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Sample records for starling sturnus vulgaris

  1. Respiratory water loss during rest and flight in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Sophia; Suthers, Roderick A.; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory water loss in Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) at rest and during flight at ambient temperatures (T-amb) between 6 and 25 degrees C was calculated from respiratory airflow and exhaled air temperature. At rest, breathing frequency f(1.4 +/- 0.3 Hz) and tidal volume V-t (1.9 +/- 0.4 ml) were

  2. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Melvin L.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how ph...

  3. Effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate and internal morphology of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluso, Keith; Hayes, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed either a low- or high-quality diet to test the effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and internal morphology. Basal metabolic rate did not differ significantly between the two dietary groups, but internal morphology differed greatly. Starlings fed the low-quality diet had heavier gastrointestinal tracts, gizzards, and livers. Starlings fed the high-quality diet had heavier breast muscles. Starlings on the low-quality diet maintained mass, while starlings on the high-quality diet gained mass. Dry matter digestibility and energy digestibility were lower for starlings fed the low-quality diet, and their food and water intake were greater than starlings on the high-quality diet. The lack of dietary effect on BMR may be the result of increased energy expenditure of digestive organs paralleling a reduction of energy expenditure of organs and tissues not related to digestion (i.e., skeletal muscle). This trade-off in energy allocation among organs suggests a mechanism by which organisms may alter BMR in response to a change in seasonal variation in food availability.

  4. Ahemeral light regimens test the photoperiodic threshold of the european starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, R. G.

    1980-03-01

    Male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were held for three consecutive photoperiod oscillations (ahemeral years) composed of 30-h day lengths, i.e., the “daily” light and dark each lasted three hours longer than under the natural daily photoperiod at latitude 38°N. These starlings had no gonad metamorphosis during the 45 actual months necessary to complete the three ahemeral photoperiod oscillations; nor did subsequent exposure to continuous illumination elicit gonad response. It is concluded that the daily duration of light and darkness (although certainly operant in controlling starling sexual cycles under temperate-zone photoperiod oscillations) is not the critical factor establishing a sexual cycle under the ahemeral regimen. Rather, it appears that this species must experience a daily duration of light of 12 hours or less (a definitive photoperiodic threshold) before photo-induction of a sexual cycle is possible.

  5. An excitation-pattern model for the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, S; Klump, G M; Gleich, O; Langemann, U

    1995-07-01

    This paper develops and tests an excitation-pattern model for the starling. Like excitation-pattern models for humans [e.g., Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-381 (1956); Florentine and Buus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1646-1654 (1981)], the model for starlings provides a unified account of a large body of data. The foundation of the model is a critical-band scale, which is derived as an equal-distance scale according to a cochlear-map function. The cochlear-map function is determined as a best-fitting function to physiological data relating characteristic frequency (CF) of auditory-nerve fibers to their place of innervation on the basilar papilla. Excitation patterns are derived from auditory-nerve measurements of levels at CF necessary to produce firing rates equal to those evoked by a test tone. The shape of these excitation patterns is independent of level and frequency when plotted on a cochlear-distance scale. The resulting model indicates that 10-dB bandwidths of auditory-nerve tuning curves and frequency DLs can be approximated as equal distances along the basilar papilla. Predictions of level discrimination are in good agreement with the data, except below 20 dB SL. Overall, the present work indicates that excitation-pattern models account for a wide range of auditory phenomena in both humans and starlings, when the models take into account differences in critical-band scales, absolute thresholds, excitation-pattern slopes, and growth of excitation, which is linear in starlings, but nonlinear in humans.

  6. Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M; Casto, Joseph M

    2011-01-07

    In birds, maternally derived yolk steroids are a proposed mechanism by which females can adjust individual offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions. However, when interests of mother and offspring differ, parent-offspring conflict will arise and embryonic interests, not those of the mother, should drive offspring response to maternal steroids in eggs. Because of this potential conflict, we investigated the ability of developing bird embryos to process maternally derived yolk steroids. We examined how progesterone, testosterone and oestradiol levels changed in both the yolk/albumen (YA) and the embryo of European starling eggs during the first 10 days of development. Next, we injected tritiated testosterone into eggs at oviposition to characterize potential metabolic pathways during development. Ether extractions separated organic and aqueous metabolites in both the embryo and YA homogenate, after which major steroid metabolites were identified. Results indicate that the concentrations of all three steroids declined during development in the YA homogenate. Exogenous testosterone was primarily metabolized to an aqueous form of etiocholanolone that remained in the YA. These results clearly demonstrate that embryos can modulate their local steroid environment, setting up the potential for parent-offspring conflict. Embryonic regulation must be considered when addressing the evolutionary consequences of maternal steroids in eggs.

  7. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197 and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway and a nearby control area. Concentrations of lead in the ingesta, carcassses and feathers of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  8. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental analysis of perching in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris: Passeriformes; Passeres), and the automatic perching mechanism of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Peter M; Shepherd, Jeffrey D

    2012-04-01

    The avian automatic perching mechanism (APM) involves the automatic digital flexor mechanism (ADFM) and the digital tendon-locking mechanism (DTLM). When birds squat on a perch to sleep, the increased tendon travel distance due to flexion of the knee and ankle supposedly causes the toes to grip the perch (ADFM) and engage the DTLM so perching while sleeping involves no muscular effort. However, the knees and ankles of sleeping European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are only slightly flexed and, except for occasional balancing adjustments, the distal two-thirds of the toes are not flexed to grip a 6-mm-diameter perch. The cranial ankle angle (CAA) is ∼120° and the foot forms an inverted "U" that, with the mostly unflexed toes, provides a saddle-like structure so the bird balances its weight over the central pad of the foot (during day weight further back and digits actively grasp perch). In the region of the pad, the tendon sheath of many birds is unribbed, or only very slightly so, and it is always separated from the tendon of the M. flexor digitorum longus by tendons of the other toe flexor muscles. Passive leg flexion produces no toe flexion in anesthetized Starlings and only after 15-20 min, at the onset of rigor mortis, in freshly sacrificed Starlings. Anesthetized Starlings could not remain perched upon becoming unconscious (ADFM, DTLM intact). Birds whose digital flexor tendons were severed or the locking mechanism eliminated surgically (no ADFM or DTLM), so without ability to flex their toes, slept on the perch in a manner similar to unoperated Starlings (except CAA ∼90°-110°). Consequently, there is no APM or ADFM and the DTLM, although involved in lots of other activities, only acts in perching with active contraction of the digital flexor muscles. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  11. Fear and Exploration in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): A Comparison of Hand-Reared and Wild-Caught Birds

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    Feenders, Gesa; Klaus, Kristel; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6–8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage) and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration). In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research. PMID:21526000

  12. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  13. Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenna R; Cristol, Daniel; Swaddle, John P

    2014-10-01

    Mercury is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant that occurs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Recently, songbirds that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury, but little research has assessed the effects of mercury on their health and fitness. There are many indications that mercury negatively affects neurological functioning, bioenergetics, and behavior through a variety of mechanisms and in a wide array of avian taxa. Effective flight is crucial to avian fitness and feather molt is an energetically expensive life history trait. Therefore, we investigated whether mercury exposure influenced flight performance and molt in a common songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Specifically, we dosed the diet of captive starlings with methylmercury cysteine at 0.0, 0.75, or 1.5 μg/g wet weight and recorded changes in flight performance after 1 year of dietary mercury exposure. We also recorded the annual molt of wing feathers. We found that individuals dosed with mercury exhibited decreased escape takeoff flight performance compared with controls and blood mercury was also correlated with an increased rate of molt, which can reduce flight performance and thermoregulatory ability. This study reveals two novel endpoints, flight performance and molt, that may be affected by dietary mercury exposure. These findings suggest a potential impact on wild songbirds exposed to mercury levels comparable to the high dosage levels in the present study. Any decrease in flight efficiency could reduce fitness due to a direct impact on survival during predation events or by decreased efficiency in other critical activities (such as foraging or migration) that require efficient flight.

  14. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

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    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  15. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris. We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old, at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old, and once the birds were independent (55 days old. Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  16. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  17. The development of stereotypic behavior in caged European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    Stereotypic behavior in captive animals has been hypothesized to emerge from thwarted natural behavior patterns and is thought to be more common in captive-reared animals. However, data on the early stages of developing stereotypies are currently scarce. We compared the development of stereotypic route-tracing and somersaulting in hand-reared and wild-caught starlings placed in individual cages for the first time. We found that wild-caught birds were less active but showed more escape motivation and more evidence of route-tracing behavior. Furthermore, somersaulting was only observed in wild-caught birds. Development of somersaulting was predicted by subtle differences in behavior during the first few days in cages and developed in individuals with low levels of route-tracing behavior. Our data suggest a role for escape motivation in the development of starling stereotypies and additionally that route-tracing and somersaulting may represent alternative outlets for thwarted escape. In contrast to observations from mammals, our results show that stereotypies are more common in wild-caught starlings. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The memory of hunger: developmental plasticity of dietary selectivity in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bloxham, Louise; Bateson, Melissa; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The decision to consume toxic prey is a trade-off between the benefits of obtaining nutrients and the costs of ingesting toxins. This trade-off is affected by current state: animals will consume more toxic prey if they are food deprived. However, whether the trade-off is affected by developmental history is currently unknown. We studied the decision to eat quinine-injected mealworms in adult starling siblings that had been exposed to either high or low levels of food competition as chicks, vi...

  19. Salmonella detection and aerobic colony count in deep-frozen carcasses of house sparrow (Passer domesticus and starling (Sturnus vulgaris intended for human consumption

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    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are potential vehicles of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. The zoonotic concern increases for small wild birds like house sparrows (Passer domesticus and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris which are hunted in developing countries and commercialised in Italy for human consumption. From June to October 2011, 330 house sparrows and 140 starlings were hunted and slaughtered. Deepfrozen carcasses were transported to Italy and stored for 6-8 months at -18°C. Aerobic colony count and Salmonella detection in carcasses were assessed following standard microbiological methods (ISO 4833:2003 and ISO 6579:2004, respectively. Carcasses of house sparrows showed higher levels of aerobic bacteria in comparison to starling carcasses (5.7 vs 3.2 log10 CFU/g. Moreover, 7 out of 11 lots of carcasses of house sparrows were positive for Salmonella. Among the 18 isolates of Salmonella, 14 were S. Typhimurium, 2 were S. Enteritidis, and 2 were not distinguishable. All of them were susceptible to antibiotics. All tested carcasses of starling were Salmonella negative. Deep-freezing was not efficient as a decontamination technique on carcasses of house sparrows.

  20. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Hadar Ben-Gida

    Full Text Available Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight.

  1. The memory of hunger: developmental plasticity of dietary selectivity in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Louise; Bateson, Melissa; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The decision to consume toxic prey is a trade-off between the benefits of obtaining nutrients and the costs of ingesting toxins. This trade-off is affected by current state: animals will consume more toxic prey if they are food deprived. However, whether the trade-off is affected by developmental history is currently unknown. We studied the decision to eat quinine-injected mealworms in adult starling siblings that had been exposed to either high or low levels of food competition as chicks, via a brood size manipulation. At the time of our experiments, the two groups of birds did not differ in size, body weight or current environment. Each bird was presented with the toxic prey while living on a high-quality diet and a low-quality diet. We found an effect of diet, with birds consuming more toxic prey while on the low-quality diet, and also of developmental history, with birds from the high-competition brood size treatment eating more toxic prey than their low-competition siblings. The effects of brood size treatment were not completely mediated by early growth, although we did find evidence that early growth affected toxic prey consumption independently of brood size treatment. We discuss our results in relation to adaptive developmental plasticity and the developmental origins of behavioural variation.

  2. Avfail in color avoidance learning by starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

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    Mason, J R; Arzt, A H; Reidinger, R F

    1985-12-01

    Certain unconditioned stimuli (UCS) in flavor avoidance learning sometimes become ineffective after pairings with relatively stronger UCS. This failure of avoidance learning (avfail) has been demonstrated only with rodents. The present investigations were conducted to determine whether avfail might also occur with avian species, the food selection of which is guided primarily by visual cues. In Experiment 1, starlings were given pairings of methiocarb (a relatively weak UCS) and LiCl (a relatively strong UCS). In Experiment 2, red-winged blackbirds were given pairings of two concentrations of methiocarb (relatively weak and relatively strong UCS, respectively). Pairings were followed by a conditioning trial (UCS gavage in the presence of a color cue) and two-choice tests. Conditioned avoidance was always observed except when methiocarb preceded LiCl and when the low preceded the high methiocarb dose in preconditioning pairings. Experiment 3 demonstrated that UCS habituation could not account for the results of Experiments 1 and 2. The data reflect avfail in the visual modality, and a biological implication of the results is that birds may not learn strong avoidance of aposematic prey containing varied levels of toxicant.

  3. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight.

  4. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2-12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood.

  5. Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level.

  6. Invasive species can't cover their tracks: using microsatellites to assist management of starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Lee Ann; Woolnough, Andrew P; Wilton, Alan N; Sinclair, Ron; Sherwin, William B

    2009-04-01

    Invasive species are known to cause environmental and economic damage, requiring management by control agencies worldwide. These species often become well established in new environments long before their detection, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding their history and dynamics. When new invasions are discovered, information regarding the source and pathway of the invasion, and the degree of connectivity with other populations can greatly benefit management strategies. Here we use invasive common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations from Australia to demonstrate that genetic techniques can provide this information to aid management, even when applied to highly vagile species over continental scales. Analysis of data from 11 microsatellites in 662 individuals sampled at 17 localities across their introduced range in Australia revealed four populations. One population consisted of all sampling sites from the expansion front in Western Australia, where control efforts are focused. Despite evidence of genetic exchange over both contemporary and historical timescales, gene flow is low between this population and all three more easterly populations. This suggests that localized control of starlings on the expansion front may be an achievable goal and the long-standing practice of targeting select proximal eastern source populations may be ineffective on its own. However, even with low levels of gene flow, successful control of starlings on the expansion front will require vigilance, and genetic monitoring of this population can provide essential information to managers. The techniques used here are broadly applicable to invasive populations worldwide.

  7. Wild European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) adjust to captivity with sustained sympathetic nervous system drive and a reduced fight-or-flight response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although research on wild species typically involves capture, handling, and some degree of captivity, few studies examine how these actions affect and/or alter the animal's underlying stress physiology. Furthermore, we poorly understand the immediate changes that occur as wild animals adjust to captive conditions. Most studies to date have investigated relatively long-term changes in the glucocorticoid response to an acute stressor, but immediate changes in the fight-or-flight response are relatively understudied in wild-caught species. In this study, we investigated changes to the cardiovascular stress response during the first 10 d of captivity of freshly captured wild European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We demonstrated that (1) baseline heart rate (HR) remains elevated for several days following transport into captivity, (2) the normal balance between sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of HR is disrupted, with the SNS exerting relatively greater control over baseline HR for the first days of captivity, and (3) the HR response to startle, a mild stressor, becomes significantly reduced compared to that of starlings maintained in captivity for several months and remains below the control response for at least 10 d. These data are the first to show that successive acute stressors and introduction to a captive setting significantly alter the physiology and responsiveness of the cardiovascular stress response system.

  8. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  9. Experimental infection of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with pandemic 2009 H1N1 and swine H1N1 and H3N2 triple reassortant influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Oesterle, Paul T; Poulson, Rebecca L; Jones, Cheryl A; Tompkins, S Mark; Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E

    2013-04-01

    European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.

  10. Metabolic power of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris during flight in a wind tunnel, estimated from heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water and mask respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Möller, U; Rayner, J M V; Jackson, D M; Nachtigall, W; Speakman, J R

    2004-11-01

    It is technically demanding to measure the energetic cost of animal flight. Each of the previously available techniques has some disadvantage as well advantages. We compared measurements of the energetic cost of flight in a wind tunnel by four European starlings Sturnus vulgaris made using three independent techniques: heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water (DLW) and mask respirometry. We based our heat transfer model on thermal images of the surface temperature of the birds and air flow past the body and wings calculated from wing beat kinematics. Metabolic power was not sensitive to uncertainty in the value of efficiency when estimated from heat transfer modelling. A change in the assumed value of whole animal efficiency from 0.19 to 0.07 (the range of estimates in previous studies) only altered metabolic power predicted from heat transfer modelling by 13%. The same change in the assumed value of efficiency would cause a 2.7-fold change in metabolic power if it were predicted from mechanical power. Metabolic power did not differ significantly between measurements made using the three techniques when we assumed an efficiency in the range 0.11-0.19, although the DLW results appeared to form a U-shaped power-speed curve while the heat transfer model and respirometry results increased linearly with speed. This is the first time that techniques for determining metabolic power have been compared using data from the same birds flying under the same conditions. Our data provide reassurance that all the techniques produce similar results and suggest that heat transfer modelling may be a useful method for estimating metabolic rate.

  11. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Evi van den [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: evi.vandensteen@ua.ac.be; Eens, Marcel [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ' Al.I.Cuza' University of Iassy, Carol I Bvd. No 11, 700506 Iassy (Romania); Jaspers, Veerle L.B. [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Pinxten, Rianne [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 {+-} 43 to 23,400 {+-} 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 {+-} 12 to 220 {+-} 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 {mu}g sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling.

  12. Photoperiodic differences in a forebrain nucleus involved in vocal plasticity: enkephalin immunoreactivity reveals volumetric variation in song nucleus lMAN but not NIf in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F

    2010-09-15

    Seasonal variation in the volume of various song control nuclei in many passerine species remains one of the best examples of naturally occurring adult neuroplasticity among vertebrates. The lateral portion of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN) is a song nucleus that is important for song learning and seems to be critical for inducing variability in the song structure that is later pruned via a feedback process to produce adult crystallized song. To date, lMAN has not been shown to exhibit seasonal changes in volume, probably because it is difficult to resolve the boundaries of lMAN when employing histological methods based on Nissl staining. Here, lMAN(core) volumes were examined in intact photostimulated (i.e., breeding), castrated photostimulated and photorefractory (i.e., nonbreeding) male starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to investigate the degree of seasonal variation in brain morphology. We present data demonstrating that the volumes of the total MAN and lMAN(core) delineated by enkephalin immunoreactivity are greater in photostimulated male starlings as compared to photorefractory males. Moreover, two other regions associated with the song system that have not been investigated previously in the context of seasonal plasticity namely (i) the medial portion of MAN (mMAN), and (ii) the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) did not display significant volumetric variation. We propose that greater lMAN(core) volumes are associated with the increase in vocal plasticity that is generally observed prior to production of stereotyped song.

  13. The decline of the Starling Sturnus vulgaris in Denmark is related to changes in the extent and intensity of cattle grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David; Levin, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The Danish breeding Starling population declined at a mean annual rate of 2.24% ± 0.39 (95% CI) during 1976–2015 (a 60% decline overall). Starling density in the mid-1990s was positively correlated with dairy cattle abundance in 13 local areas. Regional declines in Starling abundance between 2001...... and 2014 were positively correlated with loss of high intensity grazing pressure by dairy cattle, as more animal husbandry moved indoors. The long-term decline in national Starling abundance was positively correlated with the long term numbers of dairy cattle grazing outdoors. This study therefore confirms...

  14. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  15. Foraging behavior of European starlings: implications for mitigating their impact on native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are a remarkably successful invasive species known to compete with native bird species for nest sites. The objective of this study was to understand why starlings avoid ungrazed pastures and provide recommendations to help mitigate the impacts of starlings on native bird species. I used aviary trials to examine...

  16. Pollutants affect development in nestling starlings Sturnus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Markman, Shai; Muller, Carsten T.; Pascoe, David; Dawson, Alistair; Buchanan, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    1. Pollutants as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are of worldwide concern, due to their detrimental effects on the physiology and behaviour of wildlife. One major source of EDCs is sewage treatment works which serve as foraging grounds for many bird species. However, the risks of consuming EDCs to wild birds at these sites have been largely overlooked. 2. We have previously quantified contamination levels of invertebrates fromwithin filter beds of sewage treatment works and the intak...

  17. Nest defense behaviors of native cavity-nesting birds to European Starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney G. Olsen; Kathryn L. Purcell; David. Grubbs

    2008-01-01

    We used behavioral experiments to evaluate competition for nest sites and the extent to which European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seen as a threat by native bird species at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera County, CA. We quantified the level of aggressive behavior of four species of native cavity-nesting birds to starlings at active...

  18. Water and heat balance during flight in the rose-colored starling (Sturnus roseus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Sophia; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Water imbalance during flight is considered to be a potentially limiting factor for flight ranges in migrating birds, but empirical data are scarce. We studied flights under controlled ambient conditions with rose-colored starlings in a wind tunnel. In one experiment, we measured water fluxes with

  19. Bijdrage tot de biologie en de ecologie van den spreeuw (Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris L.) gedurende zijn voortplantingstijd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijver, H.N.

    1933-01-01

    In February, March and April starlings fed in a flock on the fields near nestboxes. At night they roosted together in thousands in the reeds of a pool, 5 km from the nestboxes. In February or March each♂occupied a particular nestbox. Early in the morning they left the flock, and stayed and sang by

  20. Dynamics of Woodpecker – Common Starling interactions: a comparison of Old World and New World species and populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodpecker species whose cavities are most usurped by Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are widespread and generalists in their use of habitats. These include primarily woodpeckers that are similar in size to or slightly larger than the starling - such as the Great-spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major of Eurasia and the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus and Red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus and Red-headed (M. erythrocephalus Woodpeckers of North America. Usurpation occurs primarily in human-dominated urban, suburban and exurban habitats with pastures, sports fields and other open areas that serve as prime feeding habitats for starlings. Starlings prefer high, more exposed cavities with a minimal entrance diameter relative to their body size. Usurpation success depends on timing - optimally just as a cavity is completed and before egg-laying by the woodpeckers. Starlings likely reduce woodpecker populations in more open, human-dominated habitats. Woodpecker habitat losses and fragmentation are more serious problems that enhance habitat quality for starlings and reduce habitat quality for most woodpeckers. The only woodpeckers that might become in danger of extinction as a primary result of starling cavity usurpation are likely island species with small populations. Conservation of rare species limited to islands, such as Fernandina’s Flicker (Colaptes fernandinae of Cuba, may depend on our ability to prevent the establishment of the Common Starling or other aggressive cavity competitors on their island.

  1. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling-livestock interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, James C; Hyatt, Doreene R; Ellis, Jeremy W; Pipkin, David R; Mangan, Anna M; Russell, Michael; Bolte, Denise S; Engeman, Richard M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Linz, George M

    2015-08-31

    Bird-livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in particular are known to contaminate cattle feed and water with Salmonella enterica through their fecal waste. We propose that fecal waste is not the only mechanisms through which starlings introduce S. enterica to CAFO. The goal of this study was to assess if starlings can mechanically move S. enterica. We define mechanical movement as the transportation of media containing S. enterica, on the exterior of starlings within CAFO. We collected 100 starlings and obtained external wash and gastrointestinal tract (GI) samples. We also collected 100 samples from animal pens. Within each pen we collected one cattle fecal, feed, and water trough sample. Isolates from all S. enterica positive samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All sample types, including 17% of external starling wash samples, contained S. enterica. All sample types had at least one antimicrobial resistant (AMR) isolate and starling GI samples harbored multidrug resistant S. enterica. The serotypes isolated from the starling external wash samples were all found in the farm environment and 11.8% (2/17) of isolates from positive starling external wash samples were resistant to at least one class of antibiotics. This study provides evidence of a potential mechanism of wildlife introduced microbial contamination in CAFO. Mechanical movement of microbiological hazards, by starlings, should be considered a potential source of bacteria that is of concern to veterinary, environmental and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The near wake of a freely flying European starling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

    2013-05-01

    The wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to generate vector maps that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in the wind tunnel. Time series of measurements have been expressed as composite wake plots which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat, which may be general features of the wakes of flapping wings.

  3. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  4. Spatial Clustering of Escherichia coli with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin among Dairy Cattle Farms Relative to European Starling Night Roosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2017-05-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have been implicated in the dispersal of zoonotic enteric pathogens. However, their role in disseminating antimicrobial-resistant organisms through their home range has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine whether starling night roosts served as foci for spreading organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials among dairy cattle farms. Bovine faecal pats were collected from 150 dairy farms in Ohio. Each farm was visited twice (in summer and fall) between 2007 and 2009. A total of 1490 samples (10 samples/farm over two visits) were tested for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Using a spatial scan statistic, focal scans were conducted to determine whether clusters of farms with a high prevalence of organisms with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin surrounded starling night roosts. Faecal pats 13.42% and 13.56% of samples carried Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Statistically significant (P Escherichia coli showing reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were identified around these night roosts. This finding suggests that the risk of carriage of organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in cattle closer to starling night roosts was higher compared to cattle located on farms further from these sites. Starlings might have an important role in spreading antimicrobial-resistant E. coli to livestock environments, thus posing a threat to animal and public health. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Diffusion and Topological Neighbours in Flocks of Starlings: Relating a Model to Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Moving in a group while avoiding collisions with group members causes internal dynamics in the group. Although these dynamics have recently been measured quantitatively in starling flocks (Sturnus vulgaris), it is unknown what causes them. Computational models have shown that collective motion in groups is likely due to attraction, avoidance and, possibly, alignment among group members. Empirical studies show that starlings adjust their movement to a fixed number of closest neighbours or topological range, namely 6 or 7 and assume that each of the three activities is done with the same number of neighbours (topological range). Here, we start from the hypothesis that escape behavior is more effective at preventing collisions in a flock when avoiding the single closest neighbor than compromising by avoiding 6 or 7 of them. For alignment and attraction, we keep to the empirical topological range. We investigate how avoiding one or several neighbours affects the internal dynamics of flocks of starlings in our computational model StarDisplay. By comparing to empirical data, we confirm that internal dynamics resemble empirical data more closely if flock members avoid merely their single, closest neighbor. Our model shows that considering a different number of interaction partners per activity represents a useful perspective and that changing a single parameter, namely the number of interaction partners that are avoided, has several effects through selforganisation. PMID:25993474

  6. Starlings uphold principles of economic rationality for delay and probability of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tiago; Vasconcelos, Marco; Kacelnik, Alex

    2013-04-07

    Rationality principles are the bedrock of normative theories of decision-making in biology and microeconomics, but whereas in microeconomics, consistent choice underlies the notion of utility; in biology, the assumption of consistent selective pressures justifies modelling decision mechanisms as if they were designed to maximize fitness. In either case, violations of consistency contradict expectations and attract theoretical interest. Reported violations of rationality in non-humans include intransitivity (i.e. circular preferences) and lack of independence of irrelevant alternatives (changes in relative preference between options when embedded in different choice sets), but the extent to which these observations truly represent breaches of rationality is debatable. We tested both principles with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), training subjects either with five options differing in food delay (exp. 1) or with six options differing in reward probability (exp. 2), before letting them choose repeatedly one option out of several binary and trinary sets of options. The starlings conformed to economic rationality on both tests, showing strong stochastic transitivity and no violation of the independence principle. These results endorse the rational choice and optimality approaches used in behavioural ecology, and highlight the need for functional and mechanistic enquiring when apparent violations of such principles are observed.

