesthesia experience stress. The impact of audiovisual aid (AVA) on parental state anxiety and assessment of the child's anxiety at induction have been studied previously but need closer scrutiny. One hundred and twenty parents whose children

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Guide Scale Development for Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Aman, Michael G.; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to…

  13. A Comparison of Implosive Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E.; Nye, S. Lee

    1973-01-01

    Both Desensitization and implosive therapy resulted in significant decreases in scores on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale. However, the desensitization group also demonstrated a significant reduction in state anxiety assessed during simulated testing sessions and a significant increase in grade point average, while the implosive therapy group showed…

  14. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  15. Anxiety After Stroke: The Importance of Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ho-Yan Yvonne; Whiteley, William N; Dennis, Martin S; Mead, Gillian E; Carson, Alan J

    2018-03-01

    Anxiety after stroke is common and disabling. Stroke trialists have treated anxiety as a homogenous condition, and intervention studies have followed suit, neglecting the different treatment approaches for phobic and generalized anxiety. Using diagnostic psychiatric interviews, we aimed to report the frequency of phobic and generalized anxiety, phobic avoidance, predictors of anxiety, and patient outcomes at 3 months poststroke/transient ischemic attack. We followed prospectively a cohort of new diagnosis of stroke/transient ischemic attack at 3 months with a telephone semistructured psychiatric interview, Fear Questionnaire, modified Rankin Scale, EuroQol-5D5L, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Anxiety disorder was common (any anxiety disorder, 38 of 175 [22%]). Phobic disorder was the predominant anxiety subtype: phobic disorder only, 18 of 175 (10%); phobic and generalized anxiety disorder, 13 of 175 (7%); and generalized anxiety disorder only, 7 of 175 (4%). Participants with anxiety disorder reported higher level of phobic avoidance across all situations on the Fear Questionnaire. Younger age (per decade increase in odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.91) and having previous anxiety/depression (odds ratio, 4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-9.89) were predictors for anxiety poststroke/transient ischemic attack. Participants with anxiety disorder were more dependent (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5, [anxiety] 55% versus [no anxiety] 29%; P anxiety] 19.5, 10-27 versus [no anxiety] 0, 0-5; P Anxiety after stroke/transient ischemic attack is predominantly phobic and is associated with poorer patient outcomes. Trials of anxiety intervention in stroke should consider the different treatment approaches needed for phobic and generalized anxiety. © 2018 The Authors.

  16. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO 2 did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow

  17. The association between anxiety and measures of glycaemia in a population-based diabetes screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Davies, M. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2011-01-01

    diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA 1c measurement, detailed history, anthropometric measurements and completed the short-form Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results Anxiety was significantly higher in South Asian participants (mean 34.1; sd0.37) compared with White...... European participants (mean 29.8; sd0.13). Significant correlations were not identified between anxiety and fasting (r=-0.01, P=0.75), 2-h glucose (r=-0.10, P=0.24) or HbA 1c (r=0.01, P=0.40). Conclusions Anxiety levels at screening were greater among South Asian people. Fasting, 2-h plasma glucose and Hb......A 1c are not affected by anxiety during screening tests for diabetes. Current and proposed screening methods for diagnosis of diabetes are not affected by anxiety at screening....

  18. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  19. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  20. Anxiety and EFL: Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2013-01-01

    The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…

  1. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  2. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  3. An examination of the symptoms of anxiety and parental attitude in children with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abali, Osman; Zülfikar, Osman Bülent; Karakoç Demirkaya, Sevcan; Ayaydin, Hamza; Kircelli, Fuat; Duman, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Hemophilia is an inherited disease with serious repercussions. Psychiatric symptoms are frequently seen in children and adolescents with hemophilia. The aim of this study was to assess symptoms of anxiety in children with hemophilia and parental attitude towards children with hemophilia. 42 boys were assessed according to child and adolescent psychiatry. Anxiety symptoms and parental attitude were obtained by the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Self-Report for Childhood Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED) and the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI). The mean age was 11.6 ± 2.5 (range; 7-16). State anxiety scores (44.02 ± 6.9) were higher than trait anxiety scores (32.7 + 7.5). The most interesting results were high scores related to overprotective mothering (47.9 ± 9.7) and the application of strict discipline (39.4 ± 9.1). The total SCARED scores obtained were (23.25 ± 11.3). Assuring a high quality of life is important for children and adolescents with chronic illness. Quality of life is negatively affected by psychiatric symptoms (e.g. anxiety symptoms, depression, intra-familial stress symptoms) in children with hemophilia. This study suggests that high anxiety scores and problems related to parental attitude can be seen in children and adolescents with hemophilia. These problems caused by parental attitude and anxiety symptoms should be considered in the treatment of hemophilia.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of cognitive therapy on perioperative anxiety and depression among Nigerian surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, H O; Olley, B O; Adejumo, A O