  7. On-farm starling populations and other environmental and management factors associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cattle in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; Schrock, Jennifer; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-11-01

    Wild birds that forage around livestock facilities have been implicated as vectors of antimicrobial resistant organisms. Although antimicrobial resistant bacteria have been isolated from European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), their role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant elements in livestock facilities needs further investigation. To determine whether on-farm starling density and other factors were associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cows in Ohio, bovine fecal pats from 150 farms were tested for the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Each farm was visited twice (during the summer and fall of 2007-2009). Multi-level logistic regression models with a random intercept to account for fecal pats collected within a specific visit to a farm were used to assess the associations. The percentage of samples with cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 13.4% and 13.6%, respectively. The percentage of farms having at least one sample testing positive for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 56.7% and 48.7%, respectively. The odds of detecting cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli in the samples was significantly higher in 2007 compared to 2008 and 2009, in fall compared to summer, and from farms closer than 60km to starling night roost sites compared to the farms further than 60km. The presence of starlings during the day had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Presence of calves also had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting both cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. European starlings might play a role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant agents in livestock facilities related to their daily population movements rather than the specific density of birds on farm during the day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Context-Dependent Preferences in Starlings: Linking Ecology, Foraging and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Monteiro, Tiago; Kacelnik, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Foraging animals typically encounter opportunities that they either pursue or skip, but occasionally meet several alternatives simultaneously. Behavioural ecologists predict preferences using absolute properties of each option, while decision theorists focus on relative evaluations at the time of choice. We use European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to integrate ecological reasoning with decision models, linking and testing hypotheses for value acquisition and choice mechanism. We hypothesise that options' values depend jointly on absolute attributes, learning context, and subject's state. In simultaneous choices, preference could result either from comparing subjective values using deliberation time, or from processing each alternative independently, without relative comparisons. The combination of the value acquisition hypothesis and independent processing at choice time has been called the Sequential Choice Model. We test this model with options equated in absolute properties to exclude the possibility of preference being built at the time of choice. Starlings learned to obtain food by responding to four stimuli in two contexts. In context [AB], they encountered options A5 or B10 in random alternation; in context [CD], they met C10 or D20. Delay to food is denoted, in seconds, by the suffixes. Observed latency to respond (Li) to each option alone (our measure of value) ranked thus: LA≈LCStarlings preferred A5 over C10 and C10 over B10. There was no detectable evaluation time, and preference magnitude was predictable from latency differentials. This implies that value reflects learning rather than choice context, that preferences are not constructed by relative judgements at the time of choice, and that mechanisms

  9. Birds of a feather flock together: Insights into starling murmuration behaviour revealed using citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E; Little, Natasha; Carpenter, William S; Hart, Adam G

    2017-01-01

    Pre-roost murmuration displays by European starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a spectacular example of collective animal behaviour. To date, empirical research has focussed largely on flock movement and biomechanics whereas research on possible causal mechanisms that affect flock size and murmuration duration has been limited and restricted to a small number of sites. Possible explanations for this behaviour include reducing predation through the dilution, detection or predator confusion effects (the "safer together" hypotheses) or recruiting more birds to create larger (warmer) roosts (the "warmer together" hypothesis). We collected data on size, duration, habitat, temperature and predators from >3,000 murmurations using citizen science. Sightings were submitted from 23 countries but UK records predominated. Murmurations occurred across a range of habitats but there was no association between habitat and size/duration. Size increased significantly from October to early February, followed by a decrease until the end of the season in March (overall mean 30,082 birds; maximum 750,000 birds). Mean duration was 26 minutes (± 44 seconds SEM). Displays were longest at the start/end of the season, probably due to a significant positive relationship with day length. Birds of prey were recorded at 29.6% of murmurations. The presence of predators including harrier Circus, peregrine Falco peregrinus, and sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus was positively correlated with murmuration size (R2 = 0.401) and duration (R2 = 0.258), especially when these species were flying near to, or actively engaging with, starlings. Temperature was negatively correlated with duration but the effect was much weaker than that of day length. When predators were present, murmurations were statistically more likely to end with all birds going down en masse to roost rather than dispersing from the site. Our findings suggest that starling murmurations are primarily an anti-predator adaptation rather than being

  10. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-17

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points.

  11. Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell; Diemer

    1999-01-01

    In many bird species, there is a floating population of females that are excluded from breeding because of competition for limited breeding resources. Female floaters may enhance their reproductive success by engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism. We studied female floaters in a population of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, in order to determine their identity and potential parasitic behaviour. Females were caught after being attracted to nestboxes with artificial nests during 1993-1995. None of the females was known to have a nest of her own at capture but 47% of the females either laid an egg in the nest or carried a fully developed egg within the reproductive tract, indicating that they were intraspecific brood parasites. The floating females were significantly younger and smaller than breeding females. Of 13 females equipped with radiotransmitters and followed daily, all but one started a breeding attempt of their own after 3-8 days and the majority settled as secondary females or mated with males where the original female had disappeared. This suggests that females that are unable to compete successfully for nest sites or males early in the breeding season may use intraspecific brood parasitism to enhance reproductive success during the period that they are constrained from breeding. The importance of settling rapidly because of a seasonal decline in reproductive success may also promote the evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism in the starling. The relative reproductive success of combining egg dumping with breeding compared with traditional breeding will depend on the costs of delaying breeding as well as the probability of finding a mate later in the breeding season. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Developmental and familial predictors of adult cognitive traits in the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare P; Monaghan, Pat; Brilot, Ben O; Bedford, Thomas; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    In birds, there is evidence that adult cognitive traits can both run in families and be affected by early developmental influences. However, different studies use different cognitive tasks, which may not be measuring the same traits, and also focus on different developmental factors. We report results from a study in which we administered multiple cognitive tasks (autoshaping, discrimination learning, reversal learning, progressive ratio schedule, extinction learning and impulsivity) to a cohort of 34 European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, for which several early developmental measures were available. The cohort consisted of siblings raised either apart or together, whose position in the size hierarchy of the rearing brood had been experimentally manipulated. We examined how the different cognitive measures covaried, the extent to which they ran in families, and which of the developmental factors predicted which of the cognitive outcomes. We found that discrimination and reversal learning speeds were positively correlated, as were breakpoint on the progressive ratio schedule and resistance to extinction. Otherwise, the cognitive measures were uncorrelated, suggesting that they reflected different underlying traits. All traits except discrimination and reversal learning speed ran in families to a substantial extent. Using a model selection approach, we found evidence that natal brood size and developmental telomere attrition (the extent to which the birds' erythrocyte telomeres shortened in early life, an integrative measure of developmental stress) were related to several adult cognitive measures. Results are discussed with respect to the best way of measuring avian cognitive abilities, and the utility of developmental telomere attrition as a predictor of adult outcomes.

  13. Developmental telomere attrition predicts impulsive decision-making in adult starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben O; Gillespie, Robert; Monaghan, Pat; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-22

    Animals in a poor biological state face reduced life expectancy, and as a consequence should make decisions that prioritize immediate survival and reproduction over long-term benefits. We tested the prediction that if, as has been suggested, developmental telomere attrition is a biomarker of state and future life expectancy, then individuals who have undergone greater developmental telomere attrition should display greater choice impulsivity as adults. We measured impulsive decision-making in a cohort of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in which we had previously manipulated developmental telomere attrition by cross-fostering sibling chicks into broods of different sizes. We show that as predicted by state-dependent optimality models, individuals who had sustained greater developmental telomere attrition and who had shorter current telomeres made more impulsive foraging decisions as adults, valuing smaller, sooner food rewards more highly than birds with less attrition and longer telomeres. Our findings shed light on the biological embedding of early adversity and support a functional explanation for its consequences that could be applicable to other species, including humans.

  14. Fibre architecture and song activation rates of syringeal muscles are not lateralized in the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, A M; Meyers, R A; Cooper, B G; Goller, F

    2010-04-01

    The songbird vocal organ, the syrinx, is composed of two sound generators, which are independently controlled by sets of two extrinsic and four intrinsic muscles. These muscles rank among the fastest vertebrate muscles, but the molecular and morphological foundations of this rapid physiological performance are unknown. Here we show that the four intrinsic muscles in the syrinx of male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are composed of fast oxidative and superfast fibres. Dorsal and ventral tracheobronchialis muscles contain slightly more superfast fibres relative to the number of fast oxidative fibres than dorsal and ventral syringealis muscles. This morphological difference is not reflected in the highest, burst-like activation rate of the two muscle groups during song as assessed with electromyographic recordings. No difference in fibre type ratio was found between the corresponding muscles of the left and right sound generators. Airflow and electromyographic measurements during song indicate that maximal activation rate and speed of airflow regulation do not differ between the two sound sources. Whereas the potential for high-speed muscular control exists on both sides, the two sound generators are used differentially for modulation of acoustic parameters. These results show that large numbers of superfast fibre types are present in intrinsic syringeal muscles of a songbird, providing further confirmation of rapid contraction kinetics. However, syringeal muscles are composed of two fibre types which raises questions about the neuromuscular control of this heterogeneous muscle architecture.

  15. Parent-absent calls are related to nestling reaction time and parental food allocation in the spotless starling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimeno, Blanca; Gil, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Absent repeat calls (ARC) are produced by nestlings of some bird species when parents are not at the nest, and play a role in sibling interactions and parental investment. We explored if individual traits influencing begging also determine ARC in the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), and whether

  16. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass : effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G. Henk

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body

  17. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-07-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds.

  18. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  19. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Emmerson, Michael; Ergün, Gökçe; Monaghan, Pat; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris) decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question whether increased

  20. Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Kavala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80 of the PV group and 5% (4/80 of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg were observed in 7 patients (9% with PV and one in the control group (1,2%. Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16 PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.

  1. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Johnsongrass Sorghum halepense Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis Lespedeza bicolor Desnodium bicolor Lespedeza sericea Lespedeza sericea Orchard grass Dactylis... Anthus spinoletta Cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum Loggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus Starling Sturnus vulgaris White-eyed vireo Vireo griseus Yellow

  2. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  3. A breeding record of Abbott's Starling Cinnyricinclus femoralis from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from central Kenya. Abbott's Starling Cinnyricinclus femoralis is an East African endemic that inhabits montane forests of northern Tanzania and central Kenya. It is considered Globally. Vulnerable ... Photo of an African Olive Olea africana and adjacent dead tree supporting an Abbott's. Starling nest cavity (yellow circle), ...

  4. Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-06-23

    The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure.

  5. Beta vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat treated Beetroot have the highest value for ABTS scavenging ability. ... powdered sample was stored in a clean dry plastic container at room ..... Nutritional value and economic feasibility of red beetroot. (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel) from different production systems. African Journal of. Agricultural ...

  6. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Christiaan; te Marvelde, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Bird breeding and spring migration phenology have advanced in response to climate change, but the effects differ between sites. Here, we examine the geographical variation in laying-date trends in a short-distance migrant, the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, and a long-distance migrant, the pied

  7. Ichthyosis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented in this r......Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented...... or irritants. Moreover, with our current knowledge, individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris should be protected against neonatal exposure to cats to prevent atopic dermatitis and should abstain from smoking to prevent asthma. Finally, they should be advised against excessive exposure to factors that decrease skin...

  8. Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ghorpade

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris causes much emotional trauma, social embarrassment and cosmetic disfiguration in teenage girls and boys. The multifactorial etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of this condition are narrated. The mechanism of comedo formation is briefly discussed. Recent concepts in the management of this chronic malady are critically reviewed.

  9. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927): the scientist and the man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2005-01-01

    The pre-eminent achievements of the English physician and physiologist Ernest Henry Starling were his quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid, the discovery of the first hormone, secretin, and his formulation of the law of the heart. In some ways Starling was an outsider...

  10. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David

    2011-01-05

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).

  11. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G Henk

    2008-08-01

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (LS) or at least 9 days in advance (LL). Energy expenditure during flight (ef in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in L(S) and LL were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect ef, i.e. U and C flights were not different. ef was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but ef was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log10(ef) = 0.050 + 0.47 x log10(m) for C, and log10(ef) = 0.073 + 0.47 x log10(m) for L). The difference in ef between C, LS and LL was best explained by taking the transported mass m transp (in g) instead of m into account (log10(ef) = -0.08 + 0.54 x log10(m transp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations.

  12. Assessment of contractility in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes using the dimensionless 'Frank-Starling Gain' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollensdorff, Christian; Lookin, Oleg; Kohl, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper briefly recapitulates the Frank-Starling law of the heart, reviews approaches to establishing diastolic and systolic force-length behaviour in intact isolated cardiomyocytes, and introduces a dimensionless index called 'Frank-Starling Gain', calculated as the ratio of slopes of end-systolic and end-diastolic force-length relations. The benefits and limitations of this index are illustrated on the example of regional differences in Guinea pig intact ventricular cardiomyocyte mechanics. Potential applicability of the Frank-Starling Gain for the comparison of cell contractility changes upon stretch will be discussed in the context of intra- and inter-individual variability of cardiomyocyte properties.

  13. [Acne vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C

    2014-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is worldwide the most common skin disease. Acne is an inflammatory disorder in whose emergence androgens, PPAR ligands, the IGF-1 signaling pathway, regulating neuropeptides and environmental factors are probably involved. These factors interrupt the natural cycling process in the sebaceous gland follicle and support the transition of microcomedones to comedones and inflammatory lesions. Proinflammatory lipids and cytokines are mediators for the development of acne lesions. Bacterial antigens can potentate the inflammatory phenomena. Acne is predominantly treated with combination therapy. Selecting a treatment regimen depends on the exact classification of acne type and severity. The development of scars is the main criterion for the choice of systemic therapy. Retinoids for mild comedonal acne and the combination of retinoids with antibiotics and/or benzoyl peroxide for mild to moderate papulopustular acne are the drugs of first choice for topical treatment. The use of topical antibiotics is not recommended any more because of the development of resistant bacterial strains. Systemic antibiotics, in combination with topical retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide, for moderate papular/nodular acne and isotretinoin for severe nodular/conglobate acne are the columns of systemic acne treatment. Systemic anti-androgens are used in women against moderate papulopustular acne. Due to advances in the understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in recent years the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and better side effect profile should be expected in the future.

  14. Effect of thermal stress on Frank-Starling relations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, T.E.; Brothers, R.M.; Tollund, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Frank-Starling 'law of the heart' is implicated in certain types of orthostatic intolerance in humans. Environmental conditions have the capacity to modulate orthostatic tolerance, where heat stress decreases and cooling increases orthostatic tolerance. The objective of this project was to test...... the hypothesis that heat stress augments and cooling attenuates orthostatic-induced decreases in stroke volume (SV) via altering the operating position on a Frank-Starling curve. Pulmonary artery catheters were placed in 11 subjects for measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and SV (thermodilution...... in PCWP. In contrast, heating values were located on the steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve because of augmented decreases in SV per decrease in PCWP. These data suggest that a Frank-Starling mechanism may contribute to improvements in orthostatic tolerance during cold stress and orthostatic...

  15. Optimal foraging and beyond : How starlings cope with changes in food availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bautista, LM; Tinbergen, J; Wiersma, P; Kacelnik, A; Bautista, Luis M.; Byers, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging adaptations include behavioral and physiological responses, but most optimal foraging models deal exclusively with behavioral decision variables, taking other dimensions as constraints. To overcome this limitation, we measured behavioral and physiological responses of European starlings

  16. Starlings as avian model and monitors of remedial actions on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting behavior, productivity, and physical condition of starlings were evaluated between reference and PCB remediated sites. Nest box usage was similar among all...

  17. Behavioural and physiological responses of birds to environmentally relevant concentrations of an antidepressant

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Tom G.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Lane, Julie; Herborn, Katherine A; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Many wildlife species forage on sewage-contaminated food, for example, at wastewater treatment plants and on fields fertilized with sewage sludge. The resultant exposure to human pharmaceuticals remains poorly studied for terrestrial species. On the basis of predicted exposure levels in the wild, we administered the common antidepressant fluoxetine (FLUOX) or control treatment via prey to wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for 22 weeks over winter. To investigate responses to fluoxetine...

  18. Simulation of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Ribarič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a lumped parameter, computer-based model of an equivalent electronic circuit for a one-atrium one-ventricle (frog heart attached to a vascular circuit, to simulate a basic concept of cardiovascular physiology, the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart. A series of simulations was performed, to observe changes in cardiovascular variables (e.g., arterial pressure, ventricular volume, and valve flows if either preload or afterload was increased. The simulated data agreed qualitatively, and quantitatively when experimental data are available, with data obtained on amphibian or on mammalian myocardium. In addition, the data obtained in these simulations improve our understanding of the mechanism(s whereby the heart muscle adapts itself to increased distension (increased preload or to impeded systolic contraction (increased afterload. The analysis of the measured valve flows suggests that the ventricle is a highly input sensitive pump because the input pressure determines the diastolic distension and, consequently, the force of ventricular systolic contraction. On the other hand, the ventricle is a relatively output insensitive pump. Therefore, not only atrium contraction, but also predominantly the preceding ventricular systolic contraction is the main mechanism of the subsequent diastolic ventricular filling. We conclude that the presented model enables the study of basic concepts of cardiovascular physiology.

  19. Simulation of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarič, Samo; Kordaš, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    We developed a lumped parameter, computer-based model of an equivalent electronic circuit for a one-atrium one-ventricle (frog) heart attached to a vascular circuit, to simulate a basic concept of cardiovascular physiology, the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart. A series of simulations was performed, to observe changes in cardiovascular variables (e.g., arterial pressure, ventricular volume, and valve flows) if either preload or afterload was increased. The simulated data agreed qualitatively, and quantitatively when experimental data are available, with data obtained on amphibian or on mammalian myocardium. In addition, the data obtained in these simulations improve our understanding of the mechanism(s) whereby the heart muscle adapts itself to increased distension (increased preload) or to impeded systolic contraction (increased afterload). The analysis of the measured valve flows suggests that the ventricle is a highly input sensitive pump because the input pressure determines the diastolic distension and, consequently, the force of ventricular systolic contraction. On the other hand, the ventricle is a relatively output insensitive pump. Therefore, not only atrium contraction, but also predominantly the preceding ventricular systolic contraction is the main mechanism of the subsequent diastolic ventricular filling. We conclude that the presented model enables the study of basic concepts of cardiovascular physiology.

  20. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-09-01

    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  1. Near wake features of a flying European Starling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhefer, Adam; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2013-11-01

    A great deal of research focusing on flapping wings has been motivated by their high performance capabilities, especially in low Reynolds number configurations where static wing performance typically suffers. The approaches to studying flapping wings have taken different forms. One form has been the systematic investigation of the parameters that influence the relationship between flapping wings and their wake. The other form, and the approach used in the present work, is the investigation of flapping wings in nature. While the earliest work on the flapping wings of animals consists of observations of bird flight by Leonardo DaVinci, advances in technology have allowed for quantitative measurements of the wake. The near wake of a freely flying European starling has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to measure the near wake two-dimensional velocity field that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in an avian wind tunnel. Time series of the velocities have been expressed as composite wake plots, which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat.

  2. Multicentric lupus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old female patient presented with disseminated tuberculosis. She had multicentric lupus vulgaris and her joints, bones, lymph nodes and lungs were also affected. Haematogenous dissemination was because of her poor health.

  3. Ernest Henry Starling: the history of cardiovascular endocrinology and the continuous need for developing animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2014-01-01

    The English physiologist, Ernest Henry Starling (1866–1927) (Fig. 1) in 1896, provided a quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid. Six years later, he discovered the first hormone and introduced the concept of hormones in 1905, and at the time of the First World War, he...

  4. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  5. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media.

  6. Assessing Video Presentations as Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marion; Henry, Laurence; Perret, Audrey; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; George, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris) stereotypic behaviours (SBs) and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs) and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting) that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare. PMID:24827457

  7. Improving propulsive efficiency through passive mechanisms using a Starling vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Robert; Dabiri, John

    2011-11-01

    Ruiz et al. (2011) demonstrated that pulsed propulsion with vortex rings, much like those seen in the wake of jellyfish and squid, can greatly enhance the overall efficiency of submersible vehicles. The objective of the present research is to achieve pulsed propulsion passively using a Starling vortex generator which consists of a collapsible tube within an airtight box. Recent work has shown that a Starling vortex generator is able to generate vortex rings, which indicates enhanced propulsion, while requiring less energy to generate pulsatility than the system by Ruiz et al. (2011). Current work is focused on conducting an experimental parameter study to determine an empirical scaling law suitable for design purposes, with the aim to integrate the device into a full-scale unmanned undersea vehicle. Support is greatly appreciated from ONR Awards N000140810918 and N000141010137.

  8. Acne vulgaris: endocriene aspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Thio, B. H.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2006-01-01

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development

  9. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... CONCLUSION: Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early ... 3 SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad, India. Corresponding Author: Rai Arpita, ... sign in this case led to provisional diagnosis of vesiculo-bullous lesion affecting ...

  10. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  11. Nitrite is a positive modulator of the Frank-Starling response in the vertebrate heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Tommaso; Gattuso, Alfonsina; Imbrogno, Sandra; Mazza, Rosa; Tota, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Evidence from both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates indicates that intracardiac nitric oxide (NO) facilitates myocardial relaxation, ventricular diastolic distensibility, and, consequently, the Frank-Starling response, i.e., the preload-induced increase of cardiac output. Since nitrite ion (NO(2)(-)), the major storage pool of bioactive NO, recently emerged as a cardioprotective endogenous modulator, we explored its influence on the Frank-Starling response in eel, frog, and rat hearts, used as paradigms of fish, amphibians, and mammals, respectively. We demonstrated that, like NO, exogenous nitrite improves the Frank-Starling response in all species, as indicated by an increase of stroke volume and stroke work (eel and frog) and of left ventricular (LV) pressure and LVdP/dt max (rat), used as indexes of inotropism. Unlike in frog and rat, in eel, the positive influence of nitrite appeared to be dependent on NO synthase inhibition. In all species, the effect was sensitive to NO scavengers, independent on nitroxyl anion, and mediated by a cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway. Moreover, the nitrite treatment increased S-nitrosylation of lower-molecular-weight proteins in cytosolic and membrane fractions. These results suggest that nitrite acts as a physiological source of NO, modulating through different species-specific mechanisms, the stretch-induced intrinsic regulation of the vertebrate heart.

  12. A tribute to a scientist extraordinaire - Ernest H. Starling (1866-1927).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Vimala; Km, Prathibha

    2015-01-01

    One of the defining moments in the history of medicine came in the year 1902 with the discovery of Secretin, the first hormone to be isolated in the human body. The men credited with this milestone discovery, which went on to revolutionize medicine, are Ernest H. Starling and William M. Bayliss. Their contributions aided the transition of medical practice from empiricism towards rationalism. E.H. Starling introduced the word 'hormone', laying the foundation for the development of Endocrinology as a medical specialty. His extensive research in circulatory physiology including the study of the electric activity of the heart and capillary fluid shift has made his name a mainstay in its study. His interests were varied, where he contributed his scientific bend of mind to the study of different fields of Physiology and his non-conformist ideals to the study of the then prevalent educational system in Great Britain. In lieu with celebrating the 150th birth anniversary of E. H. Starling, a brilliant scientist and an educational reformist, a chronological construe of his academic pursuits and milestone achievements has been presented. One hopes that such recollections serve to inspire and invigorate the scientist inside everyone and also serve as guiding beacons to students and researchers.

  13. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Lung and lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukta, V; Jayachandran, K

    2011-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  15. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling

    OpenAIRE

    Hadar Ben-Gida; Adam Kirchhefer; Taylor, Zachary J.; Wayne Bezner-Kerr; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Roi Gurka

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the b...

  16. ARTICLE Improvement on the Carnahan-Starling Equation of State for Hard-sphere Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-zhi; Ma, Hong-ru

    2010-12-01

    Making use of Weierstrass's theorem and Chebyshev's theorem and referring to the equations of state of the scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick integration equation, we demonstrate that there exists a sequence of polynomials such that the equation of state is given by the limit of the sequence of polynomials. The polynomials of the best approximation from the third order up to the eighth order are obtained so that the Carnahan-Starling equation can be improved successively. The resulting equations of state are in good agreement with the simulation results on the stable fluid branch and on the metastable fluid branch.

  17. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  18. Application of Adaptive Starling-Like Controller to Total Artificial Heart Using Dual Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon C; Smith, Peter A; Nestler, Frank; Timms, Daniel; Cohn, William E; Lim, Einly

    2017-03-01

    The successful clinical applicability of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to research interest in devising a total artificial heart (TAH) using two rotary blood pumps (RBPs). The major challenge when using two separately controlled LVADs for TAH support is the difficulty in maintaining the balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. In this study, a starling-like controller (SLC) hybridized with an adaptive mechanism was developed for a dual rotary LVAD TAH. The incorporation of the adaptive mechanism was intended not only to minimize the risk of pulmonary congestion and atrial suction but also to match cardiac demand. A comparative assessment was performed between the proposed adaptive starling-like controller (A-SLC) and a conventional SLC as well as a constant speed controller. The performance of all controllers was evaluated by subjecting them to three simulated scenarios [rest, exercise, head up tilt (HUT)] using a mock circulation loop. The overall results showed that A-SLC was superior in matching pump flow to cardiac demand without causing hemodynamic instabilities. In contrast, improper flow regulation by the SLC resulted in pulmonary congestion during exercise. From resting supine to HUT, overpumping of the RBPs at fixed speed (FS) caused atrial suction, whereas implementation of SLC resulted in insufficient flow. The comparative study signified the potential of the proposed A-SLC for future TAH implementation particularly among outpatients, who are susceptible to variety of clinical scenarios.

  19. In search of millions of lost Starlings across Europe: The relation between monitoring, science and conservation in a declining species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    national monitoring programmes showed a general cline across Europe, with most severe declines in north and west Europe in contrast to stable or increasing trends in central and eastern Europe. We investigated the drivers behind the regional variations in Starling abundance within Denmark to investigate...

  20. Nail manifestations in pemphigus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Cahali Juliana Burihan; Kakuda Everton Yuji Soyama; Santi Cláudia Giuli; Maruta Celina Wakisaka

    2002-01-01

    Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We describe 5 patients with pemphigus vulgaris presenting nail involvement. In this disease, nail manifestations present, by order of frequency, as chronic paronychia, onychomadesis, onycholysis, Beau's lines and trachyonychia. All our 5 cases presented with paronychia, and 1 of them also had Beau's lines. Treatment with prednisone and/or cyclophosphamide controlled mucocutaneous and nail manifestations in all cases. O acometimento ungueal no...

  1. Sexing Adult Pale-Winged Starlings Using Morphometric and Discriminant Function Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Henry

    Full Text Available Accurate sexing of birds is vital for behavioral studies but can be a real problem in the field, especially for monomorphic species. Our goal here was to characterize the morphology of male and female monomorphic pale-winged starlings (Onychognathus nabouroup, a South African sturnid whose plumage is sexually monomorphic. Morphological measurements of genetically sexed animals indicated that males were statistically larger than females for five measurements: Mass, tail length, tarsus length and wing length. By using a Discriminant Function Analysis based on the measurements taken by one ringer, we were able to predict correctly the sex of 81.10% of the birds of data collected in the field and 77.9% of museum skins independently of year of capture and ringer. The model developed here should be useful for further field studies of this species.

  2. Phaseolus vulgaris - recalcitrant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2014-11-15

    Since the ability to genetically engineer plants was established, researchers have modified a great number of plant species to satisfy agricultural, horticultural, industrial, medicinal or veterinary requirements. Almost thirty years after the first approaches to the genetic modification of pulse crops, it is possible to transform many grain legumes. However, one of the most important species for human nutrition, Phaseolus vulgaris, still lacks some practical tools for genomic research, such as routine genetic transformation. Its recalcitrance towards in vitro regeneration and rooting significantly hampers the possibilities of improvement of the common bean that suffers from many biotic and abiotic constraints. Thus, an efficient and reproducible system for regeneration of a whole plant is desired. Although noticeable progress has been made, the rate of recovery of transgenic lines is still low. Here, the current status of tissue culture and recent progress in transformation methodology are presented. Some major challenges and obstacles are discussed and some examples of their solutions are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    OpenAIRE

    D Kelly; L Mackenzie; David A. Saint

    2014-01-01

    Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg E...

  4. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Bambusa vulgaris Var. vulgaris Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the pharmacognostic characters and toxicity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaf in male wistar rats. The microscopy of the leaf revealed diagnostic characters such as anomocytic stomata, sinuous epidermal cells, numerous prisms of calcium oxalate crystals and covering ...

  5. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement.

  6. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It ...

  7. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C.; de Tombe, Pieter P. (IIT); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I{sub M3}) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short ({approx}10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by IM3) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  8. The status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Passeriformes: Sturnidae in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Naing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum, in Southeast Asia has been unclear.  The origins of the few reported sightings, where commented upon, have often been listed as ‘uncertain’ or ‘unknown’ with the implication that some, maybe all, are escaped captivity birds.  The current paper brings together data on distribution, date of observation, and number of individuals to illustrate a pattern that clearly supports the view that records from Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore should be treated as ‘winter vagrants’.  With one exception, they are all of five birds or less and have been observed from October to March.  The paper includes the first authenticate record from Myanmar, which is the 1115th wild bird species listed for the country.  However, the status of a single record from Cambodia is treated with caution since it represents a considerable range extension and was observed on 01 April, which is relatively late in the season.  For these reasons, it is here listed as ‘origin uncertain’ until further data are available.  

  9. Pemphigus vulgaris in adolescence: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jean Paulo Rodolfo [UNESP; Araújo, Paula Caetano [UNESP; SAliba, Marcos Tadeu Adas [UNESP; Consolaro, Renata Bianco; |Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba [UNESP]|

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease, normally associated with oral lesions that generally affects patients aged 40 - 60 years. The aim of this study was to report a case of pemphigus vulgaris presenting at an uncommon age with advanced periodontal disease, and to describe the treatment performed from the time of diagnosis through oral environment restoration and follow-up monitoring. One gingival vesicular lesion was biopsied. After the histological confirmation of pemphigus vulgaris,...

  10. Lupus vulgaris associated with Scrofuloderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Preet Tuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. It is even rarer for it to complicate scrofuloderma. We report a case of a 27-year-old man who had undergone a successful treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with scrofuloderma with lesions of lupus on the overlying skin. The Mantoux test was positive and initial chest X-ray did not show any active features of tuberculosis. Discharge from the lesion stained positive for acid fast bacilli. Multiple fine needle aspirations were inconclusive. However the histopathology of biopsied lesion revealed tuberculoid granuloma with Langhans giant cells. TThe patient improved with antitubercular therapy. We are presenting this case as a rare coexistence of scrofuloderma with lupus vulgaris.

  11. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eHenry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence or homoplasy is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species’ social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that 1 there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, 2 the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, or the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings.

  12. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Craig, Adrian J F K; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates) and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species' social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that (1) there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, (2) the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, and the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species' social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings.

  13. Modulation of the Cardiomyocyte Contraction inside a Hydrostatic Pressure Bioreactor: In Vitro Verification of the Frank-Starling Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fassina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied beating mouse cardiac syncytia in vitro in order to assess the inotropic, ergotropic, and chronotropic effects of both increasing and decreasing hydrostatic pressures. In particular, we have performed an image processing analysis to evaluate the kinematics and the dynamics of those pressure-loaded beating syncytia starting from the video registration of their contraction movement. By this analysis, we have verified the Frank-Starling law of the heart in in vitro beating cardiac syncytia and we have obtained their geometrical-functional classification.

  14. Sporotrichoid lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.

  15. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  16. Sexual and natural selection in the evolution of extended phenotypes: the use of green nesting material in starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, J G; Polo, V; Maia, R; Rubenstein, D R; Veiga, J P

    2016-08-01

    Although sexual selection is typically considered the predominant force driving the evolution of ritualized sexual behaviours, natural selection may also play an important and often underappreciated role. The use of green aromatic plants among nesting birds has been interpreted as a component of extended phenotype that evolved either via natural selection due to potential sanitary functions or via sexual selection as a signal of male attractiveness. Here, we compared both hypotheses using comparative methods in starlings, a group where this behaviour is widespread. We found that the use of green plants was positively related to male-biased size dimorphism and that it was most likely to occur among cavity-nesting species. These results suggest that this behaviour is likely favoured by sexual selection, but also related to its sanitary use in response to higher parasite loads in cavities. We speculate that the use of green plants in starlings may be facilitated by cavity nesting and was subsequently co-opted as a sexual signal by males. Our results represent an example of how an extended phenotypic component of males becomes sexually selected by females. Thus, both natural selection and sexual selection are necessary to fully understand the evolution of ritualized behaviours involved in courtship. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg End Diastolic Left Ventricular Pressure (EDLVP or rapidly applied stretch (EDLVP increased by 25 mm.Hg within 100 ms often triggered ectopic beats in isolated rat and guinea-pig hearts. However, ventricular epicardial monophasic action potentials (MAPs recorded during stretch to EDLVP up to 30 mm. Hg showed no consistent changes in action potential duration (at APD20, APD50 or APD80 in either species. MAP recording detected APD prolongation with very small concentrations of 4-AP (10 μM, confirming the discrimination of the recording technique. In isolated rat atrial strips, no changes in intracellular action potential morphology or membrane potential were seen when stretched to levels producing an optimum increase in contractility. We conclude that alteration in action potential morphology with stretch does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in ventricle of rat or guinea-pig isolated heart, or in rat atrial tissue.

  18. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  19. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  20. Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen-Larson, Siri; Dawson, Annelise L; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition with substantial cutaneous and psychologic disease burden. Studies suggest that the emotional impact of acne is comparable to that experienced by patients with systemic diseases, like diabetes and epilepsy. In conjunction with the considerable personal burden experienced by patients with acne, acne vulgaris also accounts for substantial societal and health care burden. The pathogenesis and existing treatment strategies for acne are complex. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of acne vulgaris. The burden of disease in the United States and future directions in the management of acne are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  2. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  3. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  4. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  5. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  6. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Paul D.; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L.; Najjar, Samer S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(EA) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in EA during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined EA and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive EA[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). EA varied with exercise intensity: the ΔEA between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from −44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔEAI. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔEA(group 3;ΔEA≥0.98 mmHg.m2/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔEAgroup 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise. PMID:22003052

  7. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  8. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M F Kovtun; Ya V Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

      The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  9. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. F. Kovtun; Ya. V. Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  10. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  11. Description of two new Isospora species causing visceral coccidiosis in captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus (Aves: Sturnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian A; Stasiak, Iga; Delnatte, Pauline; El-Sherry, Shiem; Smith, Dale A; Barta, John R

    2014-09-01

    Isospora greineri sp. n. and Isospora superbusi sp. n. are described from captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, from the Toronto Zoo succumbing to visceral coccidiosis. Sequence data from nuclear 18S recombinant DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) loci from sporulated oocysts and infected tissues (liver, lung, or spleen) demonstrated two distinct Isospora sp. genotypes that varied in their relative abundance. In the tissues of one affected bird, as well as its associated fecal sample, two distinct COI sequences (1.7% divergence) and two distinct 18S rDNA sequences (0.6% divergence) were found at almost the same abundance; in other specimens, one of the 18S and one of the COI sequences were less abundant than the other. In the tissues of some birds, only a single COI and single 18S sequence were present. In all cases, the same pair of 18S rDNA and COI sequences fluctuated in abundance in parallel, indicating that there were two distinct species present rather than one species with more than one COI or 18S locus. The oocysts of these new species cannot be differentiated morphologically. Sporulated oocysts of both were spherical to subspherical measuring 17.7 ± 0.22 μm by 17.1 ± 0.20 μm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.03 ± 0.004. Sporocysts were ovoid measuring 13.5 ± 0.17 μm by 9.3 ± 0.15 μm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.4 ± 0.02. Sporocysts had a small Stieda body with indistinct sub-Stieda body; each sporocyst had a compact residuum. Two morphologically similar but genetically divergent Isospora species were shown to cause simultaneous enteric and extraintestinal infections in captive superb glossy starlings.

  12. Tests of ecogeographical relationships in a non-native species: what rules avian morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardilini, Adam P A; Buchanan, Katherine L; Sherman, Craig D H; Cassey, Phillip; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of non-native species to undergo rapid adaptive change provides opportunities to research contemporary evolution through natural experiments. This capacity is particularly true when considering ecogeographical rules, to which non-native species have been shown to conform within relatively short periods of time. Ecogeographical rules explain predictable spatial patterns of morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour. We tested whether Australian populations of non-native starling, Sturnus vulgaris, introduced to the country approximately 150 years ago, exhibited predicted environmental clines in body size, appendage size and heart size (Bergmann's, Allen's and Hesse's rules, respectively). Adult starlings (n = 411) were collected from 28 localities from across eastern Australia from 2011 to 2012. Linear models were constructed to examine the relationships between morphology and local environment. Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. In the only intraspecific test of Hesse's rule in birds to date, we found no evidence to support the idea that relative heart size will be larger in individuals which live in colder climates. Our study does provide evidence that maximum temperature is a strong driver of morphological adaptation for starlings in Australia. The changes in morphology presented here demonstrate the potential for avian species to make rapid adaptive changes in relation to a changing climate to ameliorate the effects of heat stress.

  13. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  14. Lupus Vulgaris At A Rare Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaduri Gautam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lupus vulgaris at a rare site-eyelid is reported here. Delayed diagnosis of the condition affecting the left eyelid in a female patient aged 78 years, led to scarring and fixity of eyelids with resultant exposure keratitis and dimness of vision. Antitubercular therapy improved skin condition but dimness f vision persisted.

  15. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate ...

  16. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  17. Antimitochondrial Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Steve; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Arredondo, Juan; Gindi, Vivian; Grando, Sergei A.

    2010-01-01

    A loss of epidermal cohesion in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) results from autoantibody action on keratinocytes (KCs) activating the signaling kinases and executioner caspases that damage KCs, causing their shrinkage, detachment from neighboring cells, and rounding up (apoptolysis). In this study, we found that PV antibody binding leads to activation of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, Src, p38 MAPK, and JNK in KCs with time pattern variations from patient to patient. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were also activated. Although Fas ligand neutralizing antibody could inhibit the former pathway, the mechanism of activation of the latter remained unknown. PV antibodies increased cytochrome c release, suggesting damage to mitochondria. The immunoblotting experiments revealed penetration of PVIgG into the subcellular mitochondrial fraction. The antimitochondrial antibodies from different PV patients recognized distinct combinations of antigens with apparent molecular sizes of 25, 30, 35, 57, 60, and 100 kDa. Antimitochondrial antibodies were pathogenic because their absorption abolished the ability of PVIgG to cause keratinocyte detachment both in vitro and in vivo. The downstream signaling of antimitochondrial antibodies involved JNK and late p38 MAPK activation, whereas the signaling of anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) antibody involved JNK and biphasic p38 MAPK activation. Using KCs grown from Dsg3−/− mice, we determined that Dsg3 did not serve as a surrogate antigen allowing antimitochondrial antibodies to enter KCs. The PVIgG-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Src was affected neither in Dsg3−/− KCs nor due to absorption of antimitochondrial antibodies. These results demonstrated that apoptolysis in PV is a complex process initiated by at least three classes of autoantibodies directed against desmosomal, mitochondrial, and other keratinocyte self-antigens. These autoantibodies synergize with the proapoptotic serum and

  18. [Diet in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdarska, Katarzyna; Osucha, Karolina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Malejczyk, Jacek; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-10-23

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Milk increases the level of IGF-1 leading to the synthesis of androgen-mediated increases sebum production. Chocolate predispose to hyperglycemia and insulinemia which aggravate of acne vulgaris. High levels of omega-6 fatty acids have been associated with increase of acne in contrast to omega-3 fatty acids, which decrease inflammation. Food have huge impact on development and severity of acne and may exert beneficial effect in the treatment of this disorder.

  19. Spotlight on adapalene in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, John; Noble, Stuart; Scott, Lesley J

    2004-01-01

    Adapalene (Differin) is a retinoid agent indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. In clinical trials, 0.1% adapalene gel has proved to be effective in this indication and was as effective as 0.025% tretinoin gel, 0.1% tretinoin microsphere gel, 0.05% tretinoin cream and 0.1% tazarotene gel once every two days; however, the drug was less effective than once-daily 0.1% tazarotene gel. It can be used alone in mild acne or in combination with antimicrobials in inflammatory acne and has proved efficacious as maintenance treatment. Adapalene has a rapid onset of action and a particularly favorable tolerability profile compared with other retinoids. These attributes can potentially promote patient compliance, an important factor in treatment success. Adapalene is, therefore, assured of a role in the first-line treatment of acne vulgaris.

  20. Adapalene In The Treatment Of Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad H R Y

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical tretinoin, a retinoid long in use for the treatment of acne vulgaris, has the disadvantage of skin irritation. Adapalene, a third generation retinoid, has been claimed to have less side-effects. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of adapalene in an open uncontrolled trial. Thirty three patients of mild to moderate acne vulgaris were included in the study. Of them, 22 patients completed the study period of 12 weeks. The mean age of all 33 patients was 19 year with male to female ratio of 1.75:1. There was significant decrease in lesion count in each of 1,4,8 and 12 weeks evaluations (p <0.05 in both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. About 70% complained of burning, 60% of itching and 30% of dryness. However, none of the side-effects was severe enough to stop the medication except in one case.

  1. Giant lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchidanand, S; Sharavana, S; Mallikarjun, M; Nataraja, H V

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem even with the availability of highly effective anti-tuberculous drugs. It constitutes 0.1% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis that occurs in previously sensitized individuals with a moderate degree of immunity against tubercle bacilli. The different types of lupus vulgaris include plaque, ulcerative, vegetative, papular and nodular, and tumor forms. A 40-year-old man presented with large multiple plaques over right upper limb, right side of chest and back, and right lower limb for the past 30 years. Histopathology showed numerous noncaseating granulomas with Langhan's type of giant cells. The Mantoux test showed strong positivity and there was excellent response to anti-tuberculous treatment. This case is being reported because of its extreme chronicity of 30 years duration, unusually large size and multiplicity of lesions.

  2. Chloroplast Microsatellite Diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, F.; Bitocchi, E.; Bellucci, E.; Rau, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Attene, G.; Papa, R.; Nanni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance), to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i) confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii) identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analyzed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding. PMID:23346091

  3. Chloroplast microsatellite diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDesiderio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance, to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analysed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding.

  4. [ACNE VULGARIS--AETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Chwilkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A spotless skin is a rarity. Both women and men have different problems related to the complexion. One of the most common problems is acne, which affects an increasing number of people of all ages. Seborrhea skin areas rich in sebaceous glands, the formation of comedones, inflammation, and scars are characteristic for this disease. The aim of the study was to discuss the causes of acne vulgaris, methods of treatment, and proper care of the skin affected by this problem.

  5. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

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    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  6. [Concepts for immune intervention in psoriasis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, F O

    2000-09-14

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a genetic background. Activated T-cells and their secreted products seem to play an essential role in the induction as well as the promotion of the psoriatic plaque. We will focus on some recent concepts on the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis highlighting the role of dendritic cells as initiators of the disease as well as the recruitment of disease specific T-cells. Concepts for immunointervention will be introduced.

  7. Pemfigus Vulgaris Manifestasi di Mulut dan Penatalaksanaannya

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    Metawati Tarmidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemfigus is an autoimmune disease involving the skin and mucosa and characterized by intraepidermal bullae formation. The four variations of pemphigus are pemphigus vulgaris, vegetans, foliaceus, and erythematosus. Although several clinical variants are recognized, pemphigus vulgaris is the most common form and the type most likely to exhibit oral manifestations. There are from 0,1 to 0,5 cases reported each year per 100,000 population with the highest incidence occurring in the fourth and seventh decades of life. Only rare cases have been reported in children and the elderly. Before the advent of systemic corticosteroid therapy, pemphigus vulgaris was fatal within few months to two years. A characteristic feature is the nikolsky sign which is the ability to elicit the formation of bullae by the application of firm lateral pressure on normal-appearing skin. The oral lesions often have a slow, insidious onset with symptoms present for many months before a diagnosis is made or skin lesions develop. Lesions may be found anywhere but are most common on the palate, buccal mucosa, and gingiva. Although the oral lesions are vesicobullous in nature, intact blisters are rarely seen. Diagnosis is established by biopsy and immunofluorescent studies. Titers on indirect immunofluorescence often correlate to the severity of the disease. The aim of this study is to promote and support early dental diagnosis when the prognosis is good.

  8. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p pathogenesis of acne.

  9. The role of the Frank-Starling law in the transduction of cellular work to whole organ pump function: a computational modeling analysis.

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    Steven A Niederer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-scale biophysical electromechanics model of the rat left ventricle at room temperature. This model has been applied to investigate the relative roles of cellular scale length dependent regulators of tension generation on the transduction of work from the cell to whole organ pump function. Specifically, the role of the length dependent Ca(2+ sensitivity of tension (Ca(50, filament overlap tension dependence, velocity dependence of tension, and tension dependent binding of Ca(2+ to Troponin C on metrics of efficient transduction of work and stress and strain homogeneity were predicted by performing simulations in the absence of each of these feedback mechanisms. The length dependent Ca(50 and the filament overlap, which make up the Frank-Starling Law, were found to be the two dominant regulators of the efficient transduction of work. Analyzing the fiber velocity field in the absence of the Frank-Starling mechanisms showed that the decreased efficiency in the transduction of work in the absence of filament overlap effects was caused by increased post systolic shortening, whereas the decreased efficiency in the absence of length dependent Ca(50 was caused by an inversion in the regional distribution of strain.

  10. Antioxidant effect of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Antioxidant effect of Citrullus Vulgaris (Watermelon) extract was evaluated against lipid oxidation in freshly caught fishes during cooking. GC-MS analysis of Hexane and total phenolic extract of Citrullus Vulgaris flesh reveals that the extracts contain 55 compounds which includes 5- hydroxymethyl furfural, ...

  11. [Sensitivity of Chlorella vulgaris to metribuzin, puma and alachlor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bo; Wu, Jincai

    2004-09-01

    The relative sensitivities of Chlorella vulgaris to three commonly used herbicides metribuzin, puma and alachlor were determined by toxicity tests of 96-h static exposures. The results showed that the toxicities of metribuzin and alachlor to C. vulgaris increased with exposure time, and the density of C. vulgaris decreased with increasing concentrations of these two herbicides in the test media. The maximum specific growth rate of C. vulgaris exposed to metribuzin (0.24 mgL x L(-1)) and alachlor (12.8 mg x L(-1)) was 12.38% and 31.58% of the control, respectively. At low concentration, puma stimulated C. vulgaris growth, but at high concentration, it inhibited the growth significantly. The maximum specific growth rate of C. vulgaris under 0.08 mg x L(-1) puma was 111.44% of the control, and the toxicity of puma declined with increasing exposure duration. The EC50 value of metribuzin, puma and alachlor was 0.021, 0.937, and 5.54 mg x L(-1), respectively. The relative sensitivities of C. vulgaris to the three herbicides decreased in the order of metribuzin, puma and alachlor. The chlorophyll a content of C. vulgaris decreased with the increasing concentrations of metribuzin, puma and alachlor.

  12. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-bacterial properties, which may lead to increased commercial demand. To date...

  13. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  14. Changes in hemostasis in foals naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Krarup Nielsen, Martin; Jacobsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Strongylus vulgaris has been found endemic in equine populations subject to parasite control by targeted selective anthelmintic therapy. This study investigated hemostasis in foals naturally infected with S. vulgaris and monitored this response over the course of progressing infection stages....... The hemostatic indices D-dimer, antithrombin III (ATIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time were evaluated in weekly blood samples for up to 50 weeks in 12 foals born into a herd with high prevalence of S. vulgaris. Results were compared with weekly S. vulgaris antibody...... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay values in all foals using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures and to total numbers of S. vulgaris larvae in nine foals at necropsy with Pearson linear correlation. In the first week of life, all evaluated indices of hemostasis were significantly different...

  15. Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography of Five Species of Ground-Foraging Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Tracy; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Birds that forage on the ground have been studied extensively in relation to behavioral trade-offs between foraging and scanning for predators; however, we know little about the topography of their retinas, which can influence how they gather visual information. We characterized the density of retinal ganglion cells across the retina and estimated visual acuity of four Passeriformes (European starling Sturnus vulgaris, brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, house sparrow Passer domesticus, house finch Carpodacus mexicanus) and one Columbiforme (mourning dove Zenaida macroura) that forage on the ground. We used cresyl violet to stain retinal ganglion cells and estimated visual acuity based on cell density and eye size. All species contained a single area centralis, where cell densities were >20,000 cells/mm2. The proportion of the retina that fell in each of five cell density ranges varied between species. European starlings and house finches had the largest area of high cell density, mourning doves had the smallest. The largest proportion of the retina (>35%) of brown-headed cowbird and house sparrow was in the second-lowest cell density range. Considering the 25th percentile of highest cell densities, house finches and European starlings showed the highest cell densities and mourning doves the lowest. Estimated visual acuity increased from house finch, house sparrow, brown-headed cowbird, European starling to mourning dove, and was associated with both retinal area and cell density. Our findings suggest that these ground foragers do not have highly specialized retinas in relation to other types of foragers (e.g. tree foragers), probably because foraging on seeds and insects from the ground is not as visually demanding; however, the studied species showed variability in retinal topography that may be related to foraging techniques, eye size constraints, and size of the area centralis. PMID:20516656

  16. Oculomotor strategy of an avian ground forager: tilted and weakly yoked eye saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Luke P; Butler, Shannon R; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-08-01

    Many bird species are capable of large saccadic eye movements that can result in substantial shifts in gaze direction and complex changes to their visual field orientation. In the absence of visual stimuli, birds make spontaneous saccades that follow an endogenous oculomotor strategy. We used new eye-tracking technology specialized for small birds to study the oculomotor behavior of an open-habitat, ground-foraging songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We found that starlings primarily move their eyes along a tilted axis 13.46 deg downwards anteriorly and upwards posteriorly, which differs from the axis parallel to the horizon employed by other species. This tilted axis could enhance foraging and anti-predator strategies while starlings are head-down looking for food, allowing them to direct vision between the open mandibles to visually inspect food items, and above and behind the head to scan areas where predators are more likely to attack. We also found that starlings have neither fully conjugate saccades (as in humans, for example) nor independent saccades (as in chameleons, for example). Rather, they exhibit weakly yoked saccades where the left and right eyes move at the same time but not at the same magnitude. Functionally, weakly yoked saccades may be similar to independent saccades in that they allow the two eyes to concomitantly perform different tasks. The differences between the oculomotor strategies of studied species suggest eye movements play variable but important roles across bird species with different ecological niches. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  18. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  19. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  20. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  1. Annular Lupus Vulgaris Mimicking Tinea Cruris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress. PMID:20548922

  2. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  3. Evaluation of active oxygen effect on photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, S; Ueda, R; Sugata, K

    1996-09-01

    The relationship between O2 and an active oxygen scavenging system in Chlorella vulgaris var.vulgaris (IAM C-534) was investigated. When Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to 2% O2, only traces of active oxygen scavenging enzymes were found. When the Chlorella vulgaris was treated with 20% or 50% O2, it was shown that the level of enzyme activity increased as the O2 concentration increased. An increase in enzyme activity was not found in any specific enzyme but in all of the enzymes, but the level of glutathione and ascorbate remained the same in all the cases. In addition, the photosynthetic efficiency also decreased as the concentration of O2 was increased. These results suggest that an O2 enriched environment can lead to an increase in the production of active oxygen species such as O2.- and H2O2 and to a decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency in Chlorella vulgaris. The hydroxyl radical (.OH) was detected directly in the Chlorella vulgaris suspension with a spin trapping reagent. It was also clear that the increase in the .OH intensity as the visible light intensity increased was unrelated to the O2 concentration. It was suggested that the conditions for producting .OH and the other active oxygen species were different, and that two types of oxygen stress should exist in the Chlorella vulgaris.

  4. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  5. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  6. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimanta Kumar Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man.

  7. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  8. Vascular cognitive impairment in Pemphigus vulgaris: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ibiapina Siqueira- Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pemphigus vulgaris is a systemic auto-immune medical condition that mainly manifests with changes in skin and vasculopathy. This is a case report of a 69-year-old male with confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of Pemphigus vulgaris presenting ulterior Cognitive Impairment, mostly in executive function. The patient was treated using steroids, immunomodulatory therapy, fluoxetine and galantamine. Neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance (MRI were performed. This is the first report of correlational cognitive impairment with Pemphigus vulgaris in the literature. Physicians should be aware of vascular causes for cognitive impairment in patients presenting auto-immune conditions.

  9. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  10. Fatty acids composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acids composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be modulated by varying carbon dioxide concentration in outdoor culture. YAM Yusof, JMH Basari, NA Mukti, R Sabuddin, AR Muda, S Sulaiman, S Makpol, WZW Ngah ...

  11. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  12. Performance of climber common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    pathogen co-adaptation in Malawi. Proceed- ings of Bean/Cowpea CRSP Eastern African Regionalisation. Workshop, Lilongwe, p. 7. Mloza Banda HR, Ferguson AE, Mkandawire ABC (2003). The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  13. Antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Afsar; Kanhere, Rupesh S; Cuddapah, Rajaram; Nelson, Kumar S; Vara, Prasanth Reddy; Sibyala, Saisaran

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats. The plant extract was tested for its effect on implant formation at two dose levels, 300 and 600 mg·kg⁻¹, respectively. The effective methanolic plant extract was further studied for estrogenic potency on ovariectomised immature female Wistar rats. The data presented in this study demonstrate the antifertility potential of Artemisia vulgaris methanolic leaf extract, which shows a strong and significant decrease in implant formation (100%), and a strong estrogenic effect resulting in a significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. These observations suggest that the methanolic extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves has strong anti-implantation activity and estrogenic activity. The methanolic plant extract of A. vulgaris has antifertility activity. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  15. Pemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: Crucial role of dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlić Verica; Vujić-Aleksić Vesna; Zubović Nina; Veselinović Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pemphigus vulgaris is a relatively rare, chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disorder characterized by formation of intraepithelial vesiculae and/or bullae in the skin and mucous membrane. Systemic steroids are considered to be the standard first-line therapy for pemphigus vulgaris. However, for patients unresponsive to standard therapy, the new treatment modalities are being sought. Low-level laser therapy has been accepted as an alternative ...

  16. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  17. Pemphigus vulgaris with significant periodontal findings: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Manojkumar, S Thorat; Arjun, Raju

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to report a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with periodontitis (plaque-induced inflammation), and the role of a dermatologist and a periodontist in its management. This case reaffirms the fact that plaque control is the most important procedure in preventing periodontal infection in pemphigus vulgaris patients. These patients should be informed about the risk of periodontitis and encouraged to pursue long-term periodontal follow up to prevent their periodontal disease progression.

  18. Novel techniques for enhancement and segmentation of acne vulgaris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A S; Humayun, J; Kamel, N; Yap, F B-B

    2014-08-01

    More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study. There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions. For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions. Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Some causes of the variable shape of flocks of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Flocks of birds are highly variable in shape in all contexts (while travelling, avoiding predation, wheeling above the roost. Particularly amazing in this respect are the aerial displays of huge flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris above the sleeping site at dawn. The causes of this variability are hardly known, however. Here we hypothesise that variability of shape increases when there are larger local differences in movement behaviour in the flock. We investigate this hypothesis with the help of a model of the self-organisation of travelling groups, called StarDisplay, since such a model has also increased our understanding of what causes the oblong shape of schools of fish. The flocking patterns in the model prove to resemble those of real birds, in particular of starlings and rock doves. As to shape, we measure the relative proportions of the flock in several ways, which either depend on the direction of movement or do not. We confirm that flock shape is usually more variable when local differences in movement in the flock are larger. This happens when a flock size is larger, b interacting partners are fewer, c the flock turnings are stronger, and d individuals roll into the turn. In contrast to our expectations, when variability of speed in the flock is higher, flock shape and the positions of members in the flock are more static. We explain this and indicate the adaptive value of low variability of speed and spatial restriction of interaction and develop testable hypotheses.

  20. Photoperiod-dependent regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Bernard, Daniel J; McCarthy, Margaret M; Ball, Gregory F

    2013-09-01

    Annual changes in day length induce marked changes in reproductive function in temperate zone vertebrates. In many avian species, in contrast to other seasonally breeding animals, plasticity in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone - 1 (GnRH1) expression rather than (or in addition to) release governs changes in pituitary-gonadal activity. Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern GnRH1 plasticity were previously hindered by a collective inability of scientists in the field to characterize the gnrh1 cDNA in songbirds. We finally overcame this roadblock after data from the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome project enabled us to rapidly clone the gnrh1 cDNA from hypothalamic RNA of zebra finches and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Here, we review the original data that identified GnRH1 protein plasticity in the songbird brain and discuss earlier failed attempts to clone gnrh1 in these animals. Then, we present recent efforts, including our own, that successfully characterized gnrh1 in zebra finch and starling, and demonstrated dynamic regulation of gnrh1 mRNA expression, particularly in sub-populations of preoptic area neurons, in the latter. Overall, this paper highlights GnRH1 plasticity in the avian brain, and weaves into the narrative the previously untold story of the challenges to sequencing gnrh1 in songbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional changes between seasons in the male songbird auditory forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Geert; Poirier, Colline; George, Isabelle; Hausberger, Martine; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Songbirds are an excellent model for investigating the perception of learned complex acoustic communication signals. Male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) sing throughout the year distinct types of song that bear either social or individual information. Although the relative importance of social and individual information changes seasonally, evidence of functional seasonal changes in neural response to these songs remains elusive. We thus decided to use in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine auditory responses of male starlings that were exposed to songs that convey different levels of information (species-specific and group identity or individual identity), both during (when mate recognition is particularly important) and outside the breeding season (when group recognition is particularly important). We report three main findings: (1) the auditory area caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), an auditory region that is analogous to the mammalian auditory cortex, is clearly involved in the processing/categorization of conspecific songs; (2) season-related change in differential song processing is limited to a caudal part of NCM; in the more rostral parts, songs bearing individual information induce higher BOLD responses than songs bearing species and group information, regardless of the season; (3) the differentiation between songs bearing species and group information and songs bearing individual information seems to be biased toward the right hemisphere. This study provides evidence that auditory processing of behaviorally-relevant (conspecific) communication signals changes seasonally, even when the spectro-temporal properties of these signals do not change. PMID:24391561

  2. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1 linalool; (2 borneol; (3 geraniol; (4 sabinene hydrate; (5 thymol; (6 carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%; the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%; the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%; and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%. A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris.