    2003-12-01

    Surgical paients have been known to benefit immensely from psychological interventions. This study set out to assess the pre and postoperative anxiety levels and depression and the effect of cognitive therapy among Nigerian surgical patients. The effects of gender and educational status on perioperative anxiety and depression were also evaluated. The study utilized a controlled outcome design to evaluate the efficacy of self-instructional training (SIT) and rational emotive therapy (RET) in surgical patients. Preoperative anxiety and depression scores were used as co-variants. Thirty-three (33) elective surgical patients were sampled randomly, divided into 3 groups of eleven (11) patients each. Eight (8) subjects underwent gynaecological procedures while the remaining 25 subjects had general surgical procedures. The mean age was 32.72 +/- 15.83 years (range = 17-16 years.) The major instruments used in the study were the State Anxiety Subscale of the Speilberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Inventory. SIT had the potential to reduce anxiety level among subjects postoperatively (t = 2.06; df = 10; p < 0.05). The use of RET reduced depression among surgical patients (t = 1.23; df = 10; p < 0.05). It was concluded that surgical patients manifest varying degrees of anxiety preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient's pre and postoperative anxiety and depression can be reduced by the introduction of SIT and RET.

  5. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  6. Instruments to measure anxiety in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Tanya; Tigelaar, Leonie; Pole, Jason D; De Souza, Claire; Tomlinson, Deborah; Sung, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective was to describe anxiety measurement instruments used in children and adolescents with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and summarize their content and psychometric properties. We conducted searches of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, HAPI, and CINAHL. We included studies that used at least one instrument to measure anxiety quantitatively in children or adolescents with cancer or undergoing HSCT. Two authors independently identified studies and abstracted study demographics and instrument characteristics. Twenty-seven instruments, 14 multi-item and 13 single-item, were used between 78 studies. The most commonly used instrument was the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in 46 studies. Three multi-item instruments (Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Mandarin version, PROMIS Pediatric Anxiety Short Form, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and two single-item instruments (Faces Pain Scale-Revised and 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, both adapted for anxiety) were found to be reliable and valid in children with cancer. We identified 14 different multi-item and 13 different single-item anxiety measurement instruments that have been used in pediatric cancer or HSCT. Only three multi-item and two single-item instruments were identified as being reliable and valid among pediatric cancer or HSCT patients and would therefore be appropriate to measure anxiety in this population.

  7. The Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Anxiety in Patients With Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481

  8. Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens

    Full Text Available Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW, (ii across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH. Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state. Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001 and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001. Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013 and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005 when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  10. Depression and anxiety among parents of phenylketonuria children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Arslan, Nur; Unal, Ozlem; Cakar, Sevim; Kuyum, Pınar; Bulbul, Selda F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the existence of depression and/or anxiety with underlying risk factors among parents of children with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Division of Pediatric Metabolism, Ankara Children’s Hospital, Dokuz Eylul University, Kırıkkale University, and Erzurum Local Research Hospital, Turkey, between January and July 2014. Parents of 61 patients and 36 healthy controls completed the self-report questionnaires. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess the parental depression and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory S-T (STAI S-T) to assess parental anxiety. Results: Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in the case group (BDI 12.3±9.1; STAI-S: 38.2±9.6; STAI-T: 43.2±6.9) than controls (BDI: 5.4±4.1 p=0.000; STAI-S: 31.8±7.6 p=0.001; STAI-T: 37.0±7.2 p=0.000). Mothers of the patients had higher scores than the other parental groups (BDI: p=0.000, STAI-S: p=0.001 and STAI-T: p=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level of the parent was the only independent factor for depression (OR 9.96, 95% CI: 1.89-52.35, p=0.007) and state anxiety (OR: 6.99, 95% CI: 1.22-40.48, p=0.030) in the case group. Conclusion: A subset of parents with PKU patients have an anxiety or depressive disorder. Supportive services dealing with the parents of chronically ill children such as PKU are needed in order to reduce the level of anxiety. PMID:26492114