  3. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, pacne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  4. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  5. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  6. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Esmaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  7. Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Dogra

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Gugulipid is the standardized extract of the oleo-resin of Commiphora mukul (Burseraceace an Indian medicinal plant. The active ingredients are two guggulsterones Z and E. Gugulipid is an effective hypolipidemic agent, has a marked antilipolytic activity in rats. Considering the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and the pharmacological properties of Gugulipid this trial was initiated. Thirty patients with moderate to severe acne ( Grade 4 were included in this study. Tab Guglip was prescribed in tds dosage for 6 weeks. Excellent, good and moderate response was seen in nine (30% fourteen (46.66% and seven (23.33% patients respectively out of the total thirty. No topical treatment was recommended except for local skin -hygiene. The drug showed excellent tolerance. Only three patients (10% reported relapse when examined at 3 months follow up.

  8. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phototherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Nevien A; Attia, Abeer T; Badawi, Ashraf M

    2008-07-01

    Achieving an effective management of acne vulgaris with minimal complications remains a difficult challenge for physicians. Moreover, the rise in antibiotic-resistant strains reduce the future usefulness of current mainstay therapies, and accordingly, the need for alternative therapies is mandatory. Phototherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for acne, and there has been a renewed interest in photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for this condition. To evaluate the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL), intense pulsed light (IPL) and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Forty-five patients with moderate to severe acne were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Group 1 was treated with a PDL, group 2 was treated with IPL, and group 3 was treated with a blue-red combination LED. Treatment was continued until a > or = 90% clearance of patient lesions was achieved. Clinical assessments were conducted before starting treatment, at 1 month as a midpoint evaluation, and after the final treatment session. Patients treated with the PDL reached a > or = 90% clearance of their inflammatory lesions after a mean of 4.1 +/- 1.39 sessions, while patients treated with IPL required a mean of 6 +/- 2.05 sessions. Patients treated with the LED required a mean of 10 +/- 3.34 sessions. At the mid-point evaluation, the percent reduction in acne lesions treated with the PDL was 90% or more, in cases of IPL and the LED, the percent reductions were 41.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Laser and light phototherapy sessions were well tolerated with minimal adverse events experienced as being mild and usually self-limiting. The encouraging results of the present study contributes evidence of phototherapy as useful therapeutic option for treatment of moderate to severe acne, and validates further studies to evaluate treatments with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up.

  10. Genetics, chemistry and ecology of a qualitative glucosinolate polymorphism in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leur, H.

    2008-01-01

    Like many other plants, chemical defence compounds are involved in the defense of Barbarea vulgaris against natural enemies. Barbarea vulgaris produces glucosinolates, which are present in most crucifers such as cabbage, mustard, and the scientific model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Glucosinolates

  11. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  12. Revisiting Frank-Starling: regulatory light chain phosphorylation alters the rate of force redevelopment (ktr ) in a length-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Christopher N; West, Timothy G; Ferenczi, Michael A

    2016-09-15

    Regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation has been shown to alter the ability of muscle to produce force and power during shortening and to alter the rate of force redevelopment (ktr ) at submaximal [Ca(2+) ]. Increasing RLC phosphorylation ∼50% from the in vivo level in maximally [Ca(2+) ]-activated cardiac trabecula accelerates ktr . Decreasing RLC phosphorylation to ∼70% of the in vivo control level slows ktr and reduces force generation. ktr is dependent on sarcomere length in the physiological range 1.85-1.94 μm and RLC phosphorylation modulates this response. We demonstrate that Frank-Starling is evident at maximal [Ca(2+) ] activation and therefore does not necessarily require length-dependent change in [Ca(2+) ]-sensitivity of thin filament activation. The stretch response is modulated by changes in RLC phosphorylation, pinpointing RLC phosphorylation as a modulator of the Frank-Starling law in the heart. These data provide an explanation for slowed systolic function in the intact heart in response to RLC phosphorylation reduction. Force and power in cardiac muscle have a known dependence on phosphorylation of the myosin-associated regulatory light chain (RLC). We explore the effect of RLC phosphorylation on the ability of cardiac preparations to redevelop force (ktr ) in maximally activating [Ca(2+) ]. Activation was achieved by rapidly increasing the temperature (temperature-jump of 0.5-20ºC) of permeabilized trabeculae over a physiological range of sarcomere lengths (1.85-1.94 μm). The trabeculae were subjected to shortening ramps over a range of velocities and the extent of RLC phosphorylation was varied. The latter was achieved using an RLC-exchange technique, which avoids changes in the phosphorylation level of other proteins. The results show that increasing RLC phosphorylation by 50% accelerates ktr by ∼50%, irrespective of the sarcomere length, whereas decreasing phosphorylation by 30% slows ktr by ∼50%, relative to the ktr obtained

  13. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Biomass-Kinetic Model for Chlorella vulgaris in a Biofuel Production Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BIOMASS-KINETIC MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL PRODUCTION SCHEME THESIS William M. Rowley, Major...States Government. AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M04 NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BIOMASS-KINETIC MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL...MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL PRODUCTION SCHEME William M. Rowley, BS Major, USMC Approved

  14. [A revision of chiggers in the vulgaris group (Trombiculidae: Neotrombicula)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekol'nikov, A A

    1999-01-01

    A revision of chigger mites species, being closely related to Neotrombicula vulgaris (Schluger, 1955), is given. 2 new species are described: N. aideriensis sp. n. from Western Kopetdagh and N. macrovulgaris sp. n. from Western Caucasus. N. aideriensis sp. n. differs from all other species of the vulgaris group by presence of single barb on the lateral seta of palpal tibia in most specimens. This species differs also from N. vulgaris by lesser width of scutum, shorter setae of scutum and idiosoma and by longer legs. N. macrovulgaris sp. n. differs from all other species of the vulgaris group by longer legs, more numerous idiosomal setae and by larger scutum. N. vulgaris is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria, Turkmenistan (western Kopet-Dag) and Krasnodar Territory, N. baschkirica Kudryashova, 1998--in Chuvashia, Kirov Province, Komi Republic and Tyumen' Province, N. kharadovi Kudryashova, 1998--in Russia (Altai Territory) and in Karaganda Province (Kazakhstan). The latter species is reported from several new hosts. Variation of morphometric parameters in the vulgaris group are investigated by the methods of multivariate analysis, the pattern of correlations between them is shown. A complex of diagnostic features in the group is revised. Discriminant functions produced by the computer program DIADIS (A. L. Lobanov, ZI RAS) allows to determine confidently representatives of the vulgaris group. Ecogeographical component of intraspecific variability and character variance at the specific level is revealed in vulgaris group. N. macrovulgaris characterized by the largest scutum, numerous setae and long legs was found in the most rigorous, cold and damp climate (alpine zone of western Caucasus). On the other hand, N. kharadovi, which have the most fine scutum and shortest setae, inhabits rather dry and warm Middle Asia and neighbouring territories. The sample of N. vulgaris collected in the steppe part of Stavropol' Territory differed from the material collected in

  15. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  17. ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT : THE CURRENT SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs. PMID:21572783

  18. Acne vulgaris treatment : The Current Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs.

  19. A review of phytotherapy of Acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Glavas Dodov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris (acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory (papules, pustules and nodules and non-inflammatory (comedones, open and closed lesions. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are common pus-forming microbes responsible for the development of various forms of acne. This disease remains a common condition in industrialized societies, with many mainstream treatment options available. There are many acne products on the market, and making an appropriate selection can be daunting. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Topically used agents are benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and retinoid. Systemically used agents are antibiotics and isotretinoin. However, all such treatments carry risks and none is completely satisfactory. Natural alternatives are gaining greater research support, and have much to offer clinically in this disorder. This review focuses primarily on herbal treatments for acne that show scientific evidence of clinical efficacy, as well as the more common herbs shown to be useful in the treatment of this dermatologic disorder.

  20. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acne vulgaris in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common inflammatory skin disease originating from the pilosebaceous unit. Peak incidence is at puberty, but acne can affect all age groups. Prepubertal acne is rare, but important to recognize as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures differ from pubertal acne. Acne neonatorum is a mild, self-limiting disease, whereas acne infantum commonly presents with moderate to severe lesions and high risk of scarring thus requiring early intervention. Mid-childhood or prepubertal acne raises the suspicion of hyperandrogenemia, further investigations are indicated to rule out underlying disease. The same applies to any patient with very severe acne, acne not responding to therapy or unusual clinical presentation. Etiopathogenesis of acne is not yet fully understood. Familiy history is the most important risk factor to develop severe acne and scarring. The relevance of life style factors such as smoking or diet is controversial. Lately high carbohydrate diet and dairy products have been implicated as aggravating factors. Mild acne normally responds to topical monotherapy, in moderate disease combination of two synergistically acting substances (e.g. benzoyl peroxid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus retinoid, retinoid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus azelaic acid) will improve clinical response. Retinoids and/or benzoylperoxid have been shown to be effective in maintenance therapy. In patients with severe disease or high risk of scarring systemic therapy with antibiotics, oral contraceptives with antiandrogenic properties and in particularly isotretinoin as most effective acne treatment should be considered early to avoid physical and emotional scars.

  2. Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sing-Lai; Chu, Wan-Loy; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2010-10-01

    The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 for bioremediation of textile wastewater (TW) was investigated using four batches of cultures in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) containing textile dye (Supranol Red 3BW) or TW. The biomass attained ranged from 0.17 to 2.26 mg chlorophyll a/L while colour removal ranged from 41.8% to 50.0%. There was also reduction of NH(4)-N (44.4-45.1%), PO(4)-P (33.1-33.3%) and COD (38.3-62.3%) in the TW. Supplementation of the TW with nutrients of Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) increased biomass production but did not improve colour removal or reduction of pollutants. The mechanism of colour removal by C. vulgaris is biosorption, in accordance with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The HRAP using C. vulgaris offers a good system for the polishing of TW before final discharge. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Atlas of annotations of Hydra vulgaris transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Daniela; Tripathi, Kumar Parijat; Guarracino, Mario Rosario

    2016-09-22

    RNA sequencing takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies for analyzing RNA transcript counts with an excellent accuracy. Trying to interpret this huge amount of data in biological information is still a key issue, reason for which the creation of web-resources useful for their analysis is highly desiderable. Starting from a previous work, Transcriptator, we present the Atlas of Hydra's vulgaris, an extensible web tool in which its complete transcriptome is annotated. In order to provide to the users an advantageous resource that include the whole functional annotated transcriptome of Hydra vulgaris water polyp, we implemented the Atlas web-tool contains 31.988 accesible and downloadable transcripts of this non-reference model organism. Atlas, as a freely available resource, can be considered a valuable tool to rapidly retrieve functional annotation for transcripts differentially expressed in Hydra vulgaris exposed to the distinct experimental treatments. WEB RESOURCE URL: http://www-labgtp.na.icar.cnr.it/Atlas .

  4. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, F Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    2008-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  5. Lupus vulgaris occurring in a locus minoris resistentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard; Beatch, Anita; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Cheung-Lee, Melody; Wasel, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lupus vulgaris, a form of cutaneous tuberculosis, is not always clear, especially in patients who do not have coexistent extracutaneous tuberculosis and in patients with single lesions. To report a case of lupus vulgaris in a locus minoris resistentiae (a site of reduced resistance) and to use a unique set of clinical circumstances and laboratory tests to reconstruct the pathogenesis of the lesion and the response to treatment. Lupus vulgaris can occur in a locus minoris resistentiae; local trauma and possibly other factors, such as increased temperature, topical corticosteroids, and the virulence of the infecting strain, may facilitate the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present at a locus minoris resistentiae as a result of a silent bacillemia.

  6. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sule Afsar

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cephalopoda are a class of Mollusca species found in all the world's oceans. They are an important model organism in neurobiology. Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism. RESULTS: With high-throughput Illumina Solexa sequencing technology, we have generated 59,859 high quality sequences from 12,918,391 paired-end reads. Using BLASTx/BLASTn, 12,227 contigs have blast hits in the Swissprot, NR protein database and NT nucleotide database with E-value cutoff 1e(-5. The comparison between the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system (CNS library and the Aplysia californica/Lymnaea stagnalis CNS ESTs library yielded 5.93%/13.45% of O. vulgaris sequences with significant matches (1e(-5 using BLASTn/tBLASTx. Meanwhile the hit percentage of the recently published Schistocerca gregaria, Tilapia or Hirudo medicinalis CNS library to the O. vulgaris CNS library is 21.03%-46.19%. We constructed the Phylogenetic tree using two genes related to CNS function, Synaptotagmin-7 and Synaptophysin. Lastly, we demonstrated that O. vulgaris may have a vertebrate-like Blood-Brain Barrier based on bioinformatic analysis. CONCLUSION: This study provides a mass of molecular information that will contribute to further molecular biology research on O. vulgaris. In our presentation of the first CNS transcriptome analysis of O. vulgaris, we hope to accelerate the study of functional molecular neurobiology and comparative evolutionary biology.

  8. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  9. Seasonality in a temperate zone bird can be entrained by near equatorial photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alistair

    2007-03-07

    Birds use photoperiod to control the time of breeding and moult. However, it is unclear whether responses are dependent on absolute photoperiod, the direction and rate of change in photoperiod, or if photoperiod entrains a circannual clock. If starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are kept on a constant photoperiod of 12h light:12h darkness per day (12L:12D), then they can show repeated cycles of gonadal maturation, regression and moult, which is evidence for a circannual clock. In this study, starlings kept on constant 11.5L:12.5D for 4 years or 12.5L:11.5D for 3 years showed no circannual cycles in gonadal maturation or moult. So, if there is a circannual clock, it is overridden by a modest deviation in photoperiod from 12L:12D. The responses to 11.5L:12.5D and 12.5L:11.5D were very different, the former perceived as a short photoperiod (birds were photosensitive for most of the time) and the latter as a long photoperiod (birds remained permanently photorefractory). Starlings were then kept on a schedule which ranged from 11.5L:12.5D in mid-winter to 12.5L:11.5D in mid-summer (simulating the annual cycle at 9 degrees N) for 3 years. These birds entrained precisely to calendar time and changes in testicular size and moult were similar to those of birds under a simulated cycle at 52 degrees N. These data show that birds are very sensitive to changes in photoperiod but that they do not simply respond to absolute photoperiod nor can they rely on a circannual clock. Instead, birds appear to respond to the shape of the annual change in photoperiod. This proximate control could operate from near equatorial latitudes and would account for similar seasonal timing in individuals of a species over a wide range of latitudes.

  10. A review of adapalene in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Cynthia E; Yentzer, Brad A; Feldman, Steven R

    2008-11-01

    Topical retinoids help address the early lesions of acne vulgaris. Consensus guidelines advocate the use of topical retinoids as the primary treatment for most forms of acne vulgaris. However, all topical retinoid preparations may be irritating, and this may contribute to underutilization in clinical practices. Topical adapalene fosters topical retinoid treatment of acne with less irritation. Adapalene is a more stable molecule than tretinoin. Adapalene can be used without concern for photo-deactivation. Because of its chemical stability, adapalene can be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide products. The availability of a stable topical retinoid associated with little irritation may facilitate meeting acne treatment consensus guidelines.

  11. Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacea: An Update in Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ekiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and scars rarely. The major pathogenic factors are abnormal follicular differentiation and increased ductal cornification, abnormal activity of sebaceous glands, microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes and inflammation. Rosacea is a common, chronic inflammatory relapsing skin disorder of the central area of the face characterized by transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Although several hypotheses have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of rosacea, the exact etiology is still unknown. In this review, we tried to summarize up-to-date information about etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris and rosocea.

  12. Coincident systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Da, G; Yu, Y; Han, J; Li, H

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease, but its association with other typical autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus has only occasionally been reported. We presented a 25-year-old female who developed systemic lupus erythematosus associated with psoriasis vulgaris. Her conditions were in good control after she got administration of prednisolone (5 mg/day) and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook (20 mg/day). It is necessary to integrate past history and physical examination to diagnose coincident SLE and psoriasis, and combined treatment with prednisolone and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook proves effective.

  13. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovtun M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata. Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data, we consider that vomeronasal organ emerged as the result of olfactory epithelium and nasal cavity differentiation.

  14. The dual nature of Interleukin-10 in pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2014-01-01

    The immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays beneficial but also potentially detrimental roles in inflammation, infection, and autoimmunity. Recent studies suggest a regulatory role for IL-10-expressing B cells in the autoimmune blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris. Here we review the studies on IL-10 in pemphigus vulgaris and discuss the potential pathophysiological significance of these findings in comparison to prior studies of IL-10 in other human conditions. A better understanding of the complex roles of IL-10 in immune regulation may improve our understanding of pemphigus pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:25464924

  15. SEZARY SYNDROME MIMICKING GENERALIZED PSORIASIS VULGARIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Rianova Lynoora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sezary syndrome is the leukemic variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. This disease is characterized by some reddish patches or plaques all over the skin which extends to the whole body into erythroderma, lymphadenopathy. It is also indicated by the presence of atypical lymphocytes called Sezary cells. This case report is aimed to know clinical manifestation, examination and management of Sezary syndrome which clinically resembles generalized psoriasis. A 60 years old man came with scaly reddish brown plaques almost all over his body. It was accompanied by lymphadenopathy on the supraclavicular lymph node right and left as well as intense itchy. Other clinical features were alopecia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, onychodysthropy, facies leonine without anesthesia on the lesion and enlargement of peripheral nerve. From a laboratory test, an increase in the number of leukocytes and, Sezary cells were found in peripheral blood smear examination; while the histopathology showed focal athrophy and acanthosis of the epidermis and dense infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis. Patient received 3 x 5 mg (1 cycle of methotrexate (MTX with 0,1% cream mometasone furoate and 3x1 tablet of CTM for adjunctive therapy. Methotrexate was discontinued because there was a disturbance in liver function and deterioration of patient’s condition. After 25 days of treatment, the patient got sepsis and then passed away. Early onset of Sezary syndrome in this case is difficult to know because the clinical manifestation is similar with psoriasis vulgaris. Supporting examination such as laboratory test, blood smears and histopathology examination could help the diagnosis. The presence of lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the extensive skin involvement reflect the poor prognosis. The most common cause of death was sepsis.

  16. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a system is described to obtain so-called transgenic composite plants from P. vulgaris. These have a transgenic root system, obtained through Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation of de-rooted seedlings. Their potentials for studies on important processes in the root system will be discussed.

  17. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: Case Report | Rai | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty to ninety percent of patients with pemphigus vulgaris develop oral lesions and in 60% of cases oral lesions are the first sign. Timely recognition and therapy of oral lesion is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. If treatment is instituted during this time, the disease is easier to control and the chance for an early ...

  18. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to.

  19. Evaluation of Azithromycin in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris Compared to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acne vulgaris is the most common dermatological disorder in adolescence. Treatment is essential to prevent physical and psychological scarring. Although many treatments for acne are available, effective management has become increasingly challenging with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of ...

  20. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... ... important processes in the root system will be discussed. Key words: Genetic transformation, Phaseolus vulgaris, Agrobacterium rhizogenes. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are important agricultural crops, especially for developing countries, where they provide proteins in vegetarian or meat-poor diets.

  1. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  2. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed ... percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of water extracts of leaves and bark of Eucalyptus, also affected the ... chemicals from its leaves or litter which inhibits the germination or growth ...

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  4. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-22

    Jan 22, 1991 ... Migration, stock size and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii off the West Coast of South Africa were studied and their relationship to other regions compared by analysis of distributional, biomass, and size composition, and biological data collected from biannual research cruises from ...

  5. A comparison between Daphnia pulex and Hydra vulgaris as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortalities as well as morphological changes (H. vulgaris) were analysed using Microsoft Excel. The LC50-values were statistically determined using the EPA Probit Analysis Model and the Spearman-Karber analysis methods. Prior to being used, analysis of the physico-chemical properties, nutrients and metals of both ...

  6. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  7. Reproductive Biology of the Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    policy in the management of the fishery in. Kenya. METHODS. Sampling for common octopus was carried out ..... Morocco-Mauritania (Hatanaka, 1979; Dia,. 1988). It has been stated that such variations in the sex ratio .... Reproductive cycle and energy allocation of Octopus vulgaris in Galician waters, NE. Atlantic. Fisheries ...

  8. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  10. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  11. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  12. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  13. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  14. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.

  15. Drug resistant Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are pathogens often associated with drug resistance traits. They are of public health importance with zoonotic status. They have been globally associated with humans and poultry infections. Multidrug resistant strains of these organisms are routinely isolated from organs samples from ...

  16. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  17. Investigation of optimal condition for Chlorella vulgaris microalgae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daliry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and also flexibility of cultivation conditions, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae is one of the most ideal options available in order to production of microalgae based biodiesel. Since vulgaris cultivation for fuel production needs economic considerations to be taken, and in first place providing biomass and lipid production costs is important, wide researches have been conducted in this field, and this study aims to spot the best condition for cultivation of this valuable specie by reviewing the whole research conducted. So far, Researchers' efforts show that, the best condition for vulgaris cultivation is mixotrophic regime which is done in a bubble column photobioreactor. Glucose as carbonic source and nitrate as nitrogen source, have the most efficacy among nutrition conditions. It is known the best results obtain in amounts glucose and nitrate of 20 and o.5 g/L respectively. Alkaline medium (pH 9 to 10, non-continuous illumination, 5 to 7 Klux and a 200 mL/min aeration flow rate, indicated the best physical conditions. The most vulgaris biomass amount produced was 3.43 g/L, and the best lipid productivity was measured 66.25 mg/L/day.

  18. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  19. Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Although common octopus catches are increasing globally, lack of information on the species reproductive biology has been a major concern in its management particularly in Kenya. The present study aimed at investigating the reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris from Shimoni and Vanga in the Kenyan South ...

  20. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  1. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Field Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosols in Kenya. C Owino-Gerroh, JK Keter, JP Mbuvi. Abstract. The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with ...

  2. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  3. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes ...

  4. Biocontrol Of Viral Necrotic Disease Of Phaseolus Vulgaris By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study revealed that the preinoculation of soil with rhizosphere microorganisms significantly reduced number of local lesions produced by TNV, in P. vulgaris plants either grown in amended or unamended soil. Phaseolus plants grown in fish meal amended soil supplied with RMs singly or in mixtures, and then their ...

  5. Dapsone 7.5% Gel: A Review in Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone ® ) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.

  6. Aluminium Tolerance of Four Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties ('Rosecoco'– GLP 2, 'Mwitemania'– GLP X 92, 'Mwezi Moja' – GLP 1004, and French bean – 'Amy') locally obtained from seed merchants in Kenya were investigated for their aluminium tolerance under two techniques of screening, namely root elongation and staining.

  7. Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoremediation is an alternative low cost approach for in situ treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated growth and biochemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by spent engine oil contaminated soil. The experiment was conducted in a pot during the 2005 cropping season. The soil received (0% ...

  8. Vegetative propagation of Syringa vulgaris L. in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Steegmans, H.H.M.; Elias, A.A.; Stiekema, O.T.J.; Velde, van der A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Excised shoot tips from adult Syringa vulgaris L. plants were rejuvenated by repeated subculturing in vitro. The number of subcultures required to rejuvenate the shoots was strongly dependent on the age and genotype of the plant material. Three rootstocks (K8, A2 and A3) and 5 cultivars

  9. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Rhizobium. INTRODUCTION. In Senegal, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) needs to be inoculated with elite Rhizobium strains in the growing area called Niayes zone (Diouf et al., 1999). Usually, seeds of common bean supplied to farmers are often treated with fungicide to prevent losses due to seed- borne pathogens.

  10. Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii spawning activity in deep water. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, ...

  11. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... Assessment System, isotretinoin, salivary flow. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris. Patients: A Prospective, Case–control Study. U Erdemir, G Okan1, S Gungor2, B Tekin3, SO Yildiz4, E Yildiz isotretinoin adversely affects salivary flow and buffer capacity.[6-8]. Dental caries is ...

  12. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration, stock size and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii off the West Coast of South Africa were studied and their relationship to other regions compared by analysis of distributional, biomass, and size composition, and biological data collected from biannual research cruises from 1983-1987. Biomass ...

  13. Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the November 1996 survey, seven such targets were observed near the bottom at depths of 115–125 m, directly south of the traditional inshore spawning grounds of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii at Cape St Francis. The targets were close to prominent seabed ridges and extended 30–40 m off the bottom.

  14. Chlorella vulgaris modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced dna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decline in DNA damage was observed in post-treated cells which proves Chlorella vulgaris to present bioremediative properties. In cells induced with oxidative stress, telomere length decreased significantly coupled with a concomitant decline of telomerase activity (p<0.05). However, these reductions were prevented with ...

  15. Topical antibiotic monotherapy prescribing practices in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, William D; Davis, Scott A; Fleischer, Alan B; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of dosing topical antibiotics as monotherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris, and physician specialty prescribing these medications. This study is a retrospective review of all visits with a sole diagnosis of acne vulgaris (ICD-9-CM code 706.1) found on the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) in 1993-2010. We recorded the number of visits surveyed where acne vulgaris was the sole diagnosis, number of visits where topical antibiotics were the only treatment prescribed, and the specialty of physician in each encounter. Topical erythromycin or clindamycin were the sole medication prescribed in 0.81% of the visits recorded, with 60% of these prescriptions arising from dermatologists and 40% from non-dermatologists. The trend of prescribing topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining (p acnes to topical antibiotic regimens has led to the need to re-evaluate the use of topical antibiotics in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While the rate of topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining, their use should be reserved for situations where the direct need for antibiotics arises. If a clinician feels that antibiotics are a necessary component to acne therapy, they should be used as part of a combination regimen.

  16. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  17. Pathological Fracture due to pemphigus vulgaris: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare but serious autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease.The two cardinal pathological processes at work are a split within the epidermis and loss of adhesion of epidermal cells (Acantholysis). It is due to deposition of pathogenic IgG on the Keratinocyte cell surface. The mainstay of treatment is ...

  18. Pinguicula vulgaris L. (Vetblad) weer terug in Noord-Brabant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenaar, Arnout-Jan; Kierkels, Geert; Schelle, Marian; Bos, Frank

    1999-01-01

    In August 1998 Pinguicula vulgaris was discovered in the middle of Noord-Brabant after almost 50 years of absence in this province. The species appeared on three spots on the embankement of a pool in heathland, after recent restoration measurements.

  19. Avicenna (980-1037) on the Role of the Liver in Separating Fluid from the Blood, with Insight into the Process from E.H. Starling (1866-1907) a Millennium Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Leon G

    2016-01-01

    A statement was made by Avicenna (980-1037) in his Canon of Medicine that the liver separates fluid from the blood. An explanation for this view has not been considered. Since the statement emerged from an existing English translation of the Canon (which was made from a prior Latin edition), an alternative English translation of the first Hebrew edition was made in order to verify the statement and to seek additional insight, which could explain its basis, in fact. The English edition of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine published in 1932, translated from the Latin. First Hebrew edition of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine published in 1491, translated from the Arabic. None. The relevant sections of the Hebrew Canon on the origin of the body fluids were translated and compared with the existing English translation. The fluid generated by the liver is likely to be protein-containing, since it was described as frothy and suggests that it is lymph. The suggestion that the liver needs a watery fluid for its action cannot be explained. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1907) measured lymph formation, showing it to be driven by physical forces. The liver stood out as being the organ with the largest capacity for lymph formation. The vascular walls within the liver were shown to have a higher permeability to serum proteins than any other source of lymph. Data are derived from Starling's publications based on individual experiments. These were not analyzed statistically. The explanation for Avicenna's statement that the liver separates moisture from the blood is most likely to be the discovery by Starling, a millennium later, that the liver is the major source of lymph production. The liver is a major source of lymph. Distortion of the architecture of the liver in cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases lead to ascites, a condition of lymph overflow from the liver. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  1. Association of Serum Testosterone with Acne Vulgaris in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moksedur Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens enhance the sebum production and follicular keratosis that plays the key role in the aetiology of acne. Objective: To find out the association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. Methods: A case control study was carried out for a period of two years in the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Female patients having acne vulgaris were selected as case. Healthy control (age and sex matched were enrolled from the community. Results: The study showed that the mean age of the cases was 22.43 with standard deviation 5.2 years and the mean age of the control was 23.23 with standard deviation 5.9 years. The mean duration of disease was 62.6 months ranging from 12 months to 300 months. All the patients had presented with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads followed by 94.3% had papules and 58.6% had pustules. Considering the site of lesion, all the patients had acne in the face. Data analysis revealed that the percentage of serum testosterone above normal was found to be high among the cases with acne (10% whereas below normal level of serum testosterone was found among the control and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion:The study found a significant association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. As serum testosterone is associated with acne vulgaris, testosterone levels should be measured in patients presenting with acne vulgaris especially in treatment resistant cases and anti-androgen treatment may be indicated in cases with elevated testosterone level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10980 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:1-5 

  2. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The optimal hyperspectral quantitative models for chlorophyll-a of chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2009-09-01

    Chlorophyll-a of Chlorella vulgaris had been related with spectrum. Based on hyperspectral measurement for Chlorella vulgaris, the hyperspectral characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris and their optimal hyperspectral quantitative models of chlorophyll-a (Chla) estimation were researched in situ experiment. The results showed that the optimal hyperspectral quantitative model of Chlorella vulgaris was Chla=180.5+1125787(R700)'+2.4 *109[(R700)']2 (P0Chlorella vulgaris, two reflectance crests were around 540 nm and 700 nm and their locations moved right while Chl-a concentration increased. The reflectance of Chlorella vulgaris decreases with Cha concentration increase in 540 nm, but on the contrary in 700nm.

  4. Identifikasi Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Arundina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut merupakan jenis kanker yang paling sering ditemukan di rongga mulut. Faktor risiko utama terjadi keganasan di rongga mulut meliputi riwayat serta kebiasaan mengkonsumsi tembakau dan atau alkohol. Tanaman sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. sering digunakan di masyarakat sebagai anti tumor pada organ pencernaan termasuk di rongga mulut, namun belum ada penelitian tentang bahan aktif yang berperan sebagai anti kanker di rongga mulut. Banyak didapatkan spesies dari genus Artemisia, sedangkan yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia adalah spesies Artemisia vulgaris L. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan identifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT dari sudamala. Penelitian meliputi ekstraksi sudamala, identifikasi ekstrak sudamala, fraksinasi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Kolom Vakum dan identifikasi dari fraksi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT. Ekstrak heksan sudamala yang dilakukan fraksinasi menggunakan n-heksan: etil asetat menghasilkan 11 fraksi. Fraksi n-heksan: etil asetat (3:7,v/v dari sudamala yang teridentifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT mengandung terpenoid. Identification of Sudamala ( Artemisia vulgaris L. Thin Layer Chromatography. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the type of cancer which is most frequently found in oral cavity. The primary risk factor of malignancy in oral cavity includes the habit of consuming tobacco and or alcohol. The plant sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. is often used in the community as anti-tumor in digestive organ, including in oral cavity. However, there have been no studies on active ingredients playing the role as anti-cancer in oral cavity. The species are mostly from the genus Artemisia, while those generally growing in Indonesia are the species Artemisia vulgaris L. The objective of this study is to explain the identification by TLC of sudamala. The study was sudamala extraction, identification of sudamala extract

  5. Exhaled air temperature as a function of ambient temperature in flying and resting ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Biebach, H.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s-1 in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF CELL DISRUPTION IN RAPHIDOCELIS SUBCAPITATA AND CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR BIOMARKER EVALUATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adeolu Aderemi; Colin Hunter; Ole Pahl; Xinhua Shu

    2015-01-01

      Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris are bioassay microalgae with rigid cellulosic cell wall which can hinder the release of intracellular proteins often studied as toxicity biomarkers...

  7. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuaigel, Mohammad Faisal; Seif, Mosaad A; Albuali, Hamad Waleed; Alharbi, Omar; Alhawash, Amer

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the reduction potential of aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris in blood glucose and lipids levels among hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Oral administration of 150mg/kg of aqueous oral administration of aqueous pod extract of phaseolus vulgaris to diabetic rats for 40days resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose (pphaseolus vulgaris and glibenclamide reduced the blood levels of glucose and lipids. In addition, aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods was more effective than glibenclamide in reducing blood glucose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  9. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kucharska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  10. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  11. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  12. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  13. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  14. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Case of lupus vulgaris diagnosed 50 years after onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttawichai, Pattanawadee; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Kawana, Seiji

    2009-02-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but is a symptom that can lead to diagnosis of tuberculosis. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 79-year-old woman who had a 50-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her right cheek. She visited many hospitals without resolution and the plaque gradually enlarged. Recently, she was misdiagnosed with eczema and prescribed topical steroids that had no effect, and she subsequently visited our outpatient clinic. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on histopathology, culture and polymerase chain reaction, and isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol were administered as antituberculosis treatment. Although the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has decreased significantly in developed countries, knowledge and awareness of the disease are still of importance for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris.

  17. Treatment of acne vulgaris during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y L; Tey, H L

    2013-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common problem encountered by pregnant and lactating women. Unfortunately, in clinical practice, treatment is often not optimized as a result of the lack of safety data and unified recommendations on the use of the various anti-acne therapies. In this narrative review, current data on their safety is summarized. We recommend the use of topical medications as first-line treatment for acne vulgaris in pregnant and lactating women. These include antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole and dapsone), benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid and salicylic acid. Oral agents and/or light-based therapy may be considered as second-line treatment. The former consists of oral macrolides (erythromycin and azithromycin), cephalexin or zinc compounds. Blue-violet or red light phototherapy may be used as monotherapy or in addition to topical and/or oral therapies. Hormonal therapy, antibiotics consisting of tetracyclines, co-trimoxazole and fluoroquinolones, and both oral and topical retinoids should be avoided.

  18. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  19. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tramacere

    Full Text Available The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa. In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  20. Miliaria pustulosa misdiagnosed as a case of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Bukhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Miliaria is a skin disorder of eccrine glands. Based on the level of sweat duct obstruction, miliaria is subdivided into three main types: Miliaria crystallina, miliaria rubra and miliaria profunda. Besides, resident skin bacteria are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In this report we are presenting a case of miliaria pustulosa which was misdiagnosed initially as a case of acne vulgaris.

  1. Dicamba causes genomic instability in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Taşpınar, Mahmut Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Yaǧci, Semra; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    The herbicide 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) is principally used widely agriculture today. The widely use of dicamba in agriculture may represent a potential toxic risks to some crops. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of dicamba by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. The results showed that persistent DNA damage and decreased genomic template stability (GTS) induced by dicamba (0,2, 0,4 and 0,6 ppm).

  2. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloris oculata in effluents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae were inoculated in photobioreactors in 6 L of medium (WTF or BBM) at an initial concentration of 1.0 × 106 cells ml-1 at 20 ± 2°C. The highest average cell density as well as the highest productivity of biomass observed in the treatments was C. vulgaris treatment in BBM and multi-LED lighting (8.83 × 107 cells ...

  3. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeela Khalid; Tariq Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey...

  4. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Doyle, Amanda K.; CRERAND, CANICE E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional...

  5. Novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente Duarte de Sousa, Isabel Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success. The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes. In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.

  6. Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Intihar, Veera M; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non-axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water-based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture-independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l(-1) and 2.0 day(-1) respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR-DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non-photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  9. ORAL ANTIBIOTICS IN ACNE VULGARIS: THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OVER 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHIDAH B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topicaland systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. Objectives: To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the typeof antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to oral antibiotics therapy in acne vulgaris in the Dermatology Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. New cases of acne vulgaris from 2005 to 2009 were randomly selected. The clinical notes of 250 patients treated with oral antibiotics were reviewed. Results: About 60% of patients achieved good to excellent response to therapy while satisfactory response was seen in 26%. Only 8% patients experienced minor side effects. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, followed by tetracycline and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The prescribing pattern was consistent over the years. The mean duration of treatment is four to five months. Oral antibiotic was augmented with topical therapy in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion: Good to excellent therapeutic response was achieved in the majority of patients and results observed have remained stable over the last five years.

  10. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino‐Maija; Intihar, Veera M.; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non‐axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water‐based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture‐independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR‐DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l−1 and 2.0 day−1 respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR‐DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non‐photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. PMID:21936882

  12. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in artificial wastewater medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yujie; Li, Chao; Zhang, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was used to study algal lipid production with wastewater treatment. Artificial wastewater was used to cultivate C. vulgaris in a column aeration photobioreactor (CAP) under batch and semi-continuous cultivation with various daily culture replacements (0.5l-1.5l per 2l reactor). The cell density was decreased from 0.89 g/l with the daily replacement of 0.5l to 0.28 g/l with 1.5l replacement. However, C. vulgaris culture achieved the highest lipid content (42%, average value of the phase) and the lipid productivity (147 mg/ld(-1)) with daily replacement of 1.0 l. And then the nutrient removal efficiency were 86% (COD), 97% (NH(4)(+)) and 96% (TP), respectively. Analyses of energy efficiency showed that the net energy ratio (NER) for lipid production with daily replacement of 1.0 l (1.25) was higher than the other volume replacement protocols. And cost analyses showed that the algal biomass can be competitive with petroleum at US$ 63.97 per barrel with the potential credit for wastewater treatment. According to the above results, it is concluded that the present research will lead to an economical technology of algal lipid production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars.

  15. A systematic review of benzoyl peroxide for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, Noor Hidayah; Aziz, Zoriah

    2013-10-01

    Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris. Systematic review. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction. We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions. There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.

  16. Metastasized squamous cell carcinoma developed on lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, V; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Tănase, Loredana Elena; Mogoantă, S S

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most frequent cutaneous tuberculosis, representing more than 55% of the tuberculoses with this location. Malignization can occur after a long latency (10-30 years), in 1-2% of the cases, and it is mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. The histological exam is highly important in the observation of neoplasic transformations. The authors present a 59-years-old female patient, from the rural environment, working as a farmer, with lupus vulgaris developing since her first childhood years. It started at the age of 2 years, at the right ear lobule, after the empiric perforation for earrings. The evolution was progressive, eccentric, interesting the pinna and the right cheek in the meanwhile. At the first examination, in 2002, a diffuse mass of red-yellowish infiltration was found at the level of the right ear and the right cheek. In the following two years, an ulcero-vegetating tumor developed at the level of the right ear lobule, accompanied by the presence of a right retromandibular adenopathy, of about 1 cm, which was proved by the histopathologic exam to be a squamous cell carcinoma developed from a lupus vulgaris. After scraping out the right retromandibular ganglion, detected by palpation, a histological exam showed ganglion metastasis.

  17. Profile of acne vulgaris-A hospital-based study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adityan Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is believed to be the most common disease of the skin. There is no Indian study on the profile of acne vulgaris, markers of severe forms of acne vulgaris and a possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Aim: To study the profile of acne vulgaris, its seasonal variation, relationship with smoking and possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Methods: The study was conducted between August 2006 and June 2008. All patients with acne vulgaris who consented to participate in the study were included. The parameters evaluated included age, gender, age of onset, duration of lesions, site of lesions, grade, relation with menstrual cycle, markers of androgenicity, number of acne lesions such as comedones, papules pustules and nodules, number and site of post-acne scarring, post-acne hyperpigmentation, seasonal variation and history of smoking. Results: A total of 309 patients with acne vulgaris were included in the study. The frequency of acne vulgaris in our study was 1.068%. Mean age of the study group was 19.78 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The most common age group involved was 16 to 20 years (59.8%. Mean age of onset was 15.97 years. Face was involved in all the patients, followed by back (28.2%, chest (20.1%, neck (9.4% and arms (10%. In the older age groups, women were more likely to report having acne vulgaris than men ( P = 0.01. The closed comedones outnumbered open comedones by a factor of 4.9:1. A total of 186 patients (60.2% had grade 1 acne vulgaris, 85 (27.5% had grade 2 acne, 8 (2.6% had grade 3 acne and 30 (9.7% had grade 4 acne vulgaris. There was a higher incidence of scarring (39.5% and post-acne hyperpigmentation (24.6% in our study. In female patients, 57.7% had premenstrual flare and 12.4% had cutaneous markers of androgenicity. There was no association between severity of acne vulgaris and other markers of

  18. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  19. Hubungan Antara Kadar Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Dalam Serum Dan Derajat Keparahan Akne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Joice Sonya

    2011-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a skin disease that is commonly found in the community. Acne vulgaris has been known had a complex pathogenesis and IGF-1 was allegedly had a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. IGF-1 can enhance keratinocyte cell proliferation and increase sebum production. However, the role of IGF-1 in the various degree of acne vulgaris severity remains unclear. Objective To determine the correlation between the serum IGF-1 level and the severity degree of acne ...

  20. Biology and host specificity of Rhinusa pilosa, a recommended biological control agent of Linaria vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre Gassmann; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Sharlene Sing; Ivo Tosevski; Milana Mitrovic; Olivier Krstic

    2014-01-01

    Linaria vulgaris Mill. (Plantaginaceae), common or yellow toadflax, is a Eurasian short-lived perennial forb invasive throughout temperate North America. Rhinusa pilosa (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is a univoltine shoot-galling weevil found exclusively on L. vulgaris in Europe. Under no-choice test conditions, 13 non-native Linaria species exposed toR....

  1. The response of Acne vulgaris to antibiotics both oral and topical | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves pilosebaceous units. Many systemic treatments used for acne vulgaris such as antibiotics, hormonal therapy, isotretinoin and occasionally, corticosteroids. Oral azithromycin has been advocated by some in the treatment of acne, but its efficacy ...

  2. Effect of uranium uptake on oxidative stress reactions for Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Cuypers, Ann; Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M.; Wannijn, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus vulgaris. Following a 1 week exposure, plant development and the capacity of enzymes involved in the anti-oxidative defense mechanism of the plant were analyzed. uranium; oxidative stress; Phaseolus vulgaris; uptake; hydroponics

  3. Anti-ulcer activity of fruit of Lagenaria vulgaris | Patil | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-ulcer activity of fruit of Lagenaria vulgaris. Kalpana S Patil, Sunil V Garad. Abstract. Petroleum ether (40-600), chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extract of Lagenaria vulgaris fruits have been evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity by using pylorus ligation method in rats. Doses for the different extracts were selected based on ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  5. Association of the Köbner phenomenon with disease activity and therapeutic responsiveness in vitiligo vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njoo, M. D.; Das, P. K.; Bos, J. D.; Westerhof, W.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the association between the experimentally induced Kobner phenomenon (KP-e) and the Kobner phenomenon by history (KP-h), disease activity, and therapeutic responsiveness in vitiligo vulgaris. Cohort study. An outpatient clinic. Sixty-one consecutive patients with vitiligo vulgaris.

  6. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  7. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  8. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and coal through TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxiang; Ma, Xiaoqian; He, Yao

    2012-08-01

    To find out an alternative of coal saving, a kind of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) which is widespread in fresh water was introduced into coal pyrolysis process. In this work, the pyrolysis experiments of C. vulgaris and coal blend (CCB) were carried out by TGA, and those of C. vulgaris and coal were also taken respectively as control groups. It was found that: the TG and DTG profiles of CCB were similar to C. vulgaris, but different from coal under various blending ratios; DTG profiles of CCB were different at several heating rates; interaction was observed between the solid phases of CCB; kinetic triplets were determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), and master-plots method, respectively. The results provide a reference for further study on co-pyrolysis of microalgae and coal to a certain extent. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Celulose monossulfito a partir de Bambusa vulgaris schrad Alkaline monosulphite pulping of Bambusa vulgaris schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Em condições de laboratório foram produzidas pastas celulósicas pelo processo alcalino monossulfito, com várias concentrações dos reagentes químicos, sulfito de sódio e licor-verde sulfato. As propriedades dessas celuloses foram comparadas com aquelas da celulose obtida pelo processo sulfato (kraft de uso generalizado pela indústria de celulose e papel. As características físico-mecânicas e ópticas das celuloses monossulfito e sulfato foram satisfatórias e semelhantes, com exceção da resistência ao rasgo, que na celulose sulfato foi maior. Os cavacos utilizados, nas dimensões de 5,5 x 0,8 x 0,5cm, respectivamente para comprimento, largura e espessura, foram adequados ao processo sulfato e inadequados às condições do processo monossulfito, que produziu celulose com menor rendimento depurado, maior porcentagem de rejeitos e maior teor de lignina residual nas fibras, determinado pelo número kappa. A densidade básica e as dimensões das fibras variaram no sentido radial do colmo, principalmente a densidade básica, cujos valores decresceram acentuadamente da camada externa para a interna.Pulps in laboratory conditions were obtained from Bambusa vulgaris Schrad by the alkaline monosulphite process, with various concentrations of the cooking chemicals. The strength properties of these pulps were compared to those obtained by the sulphate process. The results showed that both pulps were similar, excepting the tear resistance that was higher in the sulphate one. It was observed that chips with 5.5 x 0.8 x 0.5cm, respectively to the length, width and thickness were appropriated to the sulphate process but not to the conditions of the alkaline monosulphate process, which produced pulps with low values in terms of screening yield, percentage of screenings and kappa number. The variability of bamboo culm in the radial direction was also determined regarding basic density and fiber dimensions. The results showed variations in those

  10. Potential Health Effects of Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates from Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sedighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlorella vulgaris is a multi-cellular edible algal species with abundant proteins. Extraction of high value protein fractions for pharmaceutical and nutritional applications can significantly increase the commercial value of microalga biomasses. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the Chlorella vulgaris abundant protein.Materials and Methods: This study examined the antimicrobial and anticancer effects of peptides from a hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris protein with 62 kDa molecular weight. Protein hydrolysis was done by pepsin as a gastrointestinal protease, and was monitored through protein content measurement, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and high performance liquidchromatography measurements. Inhibitory effect of the produced peptides on Escherichia coli cells and breast cancer cell lines was assayed.Results and Conclusion: Hydrolyzed peptides induced a decrease of about 34.1% in the growth of Escherichia coli, and the peptides of 3 to 5 kDa molecular weight had strong impact on the viability of breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 50 μg μl-1. The peptide fractions demonstrating antimicrobial and anti-cancer activities have the potential for use as functional food ingredients for health benefits. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae proteinscould be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  11. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  12. Newer topical therapies for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2007-11-01

    Newer topical therapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acne vulgaris are dapsone gel 5% and clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% combination gel. Both are formulated in aqueous-based gel vehicles. These newer topical acne products have been shown to be effective and safe in pivotal 12-week phase 3 trials and long-term studies completed over 12 months. This article reviews applicable pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety data reported with both products.

  13. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.B. Vieira de Melo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass transfer resistances were calculated, allowing identification of the mechanism controlling the extraction process.

  14. Spina ventosa with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy: Multifocal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous dactylitis is a rare yet well-recognized disease of small bones of the hands and feet. It occurs in young children below five years of age. Tubercular dactylitis with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy was suspected clinically and radiologically in an 8-year-old girl who had multiple soft tissue swelling of hands and feet with ulceration, encrustations, and an atrophic scar with lytic expansile lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Tubercular lymph node involvement was confirmed histopathologically.

  15. Lupus vulgaris with tubercular lymphadenitis and IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Ambar; Rathi, Om P; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Alok; Dinda, Amit K; Tiwari, Suresh C

    2008-02-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 10-year history of a large crusted plaque over the right thigh for 10 years and small reddish plaque over the left upper back for 3 months. On routine evaluation, she was found to have hematuria. Skin biopsy from the lesion was suggestive of skin tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), and kidney biopsy showed features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Fine-needle aspiration from the inguinal lymph node was consistent with granulomatous disease. The patient has been on anti-tubercular treatment, and the hematuria has subsided.

  16. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  17. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Peter Petocz; Stockmann, Karola S.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Choi, James Y. J.; Stephen Lee; Reynolds, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgen...

  18. Novel protocol for lutein extraction from microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a pigment generally extracted from marigold flowers. However, lutein is also found in considerable amounts in microalgae. In this study a novel method was developed to improve the extraction efficiency of lutein from microalga C. vulgaris. Differently from conventional methods, ethanol...... purity was increased from 73.6% to 93.7% by decreasing the ethanol-water ratio from 85% to 50% in the resolubilization step. The novel method was also tested with tetrahydrofuran. The extraction proved to be again more effective than the conventional one; however dichloromethane outperformed...

  19. Spina ventosa with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy: Multifocal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sood, Shikha; Gupta, Mudita

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a rare yet well-recognized disease of small bones of the hands and feet. It occurs in young children below five years of age. Tubercular dactylitis with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy was suspected clinically and radiologically in an 8-year-old girl who had multiple soft tissue swelling of hands and feet with ulceration, encrustations, and an atrophic scar with lytic expansile lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Tubercular lymph node involvement was confirmed histopathologically.

  20. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javadi Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-09-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25 degrees C for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.

  2. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid PMID:28538881

  3. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.

  4. Effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate exposure on Chlorella vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqing; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-10-01

    Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated. Results showed that SPP treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the first 24-120h of exposure. The harmful effects, however, diminished over time (168h), even at an effective medium concentration of 226.37mg BL(-1) (the concentration of boron applied per liter of culture medium). A similar trend was observed for chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a and b) and indicated that the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was not affected and that high levels of SPP may even promote chlorophyll synthesis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of C. vulgaris increased during 24-120h exposure to SPP, but these activities gradually decreased as culture time progressed. In other words, the initial detrimental effects of synthetic SPP on C. vulgaris were temporary and reversible. This research provides a scientific basis for applications of SPP in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2012-03-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.

  6. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  7. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition.

  8. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (pacne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  9. TNFα gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Kornélia; Tax, Gábor; Teodorescu-Brinzeu, Dragos; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in acne pathogenesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are key factors in these events. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a central molecule coded by a gene that shows high level of genetic polymorphisms especially in its promoter region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNFα gene have been shown to be associated with an increased risk to develop chronic inflammatory diseases. In order to find out if known TNFα regulatory SNPs (-1031T>C, -857C>T, -863C>A, -308G>A, -238G>A) have a role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in acne vulgaris, we analyzed our genomic collection in a retrospective case-control study using the PCR-RFLP method, and we compared the resulting genotype and allele frequencies. There were no significant differences in the observed genotype or allele frequencies between the control and acne group in case of the -1031, -863, -238 SNPs; however, the TNFα -857 minor T allele was found to act as a protective factor in our study population in acne, and a higher occurrence of the minor -308 A allele in female acne patients was also noted. Genetic variants of the TNFα gene may affect the risk of acne vulgaris. Our results can help to elucidate the molecular events leading to acne development.

  10. Topical tretinoin or adapalene in acne vulgaris: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S

    2004-07-01

    Retinoids target several pathoetiologic events of acne vulgaris. The undisputed efficacy of tretinoin, and yet its underutilization, due to apprehension of retinoid dermatitis, triggered a search for newer, well-tolerated retinoids. The discovery of nuclear retinoic acid receptors has provided clues to a rational design of synthetic, receptor-selective retinoic acid agonists. Adapalene is an addition to the arsenal of topical retinoids. It possesses the biological properties of tretinoin, but has a distinct physiochemical profile, including high lipophilicity and increased chemical and photostability. It exhibits selective affinity for nuclear retinoic acid receptors and does not bind to cytosolic retinoic acid binding proteins. It exemplifies the formulation of a novel retinoid with specific pharmacologic profile and clinical objectives. Accordingly, numerous clinical trials have compared adapalene and tretinoin in the management of acne vulgaris and concluded that tretinoin 0.05% gel exhibits a greater anti-acne efficacy than adapalene 0.1% gel, but has higher skin irritation potential. This article reviews the pharmacology of adapalene, including its retinoid receptor binding profile, antiproliferative effects, cell differentiation modulation, comedolytic and anti-inflammatory activity, and specifically focuses on the comparison of the efficacy and irritation profile of adapalene and tretinoin.

  11. Treatment of Aphthous Stomatitis with topical Alchemilla vulgaris in glycerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ravi; John, Gareth W

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulceration is the most common oral mucosal disease known. It presents as three types: minor (most prevalent), major and herpetiform. However, there are no well established effective and reliable treatments of this condition. Alchemilla vulgaris (Lady's Mantle) has traditionally been used in oral hygiene and was recently shown to accelerate wound healing when used in combination with glycerine. The objective of this study was to determine whether this combination is effective in the treatment of the most prevalent form of aphthous ulcers. An open-label study was conducted in 48 otherwise healthy male and female patients aged 4-44 years to determine the putative healing properties and tolerability of a standard 3% extract of A. vulgaris in glycerine (Aphtarine) on common minor oral ulcers. Patients with major or herpetiform ulcers were excluded from the study. Topical application three times daily of Aphtarine gel to minor mouth ulcers relieved discomfort and produced complete healing in the majority of patients (60.4%) within 2 days and in 75% within 3 days, compared with 10.4% and 33.3%, respectively, without treatment and 15% and 40%, respectively, with commonly available treatments. Most patients appreciated the product's ease of application, taste and texture. Aphtarine was well tolerated locally and most patients rated the product good to excellent overall. Aphtarine is a safe, well tolerated and highly effective promising new treatment for healing common mouth ulcers.

  12. Predicting dynamic metabolic demands in the photosynthetic eukaryote Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, Cristal; Levering, Jennifer; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zengler, Karsten

    2017-09-26

    Phototrophic organisms exhibit a highly dynamic proteome, adapting their biomass composition in response to diurnal light/dark cycles and nutrient availability. Here, we used experimentally determined biomass compositions over the course of growth to determine and constrain the biomass objective function (BOF) in a genome-scale metabolic model of Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 over time. Changes in the BOF, which encompasses all metabolites necessary to produce biomass, influence the state of the metabolic network thus directly affecting predictions. Simulations using dynamic BOFs predicted distinct proteome demands during heterotrophic or photoautotrophic growth. Model-driven analysis of extracellular nitrogen concentrations and predicted nitrogen uptake rates revealed an intracellular nitrogen pool, which contains 38% of the total nitrogen provided in the medium for photoautotrophic and 13% for heterotrophic growth. Agreement between flux and gene expression trends was determined by statistical comparison. Accordance between predicted fluxes trends and gene expression trends was found for 65% of multi-subunit enzymes and 75% of allosteric reactions. Reactions with the highest agreement between simulations and experimental data were associated with energy metabolism, terpenoid biosynthesis, fatty acids, nucleotides, and amino acids metabolism. Furthermore, predicted flux distributions at each time point were compared with gene expression data to gain new insights into intracellular compartmentalization, specifically for transporters. A total of 103 genes related to internal transport reactions were identified and added to the updated model of C. vulgaris, iCZ946, thus increasing our knowledgebase by 10% for this model green alga.

  13. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Enhanced Harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris Using Combined Flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a novel flocculation strategy for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris with combined flocculants, poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and calcium oxide (CaO), has been developed. The effect of flocculant dosage, the order of flocculant addition, mixing speed, and growth stage on the harvesting efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that the flocculation using combined flocculants significantly decreases the flocculant dosage and settling time compared with control. It was also found that CaO and γ-PGA influenced microalgal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells and pH of microalgal suspension. The most suitable order of flocculant addition was CaO first and then γ-PGA. The optimal mixing speed was 200 rpm for 0.5 min, followed by 50 rpm for another 4.5 min for CaO and γ-PGA with the highest flocculation efficiency of 95 % and a concentration factor of 35.5. The biomass concentration and lipid yield of the culture reusing the flocculated medium were similar to those when a fresh medium was used. Overall, the proposed method requires low energy input, alleviates biomass and water contamination, and reduces utilization of water resources and is feasible for harvesting C. vulgaris for biofuel and other bio-based chemical production.

  15. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design.

  16. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  17. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  18. Expected Shannon Entropy and Shannon Differentiation between Subpopulations for Neutral Genes under the Finite Island Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Anne; Jost, Lou; Hsieh, T C; Ma, K H; Sherwin, William B; Rollins, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    Shannon entropy H and related measures are increasingly used in molecular ecology and population genetics because (1) unlike measures based on heterozygosity or allele number, these measures weigh alleles in proportion to their population fraction, thus capturing a previously-ignored aspect of allele frequency distributions that may be important in many applications; (2) these measures connect directly to the rich predictive mathematics of information theory; (3) Shannon entropy is completely additive and has an explicitly hierarchical nature; and (4) Shannon entropy-based differentiation measures obey strong monotonicity properties that heterozygosity-based measures lack. We derive simple new expressions for the expected values of the Shannon entropy of the equilibrium allele distribution at a neutral locus in a single isolated population under two models of mutation: the infinite allele model and the stepwise mutation model. Surprisingly, this complex stochastic system for each model has an entropy expressable as a simple combination of well-known mathematical functions. Moreover, entropy- and heterozygosity-based measures for each model are linked by simple relationships that are shown by simulations to be approximately valid even far from equilibrium. We also identify a bridge between the two models of mutation. We apply our approach to subdivided populations which follow the finite island model, obtaining the Shannon entropy of the equilibrium allele distributions of the subpopulations and of the total population. We also derive the expected mutual information and normalized mutual information ("Shannon differentiation") between subpopulations at equilibrium, and identify the model parameters that determine them. We apply our measures to data from the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in Australia. Our measures provide a test for neutrality that is robust to violations of equilibrium assumptions, as verified on real world data from starlings.