  11. The Anxiety Level of Caregivers of Neurological Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; Demir, Numan; Karaduman, A Ayşe

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate anxiety level of caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia, and the relationship of patient-related factors to anxiety level of dysphagia caregivers. A total of 103 adult neurological patients with dysphagia (study group), 30 without dysphagia (control group), and their primary caregivers were included. Types of feeding, condition of dependency in eating and drinking, dysphagia duration, and history of previous dysphagia treatment were recorded for study group. In study group, the Turkish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) was used to determine dysphagia symptom severity. Penetration and aspiration severity was determined with the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) that has two subscales including state anxiety (S-STAI) and trait anxiety (T-STAI) was used to determine anxiety level of caregivers. There was no difference between groups in terms of age, gender, weight, and height. The mean S-STAI was 42.56 ± 10.10 for the study group and 29.20 ± 6.64 for the control group (p dysphagia treatment (p = 0.01, r = 0.25). No correlation was found between STAI (in terms of both S-STAI and T-STAI) and T-EAT-10, PAS, types of feeding, condition of dependency in eating and drinking, dysphagia duration (p > 0.05). Caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia have greater anxiety level than caregivers of neurological patients without dysphagia.

  12. Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service teachers.…

  13. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enjoyment of life. Social anxiety disorder can cause: Low self-esteem Trouble being assertive Negative self-talk Hypersensitivity to criticism Poor social skills Isolation and difficult social relationships Low academic and employment achievement Substance abuse, such as ...

  14. Cognitive impairment in anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Volel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are an important biomedical problem due to the high prevalence and significant negative impact on the quality of life and the course of concomitant somatic and neurological diseases. Cognitive impairment (CI is one of the most intensively studied aspects of pathological anxiety. Impairments in attention, executive functions, memory, cognitive deficit, as well as abnormal cognitions and metacognitions are identified in anxiety disorders. Moreover, the treatment of the latter with the most frequently used drugs (antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers does not lead to a significant improvement in cognitive functions, and often contributes to their worsening. In this connection, in addition to psychotherapy, cognitive function-improving agents play a large role in treating anxiety diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761, Tanakan® that positively affects cognitive functions, especially in the domains of memory, concentration and attention deserves special attention.

  15. Cognitive therapy for performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Chambless, Dianne L

    2004-08-01

    We present and illustrate the major components of cognitive therapy for performance anxiety, focusing on the performance fears of a client treated with a protocol designed for social phobia. The basic supposition of cognitive theory is that a client's thoughts and beliefs about situations maintain distressing feelings, such as anxiety. Changing these beliefs involves detection and disputation of anxiety-provoking thoughts, as well as testing of these thoughts through exposure to feared situations. Through a process of identifying existing beliefs about performance situations and challenging these beliefs, clients can gain a more realistic and less anxiety-producing perspective on performance tasks. Specific techniques, along with common difficulties and potential solutions, are presented in a detailed case study. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Anxiety disorders in dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), and t...