  19. Stress, captivity, and reproduction in a wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J; Bentley, George E

    2014-09-01

    In seasonal species, glucocorticoid concentrations are often highest during the breeding season. However, the role of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in the regulation of reproduction remains poorly understood. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to document reproductive consequences of a non-pharmacological hindrance to seasonal HPA fluctuations. Using wild-caught male and female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) housed in an outdoor, semi-natural environment, we divided birds into two mixed-sex groups. One group remained in the outdoor aviary, where starlings breed at the appropriate time of year. The other group was transferred into an indoor flight aviary, where we predicted reproductive suppression to occur. We measured changes in corticosterone (CORT) at baseline and stress-induced concentrations prior to group separation and at the experiment's conclusion. After ten days, the birds showed remarkable differences in breeding behavior and HPA activity. Outdoor birds exhibited increases in baseline and stress-induced CORT and progressed into active breeding (pairing, nest building, egg laying, etc.). In contrast, indoor birds displayed no change in baseline or stress-induced CORT and few signs of active breeding. We found significant sex and treatment effects on expression of HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis elements, suggesting sex-specific regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest a novel, facilitating role for the HPA axis in the transition between early breeding and active breeding in a wild, seasonal avian species. In addition, understanding how changes in housing condition affect seasonal HPA fluctuations may help alleviate barriers to breeding wild animals in captivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Migration- and exercise-induced changes to flight muscle size in migratory birds and association with IGF1 and myostatin mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Bauchinger, Ulf; Zajac, Daria M; Cerasale, David J; McFarlan, Jay T; Gerson, Alexander R; McWilliams, Scott R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-09-01

    Seasonal adjustments to muscle size in migratory birds may result from preparatory physiological changes or responses to changed workloads. The mechanisms controlling these changes in size are poorly understood. We investigated some potential mediators of flight muscle size (myostatin and insulin-like growth factor, IGF1) in pectoralis muscles of wild wintering or migrating white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), captive white-throated sparrows that were photoperiod manipulated to be in a `wintering' or `migratory' (Zugunruhe) state, and captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that were either exercised for 2 weeks in a wind tunnel or untrained. Flight muscle size increased in photo-stimulated `migrants' and in exercised starlings. Acute exercise but not long-term training caused increased expression of IGF1, but neither caused a change in expression of myostatin or its metalloprotease activator TLL1. Photo-stimulated `migrant' sparrows demonstrated increased expression of both myostatin and IGF1, but wild sparrows exhibited no significant seasonal changes in expression of either myostatin or IGF1. Additionally, in both study species we describe several splice variants of myostatin that are shared with distantly related bird species. We demonstrate that their expression patterns are not different from those of the typical myostatin, suggesting that they have no functional importance and may be mistakes of the splicing machinery. We conclude that IGF1 is likely to be an important mediator of muscle phenotypic flexibility during acute exercise and during endogenous, seasonal preparation for migration. The role of myostatin is less clear, but its paradoxical increase in photo-stimulated `migrants' may indicate a role in seasonal adjustments of protein turnover.

  1. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  2. Hubungan Konsumsi Makanan Cepat Saji Terhadap Kejadian Akne Vulgaris pada Mahasiswa FK USU Stambuk 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Bancin, Berry Eka Parda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Acne vulgaris is a very common disease found in public, especially in adolescence. About 85% of people in their life have had acne vulgaris, so it’s often assumed as a physiological state. High-calorie foods have been long suspected as one of the causes of this disease, this opinion is supported by the increased incidence of acne vulgaris in developing countries today. Since 1946 to 2007 various studies have been conducted on the relationship of food to the occurrence of acne vu...

  3. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  4. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  5. A Physiological Signature of the Cost of Reproduction Associated with Parental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melinda A; Williams, Tony D

    2017-12-01

    Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity. We then measured 13 physiological traits, including measures of aerobic/metabolic capacity, oxidative stress and muscle damage, intermediary metabolism and energy supply, and immune function. Our results show that the cost of reproduction in females with wing clipping and radio attachment was associated with lower oxygen-carrying capacity (lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels), lower energy reserves (plasma nonesterified fatty acid and triglyceride levels), decreased immune function (lower haptoglobin levels), and elevated levels of oxidative stress (higher levels of dROMs [reactive oxygen metabolites] and lower levels of the endogenous antioxidant uric acid). Our study provides evidence that costs of reproduction involve a widespread decline in physiological function across multiple physiological systems consistent with long-standing ideas of cumulative "wear and tear" and allostatic load.

  6. Exogenous and endogenous corticosterone alter feather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRochers, David W; Reed, J Michael; Awerman, Jessica; Kluge, Jonathan A; Wilkinson, Julia; van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Aman, Joseph; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids affect feather replacement in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) after approximately 56% of flight feathers were removed. We hypothesized that corticosterone would retard feather regrowth and decrease feather quality. After feather regrowth began, birds were treated with exogenous corticosterone or sham implants, or endogenous corticosterone by applying psychological or physical (food restriction) stressors. Exogenous corticosterone had no impact on feather length and vane area, but rectrices were lighter than controls. Exogenous corticosterone also decreased inter-barb distance for all feathers and increased barbule number for secondaries and rectrices. Although exogenous corticosterone had no affect on rachis tensile strength and stiffness, barbicel hooking strength was reduced. Finally, exogenous corticosterone did not alter the ability of Bacillus licheniformis to degrade feathers or affect the number of feathers that failed to regrow. In contrast, endogenous corticosterone via food restriction resulted in greater inter-barb distances in primaries and secondaries, and acute and chronic stress resulted in greater inter-barb distances in rectrices. Food-restricted birds had significantly fewer barbules in primaries than chronic stress birds and weaker feathers compared to controls. We conclude that, although exogenous and endogenous corticosterone had slightly different effects, some flight feathers grown in the presence of high circulating corticosterone are lighter, potentially weaker, and with altered feather micro-structure.

  7. Salmonella Surveillance Among Great-Tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) and Other Urban Bird Species in Eastern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigar, Mary K; Cummings, Kevin J; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Rankin, Shelley C; Johns, Krista; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Wild birds may play an important role in maintaining and transmitting Salmonella. Their ability to travel large distances and their proximity to human habitations could make them a vehicle for bridging Salmonella from wild and domestic animals to humans. To determine the potential public health risk presented by urban birds, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella among great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) and other cohabiting urban bird species. Fecal samples were collected from 114 birds communally roosting in parking lots of retail locations in Brazos County, Texas, from February through July of 2015. Great-tailed grackles and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were the predominant species sampled. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Overall, 1.8% (2/114) of samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella. Both positive birds were great-tailed grackles sampled in June, yielding a 2.6% (2/76) apparent prevalence among this species. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Typhimurium and found to be pan-susceptible based on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel of antimicrobial agents. The occurrence of Salmonella in great-tailed grackles represents a potential threat to public health, particularly considering their population size and tendency to congregate near human establishments such as grocery stores.

  8. Blood-feeding ectoparasites as developmental stressors: Does corticosterone mediate effects of mite infestation on nestling growth, immunity and energy availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Leah J Eisner; Casto, Joseph M

    2015-08-01

    How resources are distributed to growth and self-maintenance early in life is likely to impact survival and reproduction. Early resource allocation decisions may be particularly critical in altricial birds, as they have rapid developmental trajectories, and may be highly susceptible to environmental factors that can perturb development. The aim of this study was to determine if blood-feeding ectoparasites act as developmental stressors in European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nestlings, driving a trade-off between growth and immunity. We hypothesized that because ectoparasites compete for resources they would induce growth-immunity trade-offs in parasitized nestlings. We also tested the hypothesis that changes in plasma corticosterone mediate the effects of ectoparasites on growth and immunity. Throughout development we assessed between-nest variation in ectoparasite density, measured growth, and a variety of blood parameters, including plasma corticosterone. We also assessed immune function across development. We found that nestlings from nests with high levels of ectoparasites were smaller, had elevated blood glucose, lower hematocrit levels, and appeared to engage in compensatory growth prior to fledging. They also had elevated innate immune responses early, but reduced responses later relative to nestlings from nests with low levels of ectoparasites. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by ectoparasite load, but did increase with nestling age. Overall, we find evidence that ectoparasites are developmental stressors that affect growth-immunity trade-offs, but their effects do not appear to be mediated by changes in circulating levels of corticosterone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  10. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-07

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  11. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  12. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  13. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Halpin, C G; Rowe, C

    2013-10-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change.

  14. The benefits of being toxic to deter predators depends on prey body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E; Halpin, Christina G; Rowe, Candy

    2016-01-01

    Many prey have evolved toxins as a defense against predation. Those species that advertise their toxicity to would-be predators with conspicuous warning signals are known as "aposematic." Investment in toxicity by aposematically signaling prey is thought to underpin how aversive prey are to predators; increasing toxicity means that predators learn to avoid prey faster and attack them at lower rates. However, predators' foraging decisions on aposematic prey are determined not only by their toxicity, but also by their nutrient content: predators can trade-off the costs of ingesting toxin with the benefits of acquiring nutrients. Prey body size is a cue that positively correlates with nutrient content, and that varies within and between aposematic species. We predicted that a dose of quinine (known to be toxic to birds) would be a more effective deterrent to avian predators when prey were small compared with when they were large, and that the benefits of possessing toxin would be greater for small-bodied prey. Using an established laboratory protocol of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) foraging on mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), we found evidence for increased protection from a dose of quinine for small-bodied compared with large-bodied prey. This shows that larger prey need more toxin to attain the same level of defense as smaller prey, which has implications for the evolution of aposematism and mimicry.

  15. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

  16. Body size matters for aposematic prey during predator aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E; Halpin, Christina G; Rowe, Candy

    2014-11-01

    Aposematic prey advertise their toxicity to predators using conspicuous warning signals, which predators learn to use to reduce their intake of toxic prey. Like other types of prey, aposematic prey often differ in body size, both within and between species. Increasing body size can increase signal size, which make larger aposematic prey more detectable but also gives them a more effective and salient deterrent. However, increasing body size also increases the nutritional value of prey, and larger aposematic prey may make a more profitable meal to predators that are trading off the costs of eating toxins with the benefits of ingesting nutrients. We tested if body size, independent of signal size, affected predation of toxic prey as predators learn to reduce their attacks on them. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) learned to discriminate between defended (quinine-injected) and undefended (water-injected) mealworm prey (Tenebrio molitor) using visual signals. During this process, we found that birds attacked and ate more defended prey the larger they were. Body size does affect the probability that toxic prey are attacked and eaten, which has implications for the evolutionary dynamics of aposematism and mimicry (where species share the same warning pattern). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-04-22

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems.

  18. The benefits of being toxic to deter predators depends on prey body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Halpin, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Many prey have evolved toxins as a defense against predation. Those species that advertise their toxicity to would-be predators with conspicuous warning signals are known as “aposematic.” Investment in toxicity by aposematically signaling prey is thought to underpin how aversive prey are to predators; increasing toxicity means that predators learn to avoid prey faster and attack them at lower rates. However, predators’ foraging decisions on aposematic prey are determined not only by their toxicity, but also by their nutrient content: predators can trade-off the costs of ingesting toxin with the benefits of acquiring nutrients. Prey body size is a cue that positively correlates with nutrient content, and that varies within and between aposematic species. We predicted that a dose of quinine (known to be toxic to birds) would be a more effective deterrent to avian predators when prey were small compared with when they were large, and that the benefits of possessing toxin would be greater for small-bodied prey. Using an established laboratory protocol of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) foraging on mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), we found evidence for increased protection from a dose of quinine for small-bodied compared with large-bodied prey. This shows that larger prey need more toxin to attain the same level of defense as smaller prey, which has implications for the evolution of aposematism and mimicry. PMID:28028378

  19. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  20. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  1. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  2. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    .... Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce...

  3. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-03-28

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Production of Triterpenoid Sapogenins in Hairy Root Cultures of Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2015-11-01

    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) is widely distributed in North America and contains bioactive oleanane-type saponins. In order to investigate in vitro production of triterpenoid saponins, hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris were established by infecting leaf explants with five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (LBA9402, R1000, A4, 13333, and 15834). The A. rhizogenes strain LBA9402 had an infection of 100% frequency and induced the most hairy roots per plant. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced changes in triterpenoid saponins in S. vulgaris hairy roots were analyzed. Accumulation of segetalic acid and gypsogenic acid after MeJA treatment was 5-and 2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control root. We suggest that hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris could be an important alternative approach to the production of saponins.

  5. Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers...

  6. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. [Effects of different trophic modes on growth characteristics, metabolism and cellular components of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weibao; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hong; Xi, Yuqin; Han, Rui; Niu, Shiquan

    2015-03-04

    We studied the effects of trophic modes related to glucose and light (photoautotrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) on growth, cellular components and carbon metabolic pathway of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters about growth of algal cells were investigated by using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. When trophic mode changed from photoautotrophy to mixotrophy and to heterotrophy successively, the concentrations of soluble sugar, lipid and saturated C16/C18 fatty acids in C. vulgaris increased, whereas the concentrations of unsaturated C16, C18 fatty acids, proteins, photosynthetic pigments and 18 relative amino acids decreased. Light and glucose affect the growth, metabolism and the biochemical components biosynthesis of C. vulgaris. Addition of glucose can promote algal biomass accumulation, stimulate the synthesis of carbonaceous components, but inhibit nitrogenous components. Under illumination cultivation, concentration and consumption level of glucose decided the main trophic modes of C. vulgaris. Mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation could promote the growth of algal cells.

  8. Bioelectrogenesis with microbial fuel cells (MFCs using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Huarachi-Olivera

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that MFCs with C. vulgaris and bacterial community have a simultaneous efficiency in the production of bioelectricity and bioremediation processes, becoming an important source of bioenergy in the future.

  9. Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study   XXIV International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Prof. Dr. Cemil Bilsel Congress Hall, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Oral Presentation; 09/2015

  10. Lupus Vulgaris Erythematoides: report of a patient initially misdiagnosed as dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Lopez, Francisco; Fueyo-Casado, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lara, Leire

    2013-05-15

    A small percentage of patients with tuberculosis present with cutaneous findings, which may be difficult to diagnose. We present a patient diagnosed with a rare, non-scarring form of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB), classically termed as lupus vulgaris erythematoides.

  11. Photoheterotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris ESP6 on organic acids from dark hydrogen fermentation effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Chin-Yen; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Chlorella vulgaris ESP6 was used to assimilate the soluble metabolites in the hydrogen fermentation broth of Clostridium butyricum CGS5 to obtain valuable microalgae biomass. The results show that C. vulgaris ESP6 could grow on the 4-fold diluted dark fermentation broth. Acetate was efficiently utilized during the growth of C. vulgaris ESP6, whereas the microalgae growth was inhibited by lactate, butyrate, and HCO3(-) when their concentrations were higher than 0.5, 0.1, and 2.72 g/L, respectively. C. vulgaris ESP6 could completely consume butyrate (the most abundant dark fermentation metabolite) when it was grown on Tris-Acetate-Phosphate medium under a food to microorganism (F/M) ratio of 1.11. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic dynamics of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm grown on a steel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comparative metabolomics approach combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied first between planktonic cells and biofilms and then between pure cultures and biofilms of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results revealed that the overall metabolic level of the biofilm cells was down-regulated, especially for metabolites related to the central carbon metabolism, compared to the planktonic cells and the pure culture of D. vulgaris. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis of the 58 metabolites identified by GC-MS showed that fatty acid biosynthesis in the biofilm cells was up-regulated, suggesting that fatty acids may be important for the formation, maintenance and function of D. vulgaris biofilm. This study offers a valuable perspective on the metabolic dynamics of the D. vulgaris biofilm.

  13. Use of intense pulse light for acne vulgaris in Indian skin--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Saritha; Parveen, Basheerahmed; Annie Malathy, Priyavathani; Gomathi, Nellainayagam

    2012-04-01

    Intense pulse light (IPL) has become extremely popular in Indian cosmetology circles. Yet, literature is silent on its effect in heavily melanized skin. A descriptive study to gauge the effect of IPL on acne vulgaris in Indian patients done in a tertiary care center in south India. Patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were given a maximum of five sittings of IPL treatment. Lesion counts were performed and photographs compared before and after treatment. IPL was offered to 10 patients with acne vulgaris. Two patients dropped out, seven patients had a good response after a mean of 3.4 sittings; 87.5% patients expressed satisfaction with the procedure. No adverse effects were noted. IPL serves a useful role in the treatment of acne vulgaris and could reduce treatment costs and pill burden. There is no increased risk of side effects with IPL on Indian skin with standard care. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Cultivo de Chlorella vulgaris sobre residual de soja con la aplicacion de un campo magnetico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Luna, Liliana; Alvarez, Inaudis; Rivero, Roger

    2011-01-01

    ... vulgaris, obteniendose excelentes valores de densidad celular maxima ([K.sub.max]: 360 x [10.sup.6] cel.[mL.sup.-1]). Posteriormente se evaluan los efectos de la aplicacion de un campo magnetico...

  15. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhead, Elyssia; Silkina, Alla; Llewellyn, Carole A; Fuentes-Grünewald, Claudio

    2018-01-19

    The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH₄-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO₄-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent.

  16. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssia Mayhead

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH4-N and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO4-P occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent.

  17. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy...

  18. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive...

  19. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Moosavi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  20. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Borji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  1. Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorphs in south-western Romania: a consequence of a human modified habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorph population was identified for the first time ever in south-western Romania. The newts inhabiting a permanent but artificial habitat, surrounded by agricultural fields.

  2. Evaluation of inhomogeneities of repolarization in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; İnci, Sinan; Aksan, Gökhan; Nar, Gökay; Yüksel, Esra Pancar; Ocal, Hande Serra; Çapraz, Mustafa; Yüksel, Serkan; Şahin, Mahmut

    2016-12-01

    The arrhythmia potential has not been investigated adequately in psoriatic patients. In this study, we assessed the ventricular repolarization dispersion, using the Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio, and investigated the association with inflammation. Seventy-one psoriasis vulgaris patients and 70 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. The severity of the disease was calculated using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scoring. The QTd was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum QT intervals. The Tp-e interval was defined as the interval from the peak of the T wave to the end of the T wave. The Tp-e interval was corrected for heart rate. The Tp-e/QT ratio was calculated using these measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to basal clinical and laboratory characteristics (p > 0.05). The Tp-e interval, the corrected Tp-e interval (cTp-e) and the Tp-e/QT ratio were also significantly higher in psoriasis patients compared to the control group (78.5 ±8.0 ms vs. 71.4 ±7.6 ms, p < 0.001, 86.3 ±13.2 ms vs. 77.6 ±9.0 ms, p < 0.001 and 0.21 ±0.02 vs. 0.19 ±0.02, p < 0.001 respectively). A significant correlation was detected between the cTp-e time and the Tp-e/QT ratio and the PASI score in the group of psoriatic patients (r = 0.51, p < 0.001; r = 0.59, p < 0.001, respectively). In our study, we detected a significant increase in the Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio may be predictors for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

  3. Acne Vulgaris and the Epidermal Barrier: Is Acne Vulgaris Associated with Inherent Epidermal Abnormalities that Cause Impairment of Barrier Functions? Do Any Topical Acne Therapies Alter the Structural and/or Functional Integrity of the Epidermal Barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Thiboutot, Diane; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder that predominantly affects teenagers, but can also affect preadolescents and post-teen individuals. Despite the fact that acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder encountered in ambulatory dermatology practice in the United States, there has been limited research on the epidermal permeability barrier in untreated skin of people with acne vulgaris and also after use of acne therapies. This article reviews the research results and discusse...

  4. Expression of a-Amylase in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, MINAMIKAWA; Daisuke, YAMAUCHI; Sachiko, Wada; Hajime, TAKEUCHI; Department of Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan University

    1992-01-01

    Levels of starch and soluble sugar in pods of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo plants were analyzed during the course of maturation of fruits. The results suggest that the immature pods of P. vulgaris function to some extent as temporary reservoirs of carbohydrates for growth of seeds. A less clear pattern of accumulation of starch was observed in pods of maturing fruits of Vigna mungo. Measurements of a-amylase activites in pods of maturing fruits and immunoblotting with an antiserum again...

  5. Identification of an Alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a Laboratory Standard for Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nar'Asha Randall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involved the evaluation of a biosafety level 1 alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a positive control for the production of hydrogen sulfide. We determined that Citrobacter freundii could serve as an excellent substitute for P. vulgaris, and that lead acetate strips used in conjunction with triple sugar iron media allows for consistent results following evaluation after up to one week.

  6. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho,Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground:Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation.Objectives:To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity.Methods:Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnai...

  7. Phenological Variations in the Surface Flavonoids of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Milena; VELICKOVIC, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the surface flavonoids in relation to phenological development of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L. were examined. Plant material was harvested at different phenological stages (vegetative, before budding, floral budding, flowering, and fruiting) of the life cycle of the species. In A. vulgaris and A. absinthium acetone exudates, 6 and 4 flavonoid aglycones were identified, respectively, by TLC analysis. Quercetin 3,7,3'-trim...

  8. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc); Razzagh Mahmoudi (PhD); Tayebeh Fakheri (DVM); Farzad Katiraee (PhD); Vahideh Rahmani (DVM)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum essential oils against foodborne pathogens and Candida species in vitro. Methods: The essential oils were extracted from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and dried Cuminum Cyminum seeds using a Clevenger apparatus for 3 hours. Analysis of the essential oils’ constituents was performed using gas chromatography-mass s...

  9. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Chorella vulgaris isolated from Unkal Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel Ahmed Adhoni; Shivasharana Chandrabanda Thimmappa; Basappa Basawanneppa Kaliwal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of bioactive molecules and to check their antimicrobial activity from green algae Chlorella vulgaris (AS-3) (C. vulgaris) isolated from Unkal Lake in Dharwad District, Karnataka, India. Methods: Based on the polarity, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane, methanol, petroleum ether and distilled water were the solvents used for the preparation of algal extracts using Soxhlet apparatus, which were further subjected to phytochemi...

  11. [Textual research on change of medicinal parts and herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wang, Chengya

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris by textual researches, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical medication, exploitation and protection of wild P. vulgaris resources. Textual research on medicinal works of past dynasties and field work were adopted. The natural distributions of P. vulgaris were concentrated distribution in Sichuan province, Huaihe river basin, and Middle-Lower Yangtze river valley in Chinese history. The indications of P. vulgaris in ancient and modern times were basically identical. While there were difference between the medicinal parts, harvest period and processing methods existed difference between ancient and modern. Three periods that whole grass of P. vulgaris as medicinal parts (from late Ming dynasty to late Qing dynasty and early stage of Republic of China), both whole grass and spicas as medicinal parts (from mid-term Republic of China to 1963), and the semi-maturity or maturity of spicas as medicinal parts (from 1963 to today) existed. The processing method for medicinal parts of P. vulgaris adopted sun drying and shady drying in ancient China, but only the sun drying was only used in modern times.

  12. Ghrelin in the pilosebaceous unit: alteration of ghrelin in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Demet; Demir, Betul; Erder, Ilker; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Ucer, Ozlem; Aydin, Suleyman; Ucak, Haydar; Dertlioglu, Selma; Kalayci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin in the pilosebaceous tissues of human skin and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to screen ghrelin immunoreactivity by immunohistochemistry in human pilosebaceous tissues of human skin and also to determine the quantities of ghrelin in the serum of the patients with acne vulgaris. 30 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 30 control subjects participated in this study. Ghrelin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human hair follicles and sebaceous glands were immunohistochemically examined. Immunohistochemistry results showed that there is a strong ghrelin immunoreactivity in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands in sections of human skin. The mean serum ghrelin levels (27.58 ・} 15.44 pg/mL) in patients with acne vulgaris was significantly lower than those of controls (35.62・}20.46 pg/mL). Ghrelin produced in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the skin might participate in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and also acne vulgaris in humans might be associated with decreased serum ghrelin.

  13. Study of the effect of extract of Thymus vulgaris on anxiety in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Alireza; Hoseini, Faeghe; Shahidi, Siamak; Baharlouei, Negar

    2016-07-01

    There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ( bǎi lǐ xiāng) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of extract of T. vulgaris on rat behavior in the EPM. In the present study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: saline group and T. vulgaris groups (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg infusion for 7 days by feeding). During the test period, the total distance covered by animals, the number of open- and closed-arm entries, and the time spent in open and closed arms of the EPM were recorded. T. vulgaris increased open-arm exploration and open-arm entry in the EPM, whereas extract of this plant has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and the number of closed-arm entries. The results of the present experiment indicate that T. vulgaris may have an anxiolytic profile in rat behavior in the EPM test, which is not influenced by the locomotor activity. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which T. vulgaris extract exerts an anxiolytic effect in rats.

  14. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  15. Computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Xie, H; Kong, M L; Sun, Q P; Li, R Z; Pan, J B

    2014-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Although thousands of miRNAs have been identified in plants, limited information is available about miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris, despite it being an important food legume worldwide. The high conservation of plant miRNAs enables the identification of new miRNAs in P. vulgaris by homology analysis. Here, 1804 known and unique plant miRNAs from 37 plant species were blast-searched against expressed sequence tag and genomic survey sequence databases to identify novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris. All candidate sequences were screened by a series of miRNA filtering criteria. Finally, we identified 27 conserved miRNAs, belonging to 24 miRNA families. When compared against known miRNAs in P. vulgaris, we found that 24 of the 27 miRNAs were newly discovered. Further, we identified 92 potential target genes with known functions for these novel miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to be involved in plant development, signal transduction, metabolic pathways, disease resistance, and environmental stress response. The identification of the novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris is anticipated to provide baseline information for further research about the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in P. vulgaris.

  16. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xin; Xi, Meng-Qian; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Rong-bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Volatile oil components and the contents and types of amino acid in spica of Prunella vulgaris were analysed by GC-MS and amino acid analyzer. Esters, fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone and several alcohol compounds were identified by mass spectrum comparison. In these ingredients, beta-ionone smelled aroma of cedar, raspberry, nerolidol showed weak sweet soft orange blossom flavor, neroli tasted sweet and fresh, nerolidol tasted sweet with light aroma of wood, hexadecanal showed a weak aroma of flowers and wax, alpha-sinensal had rich and fresh sweet orange flavor. To some extent, these types of aromatic substances can affect the taste of herbal tea or decoction made of Spica Prunellae. Among amino acids detected, natural amino acids accounted for a larger proportion, and those natural amino acids showed bitterness, slight bitterness, sourness (freshness), sweetness, slight sweetness, sourness (slight freshness). The results indicated that bitter and slightly bitter amino acids have the greatest impacts on the sense of Spica Prunellae.

  18. Leaf conductance response of phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Gillespie, T. J.

    The effect of ozone flux density on leaf conductance to ozone in Phaseolus vulgaris was examined. The change in conductance was measured within the first two hours of fumigation for mature, fruiting 6-week-old plants of an ozone sensitive cultivar (Seafarer); for young, 14-day-old plants of the same cultivar; and for an ozone resistant cultivar (Gold Crop). Young Seafarer plants showed no change in conductance to ozone over a wide range of ozone flux densities. Gold Crop showed a decrease in conductance of -3.1 % /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1) whereas mature Seafarer plants exhibited a stronger decrease of -7.7% /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1). Diffusion porometer measurements taken on fruiting Seafarer plants in the field illustrated that a decrease in leaf diffusive conductance to water is related to visual ozone injury.

  19. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  20. Polyphosphate during the Regreening of Chlorella vulgaris under Nitrogen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Chu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphate (Poly-P accumulation has been reported in Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency conditions with sufficient P supply, and the process has been demonstrated to have great impact on lipid productivity. In this article, the utilization of polyphosphates and the regreening process under N resupplying conditions, especially for lipid production reviving, were investigated. This regreening process was completed within approximately 3–5 days. Polyphosphates were first degraded within 3 days in the regreening process, with and without an external P supply, and the degradation preceded the assimilation of phosphate in the media with an external P offering. Nitrate assimilation was markedly influenced by the starvation of P after polyphosphates were exhausted in the medium without external phosphates, and then the reviving process of biomass and lipid production was strictly impeded. It is, thus, reasonable to assume that simultaneous provision of external N and P is essential for overall biodiesel production revival during the regreening process.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. pomace extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot pomace extract (concentration 100 mg/ml was tested against five Gram positive and seven Gram negative bacterial strains (reference cultures and natural isolates. Disc diffusion method with 15 µl of extract and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 µl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control sample. The tested extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, where clear zones (without growth appeared. There was no any activity against other tested Gram-positive bacteria, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a small zone of reduced growth. Growth of all tested Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited usually with 100 µl of extract. The most susceptible were Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhymurium. The tested antibiotic gave clear, usually large zones for all tested strains except for Staphylococcus cohni spp. cohni, where only a zone of reduced growth appeared.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Fang, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Wei; Liu, Jun-Hong; Wang, Ying; Wang, An-Tai

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae) is composed of two linear DNA molecules. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule 1 is 8010 bp long and contains six protein-coding genes, large subunit rRNA, methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, two pseudogenes consisting respectively of a partial copy of COI, and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA, while the mtDNA molecule 2 is 7576 bp long and contains seven protein-coding genes, small subunit rRNA, methionine tRNA, a pseudogene consisting of a partial copy of COI and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA. COI gene begins with GTG as start codon, whereas other 12 protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. In addition, all protein-coding genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon.

  3. Polyphosphate during the Regreening of Chlorella vulgaris under Nitrogen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-09-28

    Polyphosphate (Poly-P) accumulation has been reported in Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency conditions with sufficient P supply, and the process has been demonstrated to have great impact on lipid productivity. In this article, the utilization of polyphosphates and the regreening process under N resupplying conditions, especially for lipid production reviving, were investigated. This regreening process was completed within approximately 3-5 days. Polyphosphates were first degraded within 3 days in the regreening process, with and without an external P supply, and the degradation preceded the assimilation of phosphate in the media with an external P offering. Nitrate assimilation was markedly influenced by the starvation of P after polyphosphates were exhausted in the medium without external phosphates, and then the reviving process of biomass and lipid production was strictly impeded. It is, thus, reasonable to assume that simultaneous provision of external N and P is essential for overall biodiesel production revival during the regreening process.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY OF MICROALGAE CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Patyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomass is increasingly regarded as a potential resource that could be used to produce biofuels, electricity and heat. Algae contain a lot of nutrients, so they can be used as food for humans and livestock. Because of their valuable composition (many nutrients they are used as supplements of balanced diet, in turn taking into account their biosorption abbility they are used to detoxification of human body. Algae cultivation does not demand large areas of land to expose cells to sunlight, so their production rate is higher than vascular plants. Moreover algae cultivation lets to achieve high biomass concentration. Important cultivation factors are: illumination (light intensity is an important factor because it drives photosynthesis, CO2 supply, culture medium and mixing. The experimental research was conducted using Chlorella vulgaris BA 002 strain. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biomass growth in laboratory condition.

  5. Lichen striatus associated with psoriasis vulgaris treated with oral acitretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Errichetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus (LS is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology that presents as a continuous or interrupted linear band of pink, tan, red or skin-colored papules in a blaschkoid distribution. The lesions are generally solitary and unilateral, but unusual extensive cases with multiple and bilateral lesions have been also described. Albeit LS is typically an asymptomatic and self-limited dermatosis, it may cause a significant psychological distress in some patients, thus requiring an appropriate therapy. Topical steroid is the most commonly used treatment but it is not always effective. We report a case of LS unresponsive to topical steroid therapy associated with psoriasis vulgaris successfully treated with oral acitretin.

  6. Lupus Vulgaris Causing Nasal Destruction: Rare Presentation in Current Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rokon Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old lady reported with slowly progressive reddish lesions over the nose, followed by atrophy and ulceration for about 6 years. Clinical examination revealed atrophied, ulcerated, erythematous lesions over central face, forehead and neck destroying whole nose. Mantoux test resulted 16×18 mm on 48 hours observation. Histopathological examination of the lesion showed noncaseating grunuloma along with Langhans giant cells in the upper dermis surrounded by lymphocytes. The conclusive diagnosis was lupus vulgaris based on above findings. Six months therapy with INH 300 mg plus rifampicin 600 mg supplemented by initial 2 months ethambutol 1000 mg plus pyrazinamide 1500 mg daily resulted clean-looking perforation with healthy margin

  7. Pemphigus Vulgaris Confined to the Gingiva: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV is an autoimmune intraepithelial blistering disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. Oral mucosa is frequently affected in patients with PV, and oral lesions may be the first sign of the disease in majority of patients. In some patients, oral lesions may also be followed by skin involvement. Therefore, timely recognition and therapy of oral lesions is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. Early oral lesions of PV are, however, often regarded as difficult to diagnose, since the initial oral lesions may be relatively nonspecific, manifesting as superficial erosions or ulcerations, and rarely presenting with the formation of intact bullae. Lesions may occur anywhere on the oral mucosa including gingiva; however; desquamtive gingivitis is less common with PV than other mucocutaneous conditions such as pemphigoid or lichen planus. This paper describes the case of a patient presenting with a one-year history of painful gingival, who is finally diagnosed as having PV.

  8. Mass propagation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Sujatha; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

    2008-03-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) is a threatened and valuable medicinal plant. Attempts have been made in this research to mass propagate its plantlets through in vitro liquid culture technology using Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (0.44-8.88 microM). Initially, 22.6 shoots (99.9% shooting frequency) developed from shoot tip explants cultured in MS with 4.44 microM BA at 100 ml flask capacity. This was further subcultured at increasing flask capacity (150, 250, and 500 ml) for shoot proliferation. Of the different concentrations of BA and flask capacities tested, 4.44 microM BA and 500 ml flask capacity were found to produce a maximum of 85.5 shoots after 30 d of culture. Shoot proliferation was found to increase with increasing flask capacity whereas shoot number decreased with increasing BA concentration (>4.44 microM). Individual shoots were isolated and rooted on MS medium containing 8.56 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Then the plantlets were acclimatized under standard laboratory conditions and later under greenhouse conditions. Fresh leaves were collected from greenhouse-grown plants and subjected to essential oil analysis by the simultaneous distillation and extraction method. GC-MS results revealed the presence of 88 components and the extracted oil was rich in camphor (16.8%), alpha-thujone (11.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), camphene (6.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.4%). This in vitro strategy can be a reliable method for the steady production of a large number of plants for essential oil production, which is reported for the first time for A. vulgaris.

  9. Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2007-11-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of the Phaseolus vulgaris - Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Awale, Halima E; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) anthracnose caused by the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a major factor limiting production worldwide. Although sources of resistance have been identified and characterized, the early molecular events in the host-pathogen interface have not been investigated. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome analysis using Illumina sequencing of two near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of the Co-1 gene on chromosome Pv01 during a time course following infection with race 73 of C. lindemuthianum. From this, we identified 3,250 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within and between the NILs over the time course of infection. During the biotrophic phase the majority of DEGs were up regulated in the susceptible NIL, whereas more DEGs were up-regulated in the resistant NIL during the necrotrophic phase. Various defense related genes, such as those encoding PR proteins, peroxidases, lipoxygenases were up regulated in the resistant NIL. Conversely, genes encoding sugar transporters were up-regulated in the susceptible NIL during the later stages of infection. Additionally, numerous transcription factors (TFs) and candidate genes within the vicinity of the Co-1 locus were differentially expressed, suggesting a global reprogramming of gene expression in and around the Co-1 locus. Through this analysis, we reduced the previous number of candidate genes reported at the Co-1 locus from eight to three. These results suggest the dynamic nature of P. vulgaris-C. lindemuthianum interaction at the transcriptomic level and reflect the role of both pathogen and effector triggered immunity on changes in plant gene expression.

  11. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  12. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  14. Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apoptosis

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    Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris on hepatoma cell line HepG2. INTRODUCTION: The search for food and spices that can induce apoptosis in cancer cells has been a major study interest in the last decade. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, its chemopreventive effects in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells have not been studied in great detail. METHODS: HepG2 liver cancer cells and WRL68 normal liver cells were treated with various concentrations (0-4 mg/ml of hot water extract of C. vulgaris after 24 hours incubation. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by TUNEL assay while DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay. Apoptosis proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Chlorella vulgaris decreased the number of viable HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05, with an IC50 of 1.6 mg/ml. DNA damage as measured by Comet assay was increased in HepG2 cells at all concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris tested. Evaluation of apoptosis by TUNEL assay showed that Chlorella vulgaris induced a higher apoptotic rate (70% in HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells, WRL68 (15%. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins P53, Bax and caspase-3 in the HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells WRL68, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella vulgaris may have anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis signaling cascades via an increased expression of P53, Bax and caspase-3 proteins and through a reduction of Bcl-2 protein, which subsequently lead to increased DNA damage and apoptosis.

  15. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  16. Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Md. Saad, Suhana; Makpol, Suzana; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris on hepatoma cell line HepG2. INTRODUCTION: The search for food and spices that can induce apoptosis in cancer cells has been a major study interest in the last decade. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti‐cancer properties. However, its chemopreventive effects in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells have not been studied in great detail. METHODS: HepG2 liver cancer cells and WRL68 normal liver cells were treated with various concentrations (0‐4 mg/ml) of hot water extract of C. vulgaris after 24 hours incubation. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by TUNEL assay while DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay. Apoptosis proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Chlorella vulgaris decreased the number of viable HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner (p Chlorella vulgaris tested. Evaluation of apoptosis by TUNEL assay showed that Chlorella vulgaris induced a higher apoptotic rate (70%) in HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells, WRL68 (15%). Western blot analysis showed increased expression of pro‐ apoptotic proteins P53, Bax and caspase‐3 in the HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells WRL68, and decreased expression of the anti‐apoptotic protein Bcl‐2. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella vulgaris may have anti‐cancer effects by inducing apoptosis signaling cascades via an increased expression of P53, Bax and caspase‐3 proteins and through a reduction of Bcl‐2 protein, which subsequently lead to increased DNA damage and apoptosis. PMID:21340229

  17. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  18. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Benzoyl Peroxide 5% Gel with 0.05% Tretinoin Gel in Patients with Mild Acne Vulgaris (Identification of P. Acnes)

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Tabri, Farida Tabri

    2016-01-01

    - Abstract: Topical tretinoin is used by the dermatolovenereologist and aesthetic physicians in patients with mild acne vulgaris, so it is necessary to be investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of benzoyl peroxide gel compared to tretinoin gel on persons with mild acne vulgaris and identify Propionibacterium acnes in patients with mild acne vulgaris. The research method was a clinical trial, double blind randomization. Patients with mild acne vulgaris were rando...

  20. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

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    Hauck Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several

  1. Protective Effect of Zizphus Vulgaris Extract, on Liver Toxicity in Laboratory Rats

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    S Ebrahimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some of natural and synthetic products have antioxidant properties which protect the liver against the destructive factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Zizphus Vulgaris extracts on mice liver. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010 on 30 healthy adult male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into five equal groups: the control group (receiving, olive oil, control group (receiving olive oil and carbon tetrachloride and three intervention groups (receiving different dose of carbon tetrachloride and olive oil groups. The intervention group was given daily doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg per Kg of Zizphus Vulgaris extract by gavage respectively. After 45 days, the amount of liver enzymes, total protein, albumin and bilirubin in animal’s sera were measured. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software, using ANOVA and t-test. Results: The concentration of total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, ALP in test groups I, II and III receiving Z.Vulgaris extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg weight compared with control group were statistically not significant. Consumption of Z.Vulgaris reduced the bilirubin concentration in test groups I and II but this decrease was significant only in the test group I Increasing of Z.Vulgaris dose in the test group III (600 mg Z.Vulgaris per kg body weight showed increase in the level of serum bilirubin. Increase in the ratio of liver weight to body weight of rats in groups I and III in comparison with control groups was noticed although this difference was not statistically significant. Findings of this study revealed that dosage of 600 mg/kg extract of Z.Vulgaris caused significant improvements in CCl4 induced liver necrosis (P <0.01 and reduced portal cells inflammation (P <0.01. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Z.Vulgaris induced some destruction and necrosis of liver cells in animals but significant reduction of portal cells

  2. Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid

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    Khalifa E. Sharquie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: This clinical, interventional, therapeutic study was done at the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, during the period from October 2012 to October 2013. Twenty five patients with active acne vulgaris were included, 15 (60% females and 10 (40% males and their ages ranged from 16-36 (21.5000± 5.46279 years. Fifteen patients were associated with acne scars. Three chemical peels using 88% lactic acid solution was carried out two weeks apart for patients with active acne vulgaris with or without scarring. Scoring for active acne vulgaris and acne scar was done for each case before and after operation to evaluate the severity of acne and the degree of scar before and after treatment. All patients were with Fitzpatrick’s skin types III and IV. Patients were followed up every two weeks during period of therapy and monthly for 3 months after stopping the treatment. Results: Twenty five patients with active acne vulgaris were treated with 3 sessions of lactic acid, fifteen patients had associated acne scar. Scoring for active acne vulgaris including papules and pustules showed highly statistically significant reduction after 2 weeks of therapy (p=0.0001, after 4 weeks (p=0.0001and after 6 weeks (p=0.0001, with percent reduction 87.2% for papules and 94% for pustules after end of sessions while after 3 months follow up the reduction rate for papules 93.8% and p-value (p=0.001 and for pustules 97.6% and (p=0.0001. While the scarring

  3. LC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis and functional inference of hypothetical proteins in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-11-03

    ABSTRACT In the previous study, the whole-genome gene expression profiles of D. vulgaris in response to oxidative stress and heat shock were determined. The results showed 24-28% of the responsive genes were hypothetical proteins that have not been experimentally characterized or whose function can not be deduced by simple sequence comparison. To further explore the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, attempt was made in this study to infer functions of these hypothetical proteins by phylogenomic profiling along with detailed sequence comparison against various publicly available databases. By this approach we were ableto assign possible functions to 25 responsive hypothetical proteins. The findings included that DVU0725, induced by oxidative stress, may be involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, implying that the alternation of lipopolysaccharide on cell surface might service as a mechanism against oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, two responsive proteins, DVU0024 encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and DVU1670 encoding predicted redox protein, were sharing co-evolution atterns with rubrerythrin in Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Clostridium perfringens, respectively, implying that they might be part of the stress response and protective systems in D. vulgaris. The study demonstrated that phylogenomic profiling is a useful tool in interpretation of experimental genomics data, and also provided further insight on cellular response to oxidative stress and heat shock in D. vulgaris.

  4. Evaluating of Life Quality in Patients with Acne Vulgaris Using Generic and Specific Questionnaires

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    Reza Ghaderi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that can adversely affect the quality of life of patients. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris. Methods. This study was carried out on 70 patients with acne vulgaris (28 males, 42 females. All the patients filled out two Persian versions of questionnaires: short form 36 (SF-36 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI. The obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS software (version 17. Results. The scores for physical functioning, social functioning, and bodily pain domains in patients were over 70%, but the scores for role physical, general health, vitality, role emotional, and mental health in patients were under 70%. Scores on the DLQI in patients with acne vulgaris ranged from 0 to 22 (mean ± SD, 8.18 ± 4.83. After comparing mean score of DLQI with respect to gender and age, it was found that the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Acne vulgaris has a significant effect on the quality of life. There was not any significant gender or age related difference in QOL.

  5. Quality of life in acne vulgaris: Relationship to clinical severity and demographic data

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    Aayush Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is known to impair many aspects of quality of life. However, the correlation of this impairment with clinical severity remains equivocal despite various school, community and hospital-based studies. Aim: A hospital-based study was undertaken to measure the impairment of quality of life of patients of acne vulgaris and correlate it with the severity of lesions. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in a cohort of 100 patients of acne vulgaris attending the outpatient department of our referral hospital. A physician measured the severity of lesions using the global acne grading system, and patients assessed quality of life by completing a questionnaire (Cardiff acne disability index. A correlation of these two was done; some additional correlations were brought out through demographic data collected from the patients. Results: There was no correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and an impaired quality of life. Patients who consumed alcohol and/or smoked cigarettes were found to have an impaired quality of life. While the severity of acne progressively lessened in older patients, the impact on quality of life increased. Limitations: The sample size was small and there was a lack of guaranteed reliability on the self-reported quality of life. Conclusion: The severity of acne vulgaris does not correlate with impairment in quality of life.

  6. Effect of polyacetylenic acids from Prunella vulgaris on various plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M-Y; Choi, G J; Choi, Y H; Jang, K S; Park, M S; Cha, B; Kim, J-C

    2010-11-01

    This study is aiming at characterizing antifungal substances from the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris and at investigating those substances' antifungal and antioomycete activities against various plant pathogens. Two polyacetylenic acids were isolated from P. vulgaris as active principles and identified as octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid. These two compounds inhibited the growth of Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, and Phytophthora capsici. In addition, these two compounds and the wettable powder-type formulation of an n-hexane fraction of P. vulgaris significantly suppressed the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and red pepper anthracnose. These data show that the extract of P. vulgaris and two polyacetylenic acids possess antifungal and antioomycete activities against a broad spectrum of tested plant pathogens. This is the first report on the occurrence of octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid in P. vulgaris and their efficacy against plant diseases. The crude extract containing the two polyacetylenic acids can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of various plant diseases. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Chlorella vulgaris Induces Apoptosis of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Liang, Kai; Li, Kun; Wang, Guo-Quan; Zhang, Ke-Wei; Cai, Lei; Zhai, Shui-Ting; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), a unicellular green microalga, has been widely used as a food supplement and reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. The current study was designed to assess the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and DNA-damaging effects of C. vulgaris growth factor (CGF), hot water C. vulgaris extracts, inlung tumor A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines. A549 cells, NCI-H460 cells, and normal human fibroblasts were treated with CGF at various concentrations (0-300 μg/ml) for 24 hr. The comet assay and γH2AX assay showed DNA damage in A549 and NCI-H460 cells upon CGF exposure. Evaluation of apoptosis by the TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that CGF induced apoptosis in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Chlorella vulgaris hot water extract induced apoptosis and DNA damage in human lung carcinoma cells. CGF can thus be considered a potential cytotoxic or genotoxic drug for treatment of lung carcinoma. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Effect of humic acids on the metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris in a model experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropkina, M. A.; Ryumin, A. G.; Kechaikina, I. O.; Chukov, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of humic acids (HAs) on physiological processes (photosynthesis, respiration, and abundance) of green microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been studied, and the relationships between the physiological activity of HAs and their structural parameters have been investigated. It has been found that the optimum range of HA concentrations for the growth of C. vulgaris is 0.01-0.03%. In this range, the highest positive effect on total photosynthesis increment is due to hydrophilic HA preparations from fallow soddypodzolic soil (Albic Retisol) and virgin gray soil (Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozem). The minimum stimulation of respiration is noted for all HA preparations in the region of the maximum photosynthesis stimulation. At concentrations above 0.003%, all HA preparations have a negative effect: the rate of photosynthesis in C. vulgaris cells decreases, and their respiration is strongly enhanced. The abundance of C. vulgaris under the effect of all of the studied preparations under illumination increases more rapidly than in the dark. A high positive coefficient of correlation is found between the hydrophilicity of HAs calculated from 13C NMR data and the photosynthesis rate in C. vulgaris.

  9. Magnesium Uptake by the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris in Batch Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor-Ben Ayed, Hela; Taidi, Behnam; Ayadi, Habib; Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation (internal and superficial distribution) of magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) by the green freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was investigated under autotrophic culture in a stirred photobioreactor. The concentrations of the three forms of Mg(2+) (dissolved, extracellular, and intracellular) were determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy during the course of C. vulgaris growth. The proportions of adsorbed (extracellular) and absorbed (intracellular) Mg(2+) were quantified. The concentration of the most important pigment in algal cells, chlorophyll a, increased over time in proportion to the increase in the biomass concentration, indicating a constant chlorophyll/biomass ratio during the linear growth phase. The mean-average rate of Mg(2+) uptake by C. vulgaris grown in a culture medium starting with 16 mg/l of Mg(2+) concentration was measured. A clear relationship between the biomass concentration and the proportion of the Mg(2+) removal from the medium was observed. Of the total Mg(2+) present in the culture medium, 18% was adsorbed on the cell wall and 51% was absorbed by the biomass by the end of the experiment (765 h). Overall, 69% of the initial Mg(2+) were found to be removed from the medium. This study supported the kinetic model based on a reversible first-order reaction for Mg(2+) bioaccumulation in C. vulgaris, which was consistent with the experimental data.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  12. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  13. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Pensel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  14. Detection and semi-quantification of Strongylus vulgaris DNA in equine faeces by real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Peterson, David S.; Monrad, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is an important strongyle nematode with high pathogenic potential infecting horses world-wide. Several decades of intensive anthelminitic use has virtually eliminated clinical disease caused by S. vulgaris, but has also causes high levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine...

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Laila Salim Al; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  16. The inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six human pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine because of biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was aimed to examine the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of the bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC values were evaluated using macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC), the ability of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris ) extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. In dealing with biofilm structures, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was directly correlated to their concentration. Except for the inhibition of biofilm formation, efficacy of each extract was independent from type of solvent. According to the potential of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts to inhibit the test bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form, it can be suggested that Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic bacteria particularly in biofilm forms.

  17. Phenotypes of common crupina (Crupina vulgaris), synchronization of bolting, and yield effects of leaf removal and inoculation by Ramularia crupinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common crupina (Crupina vulgaris) is an annual plant of major importance in the Western United States. There are two varieties of crupina, i.e., var. vulgaris and var. brachypappa that occur in North America. Only by artificial plant vernalization, is it possible to synchronize bolting between var...

  18. The inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Mohsenipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine because of biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was aimed to examine the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of the bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC values were evaluated using macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC, the ability of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. In dealing with biofilm structures, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was directly correlated to their concentration. Except for the inhibition of biofilm formation, efficacy of each extract was independent from type of solvent. Conclusion: According to the potential of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extracts to inhibit the test bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form, it can be suggested that Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic bacteria particularly in biofilm forms.

  19. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-06

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers.

  1. Vanadium, rubidium and potassium in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

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    Sónia Seixas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The levels of vanadium, rubidium and potassium were determined in Octopus vulgaris caught during commercial fishing activities at three locations (Cascais, Santa Luzia and Viana do Castelo in Portugal in autumn and spring. We determined the concentration of these elements in digestive gland, branchial heart, gills, mantle and arms in males and females. At least five males and five females were assessed for each season/location combination. Elemental concentrations were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE. Vanadium was detectable only in digestive gland and branchial heart samples. Its concentration was not correlated with total weight, total length or mantle length. There were no differences in concentrations of V, Rb and K between sexes. There were significant differences in vanadium concentrations in branchial hearts in autumn between samples from Viana do Castelo and those from the other two sites. We found a significant positive relationship between the concentration of vanadium and those of potassium and rubidium in branchial hearts. Branchial hearts appear to play an important role in decontamination of V.

  2. Loss of normal anagen hair in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpazhooh, M; Mahmoudi, H R; Rezakhani, S; Valikhani, M; Naraghi, Z S; Mohammadi, Y; Habibi, A; Chams-Davatchi, C

    2015-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a known cause of loss of 'normal' anagen hair; that is, shedding of intact anagen hairs covered by root sheaths. However, studies on this subject are limited. To investigate anagen hair shedding in patients with PV, and ascertain its association with disease severity. In total, 96 consecutive patients with PV (new patients or patients in relapse) who were admitted to the dermatology wards of a tertiary hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, PV phenotype, disease severity and presence of scalp lesions were recorded. A group of 10-20 hairs were pulled gently from different areas of the scalp (lesional and nonlesional skin) in all patients, and anagen hairs were counted. Disease severity was graded according to Harman score. Anagen hair was obtained by pull test in 59 of the 96 patients (61.5%), of whom 2 had normal scalp. The mean ± SD anagen hair count was 5.9 ± 7.6 (range 0-31). In univariate analysis, anagen hair loss (P hair count was significantly higher in the severe (mean 6.83 ± 7.89) than the moderate (mean 1.06 ± 1.94) subgroup (P hair loss (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.28, P hair loss was an independent predictor of the disease severity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Management of Severe Acne Vulgaris With Topical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein Gold, Linda; Baldwin, Hilary E; Lin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disease we see in dermatology practice. Although rare in childhood, severe acne can affect up to 12% of the adolescent population. A chronic disease, it requires both aggressive management and effective maintenance strategies. Oral antibiotics, in combination with topical agents are recommended for treatment, with topical agents being continued as maintenance therapy to minimize resistance and recurrence. However, concerns with systemic side effects have recently resulted in a greater focus on the potential of fixed combination topical therapies to treat severe acne. Here we review the available clinical evidence. There are no studies investigating the use of fixed combination topical therapy exclusively in severe acne. However, studies assessing the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne include subpopulation data in severe patients. Adapalene 0.3%-benzoyl peroxide (BP) 2.5% was found to be effective in patients with severe acne, whereas the fixed combination with a lower concentration of adapalene (0.1%) was no more effective than vehicle. Clindamycin-BP 1.2%/3.75% gel and clindamycin-BP 1.2%/2.5% gel were both found to be effective in severe acne with an apparent BP-dose response. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-tretinoin 0.025% demonstrated similar efficacy in severe acne, but with little benefit over individual monads. Realistic topical treatment options now exist for the management of severe acne where patient and physician preference can impact positive outcomes. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(11):1134-1138..

  4. Antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Abbas Ali; Babaei, Mahdi; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Jarrahi, Morteza; Jadidi, Majid; Sadeghi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigation has shown that Thymus Vulgaris (TV) modulates pain. The aim of this work was to examine the role of TV on acute and chronic pain and compares its effect with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST) by using hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests in mice. In this study male albino mice (25-30 g.) in 21 groups (n=147) were used. TV (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) and vehicle (VEH) were injected 30 minutes before pain assessment tests. Stress was applied by 1 min swimming in cold water (18-22 degrees ). Acute and chronic pain was assessed by hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests. For assessment of the role of opioid receptors in antinoceception of TV extract, Naloxon (NAL, 2mg/kg, ip) as opioid receptor antagonist was injected before the injection of the more effective dose (500 mg/kg) of TV extract. Results indicated that TV, DEX and ST have analgesic effects in all tests (P<0.01 in comparison with control group). Above findings showed that TV extract, DEX and ST have modulatory effects on acute and chronic pain. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which TV extract has an inhibitory effect on pain sensation.

  5. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Zofia; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Bilska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris) were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), totox value (TxV) and fatty acids (FA) content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. High polyphenol content, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.

  7. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de Struthanthus vulgaris (erva-de-passarinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.C. Vieira

    Full Text Available As plantas do gênero Struthanthus são conhecidas como ervas-de-passarinho e parasitam pomares no Brasil, principalmente os de laranjeiras e goiabeiras. Na medicina popular são usadas nas afecções das vias respiratórias. O extrato hidroetanólico a 70% de folhas frescas de Struthanthus vulgaris apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra amostras bacterianas Gram positiva e Gram negativa. Este extrato não apresentou, nas condições testadas, atividade contra fungos. As amostras bacterianas mais sensíveis ao extrato foram Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778, Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228 e P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, usando o método de difusão em agar. As frações obtidas, pela partição líquido-líquido do extrato hidroetanólico a 70%, com solventes de polaridades crescentes (clorofórmio, acetato de etila, n-butanol e água, apresentaram diferentes atividades inibitórias. A fração que apresentou a maior atividade contra bactéria Gram positiva (B. cereus e Gram negativa (P. aeruginosa foi aquela obtida com n-butanol. Nessa fração foram detectados flavonóides, taninos condensados (proantocianidinas e saponinas.

  9. Isolation and identification of mosquito repellents inArtemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y S; Wu, K H; Kumamoto, J; Axelrod, H; Mulla, M S

    1985-09-01

    The mugwortArtemisia vulgaris L. (Compositae: Anthemideae) contains insect repellents which can be released from the plant tissues by combustion. Work was carried out to isolate and identify the repellent compounds. The dried, pulverized whole plants were steam-distilled to give a repellent essential oil which was fractionated by column chromatography. Active fractions were analyzed by capillary GC and by combined GC-MS. A number of compounds, mainly monoterpenoids, were identified. When tested as repellents against the yellow fever mosquitoAedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), (±)-linalool, (±)-camphor, (+)-camphor, (-)-camphor, isoborneol, (-)-borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and isobornyl acetate were active at 0.14 mg/cm2 or higher. Nonanone-3, (α+β)-thujone, and bornyl acetate were active at 0.28 mg/cm(2) or higher. β-Pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, (+)- limonene, and cineole were active at 1.4 mg/cm(2). Of the repellent compounds identified, terpinen-4-ol was the most active and was as effective as dimethyl phthalate.