  18. Loneliness over time: The crucial role of social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michelle H; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Zyphur, Michael J; Gleeson, John F M

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is known to be associated with multiple adverse physical outcomes, including higher mortality and morbidity risk. However, the impact of loneliness on mental health is less well researched, with most studies assessing how loneliness relates to depressive symptoms alone. We hypothesized that 2 mental health symptoms that relate to the fear of others-social anxiety and paranoia-would contribute to loneliness. We examined how loneliness relates to social anxiety, paranoia, and depression symptoms in a general community sample aged 18-87 years old (N = 1,010). We administered online measures over 3 time points across a 6-month period. In a cross-lagged structural equation model controlling for trait levels and prior states, our results indicated that earlier loneliness positively predicted future states of social anxiety, paranoia, and depression. However, in the same model, earlier social anxiety was the only predictor of future loneliness. These results suggest that loneliness may be a potential antecedent to emerging mental health symptoms and that identifying and treating co-occurring social anxiety symptoms may reduce the severity of loneliness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  20. Italian validation of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Terminiello, Virginia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is usually experienced by patients awaiting surgical procedures and it can negatively impact patient's outcome. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a questionnaire created to identify anxious patients and their need for information: it has been translated and validated in many languages because of its reliability and ease of completion. To date, no Italian version of the APAIS has been produced; our aim was to translate and validate the APAIS in Italian. We produced an Italian version of the APAIS and we administered it to 110 patients undergoing elective surgery; we explored its structure by factor analysis and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha. We analyzed its external validity by confronting it to the Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Italian version of the APAIS were determined. The Italian version of the APAIS confirmed the original structure of the questionnaire and its internal consistency; it well correlated with the STAI-Y1, the subscale of the STAI which explore the anxiety "state." An APAIS score of 14 was found as best cutoff to distinguish anxious and non-anxious patients. The Italian translation of the APAIS showed psychometric properties similar to the original version. Its reliability and its efficiency make it a powerful tool even in Italian population to detect anxiety and need for information.

  1. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  2. The Efficacy of Prescribed Casual Videogame Play in Reducing Symptoms of Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Matthew T; Russoniello, Carmen V; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety is a natural reaction to stress, but when excessive, it can develop into a debilitating disorder. Traditional treatments such as pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating anxiety symptoms but are often costly and stigmatizing. This study tested whether a regimen of prescribed casual videogame (CVG) play could reduce individuals' anxiety symptom severity in a depressed population. CVGs are defined as fun, easy to play, spontaneous, and extremely popular. Data were taken from a larger study on depression and CVGs. Participants were screened for depression using a score of ≥5 (mild depression) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. After completing pre-intervention questionnaires, participants were randomized into the experimental (n=30) or control (n=29) group. Participants in the experimental group were prescribed a CVG of their choice to play three times per week, for 30 minutes, over a 1-month period. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to test the hypothesis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction of group by time for state and trait anxiety measures, supporting the hypothesis that anxiety severity would be different by group post-intervention. When state and trait anxiety measures were compared using within-subjects contrasts and between-group analyses, significant decreases in anxiety symptom severity were demonstrated. A prescribed regimen of CVG play significantly reduced state and trait anxiety symptom severity as measured by the STAI. Clinicians should consider using these easy-to-use and low-cost CVGs to address symptoms associated with state and trait anxiety.

  3. Validation of the Malay version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fahmi, Z; Lai, L L; Loh, P S

    2015-08-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a significant problem worldwide that may affect patients' surgical outcome. By using a simple and reliable tool such as the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), anaesthesiologists would be able to assess preoperative anxiety adequately and accurately. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Malay version of APAIS (Malay-APAIS), and assess the factors associated with higher anxiety scores. The authors performed forward and backward translation of APAIS into Malay and then tested on 200 patients in the anaesthetic clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre. Psychometric analysis was performed with factor analysis, internal consistency and correlation with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-state). A good correlation was shown with STAI-state (r = 0.59). Anxiety and need for information both emerged with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.93 and 0.90 respectively). Female gender, surgery with a higher risk and need for information were found to be associated with higher anxiety scores. On the other hand, previous experience with surgery had lower need for information. The Malay-APAIS is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of patients' preoperative anxiety and their need for information. By understanding and measuring patient's concerns objectively, the perioperative management will improve to a much higher standard of care.

  4. Test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating tendencies in examination among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, 1200 senior ...

  5. Short Report: Anxiety and Depression in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study was determine the pattern the levels of anxiety and depression among patients attending the hypertensive clinic of the department of medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Method Two hundred consecutive patients receiving treatment at the hypertensive ...

  6. Gender Factor in Computer Anxiety, Knowledge and Utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of computer anxiety and knowledge on computer utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. A sample of four hundred students randomly selected from twenty secondary schools participated in the study. Ex-post facto research design method was adopted ...

  7. Anger Feelings and Anger Expression as a Mediator of the Effects of Witnessing Family Violence on Anxiety and Depression in Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Hasui, Chieko

    2006-01-01

    The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…

  8. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.

  9. Autogenic training reduces anxiety after coronary angioplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2004-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a method of autosuggestion with some potential for reducing anxiety. This study tests whether AT lowers anxiety levels experienced by patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Fifty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive regular AT or no such therapy as an adjunct to standard care for 5 months. The primary outcome measure was State Anxiety at 2 months. Qualitative information was generated by face-to-face interviews. State Anxiety showed a significant intergroup difference both at 2 and 5 months. This finding was corroborated by secondary outcome measures, for example, quality of life, and by qualitative information about patients' experiences. The results do not allow us to determine whether the observed effects are specific to AT or of a nonspecific nature. Our results suggest that AT may have a role in reducing anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

  10. Pre-operative anxiety. Effect of early or late position on the operating list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, N; Bajaj, A; Pershad, D; Yaddanapudi, L N; Chari, P

    1996-04-01

    The influence of the relative position on the operating list on pre-operative anxiety was studied in 60 adult female ASA 1 patients undergoing major surgery. Thirty patients were placed first on the operating list (group 1) and 30 were given a time 4-5 h later (group 2). Each patient was visited on the evening prior to surgery and again on the morning of surgery. Anxiety was measured at each visit by objective criteria and part 1 of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. The pulse rate, systolic blood pressure and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire scores were higher on the second visit than on the first (p patients. This increase was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (p < 0.05). The evening anxiety scores were not correlated with those on the morning visit and could not predict them.

  11. Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly patients with chronic respiratory failure and the relationships between these comorbidities and the severity of dyspnea. Material and Method: Sixty-four consecutive inpatients with asthma and chronic obstructive disease were evaluated in a chest disease hospital. A questionnaire including sociodemographic features was applied to patients and healthy control group. Anxiety was assessed by Spielberg state and trait anxiety scale, and depression by Beck depression inventory. Spirometric tests, respiratory symptoms and severity of dyspnea were evaluated in the study group. Results: The mean age of study group was 67.28±9.13 (range between 50-88 years. Of those 22 (34.4% were females and 42 (65.6% were males. The mean Beck depression inventory scores of the group was 18.42±10.00 (range between 5-47, the mean Spielberg’s state anxiety score was 40.20±8.13 and the mean Spielberg’s trait score was 44.70±7.94 these results were close to control group. Depression with Beck depression inventory scores was diagnosed in 24 (37.5%, absent or mild depression in 40 (62.5%, moderate depression in 13 (20.3% and severe depression in 11 (17.2% patients. There was a relation between age and depression scores (p=0.022. Depression scores, Spielberg’s state and trait inventory scores were found statistically related with each other. Discussion: The results of the present study support that anxiety and depressive disorders are found with a high incidence in patients with respiratory impairments but the severity of dyspnea measures does not affect the scores of depression and anxiety.

  12. [Study on the current situation and influential factors of anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Da-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ting; Feng, Zheng-Zhi; Wu, Ming-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To explore the status and influencing factors on anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing. 58 classes from 12 schools were randomly selected in four administrative districts of Chongqing city. A total number of 2700 students was included for final analysis including 48.5% from junior high school and 51.5% from senior high school students with 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls. The Chinese version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revision, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. (1) There was no significant difference between grade groups (P = 0.49). (2) The level of girl's anxiety sensitivity was always higher than boy's (P < 0.001). (3) Data from multiple linear regression showed that the influential factors to the degree of anxiety sensitivity were: state of anxiety, trait anxiety, life events, sex, stress from learning, etc (standard coefficients of regression were 0.258, 0.163, 0.112, 0.093, 0.124, -0.096, 0.096). The major influential factors of anxiety sensitivity would include: sex, stress from learning, life events, interpersonal relationship, state of anxiety and trait anxiety.

  13. The effects of foot reflexology massage on anxiety in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Zargar, Nahid; Sohrabi, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Khalilian, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    To examine the effects of foot reflexology massage on anxiety in patients following CABG surgery. In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups after they were matched on age and gender. On the days following surgery, the experimental group received foot reflexology massage on their left foot 20 min a day for 4 days, while the control group was given a gentle foot rub with oil for one minute. Anxiety was measured using the short-form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Visual Analogue Scale-Anxiety. Both measurement instruments confirmed a significant decrease in anxiety following the foot reflexology massage. The significant decrease in anxiety in the experimental group following the foot reflexology massage supports the use of this complementary therapy technique for the relief of anxiety. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relations Between Maternal Prenatal Anxiety or Stress and Child's Early Negative Reactivity or Self-Regulation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Nolvi, Saara; Grant, Kerry Ann; McMahon, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    In the present review, we examine the association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety and children's early negative reactivity or self-regulation. The review includes 32 studies that focus on pregnancy-related anxiety, state or trait anxiety, perceived stress, and stressful life events in relation to child's crying, temperament, or behavior during the first 2 years of life. We searched four electronic databases and 32 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies found an association between maternal prenatal anxiety or stress and a child's negative reactivity or self-regulation, and typically the effect sizes varied from low to moderate. The association was found regardless of the form of prenatal stress or anxiety and the trimester in which the prenatal stress or anxiety was measured. In conclusion, several forms of prenatal anxiety and stress may increase the risk of emotional and self-regulatory difficulties during the first 2 years of life.

  15. Meditative Movement for Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePayne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM and its effects on anxiety, depression and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung and Taijiquan (Tai Chi, some forms of Yoga and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan. We clarify the differences between MM and conventional exercise, present descriptions of several of the key methodologies of MM, and suggest how research into these practices may be approached in a systematic way. We also present evidence for possible mechanisms of the effects of MM on affective states, including the roles of posture, rhythm, coherent breathing, and the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures. We survey research outcomes summarized in reviews published since 2007. Results suggest that MM may be at least as effective as conventional exercise or other interventions in ameliorating anxiety and depression; however, study quality is generally poor and there are many confounding factors. This makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time. We suggest, however, that more research is warranted, and we offer specific suggestions for ensuring high-quality and productive future studies.

  16. Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Charles S; Danforth, Alicia L; Chopra, Gurpreet S; Hagerty, Marycie; McKay, Charles R; Halberstadt, Adam L; Greer, George R

    2011-01-01

    Researchers conducted extensive investigations of hallucinogens in the 1950s and 1960s. By the early 1970s, however, political and cultural pressures forced the cessation of all projects. This investigation reexamines a potentially promising clinical application of hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety reactive to advanced-stage cancer. To explore the safety and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with advanced-stage cancer and reactive anxiety. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety, with subjects acting as their own control, using a moderate dose (0.2 mg/kg) of psilocybin. A clinical research unit within a large public sector academic medical center. Twelve adults with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. In addition to monitoring safety and subjective experience before and during experimental treatment sessions, follow-up data including results from the Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were collected unblinded for 6 months after treatment. Safe physiological and psychological responses were documented during treatment sessions. There were no clinically significant adverse events with psilocybin. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait anxiety subscale demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety at 1 and 3 months after treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory revealed an improvement of mood that reached significance at 6 months; the Profile of Mood States identified mood improvement after treatment with psilocybin that approached but did not reach significance. This study established the feasibility and safety of administering moderate doses of psilocybin to patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. Some of the data revealed a positive trend toward improved mood and anxiety. These results support the need for more research in this long-neglected field. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00302744.

  17. Morita therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Yu, Dehua; He, Yanling; Wang, Jijun; Xiao, Zeping; Li, Chunbo

    2015-02-19

    . We found seven small Chinese studies (449 participants), six of which provided useable data for meta-analysis. No study compared Morita therapy with an inactive control. Unclear randomisation methods, lack of blinding and low quality reporting of outcomes were common in the included studies. We graded the overall risk of bias as high and the quality of the evidence as very low.Two social phobia studies (75 outpatients) directly compared Morita therapy with pharmacological therapy. In this comparison, the pooled RR of global state was 1.85 (95% CI 1.27 to 2.69) and the NNTB was 3 (95% CI 2 to 5), indicating a significant difference between groups favouring Morita therapy in the short term (up to 12 weeks' post-treatment). Data regarding drop-outs was insufficient and no description of adverse effects was provided. We graded the quality of the evidence for this comparison as very low, mainly due to high risk of bias in the studies and insufficient information in the results.Four studies (288 inpatients) investigated the effect of Morita therapy plus pharmacological therapy versus pharmacological therapy alone, three studies for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (228 participants) and one study for generalised anxiety disorder (60 participants). One of the OCD studies reported incomplete data of global state while the outcome of global state was missing in the other three studies. There was no significant difference between groups for drop-outs for any reason in two OCD studies in the short term (RR 1.76, 95% CI 0.47 to 6.67; I(2) = 44%). Information pertaining to drop-outs for adverse effects was unclear. We rated the risk of bias of this comparison as high. We graded the quality of the evidence as very low. The evidence base on Morita therapy for anxiety disorders was limited. All studies included in this review were conducted in China, and the results may not be applicable to Western countries. These included studies were small, provided

  18. The comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales to detect suspected malingering in a disability claimant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Zhu, Jiani; Burchett, Danielle; Bury, Alison S; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-02-01

    The current study expands on past research examining the comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al., 2001) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) overreporting validity scales to detect suspected malingering, as assessed by the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST; Miller, 2001), in a sample of public insurance disability claimants (N = 742) who were considered to have potential incentives to malinger. Results provide support for the capacity of both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales to predict suspected malingering of psychopathology. The MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales proved to be modestly better predictors of suspected psychopathology malingering-compared with the MMPI-2 overreporting scales-in dimensional predictive models and categorical classification accuracy analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research – to determine level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety. Group of examined women and methods of research. 90 Pregnant women were examined in ІІ and ІІІ trimester of pregnancy. The main group includes 58 pregnant women with the medium and high level of state anxiety and 32 pregnant women with anxiety level of 30 points and less that indicates the low level of SA (control group. For estimation of the state anxiety and trait anxiety the scale of Spielberger-Hanin was used. Level of serotonin and melatonin was measured with fluorometric method in blood hemolysate of pregnant women. Results. According to the obtained results of biochemical research of hemolysate of packed red cells of blood of examined women it was stated that increase of state anxiety was accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin level and decrease of melatonin level. Thus, special features have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index. Pregnant women of the main group have the index which was 2.5 times higher than the same index in women of the control group. Conclusions. Results of performed research among pregnant women have indicated that increase of state anxiety is accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin content in blood and statistically reliable (p < 0.05 decrease of melatonin. Such results have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index in pregnant women with medium and high levels of state anxiety comparing to the certain index in women with the low level of anxiety.

  20. Effects of hand massage on anxiety in patients undergoing ophthalmology surgery using local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rafiei Kiasari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is a common disorder in patients before surgery. Inappropriately managed anxiety can cause psychological and physiological reactions and will affect the process of surgery and recovery. Therefore, this study examined the effects of hand mas-sage on anxiety in patients undergoing ophthalmology surgery using local anesthesia. Methods: In this interventional study, 52 patients who were supposed to undergo oph-thalmology surgery using local anesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly as-signed to two groups of intervention, who received hand massage before surgery (n = 27 and control (n = 25. Massaging lasted for 5 minutes (2.5 minutes on each hand before surgery. Stroking and scrubbing methods were performed by 2 trained research-ers. Anxiety level, blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and after the intervention in both groups. Anxiety was evaluated using Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed by chi-square, independent samples t-test, and paired t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in mean anxiety, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate between the two groups before the intervention (p > 0.05. However, there was a significant differenc in the mean stress level between the two groups after the intervention (p 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5 minutes of hand massage before ophthalmology surgery (under local anesthesia could reduce anxiety. Therefore, this method can be used to increase patient comfort and reduce anxiety before surgical interventions.