  10. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephanie; Boylan, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  11. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris growth and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Derek; Durham, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  12. Redox Enzymes of Red Beetroot Vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Years of research have shown that some of the redox elements (enzymes, coenzymes, and co-substrate are isolated from each other kinetic and spatial manner (compartmentalization in the eukaryotic cells. The redox elements forming the "highly" and "widely" specialized redox system are found in all cell structures: mitochondria, plastids, peroxisomes, apoplast, nucleus etc. In recent years the active involvement of the central vacuole in the maintenance of the plant cell redox homeostasis is discussed, actually the information about the vacuolar redox system is very small. The high-priority redox processes and "redox-specialization" of the vacuolar compartment are not known. We have begun a study of red beet-root vacuole redox systems (Beta vulgaris L. and have identified redox enzymes such as: phenol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1 and glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7. This paper presents some of the characteristics of these enzymes and considers the probable ways of their functioning in vacuolar redox chains.

  13. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. PMID:22521743

  14. Chlorella vulgaris triggers apoptosis in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azamai, Emey Suhana; Sulaiman, Suhaniza; Mohd Habib, Shafina Hanim; Looi, Mee Lee; Das, Srijit; Abdul Hamid, Nor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has been reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. We evaluated the effect of CV on apoptotic regulator protein expression in liver cancer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats (200~250 g) were divided into eight groups: control group (normal diet), CDE group (choline deficient diet supplemented with ethionine in drinking water to induce hepatocarcinogenesis), CV groups with three different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight), and CDE groups treated with different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed at various weeks and liver tissues were embedded in paraffin blocks for immunohistochemistry studies. CV, at increasing doses, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, caspase 8, in CDE rats, which was correlated with decreased hepatoctyes proliferation and increased apoptosis as determined by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Our study shows that CV has definite chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis via decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of caspase 8 in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats. PMID:19198018

  15. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  18. Efficient in vitro micropropagation and regeneration of Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Govindaraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes efficient propagation of Artemisia vulgaris using shoot tip explants isolated from 35 daysold in vitro grown seedlings. Optimum proliferation was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s salts and B5 vitamins supplementedwith 3% sucrose, 4.44 μM BA, and 0.7% agar. Shoot proliferation was maximal (99.8% with 14-23 shoots per explant after6 weeks of culture. Shoots with a minimum length of 1.5 cm were transferred to shoot elongation medium supplemented with0.44 μM BA and 1.44 μM GA3. The successfully elongated shoots with a height of 7.2-12.1 cm were transferred to rootingmedium augmented with 8.56 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing autoclaved garden soil,farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1 for hardening. Plantlets were initially maintained under culture room conditions (5 weeks,followed by normal laboratory conditions (4 weeks and finally transferred to a Botanical Evaluation Garden and maintainedthere.

  19. Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Biagetti, Eleonora; Carboni, Andrea; Gepts, Paul; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2016-03-01

    Here we studied the organization of genetic variation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in its centres of domestication. We used 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate 417 wild common bean accessions and a representative sample of 160 domesticated genotypes, including Mesoamerican and Andean genotypes, for a total of 577 accessions. By analysing the genetic spatial patterns of the wild common bean, we documented the existence of several genetic groups and the occurrence of variable degrees of diversity in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Moreover, using a landscape genetics approach, we demonstrated that both demographic processes and selection for adaptation were responsible for the observed genetic structure. We showed that the study of correlations between markers and ecological variables at a continental scale can help in identifying local adaptation genes. We also located putative areas of common bean domestication in Mesoamerica, in the Oaxaca Valley, and the Andes, in southern Bolivia-northern Argentina. These observations are of paramount importance for the conservation and exploitation of the genetic diversity preserved within this species and other plant genetic resources. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Fungi associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivated in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Martínez de la Parte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., is the most important legume specie for Cuba, 123 434 ha were harvested for a production of 127 100 t during 2012. Most of phytopathogenic fungi associated to beans used seeds to move their inoculum to new areas, which under favorable condition can cause considerable yield losses. The objective of the present study was to identify fungi associated with bean seeds, their frequency and incidence for bean variety. 102 seed bean lots of 16 varieties for Pinar del Río, Mayabeque and Artemisa provinces were studied. For each seed lot 400 seed were analyzed by blotter test. 679 fungal isolates belonging to 34 species of 20 genera were detected. Penicillium sp. (78.4%, Rhizoctonia solani (77.5%, Aspergillus niger (68.6% and Fusarium solani (51.0% were the predominant species. Nine Fusarium species and six Aspergillus species were identified. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was detected in BAT-58, BAT-93 and Delicia-365 varieties, on which higher infected seed percent was detected in BAT-93. This paper is the first report of S. sclerotiorum incidence on Cuban seed bean. Key words: Aspergillus, Fusarium, mycobiota, Phaseolus, Sclerotinia

  1. Serological diagnosis of Strongylus vulgaris infection: use of a recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    the pathogenic migrating larval stages of S. vulgaris ante mortem. A cDNA library was constructed from RNA extracted from migrating S. vulgaris larvae. Excretory-secretory antigens from S. vulgaris adult specimens were used to immunise a rat. Hyperimmune serum was used to immunoscreen the cDNA library......, an immunoreactive cDNA clone was subcloned into E. coli and the plasmid sequenced, the open reading frame encoding the mature protein was cloned into a pET22b expression vector and expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein in BL21 expression cells. The recombinant protein was used in an indirect enzyme...... infection in suspected clinical cases, measuring herd level exposure, and as a potentially useful research tool for investigating possible risk factors associated with development of disease....

  2. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Toussy, Gafar; Mousavi, Shahrokh

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. Contraction changes in the terminal ileum of guinea pigs were monitored using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Thymus vulgaris extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner and also decreased the amplitude of peristaltic waves. It is concluded that T. vulgaris has an antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum by decreasing the amplitudes of the muscle contractions during peristalsis. The EC50 was calculated as 1.7 mg mL(-1). In guinea-pig ileum the extract led to an antispasmodic effect, possibly by affecting the anticholinergic and serotoninergic pathways.

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  4. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  5. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Al-Hammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic.

  6. Removal Cu(II ions from water using sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris Shell (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupković, R.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Removal of Cu(II ions from water solutions by sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris shell (ccLVB was studied. Batch experiments were done by shaking a fixed mass of biosorbent (1.0 g with 250 cm3 of 50.0 mg dm–3 Cu(II solutions, at pH ranged from 2 up to 6. Metal concentration in the filtrates as well as in the initial solution was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that efficiency of Cu(II ions uptake by sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris shell is significantly greater than raw Lagenaria vulgaris biosorbent. In addition, there is no significant effect of initial pH of solution on Cu(II ions uptake by ccLVB and obtained biosorbent can be applied in a wide range of pH.

  7. Visually augmented targeted combination light therapy for acne vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza; Lyons, Colin-William; Roberts, Niamh

    2017-10-31

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease. Pharmacological modalities for treatment are proven to be efficacious but have limitations. Light therapy for acne vulgaris has shown promise in previous studies. This case report and its accompanying images show how a novel approach of visually augmented high fluence light therapy has been used to good effect. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman with acne vulgaris resistant to treatment with topical therapy underwent three sessions of combination potassium titanyl phosphate laser (532 nm)/neodymium-doped: yttrium aluminum garnet laser (1064 nm) light therapy with visually augmented narrow spot size and high fluence. A 73% reduction in total inflammatory lesions was evident 6 months after the initial treatment. This case report illustrates that there may be utility in this novel approach of narrow spot size, magnification-assisted, high fluence targeted combination laser therapy for inflammatory acne.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extacts of Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T K Mohamed; Azeem, A K; Dilip, C; Sankar, C; Prasanth, N V; Duraisami, R

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf exacts of Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. G. vulgaris Nees of the family Apocynaceae is a medium sized tree grown in semishade or no shade and is common in the Ernad and Nilambur taluks of Kerala.Various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, sores, inflammation, dyspepsia, healing of wounds, etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedima. Both the methods showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  9. Improvement of acne vulgaris by topical fullerene application: unique impact on skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Shigeki; Aoshima, Hisae; Nishiyama, Aki; Itami, Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in acne formation, suggesting that oxygen radical scavengers are potential therapeutic agents. Fullerene is a spherical carbon molecule with strong radical sponge activity; therefore, we studied the effectiveness of fullerene gel in treating acne vulgaris. We performed an open trial using a fullerene gel twice a day; at 4 and 8 weeks, the mean number of inflammatory lesions (erythematous papules and pustules) significantly (P fullerene inhibits sebum production, suggesting that fullerene suppresses acne through decreasing neutrophil infiltration and sebum production. After treatment for 8 weeks, the water content of the skin significantly (P fullerene gel may help in controlling acne vulgaris with skin care benefit. Fullerenes, spherical carbon cages with strong oxygen radical scavenging, with formulated into a gel and used to successfully treat acne vulgaris, an inflammatory disease associated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Caleosin from Chlorella vulgaris TISTR 8580 is salt-induced and heme-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuchinda, Pairpilin; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Yamada, Daisuke; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and functional properties of lipid droplet-associated proteins in algae remain scarce. We report here the caleosin gene from Chlorella vulgaris encodes a protein of 279 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence alignment showed high similarity to the putative caleosins from fungi, but less to plant caleosins. When the C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 cells were treated with salt stress (0.3 M NaCl), the level of triacylglycerol increased significantly. The mRNA contents for caleosin in Chlorella cells significantly increased under salt stress condition. Caleosin gene was expressed in E. coli. Crude extract of E. coli cells exhibited the cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of aniline. Absorption spectroscopy showed a peak around 415 nm which was decreased upon addition of cumene hydroperoxide. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests caleosin existed as the oligomer. These data indicate that a fresh water C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 contains a salt-induced heme-protein caleosin.

  11. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris for biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Movafeghi, Ali; Mohammadi-Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad

    2017-10-15

    Oil production and/or transportation can cause severe environmental pollution and disrupt the populations of living organisms. In the present study, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is investigated using Chlorella vulgaris as a green algal species. The microalga was treated by 10 and 20g/l crude oil/water concentrations at two experimental durations (7 and 14days). Based on the results obtained, C. vulgaris owned not only considerable resistance against the pollutants but also high ability in remediation of crude oil hydrocarbons (~94% of the light and ~88% of heavy compounds in 14days). Intriguingly, dry weight of C. vulgaris increased by the rising crude oil concentration indicating the positive effect of crude oil on the growth of the algal species. This biodegradation process is remarkably a continuous progression over a period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lupus vulgaris mimicking hemangioma diagnosed 42 years after onset: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Mahizer; Erdem, Teoman; Dikicier, Bahar Sevimli; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2015-09-16

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It may easily be overlooked if a proper differential diagnosis is omitted. A 46-year-old Turkish woman presented with a 42-year history of erythamatous plaque on her left arm. Ziehl-Neelsen and periodic acid-Schiff stains did not show any acid-fast bacilli. Culture from a biopsy specimen was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The result of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for Mycobacterium was negative. Histopathologic findings revealed a tuberculoid granuloma containing epithelioid cells, lymphocytes and Langerhans-type giant cells. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made by clinical and histopathologic findings. The lesion improved after antituberculous therapy, confirming the diagnosis of lupus vulgaris.

  14. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp.

  15. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. [Depression in patients with facial acne vulgaris and 
the influential factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liyang; Liu, Jiaoyan; An, Rujun; Huang, Jinhua; Huang, Hui; Yi, Qifeng

    2015-10-01

    To understand the influential factors for depression in patients with facial acne vulgaris and to provide scientific evidence for a comprehensive and systematic treatment for acne vulgaris.
 A total of 287 outpatients with facial acne vulgaris, who visited the dermatology of the Third Xiangya Hospital, were surveyed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The data was collected by Epidata software (version 3.1) and processed by SPSS software package (version 18.0). The influential factors for the depression of outpatients with facial acne vulgaris were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression.
 A total of 181 patients with facial acne vulgaris showed various degrees of depression (BDI score≥5) and the rate was 63.1%. The symptoms for depression included sad and pessimistic attitude as well as the decreased attention to others (social withdrawal). The influential factors for mild, moderate or severe depression were gender, the degree and the course of acne. Female patients were more likely to suffer mild, moderate or severe depression (OR=3.62, 2.63, respectively); the risk of depression in acne patients was increased with the increase in degree of the severity (OR=2.31, 4.51, respectively); the patients with the acne course more than a year were more likely to show mild depression than those with a course less than a year (OR=4.30, 7.44, respectively). The patients with acne course more than 3 years were more likely to show moderate or severe depression compared to those with a course less than a year (OR=3.60).
 Most of facial acne patients show a different degree of depression. The acne course is longer in female patients. The more severe the acne vulgaris is, the more suffering of the depression is. Psychological care should be considered to improve the treatment and quality of life.

  17. Effects of copper on reserve mobilization in embryo of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; Bellani, Lorenza M; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2015-07-01

    The present research reports a biochemical and micro-submicroscopic analysis of copper effect on reserve mobilization during germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif seeds. Dry embryonic cells are rich in protein bodies and little starch grains. In Cu-treated embryos copper inhibited 50% of albumin and globulin mobilization after 72 h imbibition. The severe alterations in treated embryo cells, observed by electron microscope, were probably the cause of the inability to utilize the amino acids freed by protein mobilization and so possibly the cause of the inhibition of P. vulgaris embryonic axis elongation.

  18. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density...... candidate genes underlying glucosinolate diversity, trichome density, and study the genetics of biochemical variation for glucosinolate and saponins. B. vulgaris is resistant to the diamondback moth, and may be exploited for “dead-end” trap cropping where glucosinolates stimulate oviposition and saponins...

  19. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  20. Estudos morfológicos e comportamentais do parasitoide Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago José de Souza Alves

    2013-01-01

    O controle biológico natural do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, no Brasil, é realizado principalmente por parasitoides. Entre eles, Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), um ectoparasitoide larval, constitui o principal agente biológico responsável pela redução natural das populações do bicudo no agroecossistema algodoeiro no Nordeste brasileiro. Embora possua importância na cotonicultura, são escassos os dados referentes à ação de parasitismo de B.vulgaris sobre Anthonomus grandis Boh. ...

  1. Effect of Artemisia vulgaris Rhizome Extracts on Hatching, Mortality, and Plant Infectivity of Meloidogyne megadora

    OpenAIRE

    da R. Costa, S. dos S.; de A. Santos, M. S. N.; Ryan, M F

    2003-01-01

    The activity of an ethanolic rhizome extract of Artemisia vulgaris against hatching, mortality, host plant infectivity, and galling of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne megadora was investigated. The extract inhibited egg hatch (50% inhibition by 2.35mg/ml) and caused second-stage juvenile mortality (50% lethality at 12 hours' exposure to 55.67 mg/ml), both in a dose-dependent manner. Nematode infectivity on Phaseolus vulgaris 'Bencanta Trepar', a susceptible host, decreased in a dose-respon...

  2. An experimental genetic system using Berberis vulgaris confirms sexual recombination in Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Walter, Stephanie; Sørensen, Chris Khadgi

    An effort to develop an experimental genetic system for the stripe (yellow) rust fungus using Berberis vulgaris as an alternate host has been made by INRA Grignon (F) and GRRC (DK). The first attempts to achieve infection using European isolates and B. vulgaris plants from France were unsuccessful...... and to study genotypic diversity. The markers confirmed the parental origin and markers that were heterozygous in the parent generally segregated in the S1 progenies. A largest number of multilocus genotypes observed among the progeny isolates confirmed successful sexual recombination. Segregation...

  3. Radiation-induced pemphigus vulgaris of the breast; Pemphigus vulgaire radio-induit du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigna-Taglianti, R.; Russi, E.G. [Department of radiotherapy, Santa Croce e Carle general hospital, Via M. Coppino, 12100 Cuneo (Italy); Denaro, N. [Oncology department, university of Messina, Via consolare Valeria no 1, 98100 Messina (Italy); Numico, G. [Department of medical oncology, U. Parini hospital, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Brizio, R. [Department of histopathology, Santa Croce e Carle general hospital, Via M. Coppino, 12100 Cuneo (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune muco-cutaneous bullous disease. Patients with a history of pemphigus vulgaris - who need radiotherapy - may show a long lasting bullous cutaneous manifestation, typical of pemphigus, within radiation fields. The literature describes fewer than 20 radio-induced cases. While systematic corticosteroid therapy has proven to be useful, topical treatment used in association with corticosteroid therapy is rarely described. To our knowledge the use of modern dressing products has never been described. We report our experience in a case in which modern dressing products were usefully associated to systemic therapy. (authors)

  4. CO2 capture from air by Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in an airlift photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghizadeh, Aziz; Farhad Dad, Farid; Moghaddasi, Leila; Rahimi, Rahbar

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrodynamics and CO2 biofixation study was conducted in an airlift bioreactor at the temperature of 30±2°C. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of high gas superficial velocity on CO2 biofixation using Chlorella vulgaris microalgae and its growth. The study showed that Chlorella vulgaris in high input gas superficial velocity also had the ability to grow and remove the CO2 by less than 80% efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Pathophysiological Aspects and Therapeutic Modalities for Pemphigus Vulgaris : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Raviraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is an autoimmune disorder manifesting primarily as blisters involving the mucocutaneous systems. The current medical literature indicates many breakthroughs in the research of pathophysiology and treatment aspects of PV. This article tries to describe some of the novel aspects briefing the role of nondesmoglein antibodies and the role of TNF-alpha in the etiopathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris and the role of newer therapeutic modalities like Rituximab, Etanercept, intravenous Immunoglobulins, cholinergic drugs, arid the like in the treatment of PV.

  6. Thanatus vulgaris Simon, 1870 - ein Weltenbummler (Araneae: Philodromidae. Mit Anmerkungen zur Terminologie der weiblichen Genitalien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of T. vulgaris were recently introduced in Germany with cricket boxes from southern United States. The species has been sent within Germany with post packages to different pet dealers. These samples represent probably the first confirmed records of T. vulgaris for Germany. Further observation could show, whether the populations are stabile in synanthropic habitats, especially inside bulidings. Female genitalia are illustrated. One structure is recognized as a glandular part of the spermathecae. Terminology of female genitalia is given in comparison of terms used in the past by different authors.

  7. MAO-A inhibitory activity of quercetin from Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde; Jäger, Anna Katharina

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated MAO-A inhibitory activity of methanol extract of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull., which traditionally has been used as a nerve calming remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract of Calluna vulgaris was partitioned against heptane, ethyl acetate...... and water. The three fractions were tested in a photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay. The ethyl acetate phase showed the highest MAO-A inhibitory activity. Quercetin was isolated by VLC through bioassay-guided fractionation and purified by re-crystallisation. The structure was elucidated by LC...

  8. Concomitant pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigoid gestationis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin, Harina; Seyfer, Sarah J; McClain, Colt M; Hsu, Sylvia

    2016-01-15

    Pemphigus and pemphigoid are two unique acquired immunobullous diseases with distinct clinical presentations, histological findings, and characteristic serology; they are rarely reported to coexist in the same patient. Herein we present a 29-year-old woman with a history of pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed by histology and positive desmoglein-3 antibodies on ELISA. She presented to our clinic shortly after the delivery of her first child with tense vesicles and bullae on an erythematous base on her abdomen. Biopsy was consistent with pemphigoid gestationis and direct immunofluorescence confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, there are no other reported cases of pemphigoid gestationis occurring in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris.

  9. Bindi Tuberculosis - Lupus Vulgaris Associated with Bindi Use: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gyanshankar; Rathi, Sushil; Mulani, Jasmin

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous lesions are relatively uncommon manifestations of tuberculosis (TB). A 40-year-old female presented with skin lesion over the forehead since two months. She used to apply bindi over the same area since past 25 years. Based on skin biopsy and other ancillary investigations, she was diagnosed as a case of lupus vulgaris and initiated on anti TB medications following which, the lesion regressed. Thus, we herein report the first case of cutaneous tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris) associated with long term use of bindi.

  10. I Know My Neighbour: Individual Recognition in Octopus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Elena; Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about individual recognition (IR) in octopuses, although they have been abundantly studied for their sophisticated behaviour and learning capacities. Indeed, the ability of octopuses to recognise conspecifics is suggested by a number of clues emerging from both laboratory studies (where they appear to form and maintain dominance hierarchies) and field observations (octopuses of neighbouring dens display little agonism between each other). To fill this gap in knowledge, we investigated the behaviour of 24 size-matched pairs of Octopus vulgaris in laboratory conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental design was composed of 3 phases: Phase 1 (acclimatization): 12 “sight-allowed” (and 12 “isolated”) pairs were maintained for 3 days in contiguous tanks separated by a transparent (and opaque) partition to allow (and block) the vision of the conspecific; Phase 2 (cohabitation): members of each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) were transferred into an experimental tank and were allowed to interact for 15 min every day for 3 consecutive days; Phase 3 (test): each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) was subject to a switch of an octopus to form pairs composed of either familiar (“sham switches”) or unfamiliar conspecifics (“real switches”). Longer latencies (i.e. the time elapsed from the first interaction) and fewer physical contacts in the familiar pairs as opposed to the unfamiliar pairs were used as proxies for recognition. Conclusions Octopuses appear able to recognise conspecifics and to remember the individual previously met for at least one day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study showing the occurrence of a form of IR in cephalopods. Future studies should clarify whether this is a “true” IR. PMID:21533257

  11. Management of acne vulgaris: an evidence-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, J R; Grindlay, D J C; Williams, H C

    2010-06-01

    This review summarizes clinically important findings from 3 systematic reviews, 1 updated guideline and a selection from the 62 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between February 2007 and January 2009 on the topic of acne vulgaris. Low glycaemic-load diets might reduce acne severity but this remains unproven. Written patient information leaflets have not been surpassed by other communication methods. New combination topical treatments have not shown convincing advantages over current combination products such as clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide. Topical dapsone is superior to placebo but has yet to be compared with standard topical treatments. Long-term topical tretinoin to prevent nonmelanoma skin cancer in elderly men was associated with higher all-cause mortality, but there is currently no evidence of increased mortality for topical retinoid use when treating acne. All oral tetracyclines have similar efficacy, yet minocycline is the most costly. Oral isotretinoin monotherapy remains the gold-standard treatment for severe acne. Flutamide plus the oral contraceptive pill is beneficial for acne associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Photodynamic therapy, phototherapy and laser therapy cannot be recommended universally for acne until minimal postinflammatory pigmentation and longer-term benefit can be shown, especially with current high costs. Development of non-antibiotic therapies is preferable to minimize the risk of community antibiotic resistance. Future trials should use active comparators at optimum doses and avoid noninferiority comparisons unless appropriately powered. Trials need to shift from using multiple, unvalidated outcome measures to including patient-reported and quality-of-life outcomes, and all trials should be registered on a public clinical-trials database.

  12. Autoantibodies other than anti-desmogleins in pemphigus vulgaris patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Adly Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is an immunoglobulin G-mediated autoimmune bullous skin disease. Nonorgan-specific antibodies were detected in Tunisian and Brazilian pemphigus patients with different prevalence. Materials and Methods: Fifty PV patients and fifty controls were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMAs, anti-parietal antibodies (APAs, anti-mitochondrial antibodies, and Anti-nuclear cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence. Results: Thirty-nine patients were female and 11 were male. Fifteen patients did not receive treatment before while 35 patients were on systemic steroid treatment ± azathioprine. Twenty (40% of the PV patients and 1 (2% control had positive ANA. ANA was significantly higher in PV patients than controls, P< 0.0001. ASMAs were detected in 20 (40% PV patients and none of the controls. ASMA was significantly higher in PV patients than controls, P< 0.0001. No significant difference was detected between treated and untreated regarding ANA, P - 0.11. However, there was a significant difference between treated and untreated regarding ASMA, P- 0.03. Six patients (12% and none of the controls had positive APA. There was a significant difference between the patients and the controls in APA. P- 0.027. Conclusion: Egyptian PV patients showed more prevalent ANA, ASMA, and APA than normal controls. Follow-up of those patients is essential to detect the early development of concomitant autoimmune disease. Environmental factors might account for the variability of the nonorgan-specific antibodies among different populations.

  13. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST) to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. Conclusions/Significance We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to develop a model of

  14. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Damage in Keratinocytes by Pemphigus Vulgaris Antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease. PMID:23599429

  15. Extraocular spectral photosensitivity in the tentacles of Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, S; Kass-Simon, G

    2015-06-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have shown that hydra have a highly developed and specific photoresponse despite their lack of any structure recognizable as a traditional photoreceptor. In an effort to identify the site of hydra's photoreceptors, we recorded extracellularly from single excised tentacles and from ablated hypostomes lacking tentacles in absolute darkness and during exposure to light of various wavelengths. During recording, after an initial period of absolute darkness, tentacles or hypostomes were exposed to light from 450nm to 600nm, red, and white light. Exposure to light caused a change in the pattern and frequency of impulses in the tentacles that varied with color. The number of large tentacle pulses (TPs) increased at 550 and 600nm relative to darkness, whereas the number of small tentacle pulses (STPs) tended to decrease in 500nm light. Impulse frequency was significantly different among the different wavelengths. In addition to bursts of tentacle contraction pulses, long trains of pulses were observed. A change in lighting caused a switch from bursting to trains or vice versa. In contrast to excised tentacles, no change in electrical activity was seen in ablated hypostomes at any of the wavelengths relative to each other or relative to darkness. These results indicate that isolated tentacles can distinguish among and respond to various colors across the visible spectrum and suggest that electromagnetic information is transmitted from the tentacles to the hypostome where it may be integrated by the hypostomal nervous system, ultimately contributing to hydra's photoreceptive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  17. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  18. Acne vulgaris in women: prevalence across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alexis C; Maglione, Jessica; Hillebrand, Greg G; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Kimball, Alexa B

    2012-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation, and scarring. Although traditionally considered a disease of adolescence, reports suggest it is also a disease of adults, especially adult women. Our objectives were to determine acne prevalence in a large, diverse group of women and to examine acne by subtype and in relation to other skin findings, measurements, and lifestyle factors. We recruited 2895 women aged 10-70 from the general population. Photographs were graded for acne lesions, scars, and dyspigmentation. Measurements were taken of sebum excretion and pore size, and survey data were collected. Of the women studied, 55% had some form of acne: 28% had mild acne, and 27% had clinical acne, 14% of which was primarily inflammatory and 13% of which was primarily comedonal. Acne peaked in the teenage years, but 45% of women aged 21-30, 26% aged 31-40, and 12% aged 41-50 had clinical acne. Women with inflammatory acne were younger than those with comedonal acne (p≤0.001), and postmenopausal women had less acne than age-matched peers (pAcne was associated with facial hirsutism (p=0.001), large pores (p=0.001), and sebum excretion (p=0.002). Smokers had more, primarily comedonal, acne than nonsmokers. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about progression of acne with age. Participation was restricted to women. The photographic nature of the study imposes general limitations. Techniques used in this study were not sufficiently sensitive to identify cases of subclinical acne. More than a quarter of women studied had acne, which peaked in the teens but continued to be prevalent through the fifth decade.

  19. Importance of the dentist in early diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulgar pemphigus is a chronic, rare, vesicle-bubble disease of autoimmune origin and with a possibility of following a dangerous clinical course when it is not diagnosed and treated in its initial stage. It usually affects people from 40 to 60 years old, being rare in children. In the majority of cases, oral manifestations are the first signs of the disease, so that dentists play an important rol in its early diagnosis. The authors present a case report of vulgar pemphigus in a 17 year-old patient, attended by the Bucco-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service of the “Fundação de Beneficência Hospital de Cirurgia” in Aracaju-SE, Brazil. The patient was admitted with a complaint of the presence of numerous scattered painful ulcers in the mouth that had developed in approximately two months, and reported that at first, blisters that broke quickly appeared, leading to extremely painful ulcerations. Incisional biopsies were performed in the jugal mucosa and retromolar regions, and also a complete hemogram to discard the hypothesis of leukemia. In view of the clinical and histopathological findings, the final diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was made. Before receiving specialized treatment, the patient presented marked worsening of the clinical condition, with exacerbation of intraoral signs and symptoms and development of skin lesions around the body surface. The patient was hospitalized in the “Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe” and treated with prednisone, cimetidine and nystatin, showing significant improvement of symptoms in approximately two weeks. At present, the patient is under the care of an interdisciplinary team that includes dermatologists and dentists.

  20. Effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca C; Lee, Stephen; Choi, James Y J; Atkinson, Fiona S; Stockmann, Karola S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-10-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index -26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index -16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = -0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys.