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Sample records for stark gekoppelte doppelquantenpunkte

  1. Strongly capacitively coupled double quantum dots in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures. Preparation and electrical transport; Kapazitativ stark gekoppelte Doppelquantenpunkte in GaAs-AlGaAs-Heterostrukturen. Herstellung und elektrischer Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, A.

    2007-11-22

    In this work, a double quantum dot system is studied whose two dots are electrically insulated from one another and contacted independently with two leads. The geometry is optimized to maximize the capacitive interaction between the dots. The samples are characterized by electrical transport measurements in a dilution refrigerator. It is then studied at different tunnel couplings how the capacitive interaction influences the electrical transport in equilibrium. Under certain conditions correlated tunnel processes can be observed. A simple model is derived that serves to understand these processes. The double quantum dot system is defined in lateral arrangement by reactive ion etching of a two-dimensional electron system located only 50 nm below the surface of a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure. The samples are characterized in a dilution refrigerator at 25 mK near the common pinch-off point of all four tunnel barriers. A measurement of the differential equilibrium conductances of both quantum dots as a function of two gate voltages yields a honeycomb-like charge stability diagram. The most important sample characteristic is the ratio between the interaction capacitance and the total capacitance of a single quantum dot. For the optimized sample, this ratio turns out to be larger than one third near the common pinch-off point, with a single-dot charging energy of up to 800 {mu}eV. At more positive gate voltages, the capacitances between the quantum dots and their leads increase more and more, thereby diminishing the charging energy. It is shown for the optimized sample that all capacitance coefficients except the dot-lead capacitances are constant to within considerable accuracy over several Coulomb blockade oscillations. In order to measure correlated electrical transport in equilibrium, special parameter regions are examined in which the charges of both quantum dots cannot fluctuate independently of each other. An analytical formula is derived that describes the location of the conductance maximum as a function of the gate voltages. For this calculation it is assumed that the strongly coupled quantum dot can be described in the resonant tunneling approximation. The behaviour of the conductance amplitude is discussed qualitatively. Temperature dependent data show that temperature has to be included as an important parameter in this discussion. (orig.)

  2. Analyse von Kunststoffadditiven mittels Laserablation gekoppelt mit induktiv gekoppelter Plasma Massenspektrometrie

    OpenAIRE

    Börno, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Die Laserablation gekoppelt mit der Massenspektrometrie mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma ist eine vielversprechende direkte Feststofftechnik, die sich jedoch bei der Analyse von Kunststoffen wegen des Mangels an matrixangepassten zertifizierten Referenzmaterialien nicht durchsetzen konnte. Vorherige Arbeiten belegen polymerabhängige Abtragsraten. Das oft als interner Standard verwendete Intensitätssignal des Kohlenstoffisotopes 13C zur Korrektur dieser Unterschiede wird in der Literatur kritis...

  3. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  4. Scattering theory for Stark Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    An introduction to the spectral and scattering theory for Schroedinger operators is given. An abstract short range scattering theory is developed. It is applied to perturbations of the Laplacian. Particular attention is paid to the study of Stark Hamiltonians. The main result is an explanation of the discrepancy between the classical and the quantum scattering theory for one-dimensional Stark Hamiltonians. (author). 47 refs

  5. Stark resonances in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecchi, V.; Maioli, M.; Modena Univ.; Sacchetti, A.

    1992-01-01

    By slightly restricting the conditions given by Herbst and Howland, we prove the existence of resonances in the Stark effect of disordered systems (and atomic crystals) for large atomic mean distance. In the crystal case the ladders of resonances have the Wannier behavior for small complex field. (orig.)

  6. Stark resonances: asymptotics and distributional Borel sum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliceti, E.; Grecchi, V.; Maioli, M.

    1993-01-01

    We prove that the Stark effect perturbation theory of a class of bound states uniquely determines the position and the width of the resonances by Distributional Borel Sum. In particular the small field asymptotics of the width is uniquely related to the large order asymptotics of the perturbation coefficients. Similar results apply to all the ''resonances'' of the anharmonic and double well oscillators. (orig.)

  7. The stark effect in intense field. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.; Mur, V.D.; Sergeev, A.V.; Weinberg, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of hydrogen atom in homogeneous electric field is considered. The Stark shifts and widths of atomic levels are computed by summation of divergent perturbation series and by 1/n-expansion - up to E values comparable with the field on the electron orbit. The results of the calculations are presented for the following sequences of states: |n 1 ,0,0>, |0,n 2 ,0>, |n 1 ,n 1 ,0>, as well as for all states with n=2 and 3 (n is the principal quantum number). The Stark shifts and widths of Rydberg states (with n=15-30) in electric field which exceeds the classical ionization threshold are computed. The results of our calculations agree with experiment

  8. Stark shifting two-electron quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineykhan, M.; Zhaugasheva, S.A.; Duysebaeva, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in modern technology make it possible to create semiconducting nano-structures (quantum dot) in which a finite number of electrons are 'captured' in a bounded volume. A quantum dot is associated with a quantum well formed at the interface, between two finite-size semiconductors owing to different positions of the forbidden gaps on the energy scale in these semiconductors. The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of quantum dots attracts considerable attention to these objects, as a new elemental basis for future generations of computers. The quantum-mechanical effects and image potential play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism quantum dot, and determined the confinement potential in a two-electron quantum dot only for the spherical symmetric case. In the present talk, we considered the formation dynamics of two-electron quantum dot with violation of spherical symmetry. So, we have standard Stark potential. The energy spectrum two-electron quantum dot were calculated. Usually Stark interactions determined the tunneling phenomena between quantum dots

  9. Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

    2007-07-26

    We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

  10. Coupled calculation of external heat transfer and material temperatures of convection-cooled turbine blades. Final report; Gekoppelte Berechnung des aeusseren Waermeuebergangs und der Materialtemperaturen konvektionsgekuehlter Turbinenschaufeln. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heselhaus, A.

    1997-05-01

    In this work a hybrid program system consisting of a 3D finite-volume Navier-Stokes flow solver and a 3D finite-element heat conduction solver has been developed. It enables the coupled calculation of structure temperatures in diabatic solid/fluid configurations. The grids of both the finite element and the finite volume computational domain may be completely independent. The coupled program fully resolves the thermal interaction between heat transfer and the resulting material temperatures. The developed coupling algorithm is numerically stable, conservative and works without the need to define ambient temperatures in the flowfield. This allows for the simulation of any solid/fluid configuration. When simulating combined blade/endwall cooling or filmcooling, only a coupled procedure is capable to completely account for the interaction between all relevant thermal parameters. It is found that the coupled calculation of convective cooling in a realistic guide vane leads locally to 45 K higher and 107 K lower blade temperatures than the uncoupled calculation. This shows that accounting for the thermal interaction between the flow and the structure offers both potential to save cooling air and a lower margin of safety when designing cooling systems close to the thermal limits of the blade material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein Verfahren zur Berechnung der Temperaturverteilung in diabat umstroemten Koerpern entwickelt, bei dem ein 3D-Finite Volumen Navier-Stokes Stroemungsloeser und ein 3D-Finite Elemente Waermeleitungsloeser zu einem hybriden Programmsystem gekoppelt werden. Dabei besteht die Moeglichkeit, voellig unabhaengige Rechennetze fuer Stroemung und Struktur zu verwenden. Mit dem gekoppelten Verfahren kann die Wechselwirkung zwischen resultierenden Materialtemperaturen und dem davon rueck-beeinflussten Waermeuebergang beruecksichtigt werden. Weiterhin ist der hier entwickelte, stabile und konservative Kopplungsalgorithmus nicht

  11. Stark Broadening of Cr III Spectral Lines: DO White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified semiempirical method of Dimitrijević and Konjević, Stark widths have been calculated for six Cr III transitions, for an electron density of 10 17 cm ‒ 3 and for temperatures from 5000–80,000 K. Results have been used for the investigation of the influence of Stark broadening on spectral lines in cool DO white dwarf atmospheres. Calculated Stark widths will be implemented in the STARK-B database, which is also a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC.

  12. Science Translator: An Interview with Louisa Stark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2015-07-01

    The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2015 awardee, Louisa Stark, has made a major impact on global access to genetics education through her work as director of the University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center. The Center's Learn.Genetics and Teach.Genetics websites are the most widely used online genetic education resources in the world. In 2014, they were visited by 18 million students, educators, scientists, and members of the public. With over 60 million page views annually, Learn.Genetics is among the most used sites on the Web. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Stark-like electron transfer between quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovis, S.A.; Voronko, A.N.; Basharov, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Stark-like mechanism of electron transfer between two energy subband localized in remote quantum wells is examined theoretically. Estimations of major parameters of the problem in case of delta-function-wells model are adduced. Schematic model allowing experimental study of Stark-like transfer is proposed

  14. Modeling of hydrogen Stark line shapes with kinetic theory methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Stamm, R.

    2012-12-01

    The unified formalism for Stark line shapes is revisited and extended to non-binary interactions between an emitter and the surrounding perturbers. The accuracy of this theory is examined through comparisons with ab initio numerical simulations.

  15. Multiphoton Rabi oscillations between highly excited Stark states of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yonglin

    2011-01-01

    We have applied a nonperturbative resonant theory to study the Rabi frequency of microwave multiphoton transitions between two Rydberg states of potassium in a static electric field. The Stark electric dipole moments used to calculate the Rabi frequency are determined by the Stark states' wave functions, which are obtained by the diagonalization method. The frequencies of the Rabi oscillations are in good agreement with either experimental ones or ones calculated by the time-dependent close-coupling method and the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we are able to show that the size of avoided crossings between the (n+2)s and (n,3) states can be predicted from the Stark electric dipole moment and the difference of the two Stark states' energy at a given resonance.

  16. Stark laws and fair market value exceptions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebrasse, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    This article will focus on one aspect of complexity in modern healthcare, namely the implications of Stark laws and other fraud and abuse provisions, including anti-kickback statutes and HIPAA. Also, this article explores the prevalence of fair market value as an exception in the Stark laws and discusses the meanings of those exceptions. Finally, the article explores basic approaches to assessing fair market value, including cost, income, and marketing approaches.

  17. Stark broadening measurements of Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    This work reports measured Stark widths of doubly ionized xenon lines. Pulsed arc was used as a plasma source. Measured electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges of (0.2 - 1.6) x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively. Stark halfwidths of lines from 6s-6p, 6s-4f and 5d-6p transitions have been measured and compared with available experimental and theoretical data

  18. Variable scaling method and Stark effect in hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, R.K.R.; Ghosh, B.

    1983-09-01

    By relating the Stark effect problem in hydrogen-like atoms to that of the spherical anharmonic oscillator we have found simple formulas for energy eigenvalues for the Stark effect. Matrix elements have been calculated using 0(2,1) algebra technique after Armstrong and then the variable scaling method has been used to find optimal solutions. Our numerical results are compared with those of Hioe and Yoo and also with the results obtained by Lanczos. (author)

  19. Stark--Zeeman effect of metastable hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagann, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Stark effect of the N = 1 rotational level of orthohydrogen and the N = 2 rotational level of parahydrogen in the metastable c 3 PI/sub u/ electronic state has been measured using the molecular beam magnetic resonance method. The Stark effect of the metastable state is 10,000 times larger than that of the ground electronic state. The Stark effect of parahydrogen was found to be weakly dependent on static magnetic field strength, whereas the Stark effect of orthohydrogen was found to be more strongly dependent on the magnetic field strength. The Stark effect of orthohydrogen has been calculated using second-order perturbation theory with a pure Stark effect perturbation. The magnetic field dependence of the Stark effect was calculated using third-order perturbation theory with a mixed Stark--Zeeman effect double perturbation. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical values of α/sub perpendicular/ provides information on the electronic transition moment connecting the c 3 PI/sub u/ state to the a 3 Σ + /sub g/ state. The transition moment is needed to calculate the radiative lifetimes of the various vibrational levels of the c 3 PI/sub u/ state. The transition moment also enters the calculation of the quenching of this metastable state by an external electric field. There is a disagreement between theoretical predictions and the results of an experiment on the electric field quenching of the metastables. A test of the electronic transition moment may help shed light on this question. The experimental determination of the values of the transition moments allows one to test theory by comparing these values to those obtained by calculations employing ab initio wavefunctions

  20. Stark widths regularities within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trklja, Nora; Tapalaga, Irinel; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš

    2018-02-01

    Stark widths within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence have been studied. This is a unique approach that includes both neutrals and ions. Two levels of problem are considered: if the required atomic parameters are known, Stark widths can be calculated by some of the known methods (in present paper modified semiempirical formula has been used), but if there is a lack of parameters, regularities enable determination of Stark broadening data. In the framework of regularity research, Stark broadening dependence on environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters has been investigated. The aim of this work is to give a simple model, with minimum of required parameters, which can be used for calculation of Stark broadening data for any chosen transitions within sodium like emitters. Obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not been measured or calculated yet. This system enables fast data processing by using of proposed theoretical model and it provides quality control and verification of obtained results.

  1. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  2. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N. A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D{sub {alpha}} emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B{sub {theta}}/B{sub T} and |B| over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  3. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Holcomb, C T; Kaplan, D H

    2010-10-01

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D(α) emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B(θ)/B(T) and ∣B∣ over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0×10(19) m(-3), and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  4. Stark widths of Xe II lines in a pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, S; Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of experimental work on Stark broadening of singly ionized xenon lines. Eighty lines, from close UV to the red region of the spectrum, have been studied. Stark halfwidths were compared with experimental data from the literature and modified semi-empirical calculations. A pulsed arc with 95% of helium and 5% xenon was used as a plasma source for this study. Measured electron densities N e and temperatures T were in the ranges of 0.2-1.6 x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively

  5. Existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sacchetti@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Computer Sciences and Mathematics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we prove the existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with smooth periodic potential and small external homogeneous electric field. Such a result extends the existence result previously obtained in the case of periodic potentials with a finite number of open gaps.

  6. Rydberg-Stark states of Positronium for atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Deller, A; Hogan, S D; Wall, T E; Cassidy, D B

    2015-01-01

    Positronium atoms were produced in Rydberg states by means of a two-step optical excitation process (1s→2p→nd/ns). The n = 11 Rydberg-Stark manifold has been studied using different laser polarizations providing greater control over the electric dipole moment. (paper)

  7. Stark effect and polarizability of graphene quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    The properties of graphene quantum dots can be manipulated via lateral electric fields. Treating electrons in such structures as confined massless Dirac fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the quadratic Stark shift valid for arbitrary angular momentum and quantum dot size. Moreover, we...

  8. On the Application of Stark Broadening Data Determined with a Semiclassical Perturbation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The significance of Stark broadening data for problems in astrophysics, physics, as well as for technological plasmas is discussed and applications of Stark broadening parameters calculated using a semiclassical perturbation method are analyzed.

  9. Dynamic Stark shift and alignment-to-orientation conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Matthew C.; Hilborn, Robert C.; Spencer, Alison M.

    2002-01-01

    We have observed alignment-to-orientation conversion in the (5d6p) 1 P state of atomic barium due to the combined effects of a static Zeeman shift and a dynamic Stark shift associated with the electric field of a pulsed laser beam. The measurements yield a value for the frequency-dependent tensor polarizability of the state in reasonable agreement with a simple perturbation theory calculation. With a tunable laser producing the dynamic Stark shift, we can both enhance the magnitude of the effect by tuning close to a resonance and reverse the sign of the orientation by tuning above or below the resonance. This method of producing an oriented atomic state is quite general, and with easily available field strengths can produce large orientations

  10. DC Stark addressing for quantum memory in Tm:YAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Konstantin; Minnegaliev, Mansur; Urmancheev, Ravil; Moiseev, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    We observed a linear DC Stark effect for 3H6 - 3H4 optical transition of Tm3+ ions in Y3Al5O12. We observed that application of electric field pulse suppresses the two-pulse photon echo signal. If we then apply a second electric pulse of opposite polarity the echo signal is restored again, which indicates the linear nature of the observed effect. The effect is present despite the D2 symmetry of the Tm3+ sites that prohibits a linear Stark effect. Experimental data analysis shows that the observed electric field influence can be attributed to defects that break the local crystal field symmetry near Tm3+ ions. Using this effect we demonstrate selective retrieval of light pulses in two-pulse photon echo.

  11. Supersonic Molecular Beam Optical Stark Spectroscopy of MnH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengler, Jamie; Ma, Tongmei; Harrison, Jeremy; Steimle, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The large moment of inertia, large magnetic moment, and possible large permanent electric dipole moment of manganese monohydride, MnH, makes it a prime candidate for ultra-cold molecule production via Stark deceleration and magnetic trapping. Here we report the first molecular beam production of MnH and the analysis of the Stark effect in the (0,0) A^7 π -- X^ 7σ^+ band. The sample was prepared by laser ablation of solid Mn in an H2 supersonic expansion. The low rotational temperature (MnH and the analysis of T.D. Varberg, J.A. Gray, R.W. Field, and A.J. Merer, J. Mol. Spec. 156, 296-318 (1992). I.E. Gordon, D.R.T. Appadoo, A. Shayesteh, K.A. Walker, and P.F. Bernath, J. Mol. Spec., 229, 145-149 (2005).

  12. Stark effect in Rydberg states of helium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaije, C.T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis, which deals with the effect of an electric field up to moderate field strengths on atoms with two valence electrons outside closed shells, in casu helium and barium, contains chapter in which the linear Stark effect in the 1 snp 1, 3 p Rydberg states of helium (n around 40) has been studied in a CW laser-atomic beam experiment. The evolution of the angular momentum manifolds into the n-mixing regime was followed and avoided level crossings were observed. Stark manifolds were also calculated by diagonalization of the complete energy matrix in the presence of an electric field. It turned out to be necessary to include up to five n-values in the calculations already at moderate values of the field to reproduce the data within the experimental accuracy (a few MHz), especially in the regime of the avoided crossings. (author). 147 refs.; 30 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Rydberg State Stark Spectroscopy and Applications to Plasma Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Bayfield47 provides an excellent review of the AC Stark effect, in which the primary effect is Rabi splitting. Several authors48 , 49, 50 have...purity of the spectrum indicates that the field present is dominantly anisotropic . 53 n:26NEON LINE n=35 0 n= 40 p.- n=45 IL 0 31975 31950 31925 31900...applied (axial) electric field which is anisotropic , so pure polarization spectra can be recorded. The intensity profile of the Am = 0 polarization is

  14. Stark broadening of Ca IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ca IV emission lines are under the preview of Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation device aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Also, lines of the Ca IV in planetary nebulae NGC 7027 were detected with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. These facts justify an attempt to provide new spectroscopic parameters of Ca IV. There are no theoretical or experimental Stark broadening data for Ca IV. Using the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN code, we report in this paper calculated values of the Stark broadening parameters for 467 lines of Ca IV. They were calculated using a set of wavefunctions obtained by using Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. These lines arising from 3s23p4ns (n = 4, 5), 3s23p44p, 3s23p4nd (n = 3, 4) configurations. Stark widths and shifts are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000, 20 000 and 50 200 K. As these data cannot be compared to others in the literature, we present an analysis of the different regularities of the values presented in this work.

  15. Stark broadening parameter regularities and interpolation and critical evaluation of data for CP star atmospheres research: Stark line shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Tankosic, D.

    1998-04-01

    In order to find out if regularities and systematic trends found to be apparent among experimental Stark line shifts allow the accurate interpolation of new data and critical evaluation of experimental results, the exceptions to the established regularities are analysed on the basis of critical reviews of experimental data, and reasons for such exceptions are discussed. We found that such exceptions are mostly due to the situations when: (i) the energy gap between atomic energy levels within a supermultiplet is equal or comparable to the energy gap to the nearest perturbing levels; (ii) the most important perturbing level is embedded between the energy levels of the supermultiplet; (iii) the forbidden transitions have influence on Stark line shifts.

  16. Stark broadening of hydrogen (1961); Sur l'effet stark dans les plasmas d'hydrogene (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1961-07-01

    The effect of electron impacts on the Stark broadening of hydrogen atoms has been considered using a Debye-Huckel potential instead of a cut-off limit for the integrals giving the shift and the half-width. A slight difference results which in a typical case is of the order of 12 - 15 per cent. The simple adiabatic impact approximation has been used. (author) [French] L'effet des chocs electroniques sur l'elargissement Stark des raies d'hydrogene est calcule avec le potentiel de Debye-Huckel au lieu de l'emploi du cut-off pour les integrales qui donnent le deplacement et l'elargissement de la raie. On obtient une faible difference qui, dans un cas typique, est de l'ordre de grandeur de 12 - 15 pour cent. L'approximation adiabatique a ete employee pour decrire les chocs. (auteur)

  17. Exceptions to the Stark law: practical considerations for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the applicable legislative exceptions to prohibitions under the Stark law, which governs common legitimate business relationships in surgical practice. Stark I and II prohibits all referrals (and claims) for the provision of designated health services for federal reimbursement if a physician or immediate family member has any financial relationship with the entity. Regardless of intent (unlike the antikickback statute), any financial relationship is illegal unless specifically excepted by statute. These exceptions are relevant to ownership, compensation arrangements, or both. The most important ones relevant to surgeons are as follows: physician service exception (services rendered in an intragroup referral); in-office ancillary services exception (office-based vascular laboratory); the whole hospital exception (ownership interest in a hospital or department); lease exception (conditions that must be met for a lease not to be considered illegal); bona fide employment exception (important to academic medical centers); personal services arrangement exception (vascular laboratory medical directorship); physician incentive plans exception (if volume or value of referrals are an issue); hospital-affiliated group practice exception (physician services billed by a hospital); recruitment arrangement exception (inducements by hospitals to relocate); items/services exception (transcription services purchased from a hospital); fair market value exception (covers services provided to health care entities); indirect compensation arrangements (dealings between a hospital and entity owned by physicians); and academic medical centers exception (new phase II rules broaden the definition of academic medical centers and ease the requirement that practice plans be tax-exempt organizations, among other changes. Although expert legal advice is required for navigation through the maze of Stark laws, it is incumbent on surgeons

  18. Stark-shift induced resonances in multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potvliege, R M; Vuci, Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    The resonance enhancements marking the ATI spectrum of argon are discussed in the light of a recently compiled map of the quasienergies of this atom. Many of the dressed excited states of interest shift nonponderomotively in complicated ways, but keep an ionization width narrow enough to produce sharp substructures of both low and high ATI peaks through Stark-shift induced resonances. The most prominent enhancement observed in the high-order ATI peaks originates from ionization from the dressed ground state perturbed by the influence of neighbouring resonant dressed states

  19. Imaging motional Stark effect measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, O. P.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R.; Pütterich, T.; Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald/Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of results from the Imaging Motional Stark Effect (IMSE) diagnostic obtained during its first measurement campaign at ASDEX Upgrade since installation as a permanent diagnostic. A brief overview of the IMSE technique is given, followed by measurements of a standard H-mode discharge, which are compared to equilibrium reconstructions showing good agreement where expected. The development of special discharges for the calibration of pitch angle is reported and safety factor profile changes during sawteeth crashes are shown, which can be resolved to a few percent due to the high sensitivity at good time resolution of the new IMSE system.

  20. Dipole transitions and Stark effect in the charge-dyon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, Levon; Nersessian, Armen; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yeghikyan, Vahagn

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dipole transitions and the linear and quadratic Stark effects in the MICZ-Kepler system interpreted as a charge-dyon system. We show that while the linear Stark effect in the ground state is proportional to the azimuth quantum number (and to the sign of the monopole number), the quadratic Stark effect in the ground state is independent of the signs of the azimuth and monopole numbers

  1. Stark broadening in cold plasmas with low electron densities calibrated with Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, J.M.; Hübner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de; Sola, A.; Gamero, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n e 19 m −3 ) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T g e . - Highlights: ► Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions ► Calibration with Thomson scattering ► Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening ► Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density

  2. Dynamic Stark broadening as the Dicke narrowing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.; Rosmej, F.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A very fast method to account for charged particle dynamics effects in calculations of spectral line shape emitted by plasmas is presented. This method is based on a formulation of the frequency fluctuation model (FFM), which provides an expression of the dynamic line shape as a functional of the static distribution of frequencies. Thus, the main numerical work rests on the calculation of the quasistatic Stark profile. This method for taking into account ion dynamics allows a very fast and accurate calculation of Stark broadening of atomic hydrogen high-n series emission lines. It is not limited to hydrogen spectra. Results on helium-β and Lyman-α lines emitted by argon in microballoon implosion experiment conditions compared with experimental data and simulation results are also presented. The present approach reduces the computer time by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared with the original FFM with an improvement of the calculation precision, and it opens broad possibilities for its application in spectral line-shape codes.

  3. Runge-Lenz wave packet in multichannel Stark photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texier, F.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous slow photoionization experiment, modulations of ionization rings were manifested for Xe in a constant electric field. The present quantum calculation reveals that the modulation is an effect of the multichannel core scattering and of tunneling waves through the Coulomb-Stark potential barrier: the barrier reduces the number of oscillations that is observed relatively to the number of oscillations of the short range wave functions, and the nonhydrogenic core phase shifts modify the position of the ionization rings. We find a hidden difference, in the ionization process, for two close values of the energy depending on the resonance with the barrier. The ionization intensity is interpreted as a Runge-Lenz wave packet; thus, we can relate the quantum modulation to the classical Coulomb-Stark trajectories. The Runge-Lenz wave packet differs from a usual temporal wave packet because its components are eigenstates of the Runge-Lenz vector z projection and its evolution is not temporal but spatial

  4. Improved signal analysis for motional Stark effect data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Ellis, R.; Geer, R.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Moller, J.M.; Rice, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Nonideal effects in the optical train of the motional Stark effect diagnostic have been modeled using the Mueller matrix formalism. The effects examined are birefringence in the vacuum windows, an imperfect reflective mirror, and signal pollution due to the presence of a circularly polarized light component. Relations for the measured intensity ratio are developed for each case. These relations suggest fitting functions to more accurately model the calibration data. One particular function, termed the tangent offset model, is found to fit the data for all channels better than the currently used tangent slope function. Careful analysis of the calibration data with the fitting functions reveals that a nonideal effect is present in the edge array and is attributed to nonideal performance of a mirror in that system. The result of applying the fitting function to the analysis of our data has been to improve the equilibrium reconstruction

  5. Stark parameters of some asymmetrical Si II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferhat, B; Azzouz, Y; Redon, R; Ripert, M; Lesage, A

    2012-01-01

    Six lines of SiII are experimentally studied in pulsed plasma generated by Nd :Yag laser breakdown on pure solid silicon target. A set of experimental Stark parameters of asymmetrical lines are measured in temperature range from 14 000 K to 18 000 K (using Boltzmann plot). Calculated values of the electron density (using Griem's formula) vary from 1.7 to 6.1 × 10 23 m −3 . Processed spectral lines are 333.982 nm (3s 2 4p -3s 2 6s) and 397.746 nm, 399.177 nm, 399.801 nm, 401.622 nm (3d' 2 F 0 -4f' 4 G) and (3d' 2 F 0 - 4f' 2 G) of astrophysical interest. Asymmetrical line shapes are synthesized by a sum of two semi-Lorentzian distributions. The obtained fit is in good agreement with the measured spectra.

  6. Raman-laser spectroscopy of Wannier-Stark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, G.; Pelle, B.; Hilico, A.; Beaufils, Q.; Pereira dos Santos, F.

    2011-01-01

    Raman lasers are used as a spectroscopic probe of the state of atoms confined in a shallow one-dimensional (1D) vertical lattice. For sufficiently long laser pulses, resolved transitions in the bottom band of the lattice between Wannier Stark states corresponding to neighboring wells are observed. Couplings between such states are measured as a function of the lattice laser intensity and compared to theoretical predictions, from which the lattice depth can be extracted. Limits to the linewidth of these transitions are investigated. Transitions to higher bands can also be induced, as well as between transverse states for tilted Raman beams. All these features allow for a precise characterization of the trapping potential and for an efficient control of the atomic external degrees of freedom.

  7. Stark shift of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sk. Md.; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2018-02-01

    Present study makes a punctilious investigation of the profiles of Stark shift (SS) of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) under the supervision of Gaussian white noise. A few physical parameters have been varied and the consequent variations in the SS profiles have been monitored. The said physical parameters comprise of magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential, noise strength, aluminium concentration (only for AlxGa1-x As alloy QD), position-dependent effective mass (PDEM), position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF), anisotropy, hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature. The SS profiles unfurl interesting features that heavily depend upon the particular physical quantity concerned, presence/absence of noise and the manner (additive/multiplicative) noise enters the system. The study highlights feasible means of maximizing SS of doped QD in presence of noise by suitable adjustment of several control parameters. The study deems importance in view of technological applications of QD devices where noise plays some prominent role.

  8. Stark effect measurements on monomers and trimers of reconstituted light-harvesting complex II of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, M.A.; Caffarri, S.; Bassi, R.; Grondelle, van R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The electric-field induced absorption changes (Stark effect) of reconstituted light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in different oligomerisation states - monomers and trimers - with different xanthophyll content have been probed at 77 K. The Stark spectra of the reconstituted control samples,

  9. The motional stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is the worldwide standard technique for internal magnetic field pitch angle measurements in magnetized plasmas. Traditionally, it is based on using polarimetry to measure the polarization direction of light emitted from a hydrogenic species in a neutral beam. As the beam passes through the magnetized plasma at a high velocity, in its rest frame it perceives a Lorentz electric field. This field causes the H-alpha emission to be split and polarized. A new technique under development adds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for an MSE measurement that will enable radially resolved magnetic field magnitude as well as pitch angle measurements in even low-field (experiments. An MSE-LIF system will be installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It will enable reconstructions of the plasma pressure, q-profile and current as well as, in conjunction with the existing MSE system, measurements of radial electric fields.

  10. Ab initio modeling of the motional Stark effect on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bock, M. F. M.; Conway, N. J.; Walsh, M. J.; Carolan, P. G.; Hawkes, N. C.

    2008-01-01

    A multichord motional Stark effect (MSE) system has recently been built on the MAST tokamak. In MAST the π and σ lines of the MSE spectrum overlap due to the low magnetic field typical for present day spherical tokamaks. Also, the field curvature results in a large change in the pitch angle over the observation volume. The measured polarization angle does not relate to one local pitch angle but to an integration over all pitch angles in the observation volume. The velocity distribution of the neutral beam further complicates the measurement. To take into account volume effects and velocity distribution, an ab initio code was written that simulates the MSE spectrum on MAST. The code is modular and can easily be adjusted for other tokamaks. The code returns the intensity, polarized fraction, and polarization angle as a function of wavelength. Results of the code are presented, showing the effect on depolarization and wavelength dependence of the polarization angle. The code is used to optimize the design and calibration of the MSE diagnostic.

  11. Real-time motional Stark effect in jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.; Stephen, A.; Hawkes, N.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Fernandes, H.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing importance of real-time measurements and control systems in JET experiments, regarding e.g. Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) and q-profile control, has motivated the development of a real-time motional Stark effect (MSE) system. The MSE diagnostic allows the measurement of local magnetic fields in different locations along the neutral beam path providing, therefore, local measurement of the current and q-profiles. Recently in JET, an upgrade of the MSE diagnostic has been implemented, incorporating a totally new system which allows the use of this diagnostic as a real-time control tool as well as an extended data source for off-line analysis. This paper will briefly describe the technical features of the real-time diagnostic with main focus on the system architecture, which consists of a VME crate hosting three PowerPC processor boards and a fast ADC, all connected via Front Panel Data Port (FPDP). The DSP algorithm implements a lockin-amplifier required to demodulate the JET MSE signals. Some applications for the system will be covered such as: feeding the real-time equilibrium reconstruction code (EQUINOX) and allowing the full coverage analysis of the Neutral Beam time window. A brief comparison between the real-time MSE analysis and the off-line analysis will also be presented

  12. Modified dynamic Stark shift and depopulation rate of an atom inside a Kerr nonlinear blackbody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Miao; Cheng Ze

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic Stark shift and atomic depopulation rate induced by real photons in a Kerr nonlinear blackbody. We found that the dynamic Stark shift and atomic depopulation rate are equally modified by a nonlinear contribution factor and a linear contribution factor under a transition temperature T c . The nonlinear contribution factor depends on the Kerr nonlinear coefficient as well as the absolute temperature. Below T c , the absolute values of the dynamic Stark shift and depopulation rate of a single atomic state (not the ground state) are correspondingly larger than those in a normal blackbody whose interior is filled with a nonabsorbing linear medium. Above T c , the dynamic Stark shift and atomic depopulation rate are correspondingly equal to those in a normal blackbody with a nonabsorbing linear medium in its interior.

  13. Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapalaga, Irinel; Trklja, Nora; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš

    2018-03-01

    Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence have been studied in an approach that includes both neutrals and ions. The influence of environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters on the Stark widths of spectral lines has been investigated. This study gives a simple model for the calculation of Stark broadening data for spectral lines within the lithium isoelectronic sequence. The proposed model requires fewer parameters than any other model. The obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not yet been measured or calculated. In the framework of the present research, three algorithms for fast data processing have been made and they enable quality control and provide verification of the theoretically calculated results.

  14. Surface Acoustic Analog of Bloch Oscillations, Wannier-Stark Ladders and Landau-Zener Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.

    2011-12-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the recent experimental demonstration of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch Oscillations and Landau Zener tunneling in a solid by means of surface acoustic waves propagating through perturbed grating structures.

  15. Semiconductor-metal transition induced by giant Stark effect in blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Peng-Yu; Chen, Shi-Zhang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2017-06-28

    The electronic structures and transport properties in monolayer blue phosphorene nanoribbons (BPNRs) with transverse electric field have been studied by using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions method. The results show that the band gaps of BPNRs with both armchair and zigzag edges are linearly decreased with the increasing of the strength of transverse electric field. A semiconductor-metal transition occurs when the electric field strength reaches to 5 V/nm. The Stark coefficient presents a linear dependency on BPNRs widths, and the slopes of both zBPNRs and aBPNRs are 0.41 and 0.54, respectively, which shows a giant Stark effect occurs. Our studies show that the semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect. - Highlights: • The electronic transport in blue phosphorene nanoribbons. • Semiconductor-metal transition can be observed. • The semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect.

  16. The Stark effect of 1H and 4He+ in the beam foil source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doobov, M.H.; Hay, H.J.; Sofield, C.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    The appearance of Stark patterns obtained with a beam-foil source differed from those characteristically obtained from gas discharge sources. In the former source excitation of the hydrogenic ions occurred in a brief time interval ( 14 s) during the passage of a high velocity unidirectional beam of ions which produces non-statistical population distributions for the Stark perturbed states. The relative intensities of Stark perturbed components of the Hsub(β) hydrogen line and the Fsub(α) ionized helium line have been measured in a beam-foil source. In each case an initial population of states of principal quantum number n = 4 due to radiative decay and Stark mixing, and comparing the resultant patterns with the observed patterns. The inferred population distributions indicate that the states of low orbital angular momentum (L) are preferentially populated, and alignment referred to the beam axis is produced such that states with lower z component of L are preferentially populated. (author)

  17. Faraday-Shielded dc Stark-Shift-Free Optical Lattice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloy, K.; Zhang, X.; McGrew, W. F.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Nicolodi, D.; Fasano, R. J.; Schäffer, S. A.; Brown, R. C.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday shield. Our measurements place a constraint on the dc Stark shift at the 10-20 level, in units of the clock frequency. Moreover, we discuss a potential source of error in strategies to precisely measure or cancel nonzero dc Stark shifts, attributed to field gradients coupled with the finite spatial extent of the lattice-trapped atoms. With this consideration, we find that Faraday shielding, complemented with experimental validation, provides both a practically appealing and effective solution to the problem of dc Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks.

  18. Stark effect in finite-barrier quantum wells, wires, and dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    The properties of confined carriers in low-dimensional nanostructures can be controlled by external electric fields and an important manifestation is the Stark shift of quantized energy levels. Here, a unifying analytic theory for the Stark effect in arbitrary dimensional nanostructures is presented. The crucial role of finite potential barriers is stressed, in particular, for three-dimensional confinement. Applying the theory to CdSe quantum dots, finite barriers are shown to improve significantly the agreement with experiments. (paper)

  19. Regularities And Irregularities Of The Stark Parameters For Single Ionized Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, R. J.; Djurovic, S.; Cirišan, M.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar S.

    2010-07-01

    Spectroscopy of ionized noble gases has a great importance for the laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Generally, spectra of inert gases are important for many physics areas, for example laser physics, fusion diagnostics, photoelectron spectroscopy, collision physics, astrophysics etc. Stark halfwidths as well as shifts of spectral lines are usually employed for plasma diagnostic purposes. For example atomic data of argon krypton and xenon will be useful for the spectral diagnostic of ITER. In addition, the software used for stellar atmosphere simulation like TMAP, and SMART require a large amount of atomic and spectroscopic data. Availability of these parameters will be useful for a further development of stellar atmosphere and evolution models. Stark parameters data of spectral lines can also be useful for verification of theoretical calculations and investigation of regularities and systematic trends of these parameters within a multiplet, supermultiplet or transition array. In the last years, different trends and regularities of Stark parameters (halwidths and shifts of spectral lines) have been analyzed. The conditions related with atomic structure of the element as well as plasma conditions are responsible for regular or irregular behaviors of the Stark parameters. The absence of very close perturbing levels makes Ne II as a good candidate for analysis of the regularities. Other two considered elements Kr II and Xe II with complex spectra present strong perturbations and in some cases an irregularities in Stark parameters appear. In this work we analyze the influence of the perturbations to Stark parameters within the multiplets.

  20. Stark shift and g-factor tuning in nanowires with Rashba effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhaddad, Iman; Habanjar, Khulud [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, P.O. Box 11, 5020 Riad El Solh, 11072809 - Beirut (Lebanon); Sakr, M.R., E-mail: msakr@alexu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, P.O. Box 11, 5020 Riad El Solh, 11072809 - Beirut (Lebanon); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharram Bek, Alexandria 21511 (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the Stark shift of the energy subbands and the possibility of tuning the g-factor of electrons in nanowires subjected to external magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the direction of quantum confinement. Our analysis is based on numerical and perturbation calculations in the weak Rashba regime. For in-plane magnetic fields, the Stark shift is rigid and depends on the square of the electric field. Such rigid shift results in a field independent g-factor. Perpendicular magnetic fields induce a similar Stark shift accompanied by a lateral displacement of the energy spectra that is linear in the electric field. In this case, the g-factor shows square dependence on weak electric fields that varies with the subband index. However, in strong electric fields, the g-factor becomes subband independent and varies linearly with the field. - Highlights: • Energy spectra of electrons in nanowires are calculated in the weak Rashba regime. • For in-plane magnetic field, the Stark shift is rigid and the g-factor cannot be tuned. • Perpendicular magnetic fields add lateral displacement to the Stark shift. • The g-factor can be tuned by external electric field in this case. • The tuning of the g-factor is linear and unique for all subbands at high fields.

  1. Stark shift and g-factor tuning in nanowires with Rashba effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhaddad, Iman; Habanjar, Khulud; Sakr, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Stark shift of the energy subbands and the possibility of tuning the g-factor of electrons in nanowires subjected to external magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the direction of quantum confinement. Our analysis is based on numerical and perturbation calculations in the weak Rashba regime. For in-plane magnetic fields, the Stark shift is rigid and depends on the square of the electric field. Such rigid shift results in a field independent g-factor. Perpendicular magnetic fields induce a similar Stark shift accompanied by a lateral displacement of the energy spectra that is linear in the electric field. In this case, the g-factor shows square dependence on weak electric fields that varies with the subband index. However, in strong electric fields, the g-factor becomes subband independent and varies linearly with the field. - Highlights: • Energy spectra of electrons in nanowires are calculated in the weak Rashba regime. • For in-plane magnetic field, the Stark shift is rigid and the g-factor cannot be tuned. • Perpendicular magnetic fields add lateral displacement to the Stark shift. • The g-factor can be tuned by external electric field in this case. • The tuning of the g-factor is linear and unique for all subbands at high fields

  2. Fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n Rydberg states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Mueller-Dethlefs, K.; Baranov, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n (n approx-gt 250) molecular Rydberg states is observed. An open-quote open-quote offset close-quote close-quote electric pulse selectively ionizes the more fragile open-quote open-quote red close-quote close-quote (down shifted in energy) Stark states. The more resilient open-quote open-quote bluer close-quote close-quote, or up-shifted, ones survive and are shifted down in energy upon application of a second (open-quote open-quote probe close-quote close-quote) pulse of opposite direction (diabatic Stark states close-quote inversion). Hence, even for smaller probe than offset fields ionization is observed. The offset/probe ratio allows one to control spectral peak shapes in zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  3. A new questionnaire for measuring quality of life - the Stark QoL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen

    2015-10-26

    The Stark questionnaire measures health-related quality of life (QoL) using pictures almost exclusively. It is supplemented by a minimum of words. It comprises a mental and a physical health component. A German sample of n = 500 subjects, age and gender stratified, filled out the Stark Qol questionnaire along with various other questionnaires via internet. The physical component shows good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = McDonalds Omega = greatest lower bound = .93), the mental component can be improved (Cronbach's alpha = .63, McDonalds Omega = .72, greatest lower bound = .77). Confirmatory factor analysis shows a good fit (Bentlers CFI = .97). Construct validity was proven. The Stark QoL is a promising new development in measuring QoL, it is a short and easy to apply questionnaire. Additionally, it is particularly promising for international research.

  4. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  5. Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ensemble of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Bing, Wang; Hui-Chao, Zhang; Jia-Yu, Zhang; Su, Huaipeng; Wang, Y. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a strong, changing, randomly-oriented, local electric field, which is induced by the photo-ionization that occurs universally in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), makes it difficult to observe the quantum-confined Stark effect in ensemble of colloidal QDs. We propose a way to inhibit such a random electric field, and a clear quantum-confined Stark shift is observed directly in close-packed colloidal QDs. Besides the applications in optical switches and modulators, our experimental results indicate how the oscillator strengths of the optical transitions are changed under external electric fields. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. A Riemann-Hilbert approach to the inverse problem for the Stark operator on the line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its, A.; Sukhanov, V.

    2016-05-01

    The paper is concerned with the inverse scattering problem for the Stark operator on the line with a potential from the Schwartz class. In our study of the inverse problem, we use the Riemann-Hilbert formalism. This allows us to overcome the principal technical difficulties which arise in the more traditional approaches based on the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko equations, and indeed solve the problem. We also produce a complete description of the relevant scattering data (which have not been obtained in the previous works on the Stark operator) and establish the bijection between the Schwartz class potentials and the scattering data.

  7. A Stark-tuned, far-infrared laser for high frequency plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.; Rockmore, M.; Micai, K.; Krug, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    A Stark-tuned optically pumped far-infrared methanol laser operating at 119 micrometers has been built. The laser is designed to operate at high power while exhibiting a well-separated Stark doublet. At a pump power of 65 Watts and electric field of 1 kV/cm the laser has delivered over 100 mW c.w. while exhibiting a frequency splitting of 34 MHz. These parameters indicate that this laser would be suitable for use in the present generation of modulated interferometers on large thermonuclear plasma devices. The achieved modulation frequency is more than an order of magnitude higher than could be achieved using standard techniques

  8. Stark broadening of resonant Cr II 3d5-3d44p spectral lines in hot stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić, Z.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.

    2013-07-01

    New Stark broadening parameters of interest for the astrophysical, laboratory and technological plasma modelling, investigations and analysis for nine resonant Cr II multiplets have been determined within the semiclassical perturbation approach. In order to demonstrate one possibility for their usage in astrophysical plasma research, obtained results have been applied to the analysis of the Stark broadening influence on stellar spectral line shapes.

  9. Molecular quantum mechanical gradients within the polarizable embedding approach—Application to the internal vibrational Stark shift of acetophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Beerepoot, Maarten; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2015-01-01

    for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark...

  10. Spectral-Kinetic Coupling and Effect of Microfield Rotation on Stark Broadening in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with two conceptual problems in the theory of Stark broadening by plasmas. One problem is the assumption of the density matrix diagonality in the calculation of spectral line profiles. This assumption is closely related to the definition of zero wave functions basis within which the density matrix is assumed to be diagonal, and obviously violated under the basis change. A consistent use of density matrix in the theoretical scheme inevitably leads to interdependence of atomic kinetics, describing the population of atomic states with the Stark profiles of spectral lines, i.e., to spectral-kinetic coupling. The other problem is connected with the study of the influence of microfield fluctuations on Stark profiles. Here the main results of the perturbative approach to ion dynamics, called the theory of thermal corrections (TTC, are presented, within which the main contribution to effects of ion dynamics is due to microfield fluctuations caused by rotations. In the present study the qualitative behavior of the Stark profiles in the line center within predictions of TTC is confirmed, using non-perturbative computer simulations.

  11. FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION ALTERNATIVE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL EXCESS LANDFILL SITE IN STARK COUNTY, OHIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focused feasibility study of phytoremediation alternative for the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Stark County, Ohio. More information can be found on the NPL Fact Sheet for this site at www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/npl/ohio/OHD000377971.htm

  12. The influence of static fields on the dynamic Stark spectra of hydrogen Balmer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Jayakumar, R.; Granneman, E.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    In plasmas atomic-line radiation is influenced by static and high frequency fields. A simple method of calculating the Stark profiles of the Balmer α and β lines for the case of one-dimensional fields is discussed. Using a Holtsmark field for the static component, the resulting profile of Balmer α shows a splitting of the satellites. (author)

  13. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented

  14. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  15. Developmental characters of Pseitina iijimae (Jordan and Starks), bothid flat fishes- pisces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    Post larval stages of Psettina iQimae (Jordan and Starks) ranging from 1.8 mm NL to 44.6 mm SL collected during Naga Expedition and International Indian Ocean Expedition (JIOE) are described The characteristics which help to identify larval stages...

  16. Electroreflectance investigations of quantum confined Stark effect in GaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabinska, A; Pakula, K; Baranowski, J M; Wysmolek, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present room temperature electroreflectance studies of GaN quantum wells (QWs) with different well width. The electroreflectance measurements were performed with external voltage applied to the structure therefore it was possible to tune the electric field inside QW up to its completely screening and furthermore even reversing it. The analysis of QW spectral lines showed the Stark shift dependence on applied voltage and well width reaching about 35 meV for highest voltage and widest well width. It was possible to obtain the condition of zero electric field in QW. Both broadening and amplitude of QW lines are minimal for zero electric field and increases for increasing electric field in QW. The energy transition is maximum for zero electric field and for increasing electric field it decreases due to Stark effect. Neither amplitude and broadening parameter nor energy transition does not depend on the direction of electric field. Only parameter that depends on the direction of electric field in QW is phase of the signal. The analysis of Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) from AlGaN barriers allowed to calculate the real electric field dependence on applied voltage and therefore to obtain the Stark shift dependence on electric field. The Stark shift reached from -12 meV to -35 meV for 450 kV/cm depending on the well width. This conditions were established for highest forward voltages therefore this is the value of electric field and Stark shift caused only by the intrinsic polarization of nitrides.

  17. Case studies on recent Stark broadening calculations and STARK-B database development in the framework of the European project VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahal-Brechot, S

    2010-01-01

    Stark broadening theories and calculations have been extensively developed for about 50 years. The theory can now be considered as mature for many applications, especially for accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling. In astrophysics, with the increasing sensitivity of observations and spectral resolution, in all domains of wavelengths from far UV to infrared, it has become possible to develop realistic models of interiors and atmospheres of stars and interpret their evolution and the creation of elements through nuclear reactions. For hot stars, especially white dwarfs, Stark broadening is the dominant collisional line broadening process. This requires the knowledge of numerous profiles, especially for trace elements, which are used as useful probes for modern spectroscopic diagnostics. Hence, calculations based on a simple but enough accurate and fast method, are necessary for obtaining numerous results. Ab initio calculations are a growing domain of development. Nowadays, the access to such data via an on line database becomes crucial. This is the object of STARK-B, which is a collaborative project between the Paris Observatory and the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. It is a database of calculated widths and shifts of isolated lines of atoms and ions due to electron and ion collisions. It is devoted to modelling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes. In addition, it is relevant to laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. It is a part of VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre), which is an European Union funded collaboration between groups involved in the generation and use of atomic and molecular data.

  18. H{sub {beta}} Stark broadening in cold plasmas with low electron densities calibrated with Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Huebner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n{sub e} < 5{center_dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T{sub g} < 1100 K) argon-hydrogen plasma, under low-intermediate pressure conditions (3 mbar-40 mbar). A line fitting procedure is used to separate the effects of the different broadening mechanisms (e.g. Doppler and instrumental broadening) from the Stark broadening. A Stark broadening theory is extrapolated to lower electron density values, below its theoretical validity regime. Thomson scattering measurements are used to calibrate and validate the procedure. The results show an agreement within 20%, what validates the use of this Stark broadening method under such low density conditions. It is also found that Stark broadened profiles cannot be assumed to be purely Lorentzian. Such an assumption would lead to an underestimation of the electron density. This implies that independent information on the gas temperature is needed to find the correct values of n{sub e}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration with Thomson scattering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density.

  19. ZEST: A Fast Code for Simulating Zeeman-Stark Line-Shape Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gilleron

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the ZEST code, dedicated to the calculation of line shapes broadened by Zeeman and Stark effects. As concerns the Stark effect, the model is based on the Standard Lineshape Theory in which ions are treated in the quasi-static approximation, whereas the effects of electrons are represented by weak collisions in the framework of a binary collision relaxation theory. A static magnetic field may be taken into account in the radiator Hamiltonian in the dipole approximation, which leads to additional Zeeman splitting patterns. Ion dynamics effects are implemented using the fast Frequency-Fluctuation Model. For fast calculations, the static ion microfield distribution in the plasma is evaluated using analytic fits of Monte-Carlo simulations, which depend only on the ion-ion coupling parameter and the electron-ion screening factor.

  20. Can the Stark-Einstein law resolve the measurement problem from an animate perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaheld, Fred H

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the Stark-Einstein law as it applies to the retinal molecule, which is part of the rhodopsin molecule within the rod cells of the retina, reveals that it may provide the solution to the measurement problem from an animate perspective. That it represents a natural boundary where the Schrödinger equation or wave function automatically goes from linear to nonlinear while remaining in a deterministic state. It will be possible in the near future to subject this theory to empirical tests as has been previously proposed. This analysis provides a contrast to the many decades well studied and debated inanimate measurement problem and would represent an addition to the Stark-Einstein law involving information carried by the photon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stark broadening of the Hα line of hydrogen at low densities: quantal and semiclassical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, C.; Feautrier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Stark profiles of the Hα lines of hydrogen are computed at low densities in the 'impact' theory. By a comparison with quantal results, it is shown that a simple semiclassical perturbational approach with appropriate cutoffs is sufficient to give accurate profiles in the line centre. Neglecting the natural broadening and the fine-structure effects, the authors prove that the electronic broadening is negligible and that the profile has a Lorentzian shape. An analytical expression of the half width is given. (author)

  2. Asymmetry of Hβ Stark profiles in T-tube hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, S.; Nikolic, D.; Savic, I.; Soerge, S.; Demura, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    The whole Balmer H β line profiles are studied in detail experimentally in the T-tube discharge for the wide range of plasma parameters. Besides the common one, two additional parameters are introduced to characterize the asymmetry behavior of the experimental Stark profiles with the reference point chosen in the center of the line. The experimental data are analyzed and benchmarked versus the simple theoretical model based on the effects of microfield nonuniformity and electron impact shifts

  3. Stark broadening parameters and transition probabilities of persistent lines of Tl II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-García, I.; Colón, C.; Fernández-Martínez, F.

    2018-05-01

    The presence of singly ionized thallium in the stellar atmosphere of the chemically peculiar star χ Lupi was reported by Leckrone et al. in 1999 by analysis of its stellar spectrum obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Atomic data about the spectral line of 1307.50 Å and about the hyperfine components of the spectral lines of 1321.71 Å and 1908.64 Å were taken from different sources and used to analyse the isotopic abundance of thallium II in the star χ Lupi. From their results the authors concluded that the photosphere of the star presents an anomalous isotopic composition of Tl II. A study of the atomic parameters of Tl II and of the broadening by the Stark effect of its spectral lines (and therefore of the possible overlaps of these lines) can help to clarify the conclusions about the spectral abundance of Tl II in different stars. In this paper we present calculated values of the atomic transition probabilities and Stark broadening parameters for 49 spectral lines of Tl II obtained by using the Cowan code including core polarization effects and the Griem semiempirical approach. Theoretical values of radiative lifetimes for 11 levels (eight with experimental values in the bibliography) are calculated and compared with the experimental values in order to test the quality of our results. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed. Trends of our calculated Stark width for the isoelectronic sequence Tl II-Pb III-Bi IV are also displayed.

  4. Observation of asymmetric Stark profiles from plasmas created by a picosecond KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.; Seely, J.F.; Feldman, U.; Woltz, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    High-resolution extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from solid targets irradiated by a picosecond KrF* laser focused to 10 16 W/cm 2 have been recorded. The line profiles of transitions in Li-like fluorine and oxygen are asymmetric and up to 2 A in width. Calculations indicate the presence of transitions of the type 2p-3p and other forbidden Stark components. 11 refs., 6 figs

  5. Observation of interference between stark and electric quadrupole transitions in LIF from He atoms in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Namba, S.; Furukawa, S.; Oda, T.; James, B.W.; Andruczyk, D.

    2004-01-01

    Interference between Stark-induced dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes was observed in a He hollow cathode plasma with axial magnetic field perpendicular to the sheath electric field E by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Circularly polarized LIF signals were observed in the sheath region. Spatial profile of the degree of polarization P c showed characteristic features of the interference. Using theoretically calculated P c -E relationship, E-profile was successfully obtained form the measure P c . (author)

  6. Higher order Stark effect and transition probabilities on hyperfine structure components of hydrogen like atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' chikov, V.G. [National Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements - VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vitpal@mail.ru

    2000-08-15

    A quantum-electrodynamical (QED) perturbation theory is developed for hydrogen and hydrogen-like atomic systems with interaction between bound electrons and radiative field being treated as the perturbation. The dependence of the perturbed energy of levels on hyperfine structure (hfs) effects and on the higher-order Stark effect is investigated. Numerical results have been obtained for the transition probability between the hfs components of hydrogen-like bismuth.

  7. Asymmetry of Stark-broadened Layman lines from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, R.F.; Woltz, L.A.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses three significant causes of spectral line asymmetry: the ion-quadrupole interaction, the quadratic Stark effect and fine structure splitting that are included in the calculation of Lyman line profiles emitted by highly-ionized hydrogenic radiators in a dense, hot plasma. The line asymmetries are shown to be strongly dependent on the plasma density, indicating that the asymmetry may be of use as a density diagnostic

  8. Motional Stark Effect measurements of the local magnetic field in high temperature fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Bock, A.; Ford, O. P.; Reimer, R.; Burckhart, A.; Dinklage, A.; Hobirk, J.; Howard, J.; Reich, M.; Stober, J.

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) experienced by the neutral hydrogen or deuterium injected into magnetically confined high temperature plasmas is a well established technique to infer the internal magnetic field distribution of fusion experiments. In their rest frame, the neutral atoms experience a Lorentz electric field, EL = v × B, which results in a characteristic line splitting and polarized line emission. The different properties of the Stark multiplet allow inferring, both the magnetic field strength and the orientation of the magnetic field vector. Besides recording the full MSE spectrum, several types of polarimeters have been developed to measure the polarization direction of the Stark line emission. To test physics models of the magnetic field distribution and dynamics, the accuracy requirements are quite demanding. In view of these requirements, the capabilities and issues of the different techniques are discussed, including the influence of the Zeeman Effect and the sensitivity to radial electric fields. A newly developed Imaging MSE system, which has been tested on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, is presented. The sensitivity allows to resolve sawtooth oscillations. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  9. Stark broadening of potassium ns-4p and nd-4p lines in a wall-stabilized arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Stark-width measurements are reported for lines in the ns-4p (n = 7--10) and nd-4p (n = 5--8) series in neutral potassium (K I). These measurements were made by observing the end-on emission from a low pressure (20 Torr) potassium-argon wall-stabilized arc source. The on-axis electron density and temperature in the 20-A arc were (2.0 +- 0.2) x 10 15 cm -3 and 2955 +- 100 K, respectively. The experimentally determined Stark widths were compared with the theoretical values calculated by Griem. The measured Stark widths agreed with theory to within 30% for lines in the ns-4p series; while the measured Stark widths of the nd-4p series lines were only one-third of the theoretical values

  10. Comparison of three Stark problem solution techniques for the bounded case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Three methods of obtaining solutions to the Stark problem—one developed by Lantoine and Russell using Jacobi elliptic and related functions, one developed by Biscani and Izzo using Weierstrass elliptic and related functions, and one developed by Pellegrini, Russell, and Vittaldev using and Taylor series extended to the Stark problem—are compared qualitatively and quantitatively for the bounded motion case. For consistency with existing available code for the series solution, Fortran routines of the Lantoine method and Biscani method are newly implemented and made available. For these implementations, the Lantoine formulation is found to be more efficient than the Biscani formulation in the propagation of a single trajectory segment. However, for applications for which acceptable accuracy may be achieved by orders up to 16, the Pellegrini series solution is shown to be more efficient than either analytical method. The three methods are also compared in the propagation of sequentially connected trajectory segments in a low-thrust orbital transfer maneuver. Separate tests are conducted for discretizations between 8 and 96 segments per orbit. For the series solution, the interaction between order and step size leads to computation times that are nearly invariable to discretization for a given truncation error tolerance over the tested range of discretizations. This finding makes the series solution particularly attractive for mission design applications where problems may require both coarse and fine discretizations. Example applications include the modeling of low-thrust propulsion and time-varying perturbations—problems for which the efficient propagation of relatively short Stark segments is paramount because the disturbing acceleration generally varies continuously.

  11. Stark broadening of several Bi IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2017-09-01

    The presence of spectral lines of bismuth in stellar atmospheres has been reported in different stars. The anomalous values of the spectral intensities of Bi II and Bi III, compared to the theoretical Local Termodinamic Equilibrium (LTE) standards of Bi I/Bi II/Bi III, have been reported in the spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble/Goddard Space Telescope in the chemically peculiar stars HgMn stars χ Lupi and HR 7775. Spectral lines of 1436.8, 1902.3, 2630.9 and 2936.7 Å of Bi II and 1423.4 Å of Bi III were reported and their relative intensities were measured in these studies Litzén & Wahlgren 2002. These lines are overlapped with spectral lines of 1437.65, 2630.1 and 2937.1 Å of Bi IV. A study of the Stark broadening parameters of Bi IV spectral lines can help to study these overlaps. In this paper, using the Griem semi-empirical approach, we report calculated values of the Stark parameters for 64 spectral lines of Bi IV. The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 17 configurations of Bi IV. They were calculated using the cowan code including core polarization effects. Data are displayed for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000-160 000 K. Also calculated radiative lifetimes for 12 levels with experimental lifetime are presented, in order to test the goodness of our calculations. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed.

  12. Phonon-assisted hopping of an electron on a Wannier-Stark ladder in a strong electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Hart, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    With the application of a spatially constant electric field, the degeneracy of electronic energy levels of geometrically equivalent sites of a crystal is generally lifted. As a result, the electric field causes the electronic eigenstates of a one-dimensional periodic chain to become localized. In particular, they are Wannier-Stark states. With sufficiently large electric-field strengths these states become sufficiently well localized that it becomes appropriate to consider electronic transport to occur via a succession of phonon-assisted hops between the localized Wannier-Stark states. In this paper, we present calculations of the drift velocity arising from acoustic- and optical-phonon-assisted hopping motion between Wannier-Stark states. When the intersite electronic transfer energy is sufficiently small so that the Wannier-Stark states are essentially each confined to a single atomic site, the transport reduces to that of a small polaron. In this regime, while the drift velocity initially rises with increasing electric field strength, the drift velocity ultimately falls with increasing electric-field strength at extremely large electric fields. More generally, for common values of the electronic bandwidth and electric field strength, the Wannier-Stark states span many sites. At sufficiently large electric fields, the energy separation between Wannier-Stark states exceeds the energy uncertainty associated with the carrier's interaction with phonons. Then, it is appropriate to treat the electronic transport in terms of phonon-assisted hopping between Wannier-Stark states. The resulting high-field drift velocity falls with increasing field strength in a series of steps. Thus, we find a structured negative differential mobility at large electric fields

  13. Influence of the ac Stark effect on stimulated hyper-Raman profiles in sodium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.A.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-08-01

    When pumping near the two-photon 3d resonance in pure sodium vapor and observing the backward hyper-Raman emission to the 3p substates, an asymmetry in ratios of 3p/sub 1/2/, 3p/sub 3/2/ associated emissions was observed dependent upon the direction of the initial laser detuning from the resonance. It has been determined that this asymmetry can be attributed to the ac Stark effect induced by the hyper-Raman emission itself. 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. The AC Stark Effect, Time-Dependent Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, and Franck-Condon Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, G A; Jilcott, S W

    2005-01-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of a simple molecular system that is subject to a laser pulse. We model the laser pulse by a classical oscillatory electric field, and we employ the Born--Oppenheimer approximation for the molecule. We compute transition amplitudes to leading order in the laser strength. These amplitudes contain Franck--Condon factors that we compute explicitly to leading order in the Born--Oppenheimer parameter. We also correct an erroneous calculation in the mathematical literature on the AC Stark effect for molecular systems.

  15. Direct measurement of electron density in microdischarge at atmospheric pressure by Stark broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Ran Junxia; Mao Zhiguo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method and results for measurement of electron density in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge. The electron density of microdischarge in atmospheric pressure argon is measured by using the spectral line profile method. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The results show that the electron density in single filamentary microdischarge at atmospheric pressure argon is 3.05x10 15 cm -3 if the electron temperature is 10,000 K. The result is in good agreement with the simulation. The electron density in dielectric barrier discharge increases with the increase of applied voltage

  16. Stark-shift of impurity fundamental state in a lens shaped quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderras, L.; Bah, A.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-05-01

    We calculate the Stark effect and the polarisability of shallow-donor impurity located in the centre of lens shaped quantum dot by a variational method and in the effective-mass approximation. Our theoretical model assumes an infinite confinement to describe the barriers at the dot boundaries and the electric field is considered to be applied in the z-direction. The systematic theoretical investigation contains results with the quantum dot size and the strength of the external field. Our calculations reveal that the interval wherein the polarisability varies depends strongly on the dot size.

  17. Cross-sectional nanophotoluminescence studies of Stark effects in self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htoon, H.; Keto, J. W.; Baklenov, O.; Holmes, A. L. Jr.; Shih, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    By using a cross-sectional geometry, we show the capability to perform single-dot spectroscopy in self-assembled quantum dots using far-field optics. By using this method, we study the quantum-confined Stark effect in self-assembled quantum dots. For single-stack quantum dots (QDs), we find that the spectra are redshifted with an increase in electric field. For vertically coupled double-stack quantum dots, while most of the QDs are redshifted, some QDs show blueshifted spectra, which can be interpreted as an evidence of coupled QD molecules. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Extremely short pulses via stark modulation of the atomic transition frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeonychev, Y V; Polovinkin, V A; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2010-10-29

    We propose a universal method to produce extremely short pulses of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges. The essence of the method is a resonant interaction of radiation with atoms under the conditions of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by a far-off-resonant control laser field via dynamic Stark shift of the atomic levels and proper adjustment of the control field intensity and frequency, as well as the optical depth of the medium. The potential of the method is illustrated by an example in a hydrogenlike atomic system.

  19. Application of Stark Tuned Laser for Interferometry and Polarimetry in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.K. Park; K.C. Lee; B. Deng; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; B. Nathan; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A Stark-tuned optically pumped far-infrared CH(subscript ''3'')OH laser at 119 mm has been successfully applied in the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The system will provide temporally and radially resolved 2-D electron density profile [n(subscript ''e'')(r,t)] and toroidal field profile [B(subscript ''T'')(r,t)] data. In the 2001 campaign, a single channel interferometer system has been operated and tested for the Faraday rotation measurement. A plan for improvement and upgrading of the FIReTIP is discussed

  20. Quantum logic gates using Stark-shifted Raman transitions in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme to realize the basic two-qubit logic gates such as the quantum phase gate and the controlled-NOT gate using a detuned optical cavity interacting with a three-level Raman system. We discuss the role of Stark shifts, which are as important as the terms leading to the two-photon transition. The operation of the proposed logic gates involves metastable states of the atom and hence is not affected by spontaneous emission. These ideas can be extended to produce multiparticle entanglement

  1. Utilizing the dynamic stark shift as a probe for dielectric relaxation in photosynthetic reaction centers during charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W

    2013-09-26

    In photosynthetic reaction centers, the electric field generated by light-induced charge separation produces electrochromic shifts in the transitions of reaction center pigments. The extent of this Stark shift indirectly reflects the effective field strength at a particular cofactor in the complex. The dynamics of the effective field strength near the two monomeric bacteriochlorophylls (BA and BB) in purple photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers has been explored near physiological temperature by monitoring the time-dependent Stark shift during charge separation (dynamic Stark shift). This dynamic Stark shift was determined through analysis of femtosecond time-resolved absorbance change spectra recorded in wild type reaction centers and in four mutants at position M210. In both wild type and the mutants, the kinetics of the dynamic Stark shift differ from those of electron transfer, though not in the same way. In wild type, the initial electron transfer and the increase in the effective field strength near the active-side monomer bacteriochlorophyll (BA) occur in synchrony, but the two signals diverge on the time scale of electron transfer to the quinone. In contrast, when tyrosine is replaced by aspartic acid at M210, the kinetics of the BA Stark shift and the initial electron transfer differ, but transfer to the quinone coincides with the decay of the Stark shift. This is interpreted in terms of differences in the dynamics of the local dielectric environment between the mutants and the wild type. In wild type, comparison of the Stark shifts associated with BA and BB on the two quasi-symmetric halves of the reaction center structure confirm that the effective dielectric constants near these cofactors are quite different when the reaction center is in the state P(+)QA(-), as previously determined by Steffen et al. at 1.5 K (Steffen, M. A.; et al. Science 1994, 264, 810-816). However, it is not possible to determine from static, low-temperature measurments if the

  2. Stark effect of optical properties of excitons in a quantum nanorod with parabolic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, S.K., E-mail: sklyo@uci.edu

    2014-01-15

    We study the quantum Stark effect of optical properties of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum rod with parabolic confinement. Interplays between the competing/cooperative forces from confinement, electron–hole (e–h) attraction, and an external field are examined by studying the binding energy, the oscillator strength, and the root-mean-square (RMS) average of the e–h separation in a nonlinear electric field. In a long rod with weak confinement, the e–h interaction dominates over the confinement effect, yielding an abrupt drop of the exciton binding energy, oscillator strength, and a sudden increase of the RMS average e–h separation as the excitons are dissociated at the threshold field as the field increases. The exciton-dissociation transition is gradual in a short rod, where the confinement force dominates over the e–h attraction. We show that a DC field can induce an optically active excited exciton state in a narrow field range, causing a sharp peak in the oscillator strength and a dip in the RMS average of the e–h separation as the field increases. The Stark effects are also investigated as a function of the linear confinement length (i.e., rod length) at fixed fields. -- Highlights: • Study the dependence of optical properties of nanorods on the rod size and field. • Study the interplay between forces of confinement, Coulomb attraction, and field. • A strong field induces an optically active excited state observed in quantum dots.

  3. Magnetic field pitch angle diagnostic using the motional Stark effect (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Roberts, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Stark effect has been employed in a novel technique for obtaining the pitch angle profile and q(r) using polarimetry measurements of the Doppler shifted H α emission from a hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. As a neutral beam propagates through a plasma, collisions of the beam particles with the background ions and electrons will excite beam atoms, leading to emission of radiation. The motional Stark effect, which arises from the electric field induced in the atom's rest frame due to the beam motion across the magnetic field (E=V beam xB), causes a wavelength splitting of several angstroms and polarization of the emitted radiation. The Δm=±1 transitions, or σ components, from the beam fluorescence are linearly polarized parallel to the direction of the local magnetic field when viewed transverse to the fields. Since the hydrogen beam provides good spatial localization and penetration, the pitch angle can be obtained anywhere in the plasma. A photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used to modulate the linearly polarized light. Depending on the orientation of the PEM, it can measure the sine or cosine of the angle of polarization. Two PEM's are used to measure both components simultaneously. Results of q(r) for both Ohmic and NBI heated discharges have been obtained in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX-M) tokamak, with an uncertainty of ∼6% for q(0)

  4. Stark broadening in the laser-induced Cu I and Cu II spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skočić, M; Burger, M; Nikolić, Z; Bukvić, S; Djeniže, S

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present the Stark widths (W) of 22 neutral (Cu I) and 100 singly ionized (Cu II) copper spectral lines that have been measured at 18 400 K and 19 300 K electron temperatures and 6.3 × 10  22 m −3 and 2.1 × 10  23 m −3 electron densities, respectively. The experiment is conducted in the laser-induced plasma—the Nd:YAG laser, operating at 532 nm, was used to produce plasma from the copper sample in the residual air atmosphere at a pressure of 8 Pa. The electron temperature and density were estimated by the Boltzmann-plot method and from the Saha equation. The investigated Cu I lines belong to the 4s–4p′, 4s  2 –4p″ and 4p′–4d′ transitions while Cu II spectral lines belong to the 4s–4p, 4p–5s, 4p–4d, 4p–4s  2 , 4d–4f and 4d–v transitions. Comparison with existing experimental data was possible only in the case of 17 Cu II lines due to a lack of experimental and theoretical values. The rest of the data, Stark widths of 22 Cu I and 83 Cu II lines are published for the first time. (paper)

  5. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  6. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  7. Optimal beam sources for Stark decelerators in collision experiments: a tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogels, Sjoerd N.; Gao, Zhi; Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de

    2015-01-01

    With the Stark deceleration technique, packets of molecules with a tunable velocity, a narrow velocity spread, and a high state purity can be produced. These tamed molecular beams find applications in high resolution spectroscopy, cold molecule trapping, and controlled scattering experiments. The quality and purity of the packets of molecules emerging from the decelerator critically depend on the specifications of the decelerator, but also on the characteristics of the molecular beam pulse with which the decelerator is loaded. We consider three frequently used molecular beam sources, and discuss their suitability for molecular beam deceleration experiments, in particular with the application in crossed beam scattering in mind. The performance of two valves in particular, the Nijmegen Pulsed Valve and the Jordan Valve, is illustrated by decelerating ND 3 molecules in a 2.6 meter-long Stark decelerator. We describe a protocol to characterize the valve, and to optimally load the pulse of molecules into the decelerator. We characterize the valves regarding opening time duration, optimal valve-to-skimmer distance, mean velocity, velocity spread, state purity, and relative intensity. (orig.)

  8. Stark mapping of H2 Rydberg states in the strong-field regime with dynamical resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glab, W.L.; Qin, K.

    1993-01-01

    We have acquired spectra of high Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen in a static external field, in the energy region from below the energy at which field ionization becomes classically possible (E c ) to well above this energy. Simultaneous spectra of ionization and dissociation were acquired, thereby allowing direct information on the excited-state decay dynamics to be obtained. We have found that states with energies below E c undergo field-induced predissociation, while states with energies well above E c decay predominantly by field ionization. Field ionization and dissociation compete effectively as decay channels for states with energies in a restricted region just above E c . Comparison of our ionization spectra to the results of a single-channel quantum-defect theory Stark calculation shows quantitative agreement except near curve crossings, indicating that inclusion of different core rotational state channels will be required to properly account for coupling between the Stark states. Several states in the spectra undergo pronounced changes in their dynamical properties over a narrow range of field values, which we interpret as being due to interference cancellation of the ionization rates for these states

  9. The giant Stark effect in armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons under a transverse electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Guanghui

    2018-01-01

    We study the variation of electronic properties for armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (APNRs) modulated by a transverse electric field. Within the tight-binding model Hamiltonian, and by solving the differential Schrödinger equation, we find that a band gap closure appears at the critical field due to the giant Stark effect for an APNR. The gap closure has no field polarity, and the gap varies quadratically for small fields but becomes linear for larger ones. We attribute the giant Stark effect to the broken edge degeneracy, i.e., the charge redistributions of the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum states localized at opposite edges induced by the field. By combined with the Green's function approach, it is shown that in the presence of the critical field a gap of density of states (DOS) disappears and a high value DOS turns up at the energy position of the band gap closure. Finally, as the field increases, we find the band gap decreases more rapidly and the gap closure occurs at smaller fields for wider ribbons. Both the band gap and DOS variations with the field show an insulator-metal transition induced by a transverse electric field for the APNR. Our results show that wider APNRs are more appreciable to design field-effect transistors.

  10. Propagation of vector solitons in a quasi-resonant medium with stark deformation of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonov, S. V., E-mail: sazonov.sergei@gmail.com [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Ustinov, N. V., E-mail: n_ustinov@mail.ru [Moscow State Railway University, Kaliningrad Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a vector two-component optical pulse propagating in quasi-resonance conditions in a medium of nonsymmetric quantum objects is investigated for Stark splitting of quantum energy levels by an external electric field. We consider the case when the ordinary component of the optical pulse induces {sigma} transitions, while the extraordinary component induces the {pi} transition and shifts the frequencies of the allowed transitions due to the dynamic Stark effect. It is found that under Zakharov-Benney resonance conditions, the propagation of the optical pulse is accompanied by generation of an electromagnetic pulse in the terahertz band and is described by the vector generalization of the nonlinear Yajima-Oikawa system. It is shown that this system (as well as its formal generalization with an arbitrary number of optical components) is integrable by the inverse scattering transformation method. The corresponding Darboux transformations are found for obtaining multisoliton solutions. The influence of transverse effects on the propagation of vector solitons is investigated. The conditions under which transverse dynamics leads to self-focusing (defocusing) of solitons are determined.

  11. Oscillator strength and quantum-confined Stark effect of excitons in a thin PbS quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukerroum, A.; El-Yadri, M.; El Aouami, A.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.; Sadoqi, M.; Long, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study of the effect of a lateral electric field on a quantum-confined exciton in a thin PbS quantum disk. Our approach was performed in the framework of the effective mass theory and adiabatic approximation. The ground state energy and the stark shift were determined by using a variational method with an adequate trial wavefunction, by investigating a 2D oscillator strength under simultaneous consideration of the geometrical confinement and the electric field strength. Our results showed a strong dependence of the exciton binding and the Stark shift on the disk dimensions in both axial and longitudinal directions. On the other hand, our results also showed that the Stark shift’s dependence on the electric field is not purely quadratic but the linear contribution is also important and cannot be neglected, especially when the confinement gets weaker.

  12. Properties of Linear Entropy in k-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model with Stark Shift and Kerr-Like Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qinghong; Wang Yueyuan; Liu Shutian; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the linear entropy of an atom in k-photon Jaynes-Cummings model is investigated taking into consideration Stark shift and Kerr-like medium. The effect of both the Stark shift and Kerr-like medium on the linear entropy is analyzed using a numerical technique for the field initially in coherent state and in even coherent state. The results show that the presence of the Kerr-like medium and Stark shift has an important effect on the properties of the entropy and entanglement. It is also shown that the setting of the initial state plays a significant role in the evolution of the linear entropy and entanglement. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Surface Acoustic Bloch Oscillations, the Wannier-Stark Ladder, and Landau-Zener Tunneling in a Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-04-01

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  14. Laser-induced fluorescences due to quadrupole moment transition and Stark effect in a He glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hisashi; Takiyama, Ken; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Motokuni; Fujita, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu; Kawasaki, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The electric quadrupole moment transition and the Stark effect are investigated in a He hollow cathode discharge with laser-induced fluorescence method. It is shown that the forbidden transition from 2 1 S to 3 1 D in the negative glow is dominantly due to the quadrupole moment transition. This absorption coefficient is obtained from the laser-induced fluorescence intensity measurement in which the collisional transfers are taken into account. The result agrees with the theoretical coefficient. In the cathode dark space the fluorescence due to the Stark effect is also observed. Spatial distribution of the fluorescence is discussed, compared with the electric field distribution in the dark space. (author)

  15. Observation of the Stark effect in υ+ = 0 Rydberg states of NO: a comparison between predissociating and bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N J A; Minns, R S; Patel, R; Fielding, H H

    2008-01-01

    The Stark spectra of Rydberg states of NO below the υ + = 0 ionization limit, with principal quantum numbers n = 25-30, have been investigated in the presence of dc electric fields in the range 0-150 V cm -1 . The Stark states were accessed by two-colour, double-resonance excitation via the υ' = 0, N' = 0 rovibrational state of the A 2 Σ + state. The N( 2 D) atoms produced by predissociation were measured by (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, and compared with pulsed-field ionization spectra of the bound Rydberg state population (Patel et al 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1369)

  16. Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.O.

    1993-08-01

    Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder in the presence of the electron-LO-phonon resonance is investigated theoretically. The electron-LO-phonon resonance occurs when the energy spacing between adjacent Stark-ladder levels coincides with the LO-phonon energy. We propose a model describing the polaron effect in a superlattice. Calculations show that the absorption line shape is strongly modified due to the polaron effect under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition. We consider optical phenomena in a normal magnetic field that leads to enhancement of polaron effects. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs

  17. Implementation of quantum logic gates via Stark-tuned Förster resonance in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi-Rong; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    We present a scheme for implementation of controlled-Z and controlled-NOT gates via rapid adiabatic passage and Stark-tuned Förster resonance. By sweeping the Förster resonance once without passing through it and adiabatically tuning the angle-dependent Rydberg-Rydberg interaction of the dipolar nature, the system can be effectively described by a two-level system with the adiabatic theorem. The single adiabatic passage leads to a gate fidelity as high as 0.999 and a greatly reduced gate operation time. We investigate the scheme by considering an actual atomic level configuration with rubidium atoms, where the fidelity of the controlled-Z gate is still higher than 0.99 under the influence of the Zeeman effect.

  18. A New Analysis of Stark and Zeeman Effects on Hydrogen Lines in Magnetized DA White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ny Kieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White dwarfs with magnetic field strengths larger than 10 T are understood to represent more than 10% of the total population of white dwarfs. The presence of such strong magnetic fields is clearly indicated by the Zeeman triplet structure visible on absorption lines. In this work, we discuss the line broadening mechanisms and focus on the sensitivity of hydrogen lines on the magnetic field. We perform new calculations in conditions relevant to magnetized DA stellar atmospheres using models inspired from magnetic fusion plasma spectroscopy. A white dwarf spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS database is analyzed. An effective temperature is provided by an adjustment of the background radiation with a Planck function, and the magnetic field is inferred from absorption lines presenting a Zeeman triplet structure. An order-of-magnitude estimate for the electron density is also performed from Stark broadening analysis.

  19. Experimental transition probabilities and Stark parameters of singly ionized noble gases

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte Sainz-Ezquerra, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    La medida de parámetros atómicos, tales como las probabilidades de transición y las anchuras y desplazamientos Stark, es de gran importancia no solo en el campo de la física teórica y atómica, sino también en el diagnóstico de cualquier fuente emisora de radiación y en el área de la astrofísica. El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es la medida de nuevos datos atómicos mediante una técnica de espectroscopia de emisión de plasmas. En concreto, este trabajo se ha centrado en: 1) Me...

  20. Stark broadening of the 1640- and 4686-A lines of ionized helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Stark-broadened profiles of the 1640- and 4686-A lines of ionized helium have been calculated using an approximation to the electron broadening operator in the unified classical-path theory of Smith, Vidal, and Cooper. The approximation is such that the results reproduce the time-ordered impact-theory results in the line center, and the ionized-radiator quasistatic results in the far wings. Sample calculations at n/sub e/ = 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ and T = 40 000 degreeK are found to give significantly more narrow profiles than the corresponding modified-impact-theory results because of a different treatment of the lower-state interaction. Indirect comparison with experiment indicates that the calculated lines are too narrow, but it is expected that the inclusion of neglected effects of ion dynamics and inelastic collisions would improve agreement

  1. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  2. Quality Of Starking Apples After Exposure To Gamma Radiation As A Quarantine Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.; Al-Bachir, M.

    2004-01-01

    Starking apples approaching physiological maturity were exposed, immediately after harvest, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 100 to 400 Gy. The irradiated fruit were stored for six months in a cold storage facility at 1±1 deg. C and 90±5 % RH. Effects of gamma radiation on weight loss, fruit firmness, pH of fruit juice, fruit taste, color and visible injuries were evaluated. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased weight loss, particularly in the first 45 days of storage. Doses higher than 200 Gy, on the other hand, reduced apple firmness after 45 days of storage while a 400 Gy dose decreased fruit pH immediately after irradiation. (Authors)

  3. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  4. To Bind Ties between the School and Tribal Life: Educational Policy for Africans under George Stark in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungazi, Dickson A.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that educational policy in Zimbabwe from 1934 to 1954 served the political purposes of the colonial government and neglected genuine educational development of the colonized Africans. During George Stark's tenure as Director of Native Education, Zimbabweans were consigned to "practical training" programs and were denied access…

  5. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  6. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianwei [Center for Optics and Optoelectronics Research, College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao, E-mail: xiaohe@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); NYU-ECNU Center for Computational Chemistry at NYU Shanghai, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein’s internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  7. Measurements of the internal magnetic field on DIII-D using intensity and spacing of the motional Stark multiplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H; Holcomb, C T

    2008-10-01

    We describe a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of Stark split D(alpha) emission from the neutral beams. This system, named B-Stark, has been recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak. To find the magnetic pitch angle, we use the ratio of the intensities of the pi(3) and sigma(1) lines. These lines originate from the same upper level and so are not dependent on the level populations. In future devices, such as ITER, this technique may have advantages over diagnostics based on MSE polarimetry. We have done an optimization of the viewing direction for the available ports on DIII-D to choose the installation location. With this placement, we have a near optimal viewing angle of 59.6 degrees from the vertical direction. All hardware has been installed for one chord, and we have been routinely taking data since January 2007. We fit the spectra using a simple Stark model in which the upper level populations of the D(alpha) transition are treated as free variables. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field obtained using this diagnostic technique compare well with measurements from MSE polarimetry and EFIT.

  8. The Stark-crossing method for the simultaneous determination of the electron temperature and density in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J; Carabano, O; Fernandez, M; Rubio, S; Alvarez, R; Rodero, A; Lao, C; Quintero, M C; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Stark broadening of Balmer lines spontaneously emitted by atmospheric-pressure plasmas as a method to determine both the electron density and temperature in high-pressure plasmas is discussed in this paper. This method is applied to argon and helium plasmas produced in microwave discharges. Especially for Ar plasmas, valuable and reliable results are obtained

  9. Stark components of lower-lying manifolds and emission cross-sections of intermanifold and inter-stark transitions of Nd3+(4f3) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Yow, Raylon M.; Gruber, John B.; Allik, Toomas H.; Zandi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Stark energy levels of the 4 F 3/2 , 4 I 9/2 , and 4 I 11/2 manifolds have been characterized using the room temperature fluorescence spectra for the 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 and 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 transitions of Nd 3+ (4f 3 ) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG). The emission cross-sections of the intermanifold transitions, 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 and 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 , as well as the principal inter-Stark transitions, R 1 →Z 5 (945.3 nm) and R 1 →Y 2 (1063.5 nm), have also been determined. These results are finally compared with those of Nd 3+ :YAG single crystal

  10. A study of the ac Stark effect in doped photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, I; Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2007-04-16

    In this paper we present calculations of level populations and susceptibility for an ensemble of five-level atoms doped in a photonic crystal, using the master equation method. The atoms in the ensemble interact with the crystal which acts as a reservoir and are coupled with two strong pump fields and a weak probe field. It is found that, by manipulating the resonance energy associated with one of the decay channels of the atom, the system can be switched between an inverted and a non-inverted state. We have also observed the ac Stark effect in these atoms and have shown that due to the role played by the band structure of the photonic crystal, it is possible to switch between an absorption state and a non-absorption state of the atomic system. This is a very important finding as techniques of rendering material systems transparent to resonant laser radiation are very desirable in the fabrication of novel optical and photonic devices.

  11. Design of a New Optical System for Alcator C-Mod Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jinseok; Scott, Steve; Bitter, Manfred; Lerner, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod uses an in-vessel optical system (five lenses and three mirrors) to relay polarized light to an external polarimeter because port access limitations on Alcator C-Mod preclude a direct view of the diagnostic beam. The system experiences unacceptable, spurious drifts of order several degrees in measured pitch angle over the course of a run day. Recent experiments illuminated the MSE diagnostic with polarized light of fixed orientation as heat was applied to various optical elements. A large change in measured angle was observed as two particular lenses were heated, indicating that thermal-stress-induced birefringence is a likely cause of the spurious variability. Several new optical designs have been evaluated to eliminate the affected in-vessel lenses and to replace the focusing they provide with curved mirrors; however, ray tracing calculations imply that this method is not feasible. A new approach is under consideration that utilizes in situ calibrations with in-vessel reference polarized light sources. 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Stark shifts and widths of a hydrogen atom in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.C.H.; Ho, Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational scheme has been developed and used to investigate the influence of the plasma environments on modified atomic autoionization for isolated atoms/ions by using the complex coordinate rotation method which is proved to be a very simple and powerful tool to analyze the position and the width of a resonance. The Debye screening potential is employed to describe the effects of the plasma environments. Stark shifts and widths on the ground state of hydrogen are reported for field strength up to F=0.12 a.u. Slater-type basis wave functions are used to describe the system and angular-momentum states up to L=11 are included when the external electric field is turned on. Converged results are obtained by using different maximum angular-momentum states. The modified autoionization for various Debye lengths ranging from infinite to a small value of 0.86 are reported. It has been observed that for a given temperature and under the influence of a given external electric field, the resonance energy and the autoionization width increase for increasing electron density in the plasma. A discussion on the physical implication of our results is made

  13. Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Gei, Y.; Ren, S; Roth, J. E.; Miller, D. A.; Harris, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon is the dominant semiconductor for electronics, but there is now a growing need to integrate such component with optoelectronics for telecommunications and computer interconnections. Silicon-based optical modulators have recently been successfully demonstrated but because the light modulation mechanisms in silicon are relatively weak, long (for example, several millimeters) devices or sophisticated high-quality-factor resonators have been necessary. Thin quantum-well structures made from III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InP and their alloys exhibit the much stronger Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) mechanism, which allows modulator structures with only micrometers of optical path length. Such III-V materials are unfortunately difficult to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics, but previous silicon-germanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects. Here we report the discovery of the QCSE, at room temperature, in thin germanium quantum-well structures grown on silicon. The QCSE here has strengths comparable to that in III-V materials. Its clarity and strength are particularly surprising because germanium is an indirect gap semiconductor, such semiconductors often display much weak optical effects than direct gap materials (such as the III-V materials typically used for optoelectronics). This discovery is very promising for small, high-speed, low-power optical output devices fully compatible with silicon electronics manufacture. (author)

  14. Theory of coherent Stark nonlinear spectroscopy in a three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiko, Yurii; Serrat, Carles

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Stark nonlinear spectroscopy (CSNS) is a spectroscopic tool based on the cancellation of the phase sensitivity at frequency 5ω in the ultrafast four-wave mixing (FWM) of two-color pulses with frequencies ω and 3ω. We develop a theory for CSNS in three-level V-type systems, and reveal that the mechanism for the phase sensitivity at 5ω is the quantum interference between the two primary paths in the FWM of the ω and 3ω fields. We find that the cancellation phenomenon occurs when the probability amplitude of one of these two primary pathways becomes equal to zero due to the competition effect between the two allowed transitions in the V-type system. The analytical expressions that describe the phase-sensitivity phenomenon and the conditions for its cancellation have been derived on the basis of perturbation theory, and are confirmed by numerical integration of the density matrix and Maxwell equations. We argue that CSNS can be utilized, in particular, for the investigation of optically dense media

  15. Simultaneous influence of Stark effect and excessive line broadening on the Hα line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Ivković, Saša S.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the combined influence of the Stark effect and the excessive Doppler broadening on the Balmer alpha line in hydrogen discharges. Since this line is a good candidate for measuring electric field in various types of discharges with different gas compositions, a simple method for field measurement based on polarization spectroscopy is developed, that includes all the excitation mechanisms. To simultaneously test the flexibility of the fitting procedure and investigate the excessive broadening, we applied the fitting procedure on line profiles obtained at a range of conditions from two different discharges. The range of pressures and voltages was examined in an abnormal glow and in dielectric barrier discharge operating with hydrogen gas. The model fitting function was able to respond and follow the change in the line profile caused by the change of conditions. This procedure can therefore be recommended for electric field measurement. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  16. Stark Broadening of Carbon and Oxygen Lines in Hot DQ White Dwarf Stars: Recent Results and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufour P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf stars are traditionally found to have surface compositions made primarily of hydrogen or helium. However, a new family has recently been uncovered, the so-called hot DQ white dwarfs, which have surface compositions dominated by carbon and oxygen with little or no trace of hydrogen and helium (Dufour et al. 2007, 2008, 2010. Deriving precise atmospheric parameters for these objects (such as the effective temperature and the surface gravity requires detailed modeling of spectral line profiles. Stark broadening parameters are of crucial importance in that context. We present preliminary results from our new generation of model atmospheres including the latest Stark broadening calculations for C II lines and discuss the implications as well as future work that remains to be done.

  17. Topology of surfaces for molecular Stark energy, alignment, and orientation generated by combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2014-02-14

    We show that combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions of linear polar and polarizable molecules with collinear electric fields lead to a sui generis topology of the corresponding Stark energy surfaces and of other observables - such as alignment and orientation cosines - in the plane spanned by the permanent and induced dipole interaction parameters. We find that the loci of the intersections of the surfaces can be traced analytically and that the eigenstates as well as the number of their intersections can be characterized by a single integer index. The value of the index, distinctive for a particular ratio of the interaction parameters, brings out a close kinship with the eigenproperties obtained previously for a class of Stark states via the apparatus of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  18. Topology of surfaces for molecular Stark energy, alignment, and orientation generated by combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, Bretislav, E-mail: brich@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-14

    We show that combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions of linear polar and polarizable molecules with collinear electric fields lead to a sui generis topology of the corresponding Stark energy surfaces and of other observables – such as alignment and orientation cosines – in the plane spanned by the permanent and induced dipole interaction parameters. We find that the loci of the intersections of the surfaces can be traced analytically and that the eigenstates as well as the number of their intersections can be characterized by a single integer index. The value of the index, distinctive for a particular ratio of the interaction parameters, brings out a close kinship with the eigenproperties obtained previously for a class of Stark states via the apparatus of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  19. An easy way to determine simultaneously the electron density and temperature in high-pressure plasmas by using Stark broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J; Jonkers, J; Sande, M J van de; Mullen, J J A M van der; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of determining, at the same time, both the electron density and temperature in a discharge produced at atmospheric pressure using the Stark broadening of lines spontaneously emitted by a plasma. This direct method allows us to obtain experimental results that are in good agreement with others previously obtained for the same type of discharge. Its advantages and disadvantages compared to other direct methods of diagnostics, namely Thomson scattering, are also discussed. (rapid communication)

  20. Deflection of atomic beams with isotope separation by optical resonance radiation using stimulated emission and the ac stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Liao, P.F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Improved atomic beam deflection and improved isotope separation, even in vapors, is proposed by substituting the A.C. Stark effect for the baseband chirp of the pushing beam in the prior proposal by I. Nebenzahl et al., Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 25, page 327 (September 1974). The efficiency inherent in re-using the photons as in the Nebenzahl et al proposal is retained; but the external frequency chirpers are avoided. The entire process is performed by two pulses of monochromatic coherent light, thereby avoiding the complication of amplifying frequency-modulated light pulses. The A.C. Stark effect is provided by the second beam of coherent monochromatic light, which is sufficiently intense to chirp the energy levels of the atoms or isotopes of the atomic beam or vapor. Although, in general, the A.C. Stark effect will alter the isotope shift somewhat, it is not eliminated. In fact, the appropriate choice of frequencies of the pushing and chirping beams may even relax the requirements with respect to the isotope absorption line shift for effective separation. That is, it may make the isotope absorption lines more easily resolvable

  1. Determination of Stark parameters by cross-calibration in a multi-element laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate a Stark broadening analysis of the electron density Ne and temperature Te in a laser-induced plasma (LIP), using a model free of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The method relies on Stark parameters determined also without assuming LTE, which are often unknown and unavailable in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that the necessary values can be obtained in situ by cross-calibration between the spectral lines of different charge states, and even different elements, given determinations of Ne and Te based on appropriate parameters for at least one observed transition. This approach enables essentially free choice between species on which to base the analysis, extending the range over which these properties can be measured and giving improved access to low-density plasmas out of LTE. Because of the availability of suitable tabulated values for several charge states of both Si and C, the example of a SiC LIP is taken to illustrate the consistency and accuracy of the procedure. The cross-calibrated Stark parameters are at least as reliable as values obtained by other means, offering a straightforward route to extending the literature in this area.

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from STARK in the Mediterranean Sea from 1992-01-07 to 1992-01-31 (NODC Accession 9200044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Mediterranean Sea from ship STARK between January 7, 1992 and January 31, 1992. The real time data of water temperature...

  3. Measured, calculated and predicted Stark widths of the singly ionized C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Cl and Ar spectral lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeniže S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find reliable Stark width data, needed in plasma spectroscopy comparision between the existing measured, calculated and predicted Stark width values was performed for ten singly ionized emitters: C, N, O, F, Ne Si, P, S, Cl and Ar in the lower lying 3s - 3p, 3p - 3d and 4s - 4p transitions. These emitters are present in many cosmic light sources. On the basis of the agreement between mentioned values 17 spectral lines from six singly ionized spectra have been recommended, for the first time, for plasma spectroscopy as spectral lines with reliable Stark width data. Critical analysis of the existing Stark width data is also given.

  4. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from STARK in the NW Atlantic from 1991-01-01 to 1991-12-31 (NODC Accession 9600031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station Data from 17 stations; and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data from 49 casts were collected using ship Stark during cruises # 688-711....

  5. Stark effect of the hyperfine structure of ICl in its rovibronic ground state: Towards further molecular cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Hui, Wang; Xu-Ping, Shao; Xiao-Hua, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Hyperfine structures of ICl in its vibronic ground state due to the nuclear spin and electric quadruple interactions are determined by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian matrix. Furthermore, the Stark sub-levels are precisely determined as well. The results are helpful for electro-static manipulation (trapping or further cooling) of cold ICl molecules. For example, an electric field of 1000 V/cm can trap ICl molecules less than 637 μK in the lowest hyperfine level. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034002), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921602), and Qing Lan Project, China.

  6. A new species of Neoperla from China, with a redescription of the female of N. mnong Stark, 1987 (Plecoptera, Perlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Teng Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Neoperla clymene group (Plecoptera, Perlidae, N. chebalinga sp. n. from Guangdong Province of southern China is described, illustrated, and compared with related taxa. The new species is characterized by the slender aedeagal tube, strongly sclerotized dorsally, and weakly sclerotized ventrally with an upcurved, medial, finger-like membranous lobe. Additionally the aedeagal sac gradually tapers to a blunt apex with a dorsoapical patch of spines. A supplementary description of the female of N. mnong Stark, 1987 from Guangdong Province, China is also given.

  7. A new species of Neoperla from China, with a redescription of the female of N. mnong Stark, 1987 (Plecoptera, Perlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the Neoperla clymene group (Plecoptera, Perlidae), Neoperla chebalinga sp. n. from Guangdong Province of southern China is described, illustrated, and compared with related taxa. The new species is characterized by the slender aedeagal tube, strongly sclerotized dorsally, and weakly sclerotized ventrally with an upcurved, medial, finger-like membranous lobe. Additionally the aedeagal sac gradually tapers to a blunt apex with a dorsoapical patch of spines. A supplementary description of the female of Neoperla mnong Stark, 1987 from Guangdong Province, China is also given.

  8. Measurement of the poloidal magnetic field in the PBX-M tokamak using the motional Stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-05-01

    Polarimetry measurements of the Doppler-shifted H/sub α/ emission from a hydrogen neutral beam on the PBX-M tokamak have been employed in a novel technique for obtaining q(0) and poloidal magnetic field profiles. The electric field from the beam particle motion across the magnetic field (E = V/sub beam/ /times/ B) causes a wavelength splitting of several angstroms, and polarization of the emitted radiation (Stark effect). Viewed transverse to the fields, the emission is linearly polarized with the angle of polarization related to the direction of the magnetic field. 14 refs., 5 figs

  9. Effect of holding period prior to storage on the chemical attributes of Starking Delicious apples during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Batkan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of three different holding periods (6, 12 and 24 hours prior to storage on the quality attributes of Starking Delicious apples were investigated during storage of 8 months at 0.5 ± 1.0 ºC. Changes in weight loss, flesh firmness, pH values, soluble dry matter amount, titratable acidity values, ascorbic acid contents, and total and reducing sugar content were determined. According to the results, the holding period showed statistically significant changes in the quality attributes of the apples (p < 0.05.

  10. Stark shift and photoionization cross section of on-center and off-center donor impurity in a core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Yan, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and by using a variational method, the Stark shift of on-center and off-center donor impurity binding energies and photoionization cross section under a z-direction electric field in a prolate (oblate) core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot has been studied. We have calculated the Stark shift as a function of the core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field, and impurity position. We also discuss the photoionization cross section as a function of photon energy with different core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field strengths, and impurity positions. The results show that the Stark shift depends strongly on the impurity position, it could be positive or negative. The core and shell sizes and shapes also have a pronounce influence on the Stark shift, and the Stark shift changes with them is non-monotonic, especially when the impurity is located at the -z-axis, the situation will become complicated. In addition, the core and shell sizes and shapes, impurity position, and electric field also have an important influence on the photoionization cross section. In particular, the photoionization cross section will vanish when the impurity is located at center of spherical core with spherical or prolate shell case at zero field.

  11. Measurement of Stark width of some Ar I transitions and the investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Stark widths of seven Ar I transitions are reported. Axial line shape data from an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet were Abel-inverted to obtain radial line shapes. The electron-density was determined by Stark width measurements of the hydrogen H β transition. In the electron-density region of ≤6 x 10 22 m -3 the experimental Ar I Stark widths are fitted to a linear dependence on the electron-density. Values of Stark width extrapolated to other electron densities are compared to measurements reported in the literature on the 4s-4p array. Experimental values are up to 45% smaller than those predicted by Griem's theory of Stark broadening. Conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to exist in an atmospheric argon plasma jet were studied. The experiment measures the emission coefficient of seven Ar I transitions and the line shape of the hydrogen H beta transition. After transforming the side-on data into radial space the excited neutral argon atom-density and the electron-density are determined. It is found LTE does not exist below an electron-density of 6 x 10 33 m -3 in the experimental conditions

  12. Stark interaction of identical particles with the vacuum electromagnetic field as quantum Poisson process suppressing collective spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian describing resonant interaction of an ensemble of identical quantum particles with a photon-free vacuum electromagnetic field has been obtained with allowance for terms of second order in the coupling constant (the Stark interaction) by means of the perturbation theory on the basis of the unitary transformation of the system quantum state. It has been shown that in the Markov approximation the effective Hamiltonian terms of first order in the coupling constant are represented by the quantum Wiener process, whereas terms of second order are expressed by the quantum Poisson process. During the course of the investigation, it was established that the Stark interaction played a significant role in the ensemble dynamics, thus influencing the collective spontaneous decay of the ensemble of an appreciably high number of identical particles. Fundamental effects have been discovered, i.e., the excitation conservation in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and superradiance suppression in the collective decaying process of an excited ensemble with a determined number of particles.

  13. Molecular quantum mechanical gradients within the polarizable embedding approach—Application to the internal vibrational Stark shift of acetophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard, E-mail: nhl@sdu.dk; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Odense DK-5230 Denmark (Denmark); Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Gao, Bin; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Odense DK-5230 Denmark (Denmark); Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-01-21

    We present an implementation of analytical quantum mechanical molecular gradients within the polarizable embedding (PE) model to allow for efficient geometry optimizations and vibrational analysis of molecules embedded in large, geometrically frozen environments. We consider a variational ansatz for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark tuning rate using harmonic frequencies calculated from analytical gradients and computed local electric fields. Comparisons to PE calculations employing an enlarged quantum region as well as to a non-polarizable embedding scheme show that the inclusion of mutual polarization between acetophenone and water is essential in order to capture the structural modifications and the associated frequency shifts observed in water. For more apolar solvents, a proper description of dispersion and exchange–repulsion becomes increasingly important, and the quality of the optimized structures relies to a larger extent on the quality of the Lennard-Jones parameters.

  14. Molecular quantum mechanical gradients within the polarizable embedding approach—Application to the internal vibrational Stark shift of acetophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Gao, Bin; Ruud, Kenneth; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of analytical quantum mechanical molecular gradients within the polarizable embedding (PE) model to allow for efficient geometry optimizations and vibrational analysis of molecules embedded in large, geometrically frozen environments. We consider a variational ansatz for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark tuning rate using harmonic frequencies calculated from analytical gradients and computed local electric fields. Comparisons to PE calculations employing an enlarged quantum region as well as to a non-polarizable embedding scheme show that the inclusion of mutual polarization between acetophenone and water is essential in order to capture the structural modifications and the associated frequency shifts observed in water. For more apolar solvents, a proper description of dispersion and exchange–repulsion becomes increasingly important, and the quality of the optimized structures relies to a larger extent on the quality of the Lennard-Jones parameters

  15. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  16. Multiple Temperature-Sensing Behavior of Green and Red Upconversion Emissions from Stark Sublevels of Er3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baosheng Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Upconversion luminescence properties from the emissions of Stark sublevels of Er3+ were investigated in Er3+-Yb3+-Mo6+-codoped TiO2 phosphors in this study. According to the energy levels split from Er3+, green and red emissions from the transitions of four coupled energy levels, 2H11/2(I/2H11/2(II, 4S3/2(I/4S3/2(II, 4F9/2(I/4F9/2(II, and 2H11/2(I + 2H11/2(II/4S3/2(I + 4S3/2(II, were observed under 976 nm laser diode excitation. By utilizing the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique, temperature-dependent upconversion emissions from these four coupled energy levels were analyzed at length. The optical temperature-sensing behaviors of sensing sensitivity, measurement error, and operating temperature for the four coupled energy levels are discussed, all of which are closely related to the energy gap of the coupled energy levels, FIR value, and luminescence intensity. Experimental results suggest that Er3+-Yb3+-Mo6+-codoped TiO2 phosphor with four pairs of energy levels coupled by Stark sublevels provides a new and effective route to realize multiple optical temperature-sensing through a wide range of temperatures in an independent system.

  17. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  18. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  19. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  20. A temporally and spatially resolved electron density diagnostic method for the edge plasma based on Stark broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, A., E-mail: zafara@ornl.gov [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Shannon, S. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An electron density diagnostic (≥10{sup 10} cm{sup −3}) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6–2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.

  1. Overview of equilibrium reconstruction on DIII-D using new measurements from an expanded motional Stark effect diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, C; Makowski, M; Allen, S; Meyer, W; Van Zeeland, M

    2008-01-01

    Motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements constrain equilibrium reconstruction of DIII-D tokamak plasmas using the equilibrium code EFIT. In 2007, two new MSE arrays were brought online, bringing the system to three core arrays, two edge arrays, and 64 total channels. We present the first EFIT reconstructions using this expanded system. Safety factor and E R profiles produced by fitting to data from the two new arrays and one of the other three agree well with independent measurements. Comparison of the data from the three arrays that view the core shows that one of the older arrays is inconsistent with the other two unless the measured calibration factors for this array are adjusted. The required adjustments depend on toroidal field and plasma current direction, and on still other uncertain factors that change as the plasma evolves. We discuss possible sources of calibration error for this array

  2. An expanded genetic code for probing the role of electrostatics in enzyme catalysis by vibrational Stark spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völler, Jan-Stefan; Biava, Hernan; Hildebrandt, Peter; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-11-01

    To find experimental validation for electrostatic interactions essential for catalytic reactions represents a challenge due to practical limitations in assessing electric fields within protein structures. This review examines the applications of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) as genetically encoded probes for studying the role of electrostatic interactions in enzyme catalysis. ncAAs constitute sensitive spectroscopic probes to detect local electric fields by exploiting the vibrational Stark effect (VSE) and thus have the potential to map the protein electrostatics. Mapping the electrostatics in proteins will improve our understanding of natural catalytic processes and, in beyond, will be helpful for biocatalyst engineering. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical investigation of stark effect on shallow donor binding energy in InGaN spherical QD-QW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Mathématiques spéciales, CPGE Kénitra, Chakib Arsalane Street (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a simultaneous study of electric field and impurity's position effects on the ground-state shallow-donor binding energy in GaN|InGaN|GaN spherical quantum dot-quantum well (SQD-QW) as a function of the ratio of the inner and the outer radius is reported. The calculations are investigated using variational approach within the framework of the effective-mass approximation. The numerical results show that: (i) the binding energy is strongly affected by the external electric field and the SQD-QW dimension, (ii) a critical value of spherical system's radius is obtained constituting the limit of three dimension confinement and spherical thin layer confinement and (iii) the Stark shift increases with increasing electric field and it is more pronounced around the position of the impurity corresponding to the binding energy maxima than in the spherical layer extremities.

  4. Theoretical investigation of stark effect on shallow donor binding energy in InGaN spherical QD-QW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simultaneous study of electric field and impurity's position effects on the ground-state shallow-donor binding energy in GaN|InGaN|GaN spherical quantum dot-quantum well (SQD-QW) as a function of the ratio of the inner and the outer radius is reported. The calculations are investigated using variational approach within the framework of the effective-mass approximation. The numerical results show that: (i) the binding energy is strongly affected by the external electric field and the SQD-QW dimension, (ii) a critical value of spherical system's radius is obtained constituting the limit of three dimension confinement and spherical thin layer confinement and (iii) the Stark shift increases with increasing electric field and it is more pronounced around the position of the impurity corresponding to the binding energy maxima than in the spherical layer extremities

  5. Experimental determination of the Stark broadening of Cu I spectral lines in a plasma of a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, G.; Zoita, V.; Bauchire, M.; Le Menn, E.; Gentils, F.; Fleurier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Copper lines are frequently observed in various types of plasma device and industrial plasmas and then it is desirable to develop methods of plasma diagnostics using the emission spectrum of copper lines. The aim of this work is to create a database for the neutral copper spectral lines directly usable for the diagnostic of plasmas with metal vapors. An experimental device has been developed to create a metal plasma having the required metrological properties to facilitate the spectroscopic measurements. A capillary discharge technique has been used to create a plasma jet representing a radially symmetric light source. The copper-hydrogen plasma jet was produced by the ablation of the capillary wall consisting of a copper-embedded elastomer. The plasma jet was observed side-on using the high-resolution spectrometers equipped with ICCD detectors. The 2D square matrix ICCD detectors have permitted the observation of cross sections of the plasma jet. The high-speed time resolved camera equipped with interference filters has been used to check the cylindrical shape and the homogeneity of the plasma jet. The electron density of the plasma jet was obtained by using the H α spectral line of the hydrogen component plasma. The temperature was determined by applying the relative intensity method to the measured intensities of the neutral copper spectral lines emitted by the plasma jet. The hydrogen and copper lines were broadened principally by the Stark effect. The measured temperatures were about 15,000 K and the electron density of about 2x10 17 cm -3 . The results of the Stark broadening of the neutral cooper concerned particularly the lines 453.9 nm, 465.1 nm, 515.3 nm and 529.2 nm. (authors)

  6. Trends with coverage and pH in Stark tuning rates for CO on Pt(1 1 1) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Jamal; Anderson, Alfred B.

    2013-01-01

    The general understanding of so-called electrochemical Stark tuning rates, that is, the potential dependence of vibrational frequency of CO adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1), has developed over the past thirty years in terms of two semiempirical models. The first is the Fermi level shift model used in non-self-consistent-field one-electron molecular orbital theory. This approach has provided qualitative understanding in terms of Fermi level-dependent variations in σ and π orbital bonding between CO and the electrode surface atoms. The second is the use of self-consistent-field theory with surface charging to create adjustable electric fields. Adsorbed CO then reacts to the field in a classical Stark effect with some small uncharacterized Fermi level shift superimposed. It is now possible, using two-dimensional density functional theory, including electrolyte polarization from surface charging, and the dielectric continuum to approximate solvation energy, to calculate the tuning rate in response to shifts in the Fermi level and electrode potential caused by changing the surface charge density. Here we apply this first principles method to calculate trends in the tuning rate for CO adsorbed on 1-fold Pt(1 1 1) sites with changes in CO(ads) coverage and with changes in electrolyte pH. The tuning rate is calculated to decrease as the coverage is increased and, for high coverage, to increase as the pH is increased. These trends are shown to be in qualitative agreement with the very little existing experimental data for these trends

  7. Electric Fields near RF Heating and Current Drive Antennas in Tore Supra Measured with Dynamic Stark Effect Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Hillairet, J.; Marandet, Y.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Martin, V.; Hillis, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Saoutic, B.

    2011-10-01

    Computational models of the interaction between RF waves and the scrape-off layer plasma near ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive launch antennas are continuously improving. These models mainly predict the RF electric fields produced in the SOL and, therefore, the best measurement for verification of these models would be a direct measurement of these electric fields. Both types of launch antennas are used on Tore Supra and are designed for high power (up to 4MW/antenna) and long pulse (> > 25s) operation. Direct, non-intrusive measurement of the RF electric fields in the vicinity of these structures is achieved by fitting spectral profiles of deuterium Balmer-alpha and Balmer-beta to a model that includes the dynamic, external-field Stark effect, as well as Zeeman splitting and Doppler broadening mechanisms. The measurements are compared to the mentioned, near-field region, RF antenna models. *Work supported in part by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  8. A motional Stark effect diagnostic analysis routine for improved resolution of iota in the core of the large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, T J; Ida, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshinuma, M; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, Y; Yoshida, M

    2017-09-01

    A new Motional Stark Effect (MSE) analysis routine has been developed for improved spatial resolution in the core of the Large Helical Device (LHD). The routine was developed to reduce the dependency of the analysis on the Pfirsch-Schlüter (PS) current in the core. The technique used the change in the polarization angle as a function of flux in order to find the value of diota/dflux at each measurement location. By integrating inwards from the edge, the iota profile can be recovered from this method. This reduces the results' dependency on the PS current because the effect of the PS current on the MSE measurement is almost constant as a function of flux in the core; therefore, the uncertainty in the PS current has a minimal effect on the calculation of the iota profile. In addition, the VMEC database was remapped from flux into r/a space by interpolating in mode space in order to improve the database core resolution. These changes resulted in a much smoother iota profile, conforming more to the physics expectations of standard discharge scenarios in the core of the LHD.

  9. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao; Volkan Demir, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.

  10. Stark effect-dependent of ground-state donor binding energy in InGaN/GaN parabolic QWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Zorkani, Izeddine; Jorio, Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Using the finite-difference method within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model and effective mass approximation, the ground-state binding energy of hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (WZ) (In,Ga)N/GaN parabolic transversal-section quantum-well wires (PQWWs) subjected to external electric field is investigated. An effective radius of a cylindrical QWW describing the strength of the lateral confinement is introduced. The results show that (i) the position of the largest electron probability density in x–y plane is located at a point and it is pushed along the negative sense by the electric field directed along the positive sense, (ii) the ground-state binding energy is largest for the impurity located at this point and starts to decrease when the impurity is away from this point, (iii) the ground-state binding energy decreases with increase in the external electric field and effective radius, and (iv) the Stark-shift increases with the increase of the external electric field and the effective radius

  11. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Physics, and UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, TR-06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-16

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.

  12. Position- and time-resolved Stark broadening diagnostics of a non-thermal laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Stark-broadened line shapes of silicon ions in a laser-induced plasma using a model constructed, without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), using a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The method is applied to temporally and spatially resolved measurements of Si 2+ and Si 3+ emissions from a transient plasma expanding into vacuum, produced by 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a Si (1 0 0) target. The best-fitting simulated line shapes and the corresponding electron number densities and temperatures (or equivalently, Druyvesteyn average energies) are compared with those returned assuming LTE (i.e. for a Maxwellian EEDF). Non-thermal behavior is found to dominate at all but the very earliest stages of expansion close to the target surface, consistent with McWhirter’s criterion for the establishment of LTE. The Druyvesteyn EEDF always yields an equivalent or better model of the experimental measurements, and the observed increasingly strong departure from the Maxwellian case with time and distance from the ablation event highlights the essential invalidity of the LTE assumption for moderate-power, nanosecond laser-induced plasma expanding in vacuo. (paper)

  13. Influence of the dynamic Stark effect on long-term frequency stability of a self-oscillating magnetometer with laser-pumped alkali atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Ermak, S. V.; Kulachenkov, N. K.; Petrenko, M. V.; Sagitov, E. A.; Semenov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation Stark shift effect influence on the long-term stability of a dual scheme of quantum magnetometers. Such scheme allows suppressing Stark shift components when a certain pumping light polarization is applied. As a result, long-term stability of a quantum sensor increases. However, when low-frequency (LF) and microwave fields are attached to a single vapor cell a coherence circulation in hyperfine structure of alkali atoms takes place. Physical origin of this effect is associated with the so called “dressed” atom theory, when atom is “dressed” by LF field. It yields in multiphoton absorption and resonance frequency shift. First estimates for this shift based on density matrix evolution formalism are provided in the paper.

  14. Wave-function analysis of dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks by use of pulsed Raman and electromagnetically-induced-transparency techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We study analytically the dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shift in the recently proposed pulsed electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT-)Raman optical lattice clock based on the wave-function formalism. An explicit expression for the time evolution operator corresponding to the effective two-level interaction Hamiltonian has been obtained in order to explain the atomic phase shift cancellation due to the ac Stark shift induced by the time-separated laser pulses. We present how to determine an optimum value of the common detuning of the driving fields at which the atomic phase shift cancels completely with the parameters for the practical realization of the EIT-Raman optical lattice clock with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

  15. Experimental evidence in favour of the Stark mixing of atomic L-subshell states in the boron impact of Au and Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhi, H.C.; Dhal, B.B.; Nandi, T.; Trautmann, D.

    1995-01-01

    L-subshell ionization of Au and Bi induced by boron impact has been investigated for impact energies ranging from 0.48 to 0.88 MeV/μ. The energy dependence of the measured ionization cross section shows, for the first time, a plateau structure for all three subshells. The plateau structure revealed by previous data for proton and helium impact was for the L 1 subshell only and this had been attributed to the bimodal nature of the 2s electron density. The observed plateau structure for all the three subshells and its occurrence at a somewhat lower energy signifies a considerable amount of Stark mixing of target 2s and 2p atomic wavefunctions. Fresh calculations incorporating the Stark mixing effect in target atomic wavefunctions are necessary to improve agreement with the present data. The existing theories, however, are found to be inadequate. (author)

  16. Anti-Stokes emissions and determination of Stark sub-level diagram of Er3+ ions in KY3F10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulma, E; Diaf, M; Jouart, J P; Bouffard, M; Doualan, J L; Moncorge, R

    2006-01-01

    We are interested, in this work, in determining the Stark sub-level of Er 3+ ions doping a KY 3 F 10 single crystal with a molar concentration of 1%. We have used a new method of measurement of energies of the ground level and emitting levels from excitation and anti-Stokes emission spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature. This technique is based on a spectral analysis of the anti-Stokes emissions recorded after selective excitation with a red dye tunable laser. Thus, we could determine the Stark sub-levels of the ground and the principal emitting levels in the infrared, visible and near-UV ranges with a very good precision

  17. Local Electric Field Strength in a Hollow Cathode Determined by Stark Splitting of the 2S Level of Hydrogen Isotopes by Optogalvanic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la; Gruetzmacher, K.; Fuentes, L. M.; Gonzalo, A. B.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy as a tool to measure the electric field strength in the cathode fall region of a hollow cathode discharge via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic deuterium. The strong electric field strength present in the hollow cathode is determined for various discharge conditions which allows studying the corresponding variations of the cathode fall, and its changes with discharge operation time.

  18. Orthogonal Electric Field Measurements near the Green Fluorescent Protein Fluorophore through Stark Effect Spectroscopy and pKa Shifts Provide a Unique Benchmark for Electrostatics Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Joshua D; First, Jeremy T; Webb, Lauren J

    2017-07-20

    Measurement of the magnitude, direction, and functional importance of electric fields in biomolecules has been a long-standing experimental challenge. pK a shifts of titratable residues have been the most widely implemented measurements of the local electrostatic environment around the labile proton, and experimental data sets of pK a shifts in a variety of systems have been used to test and refine computational prediction capabilities of protein electrostatic fields. A more direct and increasingly popular technique to measure electric fields in proteins is Stark effect spectroscopy, where the change in absorption energy of a chromophore relative to a reference state is related to the change in electric field felt by the chromophore. While there are merits to both of these methods and they are both reporters of local electrostatic environment, they are fundamentally different measurements, and to our knowledge there has been no direct comparison of these two approaches in a single protein. We have recently demonstrated that green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an ideal model system for measuring changes in electric fields in a protein interior caused by amino acid mutations using both electronic and vibrational Stark effect chromophores. Here we report the changes in pK a of the GFP fluorophore in response to the same mutations and show that they are in excellent agreement with Stark effect measurements. This agreement in the results of orthogonal experiments reinforces our confidence in the experimental results of both Stark effect and pK a measurements and provides an excellent target data set to benchmark diverse protein electrostatics calculations. We used this experimental data set to test the pK a prediction ability of the adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann solver (APBS) and found that a simple continuum dielectric model of the GFP interior is insufficient to accurately capture the measured pK a and Stark effect shifts. We discuss some of the limitations of this

  19. The effects of ultrasonic pretreatment and structural changes during the osmotic dehydration of the 'Starking' apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Mendoza, M. E.; Fernandez-Munoz, J. L.; Arjona-Roman, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    During the osmotic dehydration (OD) of fruit, the cell membrane displays a high resistance to mass transfer, thereby reducing the dehydration rate. To reduce thermal damage to cell membranes, alternative methods have recently been introduced to reduce the initial moisture content and/or modify the structure of fruit tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an ultrasound (US) pretreatment for OD on the effective diffusion coefficients and to observe the changes in the molecular structure of 'Starking' apple cubes by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) during a 3 h process using a 45 dregee Bx sucrose solution at 60 degree centigrade. In the pretreatment step, apple samples were immersed in an ultrasonic bath at 45 kHz for 20 min. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (Dew) and solids (Des) were calculated from the observed osmotic kinetics according to Fick's second law for the transient state. The solids coefficients were higher than the water coefficients in both processes due to the concentration difference (De = 7.7 × 10{sup -}9 and 9.7 × 10{sup -}9 m{sup 2} s{sup -}1 for ODUS). The structural changes were determined by FTIR by measuring the molecular vibration frequency for sucrose. The 1,500-900 cm{sup -}1 region of the infrared spectra was used to monitor the effect of sucrose concentration on fruit structure. We observed that the first bonds formed were C-H and C-O-C stretching (at 920 and 1,129 cm{sup -}1, respectively) in the sucrose skeleton and glycoside bonds among sucrose molecules. The water concentration affected the diffusion coefficient significantly due to its dependence on the physical structure of the food. (Author) 27 refs.

  20. Theoretical Stark broadening parameters for spectral lines arising from the 2p5ns, 2p5np and 2p5nd electronic configurations of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, corresponding to 237 spectral lines of Mg III. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for odd parity. For the intermediate coupling (IC) calculations, we use the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of 70 transition probabilities of Mg III spectral lines and 14 calculated values of radiative lifetimes of Mg III levels. There is good agreement between our calculations and experimental radiative lifetimes. Spectral lines of Mg III are relevant in astrophysics and also play an important role in the spectral analysis of laboratory plasma. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. No values of Stark parameters can be found in the bibliography.

  1. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Ben Nessib, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future.

  2. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S; Moreau, N; Dimitrijević, M S; Nessib, N Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future. (paper)

  3. Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p 5 nf and 2p 5 5g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5–10.0 (10 4 K) and for an electron density of 10 17 cm −3 . The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3p, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4f and 2s 2 2p 5 5f for the even parity and 2s 2 2p 5 ns (n = 3–6), 2s 2 2p 5 nd (n = 3–9), 2s 2 2p 5 5g and 2s2p 6 np (n = 3–8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed. (paper)

  4. New Aspects of Field Entropy Squeezing as an Indicator for Mixed State Entanglement in an Effective Two-Level System with Stark Shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Abdel-Khalek; M.M.A.Ahmed; A-S F.Obada

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic field,initially prepared in a coherent state.Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested.The temporal evolution of the negativity,Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated.The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.%We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic Reid, initially prepared in a coherent state. Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested. The temporal evolution of the negativity, Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated. The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.

  5. Entanglement analysis of a two-atom nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model with nondegenerate two-photon transition, Kerr nonlinearity, and two-mode Stark shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghshahi, H. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Faghihi, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    An entangled state, as an essential tool in quantum information processing, may be generated through the interaction between light and matter in cavity quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, we study the interaction between two two-level atoms and a two-mode field in an optical cavity enclosed by a medium with Kerr nonlinearity in the presence of a detuning parameter and Stark effect. It is assumed that the atom-field coupling and third-order susceptibility of the Kerr medium depend on the intensity of the light. In order to investigate the dynamics of the introduced system, we obtain the exact analytical form of the state vector of the considered atom-field system under initial conditions which may be prepared for the atoms (in a coherent superposition of their ground and upper states) and the fields (in a standard coherent state). Then, in order to evaluate the degree of entanglement between the subsystems, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement by employing the entanglement of formation. Finally, we analyze in detail the influences of the Stark shift, the deformed Kerr medium, the intensity-dependent coupling, and also the detuning parameter on the behavior of this measure for different subsystems. The numerical results show that the amount of entanglement between the different subsystems can be controlled by choosing the evolved parameters appropriately.

  6. Entanglement analysis of a two-atom nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model with nondegenerate two-photon transition, Kerr nonlinearity, and two-mode Stark shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghshahi, H R; Tavassoly, M K; Faghihi, M J

    2014-01-01

    An entangled state, as an essential tool in quantum information processing, may be generated through the interaction between light and matter in cavity quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, we study the interaction between two two-level atoms and a two-mode field in an optical cavity enclosed by a medium with Kerr nonlinearity in the presence of a detuning parameter and Stark effect. It is assumed that the atom–field coupling and third-order susceptibility of the Kerr medium depend on the intensity of the light. In order to investigate the dynamics of the introduced system, we obtain the exact analytical form of the state vector of the considered atom–field system under initial conditions which may be prepared for the atoms (in a coherent superposition of their ground and upper states) and the fields (in a standard coherent state). Then, in order to evaluate the degree of entanglement between the subsystems, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement by employing the entanglement of formation. Finally, we analyze in detail the influences of the Stark shift, the deformed Kerr medium, the intensity-dependent coupling, and also the detuning parameter on the behavior of this measure for different subsystems. The numerical results show that the amount of entanglement between the different subsystems can be controlled by choosing the evolved parameters appropriately. (paper)

  7. Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect, quasi-guided and photonic modes in 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Goltviansky, Yu.; Sapelnikova, O.; Lytvynenko, O.; Stronska, O.; Bo, Wang; Kartel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The IR absorption spectra of oxidized macroporous silicon were studied. • The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect on Si-SiO_2 boundary was confirmed. • An additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes was evaluated. • The photonic modes and band gaps were measured as peculiarities in absorption spectra. - Abstract: Opportunities to enhance the properties of structured surfaces were demonstrated on 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings. We investigated the IR light absorption oscillations in macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings 0–800 nm thick. The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect due to strong electric field on Si-SiO_2boundary and an additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes were taken into account. The photonic modes and band gaps were also considered as peculiarities in absorbance spectra of macroporous silicon structures with a thick SiO_2 coating. The photonic modes do not coincide with the quasi-guided modes in the silicon matrix and do not appear in absorption spectra of 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals.

  8. Influence of Doppler and 'Stark' effects on the shape of the autoionization peaks in electron energy spectra produced in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleizes, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Merchez, H.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed study is given of the influence of the Doppler shift and broadening on the spectra of electrons ejected by autoionization in collisions between heavy particles. General formulae have been obtained which permit the validity of results already published by other authors to be discussed. These results have been applied to the spectra of electrons ejected in He + -He collisions at 15 keV. The variation of the width of the autoionization peaks against ejection angle is well explained by Doppler broadening. On the contrary, the shape of these peaks cannot be due to the Doppler effect but rather to the Stark effect which is also studied in various experimental cases; it has been verified that the latter effect disappears in collisions between neutral particles for which symmetric peaks at 15 keV are obtained. (author)

  9. Quantum-confined Stark effect at 1.3 μm in Ge/Si(0.35)Ge(0.65) quantum-well structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Mohamed Said; Chaisakul, Papichaya; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Frigerio, Jacopo; Isella, Giovanni; Chrastina, Daniel; Edmond, Samson; Le Roux, Xavier; Coudevylle, Jean-René; Vivien, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    Room-temperature quantum-confined Stark effect in a Ge/SiGe quantum-well structure is reported at the wavelength of 1.3 μm. The operating wavelength is tuned by the use of strain engineering. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to grow 20 periods of strain-compensated quantum wells (8 nm Ge well and 12 nm Si(0.35)Ge(0.65) barrier) on Si(0.21)Ge(0.79) virtual substrate. The fraction of light absorbed per well allows for a strong modulation around 1.3 μm. The half-width at half-maximum of the excitonic peak of only 12 meV allows for a discussion on physical mechanisms limiting the performances of such devices.

  10. Stark effect investigations of excited cadmium, ytterbium, and thulium I-levels using the methods of double resonance and level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkleff, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the method of optical double resonance, the 5s5p 3 P 1 level tensor polarizability of Cadmium has been measured. For this state, various authors have published different results, using different experimental methods. The experimental result presented here is in excellent agreement with the value of Happer, based on level crossing investigations, and agrees well with the theoretical result of Robinson based on a modified Sternheimer approximation, and so gives a reliable value for the tensor polarizability. Furthermore the tensor polarizability of the 6s6p 3 P 1 - level of the even Ytterbium isotopes and the odd Ytterbium 171 nucleus have been measured with the optical double resonance method, and the Stark constant has been calculated based on a given theory and oscillator strengths. Using the methods of optical double resonance and level crossing, the tensor polarizability of 5 excited levels of the Thulium configurations 4f 13 6s6p + 4f 12 5d6s 2 have been measured. From the experimental Stark constants and the angular coefficients of the eigenfunctions calculated by Camus, the radial integrals I(5d, 5p) and I(6p, 5d) are calculated for electric dipole transitions between levels of the configurations 4f 12 5d6s 2 + 4f 13 6s6p and levels of the 4f 12 6p6s 2 + 4f 13 6s5d configurations. The tensor polarizability calculated with these radial integrals show very good agreement with the experimental values. (orig./LH) [de

  11. Effect of holding period prior to storage on the chemical attributes of Starking Delicious apples during refrigerated storage Efeito do período que antecede o armazenamento nos atributos químicos de maças Starking Delicious durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Batkan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of three different holding periods (6, 12 and 24 hours prior to storage on the quality attributes of Starking Delicious apples were investigated during storage of 8 months at 0.5 ± 1.0 ºC. Changes in weight loss, flesh firmness, pH values, soluble dry matter amount, titratable acidity values, ascorbic acid contents, and total and reducing sugar content were determined. According to the results, the holding period showed statistically significant changes in the quality attributes of the apples (p Neste trabalho, os efeitos de três diferentes tempos de espera (6, 12 e 24 horas antes do armazenamento sobre os atributos de qualidade de maçãs tipo Starking Delicious foram investigados durante o armazenamento de 8 meses a 0,5 ± 1,0 ºC. Alterações na perda de peso, firmeza da polpa, valores de pH, quantidade de matéria seca solúvel, valores de acidez titulável, teor de ácido ascórbico e teor de açúcar redutor e total das amostras foram determinadas. De acordo com os resultados da análise, o tempo de espera causou alterações estatisticamente significativas sobre as nos atributos de qualidade das maçãs (p < 0,05.

  12. Slowing and cooling of heavy or light (even with a tiny electric dipole moment) polar molecules using a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Hou, Shunyong; Xu, Liang; Yin, Jianping

    2016-02-21

    To meet some demands for realizing precise measurements of an electric dipole moment of electron (eEDM) and examining cold collisions or cold chemical physics, we have proposed a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator with an array of true 3D electric potential wells, which are created by a series of horizontally-oriented, U-shaped electrodes with time-sequence controlling high voltages (± HV) and two guiding electrodes with a constant voltage. We have calculated the 2D electric field distribution, the Stark shifts of the four lowest rotational sub-levels of PbF molecules in the X1(2)Π1/2(v = 0) electronic and vibrational ground states as well as the population in the different rotational levels. We have discussed the 2D longitudinal and transverse phase-space acceptances of PbF molecules in our decelerator. Subsequently, we have simulated the dynamic processes of the decelerated PbF molecules using the 3D Monte-Carlo method, and have found that a supersonic PbF beam with a velocity of 300 m s(-1) can be efficiently slowed to about 5 m s(-1), which will greatly enhance the sensitivities to research a parity violation and measure an eEDM. In addition, we have investigated the dependences of the longitudinal velocity spread, longitudinal temperature and bunching efficiency on both the number of guiding stages and high voltages, and found that after bunching, a cold packet of PbF molecules in the J = 7/2, MΩ = -7/4 state with a longitudinal velocity spread of 0.69 m s(-1) (corresponding to a longitudinal temperature of 2.35 mK) will be produced by our high-efficient decelerator, which will generate a high energy-resolution molecular beam for studying cold collision physics. Finally, our novel decelerator can also be used to efficiently slow NO molecules with a tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) of 0.16 D from 315 m s(-1) to 28 m s(-1). It is clear that our proposed new decelerator has a good slowing performance and experimental feasibility as well as wide

  13. Interband Stark effects in InxGa1-xAs/InyAl1-yAs coupled step quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, T.W.; Yoo, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the interband transitions in In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum wells have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well sample consisted of the two sets of a 50 Aa In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As shallow quantum well and a 50 Aa In 0.65 Ga 0.35 As deep step quantum well bounded by two thick In 0.52 Al 0.48 As barriers separated by a 30 Aa In 0.52 Al 0.48 As embedded potential barrier. The Stark shift of the interband transition energy in the In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well is larger than that of the single quantum well, and the oscillator strength in the In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well is larger than that in a coupled rectangular quantum well. These results indicate that In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum wells hold promise for potential applications in optoelectron devices, such as tunable lasers

  14. Rabi oscillations and rapid-passage effects in the molecular-beam CO2-laser Stark spectroscopy of CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.G.; Gough, T.E.; Isenor, N.R.; Scoles, G.

    1985-01-01

    sub-Doppler molecular-beam laser Stark spectroscopy has been employed to produce high-contrast Rabi oscillations in the ν 3 band of CH 3 F. By varying the intensity of the cw CO 2 laser, up to five complete oscillations were observed before the phenomenon was washed out by rapid-passage effects and damping mechanisms. Besides being useful in clarifying key features of coherent ir molecular-beam spectroscopy, the observation of Rabi oscillations provides one of the most accurate means of directly measuring transition dipole moments. Analysis of the present data on three rovibrational transitions, Q(1,1) -1reverse arrow0, P(1,0) 0reverse arrow0, and R(1,1) 0reverse arrow1, has yielded a rotationless transition dipole moment of 0.21 +- 0.01 D for the ν 3 = 1reverse arrow0 vibration. This result is in agreement with values estimated from both band-intensity and absorption-coefficient data in the literature

  15. Quantum confined Stark effects of single dopant in polarized hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and Ritz-Hassé variation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harouny, El Hassan; Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; Ibral, Asmaa; El Khamkhami, Jamal; Assaid, El Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    Eigenvalues equation of hydrogen-like off-center single donor impurity confined in polarized homogeneous hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer, capped by insulated matrix and submitted to external uniform electric field is solved in the framework of the effective mass approximation. An infinitely deep potential is used to describe effects of quantum confinement due to conduction band offsets at surfaces where quantum dot and surrounding materials meet. Single donor ground state total and binding energies in presence of electric field are determined via two-dimensional finite difference approach and Ritz-Hassé variation principle. For the latter method, attractive coulomb correlation between electron and ionized single donor is taken into account in the expression of trial wave function. It appears that off-center single dopant binding energy, spatial extension and radial probability density are strongly dependent on hemisphere radius and single dopant position inside quantum dot. Influence of a uniform electric field is also investigated. It shows that Stark effect appears even for very small size dots and that single dopant energy shift is more significant when the single donor is near hemispherical surface.

  16. Vibrational Stark Effect of the Electric-Field Reporter 4-Mercaptobenzonitrile as a Tool for Investigating Electrostatics at Electrode/SAM/Solution Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hildebrandt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-mercaptobenzonitrile (MBN in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on Au and Ag electrodes was studied by surface enhanced infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, to correlate the nitrile stretching frequency with the local electric field exploiting the vibrational Stark effect (VSE. Using MBN SAMs in different metal/SAM interfaces, we sorted out the main factors controlling the nitrile stretching frequency, which comprise, in addition to external electric fields, the metal-MBN bond, the surface potential, and hydrogen bond interactions. On the basis of the linear relationships between the nitrile stretching and the electrode potential, an electrostatic description of the interfacial potential distribution is presented that allows for determining the electric field strengths on the SAM surface, as well as the effective potential of zero-charge of the SAM-coated metal. Comparing this latter quantity with calculated values derived from literature data, we note a very good agreement for Au/MBN but distinct deviations for Ag/MBN which may reflect either the approximations and simplifications of the model or the uncertainty in reported structural parameters for Ag/MBN. The present electrostatic model consistently explains the electric field strengths for MBN SAMs on Ag and Au as well as for thiophenol and mercaptohexanoic acid SAMs with MBN incorporated as a VSE reporter.

  17. Electric-dipole moment of CaF by molecular-beam, laser-rf, double-resonance study of Stark splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.; Goodman, L.S.; Nielsen, U.; Pfeufer, V.

    1984-01-01

    The electronic structure of diatomic molecules is much more complex for open-shell sytems (radicals) than for the normal closed-shell systems, and the development of an adequate theoretical understanding will require a substantial upgrading of experimental knowledge in both quality and quantity. The alkaline-earth monohalide family of radicals, with only a single electron outside closed-shell cores, would appear to be a logical starting point for such studies, and there has been a great increase in work in this area in the last few years in spite of the special difficulties of working with free radicals. As the work of measuring the vibrational and rotational structure of the electronic states has become more complete, attention has turned to study of the much weaker spin-rotation and hyperfine interactions. Within the last three years, these interactions have been studied systematically at high precision in the calcium monohalide family with the molecular-beam, laser-rf double-resonance technique. The same method has now been modified and extended to make possible measurement of the electric-dipole moments of these molecules through observation of the Stark splittings of radiofrequency transitions. It is hoped that when considered together, the several types of data will make it possible to understand the ground-state electronic wave functions of these molecules at least qualitatively. 2 figures

  18. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  19. The importance of the radial electric field (Er) on interpretation of motional Stark effect measurements of the q profile in DIII-D high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Greenfield, C.M.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.

    1997-06-01

    The development of enhanced confinement regimes such as negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and VH-mode illustrates the importance of the q profile and ExB velocity shear in improving stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas. Recently, it was realized that the large values of radial electric field observed in these high performance plasmas, up to 200 kV/m in DIII-D, have an effect on the interpretation of motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements of the q profile. It has also been shown that, with additional MSE measurements, one can extract a direct measurement of E r in addition to the usual poloidal field measurement. During a recent vent on DIII-D, 19 additional MSE channels with new viewing angles were added (for a total of 35 channels) in order to descriminate between the neutral beam v b x B electric field and the plasma E r field. In this paper, the system upgrade will be described and initial measurements demonstrating simultaneous measurement of the q and E r profiles will be presented

  20. Characterization of hollow cathode fall field strength measured by Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy via Stark splitting of the 2S level of hydrogen and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C; De la Rosa, M I; Gruetzmacher, K, E-mail: concha@opt.uva.e [Universidad de Valladolid, Facultad de Ciencias, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy has been applied to measure the strong electric field strength and the cathode fall characteristics of hollow cathode discharges operated in hydrogen and deuterium via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic hydrogen isotopes. In this paper we show similarities and differences in the tendencies of the cathode fall characteristics of hydrogen and deuterium in a wide range of identical discharge parameters.

  1. Characterization of hollow cathode fall field strength measured by Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy via Stark splitting of the 2S level of hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C; De la Rosa, M I; Gruetzmacher, K

    2010-01-01

    Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy has been applied to measure the strong electric field strength and the cathode fall characteristics of hollow cathode discharges operated in hydrogen and deuterium via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic hydrogen isotopes. In this paper we show similarities and differences in the tendencies of the cathode fall characteristics of hydrogen and deuterium in a wide range of identical discharge parameters.

  2. The influence of Stark shift and plasma inhomogeneity on half width of self-absorbed line profiles in the plasma emission spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsalap, K.Yu.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Emission spectral line profiles are commonly used for the evaluation of local plasma parameters. The plasma parameters and local line profiles are related in a rather simple way: e.g. at quadratic Stark broadening, the local line half widths and shifts are proportional to the electron density. For homogeneous optically thin plasmas, there is no difference in the line profiles of plasma emission and emissivity spectra. However for inhomogeneous source, the profiles are different due to spatial dependence of electron density and plasma temperature: profiles in the plasma emission are a superposition of different local ones. A transition from the recorded to local profiles is usually performed by tomography techniques. As the result, the measurement procedure is getting slower and additional errors occurs. For transparent plasmas, an approach was developed to evaluate local profiles from as recorded spectra using relations found by modeling. However, for semi-transparent plasmas the relation between the recorded and local profiles is more complicated one. With the optical thickness t increase, profile half width Δλ in the plasma emission spectrum changes much comparing to the profile half width Δλ 0 in the spectrum of optically thin plasma. The ratio t h =Δλ/Δλ 0 on τ for dispersion profile and homogeneous plasma can be written as t h =(-1-τ/ln((1+e -τ )/2)) 1/2 . When Δλ and τ are known, the function allows obtaining Δλ 0 , i. e. reducing the problem to the transparent plasma diagnostics. However, the plasma is nearly always inhomogeneous and the value t depends significantly on plasma inhomogeneity and on Stark parameters ratio d/w. Here, the dependence t(τ) for plasmas of different inhomogeneity rates has been obtained by the numerical simulation. The radiation transfer equation has been solved to calculate the spectral line profiles for LTE-plasma of known composition and distribution of temperature along the observation line. The temperature

  3. Nanometer-scale monitoring of quantum-confined Stark effect and emission efficiency droop in multiple GaN/AlN quantum disks in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagonel, L. F.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Vitiello, G. Z.; Jacopin, G.; Rigutti, L.; Tchernycheva, M.; Julien, F. H.; Songmuang, R.; Ostasevicius, T.; de la Peña, F.; Ducati, C.; Midgley, P. A.; Kociak, M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a detailed study of the intensity dependent optical properties of individual GaN/AlN quantum disks (QDisks) embedded into GaN nanowires (NW). The structural and optical properties of the QDisks were probed by high spatial resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). By exciting the QDisks with a nanometric electron beam at currents spanning over three orders of magnitude, strong nonlinearities (energy shifts) in the light emission are observed. In particular, we find that the amount of energy shift depends on the emission rate and on the QDisk morphology (size, position along the NW and shell thickness). For thick QDisks (>4 nm), the QDisk emission energy is observed to blueshift with the increase of the emission intensity. This is interpreted as a consequence of the increase of carriers density excited by the incident electron beam inside the QDisks, which screens the internal electric field and thus reduces the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) present in these QDisks. For thinner QDisks (energy shifts, marking the transition from unscreened to partially screened QCSE. From the threshold value we estimate the lifetime in the unscreened regime. These observations suggest that, counterintuitively, electrons of high energy can behave ultimately as single electron-hole pair generators. In addition, when we increase the current from 1 to 10 pA the light emission efficiency drops by more than one order of magnitude. This reduction of the emission efficiency is a manifestation of the "efficiency droop" as observed in nitride-based 2D light emitting diodes, a phenomenon tentatively attributed to the Auger effect.

  4. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  5. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Starke COUNTY, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. Berechnung des Hochfrequenzverhaltens komplexer Strukturen mit der Methode gekoppelter Streuparameter – CSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Glock

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wird eine Methode zur Berechnung der Hochfrequenz-Eigenschaften komplexer Strukturen vorgestellt. Das Verfahren beruht auf der Zerlegung der Gesamtstruktur in einzelne einfachere Segmente, deren breitbandige S-Matrizen mit kommerziellen Programmen berechnet werden. Das Gesamtsystem kann von beliebiger Topologie sein, und die Zahl der die Segmente verkoppelnden Hohlleiter- Moden ist nicht begrenzt. Als Ergebnis steht bei offenen Strukturen deren vollständige S-Matrix, bei abgeschlossenen deren Resonanzeigenschaften zur Verfügung. Die theoretischen Grundlagen werden beschrieben und die Anwendung mit Beispielen aus dem Gebiet der Teilchenbeschleuniger und zu Eigenschaften schwach elliptisch geformter Resonatoren illustriert. A method called Coupled S-Parameter Calculation – CSC is described which is used to calculate the rf properties of complex structures, i.e. either their scattering (devices with ports or their resonance properties. The method is based on the segmentation of the entire system into sections being less complex, the external calculation of the section’s broadband S-matrices, and a combination scheme, which is applicable to any topology and number of modes. The method’s principle is described. Examples from the field of particle accelerator cavities and about the properties of weakly elliptical resonators are given.

  7. Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Redoxspeziationsanalysen von Eisen, Neptunium und Plutonium per CE-SF-ICP-MS durchgeführt. Durch Optimierung der Trennparameter konnten Trennungen der Pu Oxidationsstufen III bis VI und Trennungen der Np Oxidationsstufen IV bis VI binnen 15 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 10-12 M durchgeführt werden. Die Trennung der Fe Oxidationsstufen II und III gelang in weniger als 5 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 5-10-8 M.

  8. Stark effect in a hydrogenic atom or ion treated by the phase-integral method with adjoined papers by A. Hökback and P. O. Fröman

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    2008-01-01

    This book treats the Stark effect of a hydrogenic atom or ion in a homogeneous electric field. It begins with a thorough review of previous work in this field since 1926. After the Schrödinger equation has been separated with respect to time dependence, centre of mass motion and internal motion, followed by a discussion of its eigenfunctions, the exact development in time of the probability amplitude for a decaying state is obtained by means of a formula analogous to the Fock-Krylov theorem. From this formula one obtains by means of the phase-integral approximation generated from a particular

  9. Stark absorption spectroscopy on the carotenoids bound to B800-820 and B800-850 type LH2 complexes from a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Phaeospirillum molischianum strain DSM120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Tomoko; Qian, Pu; Hunter, C Neil; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-04-15

    Stark absorption spectroscopy was applied to clarify the structural differences between carotenoids bound to the B800-820 and B800-850 LH2 complexes from a purple photosynthetic bacterium Phaeospirillum (Phs.) molischianum DSM120. The former complex is produced when the bacteria are grown under stressed conditions of low temperature and dim light. These two LH2 complexes bind carotenoids with similar composition, 10% lycopene and 80% rhodopin, each with the same number of conjugated CC double bonds (n=11). Quantitative classical and semi-quantum chemical analyses of Stark absorption spectra recorded in the carotenoid absorption region reveal that the absolute values of the difference dipole moments |Δμ| have substantial differences (2 [D/f]) for carotenoids bound to either B800-820 or B800-850 complexes. The origin of this striking difference in the |Δμ| values was analyzed using the X-ray crystal structure of the B800-850 LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum DSM119. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations predict structural deformations of the major carotenoid, rhodopin, bound within the B800-820 complex. We propose that simultaneous rotations around neighboring CC and CC bonds account for the differences in the 2 [D/f] of the |Δμ| value. The plausible position of the rotation is postulated to be located around C21-C24 bonds of rhodopin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron–Cyclotron Laser Using Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Radiation in a Strong Uniform Axial Magnetic Field and an Alternating Axial Electric Field in a Voltage-Supplied Pill-Box Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the radiation from the beam electrons traveling in a strong uniform axial magnetic field and an axial alternating electric field of wavelength λ_w generated by a voltage-supplied pill-box cavity. The beam electrons emit genuine laser radiation that propagates only in the axial direction through free-electron two-quantum Stark radiation. We find that laser radiation takes place only at the expense of the axial kinetic energy when λ_w ≪ c/(ω_c/γ), where ω_c/γ is the relativistic electron–cyclotron frequency. We formulate the laser power based on quantum-wiggler electrodynamics, and envision a laser of length 10 m with estimated power 0.1 GW/(kA) in the 10"−"4 cm wavelength range. (paper)

  11. Production of H(2s) fast metastable atoms (0.25-3 keV) on a Cs target. Detection of the α Lyman radiation induced by Stark effect: polarisation. Destruction of H(2s) atoms on an IH target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, Antoine.

    1974-01-01

    The production, detection and destruction of the 2S1/2 metastable state of the hydrogen atom were studied. The quasi-resonant charge exchange processes between fast protons and cesium target, in the total cross sections for production of metastable H(2s) atoms and radiative H(2p) atoms showed structures hitherto unobserved. The theoretical study is based on calculation of the adiabatic molecular potential terms of the ionic quasi-molecule (CsH) + , taking a Helmann type pseudopotential to describe the electron with respect to the core of the cesium ion. The probabilities of transition towards the output channels are calculated using a stationary state perturbation method. From the data obtained the interferece phenomena of excited quasi-molecular states can be interpreted coherently in slow collision. The probability of transition along the inelastic output channels displays characteristics of a harmonic oscillatory function inversely proportional to the speed of approach of the particles. The frequency of these oscillations depends very slightly on the impact parameter. The theory proposed involves three Σ states. During detection of the metastable ions the Lyman-α radiation induced in the de-excitation electric field by Stark effect present anisotropic features. The degree of polarization measured as a function of the field strength oscillates around a slow decay toward a limit-1 at strong electric field. A theory not accounting for the hyperfine structure of states mixed by Stark effect showed a double oscillatory structure containing the two frequencies correlated to the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states from the 2S1/2 state. Finally the results on the electron detachment reaction between fast metastable atoms and hydroiodic acid target have contributed towards research on polarized proton sources [fr

  12. Independent variations of applied voltage and injection current for controlling the quantum-confined Stark effect in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Horng-Shyang; Liu, Zhan Hui; Shih, Pei-Ying; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yen; Lin, Chun-Han; Yao, Yu-Feng; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2014-04-07

    A reverse-biased voltage is applied to either device in the vertical configuration of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned and flat Si (110) substrates with weak and strong quantum-confined Stark effects (QCSEs), respectively, in the InGaN/GaN quantum wells for independently controlling the applied voltage across and the injection current into the p-i-n junction in the lateral configuration of LED operation. The results show that more carrier supply is needed in the LED of weaker QCSE to produce a carrier screening effect for balancing the potential tilt in increasing the forward-biased voltage, when compared with the LED of stronger QCSE. The small spectral shift range in increasing injection current in the LED of weaker QCSE is attributed not only to the weaker QCSE, but also to its smaller device resistance such that a given increment of applied voltage leads to a larger increment of injection current. From a viewpoint of practical application in LED operation, by applying a reverse-biased voltage in the vertical configuration, the applied voltage and injection current in the lateral configuration can be independently controlled by adjusting the vertical voltage for keeping the emission spectral peak fixed.

  13. Study of Stark Effect in n-doped 1.55 μm InN0.92yP1-1.92yBiy/InP MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilel, C.; Chakir, K.; Rebey, A.; Alrowaili, Z. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an applied electric field on electronic band structure and optical absorption properties of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) was theoretically studied using a self-consistent calculation combined with the 16-band anti-crossing model. The incorporation of N and Bi atoms into an InP host matrix leads to rapid reduction of the band gap energy covering a large infrared range. The optimization of the well parameters, such as the well/barrier widths, N/Bi compositions and doping density, allowed us to obtain InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs operating at the wavelength 1.55 μm. Application of the electric field causes a red-shift of the fundamental transition energy T 1 accompanied by a significant change in the spatial distribution of confined electron density. The Stark effect on the absorption coefficient of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs was investigated. The Bi composition of these MQWs was adjusted for each electric field value in order to maintain the wavelength emission at 1.55 μm.

  14. Two-center three-electron bonding in ClNH{sub 3} revealed via helium droplet infrared laser Stark spectroscopy: Entrance channel complex along the Cl + NH{sub 3} → ClNH{sub 2} + H reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Christopher P.; Douberly, Gary E., E-mail: douberly@uga.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2556 (United States); Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Kaufmann, Matin [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-04-28

    Pyrolytic dissociation of Cl{sub 2} is employed to dope helium droplets with single Cl atoms. Sequential addition of NH{sub 3} to Cl-doped droplets leads to the formation of a complex residing in the entry valley to the substitution reaction Cl + NH{sub 3} → ClNH{sub 2} + H. Infrared Stark spectroscopy in the NH stretching region reveals symmetric and antisymmetric vibrations of a C{sub 3v} symmetric top. Frequency shifts from NH{sub 3} and dipole moment measurements are consistent with a ClNH{sub 3} complex containing a relatively strong two-center three-electron (2c–3e) bond. The nature of the 2c–3e bonding in ClNH{sub 3} is explored computationally and found to be consistent with the complexation-induced blue shifts observed experimentally. Computations of interconversion pathways reveal nearly barrierless routes to the formation of this complex, consistent with the absence in experimental spectra of two other complexes, NH{sub 3}Cl and Cl–HNH{sub 2}, which are predicted in the entry valley to the hydrogen abstraction reaction Cl + NH{sub 3} → HCl + NH{sub 2}.

  15. Dynamics of coupled electron-nuclei-systems in laser fields; Dynamik gekoppelter Elektronen-Kern-Systeme in Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falge, Mirjam

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed at the theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in molecules and the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on ultra-short pulse ionization processes. In the first part of this thesis, the isotope effect and influence of vibrational excitation on high harmonic generation were investigated for the isotope pairs H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}. It was shown that on the one hand high harmonic intensities strongly depend on the vibrational quantum number of the initial state of the water molecule and on the other hand the spectra of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O exhibit a clear isotope effect for certain vibrationally excited states. Also it was shown that high harmonics of vibrationally excited states show an even more pronounced isotope effect than the ground state. The second and third part of this work treats the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on photoelectron spectra. In order to facilitate a numerically exact description of this dynamics, a simple one-dimensional model system (Shin-Metiu model) was used. It consists of only a single electronic and nuclear degree-of-freedom and allows for a switching between adiabatic and strongly non-adiabatic dynamics by its parameterization. This model served for the analysis of the dynamics of three different cases ranging from weak over intermediate to strong electron-nuclear coupling. To investigate the influence of non-adiabatic effects on photoelectron spectra, time-resolved photoelectron spectra were calculated applying two methods: a numerically exact treatment and an adiabatic approach neglecting the electron-nuclear coupling. Subsequently, the dependence of the efficiency of a non-adiabatic transition on the nuclear mass was analysed. To this end, the population dynamics and photoelectron spectra were calculated numerically exactly for a strong electron and nuclear coupling. Thereafter the asymmetry in forward and backward direction of time-resolved photoelectron spectra and the influence of non-adiabatic effects in this asymmetry were investigated. In the last part of this work, the dynamics and optical control in spin-coupled vibronic states were analysed.

  16. Combined heat and cold generation using vertical ground loops; Gekoppelte Kaelte- und Waermeerzeugung mit Erdwaermesonden: Handbuch zum Planungsvorgehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J.; Nussbaumer, T. [Ingenieurbuero Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Widmer, P. [Huber Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Truessel, D. [Kaelte-Waerme-Technik AG, Belp (Switzerland); Schmid, Ch. [Buero fuer Energietechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This handbook produced for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) addresses the problem of designing systems that produce heat and cold using integrated systems. The idea of using a single heat pump system instead of separate heating and refrigeration systems is introduced. Typical applications such as bakeries, restaurants and grocery stores are discussed. The use of vertical bore-hole heat-exchangers as a source of heat in winter and as a source of cold in summer is recommended. The handbook shows how heating and cooling needs can be calculated and examines the energy balance of a ground-coupled heat pump system. The design and calculation of an integrated system is described. A practical example of a system realised in a motor way restaurant near Berne, Switzerland, is given. Here, a heat pump-based system produces cold for refrigeration and heat for space heating and hot water. To enable comparisons to be made between different systems, the notions of energy efficiency ratio for heating and cooling (GLZ) and performance efficiency ratio for heating and cooling (GAZ) are introduced. An appendix provides useful information on simulation tools, temperature characteristics, the calculation of hot water demands, heat recovery and details on the energy consumption of refrigeration and deep-freeze equipment.

  17. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Zhao, Chao; Priante, Davide; Min, Jung-Wook; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  18. Mid-infrared signatures of hydroxyl containing water clusters: Infrared laser Stark spectroscopy of OH–H{sub 2}O and OH(D{sub 2}O){sub n} (n = 1-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Federico J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); INFIQC, Dpto. de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Brice, Joseph T.; Leavitt, Christopher M.; Liang, Tao; Douberly, Gary E., E-mail: douberly@uga.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Raston, Paul L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807 (United States); Pino, Gustavo A. [INFIQC, Dpto. de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-10-28

    Small water clusters containing a single hydroxyl radical are synthesized in liquid helium droplets. The OH–H{sub 2}O and OH(D{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters (n = 1-3) are probed with infrared laser spectroscopy in the vicinity of the hydroxyl radical OH stretch vibration. Experimental band origins are qualitatively consistent with ab initio calculations of the global minimum structures; however, frequency shifts from isolated OH are significantly over-predicted by both B3LYP and MP2 methods. An effective Hamiltonian that accounts for partial quenching of electronic angular momentum is used to analyze Stark spectra of the OH–H{sub 2}O and OH–D{sub 2}O binary complexes, revealing a 3.70(5) D permanent electric dipole moment. Computations of the dipole moment are in good agreement with experiment when large-amplitude vibrational averaging is taken into account. Polarization spectroscopy is employed to characterize two vibrational bands assigned to OH(D{sub 2}O){sub 2}, revealing two nearly isoenergetic cyclic isomers that differ in the orientation of the non-hydrogen-bonded deuterium atoms relative to the plane of the three oxygen atoms. The dipole moments for these clusters are determined to be approximately 2.5 and 1.8 D for “up-up” and “up-down” structures, respectively. Hydroxyl stretching bands of larger clusters containing three or more D{sub 2}O molecules are observed shifted approximately 300 cm{sup −1} to the red of the isolated OH radical. Pressure dependence studies and ab initio calculations imply the presence of multiple cyclic isomers of OH(D{sub 2}O){sub 3}.

  19. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2018-03-09

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  20. Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of principal intermanifold and inter-Stark transitions of Er3+(4f 11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Russell, Charles C. III; Gruber, John B.; Allik, Toomas H.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative spectroscopic study is performed on Er 3+ (4f 11 ) ions doped in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) and single-crystal laser rod, both containing nominal 50 at. % of Er 3+ . The standard Judd-Ofelt (JO) model is applied to the room-temperature absorption intensities of Er 3+ (4f 11 ) transitions in both hosts to obtain the phenomenological intensity parameters. These parameters are subsequently used to determine the radiative decay rates, radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the Er 3+ transitions from the upper multiplet manifolds to the corresponding lower-lying multiplet manifolds 2S+1 L J of Er 3+ (4f 11 ) in these garnet hosts. The emission cross sections of the intermanifold Er 3+ 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 (1.5 μm) transition as well as the principal inter-Stark transition Y 1 →Z 4 (1550 nm) within the corresponding multiplet manifolds have been determined. The room-temperature fluorescence lifetimes of the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 (1.5 μm) transition in both polycrystalline ceramic and single-crystal YAG samples were measured. From the radiative lifetimes determined from the JO model and the measured fluorescence lifetimes, the quantum efficiencies for both samples were determined. The comparative study of Er 3+ (4f 11 ) ions performed suggests that polycrystalline ceramic YAG is an excellent alternative to single-crystal YAG rod for certain applications

  1. Surface plasmon polariton Wannier-Stark ladder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Maradudin, A. A.; Méndez, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2014), s. 1613-1616 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12009 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Finite difference time domain method * Electromagnetic wave polarization * Plasmons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2014

  2. Zur Dynamik von stark nichtlinearen parametererregten Getriebesystemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 91-92 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Scientific Conference /75./. TU Dresden , 21.03.2004-27.03.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2076353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * parametric vibration * gearing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Coupled simulation of a system for the utilization of exhaust heat and cooling of the interior of commercial vehicles; Gekoppelte Simulation eines Abgaswaermenutzungs- und Fahrzeugkuehlsystems im Nutzfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambros, Peter; Fezer, Axel; Kapitel, Julian [TheSys GmbH, Kirchentellinsfurt (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Based on a simulation software called GT-Suite by Gamma Technology, a one-dimensional model of a waste-heat recovery system with utility vehicle boundary conditions was developed. Using this model, it is possible to simulate stationary operating points of this type WHR. A Clausius-Rankine cycle is used in the power-heat cogeneration. The Clausius-Rankine cycle is linked to the exhaust system by two boilers. The first boiler is installed in the main exhaust steam, the second boiler is implemented in the exhaust gas recirculation. Besides the waste-heat recovery system, the integrated cooling system of the vehicle is also modeled. (orig.)

  4. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics; THM-Gekoppelte Modellierung ausgewaehlter gesteinsmechanisch relevanter Prozesse im Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Repository Safety Research Div.

    2012-08-15

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  5. The WTO and the Poorest Countries; The Stark Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Aaditya Mattoo; Arvind Subramanian

    2004-01-01

    Small and poor countries pose a challenge for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These countries have acquired a significant say in WTO decision-making. However, they have limited ability to engage in the reciprocity game that is at the heart of the WTO, and have limited interests in the broader liberalization agenda because of their preferential access to industrial country markets. Accommodating the interests of the small and poor countries is desirable in itself, but would also facilitate...

  6. Motional stark effect upgrades on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Nilson, D.G.; Wroblewski, D.

    1994-04-01

    The measurement and control of the plasma current density profile (or q profile) is critical to the advanced tokamak program on DIII-D. A complete understanding of the stability and transport properties of advanced operating regimes requires detail poloidal field measurements over the entire plasma radius from the core to the edge. In support of this effort, the authors have recently completed an upgrade of the existing MSE diagnostic, increasing the number of channels from 8 to 16. A new viewing geometry has been added to the outer edge of the plasma which improves the radial resolution in this region from 10 cm to < 4 cm. This view requires the use of a reflector that has been designed to minimize polarization amplitude and phase effects. Vacuum-compatible polarizers have also been added to the instrument for in-situ calibration. Future use of the MSE diagnostic for feedback control of the q profile will also be discussed

  7. Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ellen M H; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Kamathi, Eva Muthuuri; Owino, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet-based open-ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies vary widely. They include giving birth, adoption, running away, abortion, denial, and postponement until discovery. Young people were also queried about unplanned pregnancy resolution among their peers. Discourse analysis reveals competing social scripts on abortion. Florid condemnation of abortion acts in the hypothetical cases contrasts with more frank and sober description of peers' real life abortion behaviour. Students' language is compared with that found in official curricula. The rhetorical devices, moralizing social scripts and dubious health claims about abortion in students' online narratives mirror the tenor and content of their academic curricula as well as Kenyan media presentation of the issue. The need for factual information, dispassionate dialogue and improved contraceptive access is considerable.

  8. Systems for uninterrupted power supply; USV - ein starkes Stueck Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.; Soelter, W. [AEG SVS GmbH, Warstein-Belecke (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    The millennium bug is only one of the many potential hazards in information technology. Systems for uninterrupted power supply offer a solution. [German] Alle Welt spricht vom Jahr-2000-Problem (Y2K). Die Meinungen dazu reichen von Horror-Szenarien bis hin zum Ignorieren dieses Problems. Dabei steht fest: Das Jahr-2000-Problem ist nur eines unter vielen Gefahrenpotentialen fuer die Informationstechnik. Dabei lassen sich alle Stoerfaktoren, die aus der Energieversorgung resultieren mit einer USV beseitigen. USV sichern Geschaeftsablaeufe und Fertigungsprozesse. (orig.)

  9. Stark broadening in hot, dense laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.J.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Broadened Lyman-α x-ray lines from neon X and argon XVIII radiators, which are immersed in a hot, dense deuterium or deuterium-tritium plasma, are discussed. In particular, these lines are analyzed for several temperature-density cases, characteristic of laser-produced plasmas; special attention paid to the relative importance of ion, electron, and Doppler effects. Static ion microfield distribution functions are tabulated

  10. Stark Broadening Parameters for Neutral Oxygen Spectral Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental state; its fundamental configuration is 2s22p4 and is subdivided into 3 even terms: 3P ... μ the reduced mass of the system atom-perturber). Recently ... where We(VALD) are the widths taken from the VALD database for T = 10000.

  11. Flora White (1860-1948): New Woman, Stark Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…

  12. High-frequency Stark effect and two-quantum transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, J

    2007-01-01

    A problem which motivated a great deal of work about 20 years ago, namely, satellite lines occurring for atomic emitters undergoing a harmonic perturbation, is revisited. On a theoretical point of view, two photon mechanisms or equivalent are involved to explain those satellites due to high-frequency electric fields. Although today the activity on these problems is rather low, interest in observing such effects in the domain of x-ray spectroscopy exists, namely for hot and dense plasmas. More generally, satellites can be also seen as connected to turbulence diagnostics. This mainly motivates the design of plasmas and improvements of x-ray spectroscopy techniques. However, up to now, attempts to extend the methods of nonlinear spectroscopy to this domain have been rather disappointing. As a promotion for a resurgence of the field, an improved theory, founded on formalisms of nonlinear optics, is developed to suggest a new interpretation of the experiments. Previous publications are modified and an old problem is closed. Hopefully, this will help us to stimulate new applications of two-photon techniques in plasmas

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, STARK COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, STARK COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. Numerical investigations of instationary heating processes at motor bearings by means of differently coupled methods of calculation; Numerische Untersuchungen instationaerer Aufheizvorgaenge an einem Motorlager unter Verwendung verschiedener gekoppelter Berechnungsmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disch, Mario; Wittmeier, Felix; Widdecke, Nils; Wiedemann, Jochen [Forschungsinstitut fuer Fahrzeugmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (FKFS), Stuttgart (Germany); Reister, Heinrich; Weidmann, Ernst-Peter [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the vehicle development process at Daimler, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of car development numerical analysis techniques are used to ensure that all critical components stay well below given temperature limits. Especially engine mounts are in the focus of investigation due to the geometrical design and the arrangement next to hot exhaust components. For a better understanding of the complex heat transfer mechanisms taking place in this part and as a first step into transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) computation, two different transient computational analyses are performed and described in this paper. The first one is the Conjugate Heat Transfer method (CHT) in which convection, conduction and radiation phenomena are solved simultaneously. The second one is a COSIM-method in which fluid and solid structures are splitted into two different simulations and brought to interaction by exchanging data at predetermined points. The major problem in transient computation is that thermal time scales on solid and fluid structures vary over a wide range. Using CHT a fine temporal discretization is needed for fluid and solid computation causing an enormous computational effort. In the COSIM-method solid structures are computed unsteady while the corresponding fluid is treated as steady and recalculated after each exchange. Corresponding measurements at an engine mount test rig show that both transient coupling schemes fit well to unsteady experimental results. In conclusion it can be said that the COSIM-method is an effective alternative to CHT computations for transient thermal applications. Computational and modeling effort can be reduced considerably especially for larger time scales which are relevant for full VTM computations. (orig.)

  16. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry; Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-12-18

    The long-term safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories requires a detailed understanding of the chemistry of actinide elements in the geosphere. The development of advanced analytical tools is required to gain detailed insights into actinide redox speciation in a given system. The mobility of radionuclides is mostly determined by the geochemical conditions which control the redox state of radionuclides. Besides the longlived radionuclides plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np), which are key elements in high level nuclear waste, iron (Fe) represents a main component in natural systems controlling redox related geochemical processes. Analytical techniques for determining oxidation state distribution for redox sensitive radionuclides and other metal ions often have a lack of sensitivity. The detection limits of these methods (i.e. UV/vis, TRLFS, XANES) are in general in the range of ≥ 10{sup -6} mol.L{sup -1}. As a consequence ultrasensitive new analytical techniques are required. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) are powerful separation methods for metal ions. In the course of this thesis different speciation method for iron, neptunium and plutonium were optimized. With the optimized setup redox speciation analysis of these elements in different samples were done. Furthermore CE hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (CE - ICP - SF - MS) was used to measure the redox speciation of Pu (III, IV, V, VI), Np (IV, V, VI) and Fe (II, III) at concentrations lower than 10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}. CE coupling and separation parameters such as sample gas pressure, make up flow rate, capillary position, auxiliary gas flow, as well as the electrolyte system were optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity. The methodes detection limits are 10{sup -12} mol.L{sup -1} for Np and Pu. The various oxidation state species of Pu and Np in different samples were separated by application of an acetate based electrolyte system. The separation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) was investigated using different organic complexing ligands, EDTA and o-phenanthroline. For the Fe redox system, a limit of detection of 10{sup -8} mol.L{sup -1} was calculated. An improvement for the recovery values of the analytes was achieved by lowering the surface tension of the make up electrolyte. To determine the performance of the method a comparison of the speciation results with other methods like UV/vis, solvent extraction and thermodynamical calculations was done. The reproducibility of the method was examined and the linearity of the calibration in trace concentration levels was determined. To identify the redox species in different samples the electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated. Additional experiments to determine the redox species distribution of uranium and iron were done by hyphenating an ion chromatography column to a quadrupol inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q - ICP - MS). This method was applied to determine the redox species distribution of dissolved uranium in a fertilizer solution. With the data derived from iron experiments with CE - ICP - MS and IC - ICP - MS the characteristic values of both methods like separation times and detection limits were compared. The comparison of the performance of both methods was done by contrasting the linearity of calibration, analytical precision and recoveries.

  17. Mechanics and electronics skilfully coupled together. ICE and ICT - new generation of vehicles with improved drive technique; Mechanik und Elektronik geschickt miteinander gekoppelt. ICE und ICT - neue Fahrzeuggeneration mit verbesserter Antriebstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschta, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-08-09

    The new concept of German Railways will in future be based on two types of train: the ICE 2.2, a high speed train with speeds of up to 330 km/hour and the ICT with a maximum speed of 230 km/hour. For the ICT, the number of carriages can be matched to the demand. The ICE and ICT are driven by 3 phase AC motors. The construction and method of operation of the drive are explained. Apart from the so-called electrical brakes and the disk brakes known from car construction, the eddy current brake is used as a further braking system. An electromagnet situated above the rail has DC flowing through it for braking purposes. Eddy currents are caused by this, which have a braking effect. (BWI) [Deutsch] Das neue Konzept der Deutschen Bahn wird sich in Zukunft auf zwei Zugtypen stuetzen: der ICE 2.2, ein Hochgeschwindigkeitszug bis zu 330 km/h und der ICT mit einer Hoechstgeschwindigkeit von 230 km/h. Beim ICT kann die Anzahl der Wagen dem bedarf angepasst werden. ICE und ICT werden von Drehstrom-Fahrmotoren angetrieben. Aufbau und Funktionsweise des Antriebes werden erlaeutert. Neben der sog. elektrischen Bremse und den vom Automobilbau her bekannten Scheibenbremsen wird als weiteres Bremssystem die Wirbelstrombremse eingesetzt. Hierbei wird ein ueber der Schiene angeordneter Elektromagnet zum Bremsen von einem Gleichstrom durchflossen. Es entstehen dadurch Wirbelstroeme, die eine bremsende Wirkung haben. (BWI)

  18. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  19. Can we make a new deal? Entitlement reform sounds alluring, but the reality is stark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L

    1995-01-20

    After simmering for more than a decade, the Great Entitlement Debate promises to dominate the 1995 congressional agenda. But lost amid a tangle of conflicting parochial interests, voter confusion and searing partisan rhetoric are some harsh truths about our options.

  20. Anisotropic spin–orbit stark effect in cubic semiconductors without an inversion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external electric and magnetic fields on shallow donor levels in a semiconductor of the T d crystallographic class is analyzed. Application of an electric field eliminates the symmetry of the donor potential with respect to space inversion; as a result, corrections from the momentum-odd spin–orbit Dresselhaus term appear in the donor levels. In a strong electric field, such corrections determine the anisotropy of spin splitting of the donor levels relative to the directions of the external fields in the crystallographic coordinate system. Analytic expressions are derived for the spin splitting anisotropy for various relations between the magnitudes of the magnetic and electric fields. The results of this study can be used to determine the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction constant by a new method (in experiments on spin splitting of donor levels)

  1. Anisotropic spin–orbit stark effect in cubic semiconductors without an inversion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, P. S., E-mail: pavel.alekseev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of external electric and magnetic fields on shallow donor levels in a semiconductor of the T{sub d} crystallographic class is analyzed. Application of an electric field eliminates the symmetry of the donor potential with respect to space inversion; as a result, corrections from the momentum-odd spin–orbit Dresselhaus term appear in the donor levels. In a strong electric field, such corrections determine the anisotropy of spin splitting of the donor levels relative to the directions of the external fields in the crystallographic coordinate system. Analytic expressions are derived for the spin splitting anisotropy for various relations between the magnitudes of the magnetic and electric fields. The results of this study can be used to determine the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction constant by a new method (in experiments on spin splitting of donor levels)

  2. Experimental methods in cryogenic spectroscopy: Stark effect measurements in substituted myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Bradley M.

    Dawning from well-defined tertiary structure, the active regions of enzymatic proteins exist as specifically tailored electrostatic microenvironments capable of facilitating chemical interaction. The specific influence these charge distributions have on ligand binding dynamics, and their impact on specificity, reactivity, and biological functionality, have yet to be fully understood. A quantitative determination of these intrinsic fields would offer insight towards the mechanistic aspects of protein functionality. This work seeks to investigate the internal molecular electric fields that are present at the oxygen binding site of myoglobin. Experiments are performed at 1 K on samples located within a glassy matrix, using the high-resolution technique spectral hole-burning. The internal electric field distributions can be explored by implementing a unique mathematical treatment for analyzing the effect that externally applied electric fields have on the spectral hole profiles. Precise control of the light field, the temperature, and the externally applied electric field at the site of the sample is crucial. Experimentally, the functionality of custom cryogenic temperature confocal scanning microscope was extended to allow for collection of imaging and spectral data with the ability to modulate the polarization of the light at the sample. Operation of the instrumentation was integrated into a platform allowing for seamless execution of input commands with high temporal inter-instrument resolution for collection of data streams. For the regulated control and cycling of the sample temperature. the thermal characteristics of the research Dewar were theoretically modeled to systematically predict heat flows throughout the system. A high voltage feedthrough for delivering voltages of up to 5000 V to the sample as positioned within the Dewar was developed. The burning of spectral holes with this particular experimental setup is highly repeatable. The quantum mechanical treatment that is employed during analysis of the experimental data requires the state energies and the transition dipole moments of the porphyrin probe. The configuration interaction, as well as the coupled-cluster approaches, have been investigated for their ability to produce realistic valuations for these calculated quantities as gauged by their ability to accurately reproduce valuations for spectroscopically observable transition energies. A capacitive cell, for the determination of a material's dielectric permittivity, necessary for defining the magnitude of the externally applied electric field at the sample, was developed and shown to successfully yield permittivity valuations for various media in accordance with those reported the literature, while offering the ability to provide measures for permittivities over the temperature range of 1-300 K.

  3. Die österreichische Medienlandschaft im Umbruch Birgit Stark, Melanie Magin (Hrsg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Hüffel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Spezifische Medienstrukturen - aktuelle Medienentwicklungen Mit dem Titel „Die österreichische Medienlandschaft im Umbruch“ sind die Erwartungshaltungen des Lesers naturgemäß groß, nicht ganz können diese erfüllt werden. Die Beiträge, wie immer in der Buchreihe „relation“, unterliegen einem Peer-review-Verfahren und sind wissenschaftlich hochwertig. Freilich ist die Lesbarkeit nicht immer gegeben.

  4. Face support for strongly inclined stratification. Strebausbau fuer die stark geneigte Lagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1981-07-30

    In a face support for a strongly inclined stratification consisting of three superimposed shield-type support assemblies the alignment of the lower and upper support assemblies can be carried out without larger frictional resistance during the walking. A sufficient driving space is provided between the abutement and the shield-type support assembly. For this purpose a bottom plate fitting to the floor is placed between the abutement and the middle shield-type support assembly. Driving troughs also fitting to the floor are provided as the face-side final parts of the guiding devices jointly connected to the abutement. (HGOE).

  5. Stark broadening of isolated lines from high-Z emitters in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisheit, J.C.; Pollock, E.L.

    1980-09-01

    The joint distribution of the electric microfield and its longitudinal derivative is required for the calculation of line profiles for the He-like ions in very dense plasmas. We used a molecular dynamics code to compute exact distributions in single- and multi-component plasmas, and then we investigated various analytical approximations to these results. We found that a simplified, two-nearest-neighbor scheme leads to surprisingly accurate distribution functions. Our results are illustrated by sample profiles for Ne +8 and Ar +16 resonance lines

  6. Diagnostics of electric fields in plasmas using Stark spectroscopy of xenon atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, M.D.; Jiang, Tao; Visser, B.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma breakdown is the process that occurs when a voltage is applied across an electrode gap and the neutral gas in the gap becomes ionized and electrically conducting. The goal of our research is to study breakdown processes experimentally on a sub-nanosecond timescale, so that features of

  7. Band Structure and Quantum Confined Stark Effect in InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite InN/G...... wells and barriers one may tune band gaps over a wide spectral range, which provides flexibility in band gap engineering.......InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite In......N/GaN(0001) superlattices are investigated, and the variation of the band gap with the thicknesses of the well and the barrier is discussed. Superlattices of the form mInN/nGaN with n ≥ m are simulated using band structure calculations in the Local Density Approximation with a semiempirical correction...

  8. Measuring of electric fields with laser-induced fluorescence-dip Stark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2007-01-01

    The electric field is an important quantity in low-pressure gas discharges, driving many fundamental processes. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure electric field distributions in plasmas directly. The goal of this research was to develop a diagnostic technique to measure electric fields in

  9. Holy Ghost chair. An adaptation of the Kartell/Stark Louis ghost chair

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2006-01-01

    The project was a commission from Fast UK and Folly with funding from the Arts Council. I was invited by Fast UK to submit a proposal for the exhibition Perimeters, Boundaries, and Borders based on my track record in digital design and manufacturing. I received a £2000 commission. Added to this I received Industrial support in kind from UK Rapid Prototyping bureau 3T RPD who produced two chairs for the exhibition. As with previous FutureFactories work the design created was a Meta desig...

  10. Balancing the dynamic Stark shift in a driven Jaynes-Cummings system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogilevtsev, D; Kilin, S

    2004-01-01

    In this work we discuss the possibility of balancing a dynamic Shark shift in a Jaynes-Cummings system by simultaneously driving the cavity and the atom with classical fields, of the same frequency. For a lossless Jaynes-Cummings system this can lead to unusual atomic population dynamics. For a lossy Jaynes-Cummings system such balancing can lead to complete suppression of resonance fluorescence even for leaky cavities

  11. Algebraic theory of Stark-Zeeman dynamic effect in hydrogen-like atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Yudin, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of calculating time evolution operator within the given n-shell (here n is main quantum number) for the hydrogen atom located in non-stationary electric and magnetic fields is under investigation. Making use of the Fock SO(4) group reduces this problem to the set of problems with linear realization of the dynamic symmetry group for which the evolution operator is the operator of corresponding groups representation. The types of evolution operator parametrization in the form of exponents product (the Wei-Norman method) any by means of D-functions connected with Euler angles and Cayley-Klein parameters are discussed. It is shown that the problem of evolution operator calculation can be reduced to investigation of a pair of two-level systems. 35 refs

  12. Medienbildung in der Kita. Kinder stark machen für eine kompetente Mediennutzung

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Es gibt verschiedene Gründe für distanzierte Haltungen gegenüber Medienarbeit in den Kitas. Manche sind berechtigt und nachvollziehbar. Dennoch: Medienarbeit mit Kindern unter sechs lohnt sich. Und sie lässt sich in die pädagogischen Konzepte von Kitas gut integrieren. Der folgende Beitrag ist der erste von insgesamt fünf, die nacheinander in der „klein&groß“ zu dem Thema „Medien in Kitas“ erscheinen werden. (DIPF/Autor)

  13. Micro-Electromechanical Instrument and Systems Development at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J. H.; Gilmore, J. P.; Weinberg, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Several generations of micromechanical gyros and accelerometers have been developed at Draper. Current design effort centers on tuning-fork gyro design and pendulous accelerometer configurations. Over 200 gyros of different generations have been packaged and tested. These units have successfully performed across a temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees C, and have survived 30,000-g shock tests along all axes. Draper is currently under contract to develop an integrated micro-mechanical inertial sensor assembly (MMISA) and global positioning system (GPS) receiver configuration. The ultimate projections for size, weight, and power for an MMISA, after electronic design of the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) is completed, are 2 x 2 x 0.5 cm, 5 gm, and less than 1 W, respectively. This paper describes the fabrication process, the current gyro and accelerometer designs, and system configurations.

  14. Large-field behavior of the LoSurdo-Stark resonances in atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G. (Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)); Silverstone, H.J. (Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States))

    1994-12-01

    The Schroedinger equation for atomic hydrogen in a large electric field [ital F] is solved by separation in parabolic coordinates. As [ital F][r arrow][infinity], the scaled field [ital f] that enters the separated equations tends to 0. Thus the large-[ital F] asymptotics depend on the small-[ital f] behavior of the separated equations, each of which in turn is equivalent to a quarticly perturbed two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. The Bender-Wu branch cuts of the oscillator play a major role in the hydrogen asymptotics. A simple iterative algorithm permits the calculation of the branch points at which two eigenvalues coincide. We have found numerically that, as [ital F][r arrow][infinity], the separation constant [beta][sub 1] returns to the smaller of the unperturbed values [beta][sub 1][sup (0)] or [beta][sub 2][sup (0)]. At the same time, [beta][sub 2] tends to the negative of the smaller value. As the real electric field [ital F] increases from 0 to [infinity], in each case that [beta][sub 1][sup (0)] and [beta][sub 2][sup (0)] are not equal, the trajectory of either [ital f] or [ital e][sup [minus][ital i][pi

  15. Spectral line shape simulation for electron stark-broadening of ion emitters in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, Emmanuelle; Calisti, Annette; Talin, Bernard; Gigosos, Marco A.; Gonzalez, Manuel A.; Dufty, Jim W.

    2002-01-01

    Electron broadening for ions in plasmas is investigated in the framework of a simplified semi-classical model involving an ionic emitter imbedded in an electron gas. A regularized Coulomb potential that removes the divergence at short distances is postulated for the ion-electron interaction. Line shape simulations based on Molecular Dynamics for the ion impurity and the electrons, accounting for all the correlations, are reported. Comparisons with line shapes obtained with a quasi-particle model show expected correlation effects. Through an analysis of the results with the line shape code PPP, it is inferred that the correlation effect results mainly from the microfield dynamic properties

  16. Stark Interference of Electric and Magnetic Dipole Transitions in the A-X Band of OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, H Christian; Zhang, Dongdong; Meijer, Gerard; Field, Robert W; Sartakov, Boris G; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; Vanhaecke, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    An experimental method is demonstrated that allows determination of the ratio between the electric (E1) and magnetic (M1) transition dipole moments in the A-X band of OH, including their relative sign. Although the transition strengths differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, the measured M1-to-E1 ratio agrees with the ratio of the ab initio calculated values to within 3%. The relative sign is found to be negative, also in agreement with theory.

  17. Rotational cooling of polar molecules by Stark-tuned cavity resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2003-01-01

    A general scheme for rotational cooling of diatomic heteronuclear molecules is proposed. It uses a superconducting microwave cavity to enhance the spontaneous decay via Purcell effect. Rotational cooling can be induced by sequentially tuning each rotational transition to cavity resonance, starting from the highest transition level to the lowest one using an electric field. Electrostatic multipoles can be used to provide large confinement volume with essentially homogeneous background electric field

  18. Higher-order Stark effect on magnetic fine structure of the helium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magunov, A.; Pal' chikov, V.; Pivovarov, V. [National Research Inst. for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovsiannikov, V. [Dept. of Physics, Voronezh State Univ. (Russian Federation); Oppen, G. von [Inst. fuer Analytische und Atomare Physik at Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We have calculated the scalar and tensor dipole polarizabilities ({beta}) and hyperpolarizabilities ({gamma}) of excited 1s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}, 1s2p {sup 3}P{sub 2}- states of helium. Our theory includes fine structure of triplet sublevels. Semiempirical and accurate electron-correlated wave functions have been used to determine the static values of {beta} and {gamma}. Numerical calculations are carried out using sums of oscillator strengths and, alternatively, with the Green function for the excited valence electron. Specifically, we present results for the integral over the continuum, for second- and fourth-order matrix elements. The corresponding estimations indicate that these corrections are of the order of 23% for the scalar part of polarizability and only of the order of 3% for the tensor part.

  19. Electrochemical dissolution characteristics of Zn, Mg, Al and ZnMg(Al) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Rossrucker, Lisa (M. Sc.)

    2016-01-01

    Thema der Dissertation ist die Untersuchung des elektrochemischen Auflösungsverhaltens von Zink, Magnesium, Aluminium und von zinkreichen Gusslegierungen. Um detallierte Einblicke in den Mechanismus der Korrosion dieser Materialien zu erhalten, wurde eine mikroelektrochemische Durchflusszelle mit verschiedenen Online-Analysemethoden gekoppelt. Hierfür wurde zur Quantifizierung der Metallauflösung ein UV-VIS-Spektrometer bzw. ein induktiv gekoppeltes Plasma-Massenspektrometer verwendet. Zur An...

  20. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Anscher, Barbara M.; Bradley, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate medical education, treatment patterns and utilization, and health care costs. Patients also need to be aware of financial arrangements that may influence their physician's treatment recommendations.

  1. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules

  2. Measurements of the edge current evolution and comparison with neoclassical calculations during MAST H-modes using motional Stark effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, M. F. M.; Citrin, J.; Saarelma, S.; Temple, D.; Conway, N. J.; Kirk, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs), that are present in most tokamak H-(high confinement) modes, can cause significant damage to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Controlling ELMs is considered necessary and hence it is vital to understand the underlying physics. The stability of ELMs is

  3. Measurements of the edge current evolution and comparison with neoclassical calculations during MAST H-modes using motional Stark effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, de M.F.M.; Citrin, J.; Saarelma, S.; Temple, D.; Conway, N.J.; Kirk, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs), that are present in most tokamak H- (high confinement) modes, can cause significant damage to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Controlling ELMs is considered necessary and hence it is vital to understand the underlying physics. The stability of ELMs is

  4. The perturbation theory model of a spherical oscillator in electric field and the vibrational stark effect in polyatomic molecular species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreska, Irina; Ivanovski, Gjorgji; Pejov, Ljupčo

    2007-04-01

    The effect of external electrostatic fields on the spherical oscillator energy states was studied using stationary perturbation theory. Besides the spherical oscillator with ideal symmetry, also a variety of the deformed systems were considered in which the deformations may be induced by the external fields, but also by the short-range crystal lattice forces. The perturbation theory analysis was carried out using the field-dependent basis functions. Predicted spectral appearances and band splittings due to the deformations and external field influences were shown to be helpful in interpreting the experimental spectra of molecular oscillator possessing subsets of mutually orthogonal triply degenerate normal modes (such as, e.g. tetrahedral species). To verify the results of the perturbation theory treatments, as well as to provide a further illustration of the usefulness of the employed technique, a numerical HF/aug-cc-pVTZ study of the vibrational states of methane molecule in external electrostatic field was performed.

  5. Complex energies from real perturbation series for the LoSurdo-Stark effect in hydrogen by Borel-Pade approximants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, V.; Grecchi, V.; Silverstone, H.J.

    1985-09-01

    The resonance energies for the hydrogen atom in an electric field, both the real and imaginary parts, have been calculated together from the real Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series by Borel summation. Pade approximants were used to evaluate the Borel transform. The numerical results compare well with values obtained by the complex-coordinate variational method and by sequential use of Pade approximants.

  6. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und Verteilung von gadoliniumbasierten Kontrastmitteln in biologischen Proben mittels Laserablation mit induktiv gekoppelter Plasma-Massenspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-05

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd{sup 3+} ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  7. Coupled calculation of diesel injection, primary spray propagation and spray formation using a multifluid approach and comparison with experiments in transparent model nozzles; Gekoppelte Berechnung von Dieseleinspritzung, primaerem Strahlzerfall und Spraybildung mit dem Multifluid-Ansatz und Vergleich mit Experimenten in transparenten Modellduesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, E. von; Edelbauer, W.; Alajbegovic, A.; Tatschl, R. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Based on the Eulerian multi-fluid approach cavitating nozzle flow in Diesel injectors as well as spray formation downstream of the nozzle orifice can be simulated in a single calculation. Fuel liquid, fuel vapor, spray droplets, and air are treated as interpenetrating phases. For each of the phases separate sets of conservation equations are solved. Different flow regimes such as cavitating nozzle flow and spray regions are described by using appropriate interfacial exchange terms between the phases. Besides a simplified calculation procedure the main advantage of this methodology is the direct coupling of the different flow regimes. Thus, effects of the cavitating nozzle flow can directly enter the primary break-up model, which is based on locally resolved nozzle flow turbulence. This new approach is applied for single- and multi-hole full scale Diesel injectors as well as for a large-scale model injector operated with water. The results obtained on the basis of the CFD code FIRE show good agreement compared to experimental data and yield the correct trends for both spray penetration and spray angle for increasing injection pressure. (orig.)

  8. Study on the regional and global rise in NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as a consequence of airplane emissions. Final report; Untersuchungen zur regionalen und globalen Erhoehung der NO{sub x}- und Nichtmethankohlenwasserstoff-Konzentrationen in der oberen Troposphaere und der unteren Stratosphaere infolge Flugzeugemissionen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F

    1996-01-05

    In this project a chemical mechanism was developed for the upper troposphere which permits examining the photochemical formation of ozone. Using this mechanism it was found that at medium latitudes (at 10 km altitude in June) hydroxyl radical concentration and the rate of photochemical ozone formation to which it is coupled depend on NO{sub x} concentrations in a strongly non-linear manner, peaking at 110 ppt NO{sub x} and 200 pp NO{sub x}, respectively. Regarding the assessment of the effects of air traffic it was thus shown that in attempting to forecast changes in ozone concentration one must not only take aviation-related changes in NO{sub x} concentrations into account but also the forecasted absolute concentrations of NO{sub x}. The measured data were interpreted by combining a simplified model of NO{sub x} reactions with an existing three-dimensional transport model and comparing the measured and the calculated vertical NO profiles. It can be said that the 3D chemical transport model supplies realistic tropospheric NO{sub x} ratios at least for medium latitudes (49 to 56 N) in the months of May, June, July, December, and January. At these latitudes the tropospheric NO{sub x} budget is mainly governed by anthropogenic emissions. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In diesem Projekt wurde ein Chemiemechanismus fuer die obere Troposphaere entwickelt, der es erlaubt, die photochemische Ozonbildung zu untersuchen. Mit diesem Mechanismus konnte fuer mittlere noerdliche Breiten (fuer 10 km Hoehe, Juni) gezeigt werden, dass die Hydroxylradikalkonzentration und die damit gekoppelte photochemische Ozonbildungsrate in stark nichtlinearer Weise von der Stickoxidkonzentration abhaengen und bei etwa 110 ppt NO{sub x} (bezw. 200 ppt NO{sub x} fuer die Ozonbildungsrate) ein Maximum durchlaufen. Fuer die Beurteilung der Auswirkungen des Flugverkehrs konnte deswegen gezeigt werden, dass die Voraussagen ueber Ozonveraenderungen nicht nur von der Aenderung der Stickoxidkonzentration durch den

  9. The 1996 thaw as a {sup 18}O tracer experiment at the lysimeter plant in Wagna; Die Schneeschmelze 1996 als {sup 18}O-Tracerversuch an der Lysimeteranlage in Wagna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fank, J.; Zojer, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Geothermie und Hydrogeologie; Stichler, W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    In the year 1991 a research site was set up in Wagna in the western Leibnitz Field (Styria) which permits an examination of seepage water movement and of material transport as a function of the permeability of the uppermost soil layers and the underlying more coarsly clastic sediments under locale-specific natural management systems. Research at this site is largely based on hydrochemical and isotope-hydrological analysis. The {sup 18}O isotope is an ideal natural tracer of water movement. Infiltration water from the thaw following a snowy winter was displaced downward into the unsaturated zone as a result of a major precipitation event of 85.5 mm from April 2 to 5, 1996. This displacement is evident in the {sup 18}O concentrations of the seepage water at various measuring depths. The displacement is associated with recharge events, thaw processes tending to produce dispersive flows and precipitation events leading to ``piston flow effects. Winter precipitation water reaches a depth of 60 to 70 cm by mid-April. The attenuated {sup 18}O concentration reveals the predominant flow characteristics in the different compartments of the unsaturated zone (finely clastic soils, gravels, and sands). [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1991 wurde in Wagna, im westlichen Leibnitzer Feld (Steiermark), eine Forschungsstation errichtet, die es erlaubt, unter ortsueblichen, natuerlichen Bewirtschaftungssystemen die Sickerwasserbewegung und den Transport von Stoffen in Abhaengigkeit von der Durchlaessigkeit der obersten Bodenschichten und der darunter folgenden groeberklastischen Sedimente vor allem auf Grundlage der hydrochemischen und isotopenhydrologischen Analytik zu untesuchen. Die Verwendung des {sup 18}O-Isotops als natuerlicher Tracer repraesentiert in idealer Weise die Bewegung des Wassers. Infiltrationswasser aus der Schneeschmelze nach einem schneereichen Winter wurde durch ein starkes Niederschlagsereignis von 85.6 mm zwischen 2. und 5. April 1996 in der ungesaettigten Zone

  10. ASPECTOS ALIMENTARES E REPRODUTIVOS DO CASCUDO, Hypostomus pusarum (STARKS, 1913 (OSTEICHTHYES: LORICARIIDAE NO AÇUDE MARECHAL DUTRA, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilly Kataline Rodrigues Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O peixe cascudo, Hypostomus pusarum é de importância ecológica e econômica dos ecossistemas aquáticos da região neotropical. O presente estudo verificou os aspectos alimentares e reprodutivos dessa espécie no açude Marechal Dutra, Acari, Rio Grande do Norte. As capturas dos peixes foram realizadas durante o período de julho de 2011 a junho de 2012, com o auxílio de pecadores locais, que utilizaram redes de espera e tarrafas. Os itens alimentares do estômago de H. pusarum foram identificados até o nível taxonômico mais inferior possível. Foi capturado um total de 118 exemplares de H. pusarum e no laboratório eles foram numerados, pesados, medidos, dissecados e o sexo foi identificado. Foram verificadas a proporção sexual, a relação peso-comprimento, o conteúdo estomacal, o índice gonadossomático (IGS, o fator de condição (K, a fecundidade e o período reprodutivo de H. pusarum. Houve uma predominância de fêmeas (n=67; 55,3% sobre os machos (n=51; 44,7%. H. pusarum apresenta um crescimento do tipo alométrico negativo, ganhando mais incremento em comprimento do que em peso. A espécie em estudo apresentou uma dieta baseada em material orgânico em decomposição (88,7% e microalgas (11,3% consistindo de Bacilariofíceas, Clorofíceas e Cianobacteria. O índice gonadossomático (IGS dos machos variou de 0,483 a 7,502 e das fêmeas de 3,408 a 10,533. A média do fator de condição (K dos machos foi de 0,089 e das fêmeas foi de 0,266. A fecundidade absoluta apresentou a média de 756,85. Os peixes apresentaram gônadas em várias fases de maturação durante o período de estudo e a caracterização macroscópica das gônadas indicou quatro estádios de maturação, sendo imaturo, em maturação, maduro e esvaziado. O período reprodutivo de H. pusarum foi indicado pelo pico de IGS durante janeiro a abril. Palavras-chave: Alimentação, reprodução, Hypostomus pusarum, açude Marechal Dutra. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p45-53

  11. Controlling the Branching Ratio of Photoionization Products under Two-Color Excitation: Competition between ac Stark Splitting and Two-Path Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Zhang, J.; Lambropoulos, P.; Lambropoulos, P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the variation of the photoionization yields into different ionic channels by means of the one-photon-near-resonant two-photon ionization scheme under two-color excitation. We present a general formulation and the results of specific calculations pertaining to the Ca atom with realistic parameters. A significant change of the ionization into Ca + 4s , 3d , and 4p channels has been observed as a detuning is varied, which agrees qualitatively well with the observation by Wang, Chen, and Elliott [Phys.Rev.Lett.77, 2416 (1996)] for the Ba atom. The importance of the laser intensity effects is also addressed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. STARK-EFFECT IN BARIUM 6SND 1D2 RYDBERG STATES - EVIDENCE OF STRONG PERTURBATIONS IN THE 1F3 SERIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, K.A.H.; Hogervorst, W.; Post, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the barium 6snd D21 states with principal quantum number n ranging from 14 to 30, as well as those of the 5d 7d D21 perturber state near n=26, have been measured with high-resolution laser-atomic-beam spectroscopy. The data are analyzed by calculating the

  13. Treatment of mine water. A German joint project purifies highly charged mine water in Vietnam; Behandlung von Bergbauabwasser. Ein deutsches Verbundprojekt reinigt in Vietnam stark belastete Bergbauabwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Stefan; Bilek, Felix [GFI Grundwasserforschungsinstitut GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kochan, Hans-Juergen [eta AG/LUG Enginering GmbH, Cottbus (Germany); Denke, Peter [LMBV international GmbH, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As part of the joint project RAME 'Mining and Environment in Vietnam', a pilot plant for the purification of mine water arises in Vietnam. In cooperation with Vietnamese partners, for the first time an active method for the purification of mine water is used in Vang Danh. The research tasks and development activities necessary for the process development are funded in part by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). The construction of the mine water treatment plant is described in addition to the specific national conditions.

  14. O-band quantum-confined Stark effect optical modulator from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells by well thickness tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaisakul, Papichaya; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Vivien, Laurent; Frigerio, Jacopo; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We report an O-band optical modulator from a Ge/Si 0.15 Ge 0.85 multiple quantum well (MQW). Strong O-band optical modulation in devices commonly operating within E-band wavelength range can be achieved by simply decreasing the quantum well thickness. Both spectral photocurrent and optical transmission studies are performed to evaluate material characteristics and device performance from a surface-illuminated diode and a waveguide modulator, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Ge/Si 0.15 Ge 0.85 MQWs for the realization of future on-chip wavelength-division multiplexing systems with optical modulators operating at different wavelengths over a wide spectral range

  15. E-mobil on the right track. Electromobility: Germans' industry must build up networks if staying in competition; Am E-Mobil geht kein Weg vorbei. Elektromobilitaet: Will die heimische Industrie mitmischen, muss sie starke Netzwerke bilden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauss, Olaf

    2010-09-13

    Electromobility is moving on. But Germans industry must hurry up, because Chinas' automotive industry don't sleep. The competition becomes more and more stronger and Germans' companies will win, if they startup immediately. (GL)

  16. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M., E-mail: idris.intop@mail.ru; Buyalo, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Gubenko, A. E. [Innolume GmbH (Germany); Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  17. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Gubenko, A. E.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  18. The Spatial Coherence of Electron Wavefunctions and the Transition from Miniband to Stark-Ladder Electric Field Regimes in InGaAs/InAlAs-on-InP Superlattices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradshaw, John

    1998-01-01

    Five In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As-on-InP superlattices of various well-to-barrier ratios and miniband widths have been studied by low-temperature photoluminescence, photocurrent, and differential photocurrent spectroscopies...

  19. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Zhao, Chao; Priante, Davide; Min, Jung-Wook; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field

  20. Comparison of electricity and heat production in combined and single-purpose systems against the background of energy saving by means of thermal insulation. Pt. 1. System comparison and general results; Vergleich der Strom- und Heizenergieerzeugung in gekoppelten und ungekoppelten Anlagen vor dem Hintergrund der Einsparmoeglichkeiten durch Waermedaemmung. T. 1. Systemvergleich und allgemeine Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damberger, S.; Guenther, M.; Kluender, M.; Moeller, K.P.; Wenk, N.

    1994-06-01

    The study comprises investigations for the purpose of increasing the generation of electricity and heat in dual-purpose power plants and for promoting thermal insulation of buildings: Methods for comparatiave calculations; economic aspects; separate generation of electric power and heat; cogeneration of electric power and heat; economic efficiency of thermal insulation measures in domestic buildings; comparison of results. (HW) [Deutsch] Die Studie umfasst Untersuchungen zur Erhoehung des Anteils der gekoppelten Erzeugung von Strom und Waerme und zur vermehrten Waermedaemmung von Gebaeuden: - Methoden fuer Vergleichsrechnungen - Ekonomie - getrennte Erzeugung von Strom und Waerme - gekoppelte Erzeugung von Strom und Waerme - Wirtschaftlichkeit von Massnahmen einer Waermedaemmung von Wohngebaeuden - Vergleich der Ergebnisse. (HW)

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Received 9 July 2015; accepted 3 September 2015 ... spectra (Schmidt et al. 1986). For Stark broadening applications, ... 2014). Hamdi et al. (2008) ana- lyzed Stark broadening of Si VI spectral lines in DO white dwarf spectra and. Hamdi et al. (2014) analyzed Stark broadening of Ar III spectral lines in subd- warf B stars.

  2. Examinations for quantifying the difference in radiation doses at the least favorable locations between facility sites in highly structured topographies (valleys) and in plane terrain (licensing procedures); Untersuchungen zur Quantifizierung des Unterschieds in der Dosisbelastung am unguenstigsten Aufpunkt zwischen Standorten in topographisch stark strukturiertem Gelaende (Tal-Lagen) und in ebenem Terrain (Genehmigungsverfahren)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskob, W. [Dr. Trippe Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    The MCF wind field model and the LASAT Lagrange particle model served to study topography effects on the spreading of radionuclides. Concentrations in bottom layers of the atmosphere at maximum-dose positions in hilly country topography are up to a factor 6 higher than in plain country. For concentrations in the soil the results have a similar relation. (orig.)

  3. Enormously varying utilization as a demand. An underfloor heating system for the fashion hotspot 'label Berlin 2'; Stark variierende Auslastung als Herausforderung. Ein Flaechentemperiersystem fuer den Mode-Hotspot ''Labels Berlin 2''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, Peter [Viega GmbH und Co. KG, Attendorn (Germany). Flaechentemperiersysteme

    2011-07-01

    Hugo Boss, Esprit, Brax, Puma, Comma or more s.Oliver - 'the labels Berlin 1 and 2 ' became a hotspot of the international world of fashion in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) within a few years. However, the concept to combine high-quality brands and their large showrooms under one roof was a challenge not only for architects. Also in the building services and especially in keeping rooms with their strongly varying extent of utilization at a moderate temperature all the stops had to be pulled out.

  4. Development of an early warning system for strong environmental pollution by measuring the activation of defined universally existing stress genes. Final report; Das Auftreten spezifischer Stressproteine bei Umweltbelastung in Chironomiden: Entwicklung eines neuen Fruehwarnsystems fuer starke Umweltbelastung durch Messung der Aktivierung definierter, universell vorkommender Stressgene bei ausgewaehlten Indikatororganismen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloetzel, P.M.; Mueller, W.

    1991-12-31

    In the present pilot study we established an ELISA based detection system which allows sensitive monitoring of stress induction as a result of heavy metal pollution. The system is based on the immunological detection of the stress induced hsp70 in larvae of Chironomidae. Using this system it is possible to detect environmental pollution by heavy metals far beyond lethal toxicity values. Since only very few animals are needed the system can also be used in field tests. For poluted isopodes as Oniscus asellus for example a single animal turned out be sufficient to monitor stress induction by Pb{sup +}. The established system ought to serve as basis for a more extended study in which different animals are collected from various polluted environments and tested with respect to already induced hsp synthesis. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Pilotstudie konnte ein sensitives Nachweissystem fuer die Induktion des ubiquitaeren Stresssystem durch Schwermetalle auf der Basis der immunologischen Detektion von HSP70 etabliert werden. Dieses, auf ELISA Basis arbeitende Testverfahren ermoeglicht es Schwermetallbelastungen weit unterhalb der Toxizitaetsgrenze ueber die Induktion der HSP70 Synthese in Chironomidenlarven nachzuweisen. Die Tatsache, dass nur wenige Tiere fuer eine statistische Aussage benoetigt werden laesst eine Anwendungsmoeglichkeit auch auf Freilandtiere erwarten. So reicht fuer bleibelastete Freiland-Asseln ein einziges Tier zum immunologischen Belastungsnachweis aus. Damit sind die Grundlagen fuer die zweite Phase, die Freilandphase, in welcher sowohl Freilandtiere als auch Gewaesser- und Sedimentproben von verschiedenen Standorten in die Untersuchungen miteinbezogen werden sollen; geschaffen. Es koennen jetzt Tiere aus belasteten Gewaessern bezueglich bereits erfolgter Stressproteinproduktion aber auch auf eine Neuinduzierbarkeit nach zusaetzlicher Laborbelastung untersucht werden. Ebenso koennen Labortiere auf ihre Reaktion gegenueber belasteten Gewaessern- oder Sedimentproben getestet werden. (orig.)

  5. Cytokinin concentrations in the foliage of spruce trees (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) affected to different degrees by 'recently discovered forms of forest disease' as determined in immunoenzymatic assays (ELISA). Der Cytokiningehalt in Nadeln unterschiedlich stark von 'neuartigen Waldschaeden' betroffenen Fichten (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ), bestimmt mittels einer immunoenzymatischen Methode - ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzenberg, K von

    1989-09-25

    This report attempts to find an answer to the question as to whether the cytokinin concentrations in the leaves of spruce trees showing discolouration or loss of foliage would be any different from those determined for trees, in which no such changes have occurred. Described is a specific analytical method developed for quantitative determinations of the cytokinins trans-zeatin (t-Z), trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR), isopentenyladenine (ZiP) and isopentenyladenosine (ZiPA). In all, it was found that the levels determined for cytokinin ribosides in needles of the older age groups tested were quite consistent with the degree of discolouration and general damage observed in those trees. Fumigation experiments were additionally performed to find out which effect 8-11 weeks of exposure to an air pollutant, ozone, would have on young spruces. Initial measurements carried out in exposed and non-exposed plants do not yet permit any predictions to be made about the probable influence of ozone on the cytokinin concentrations of foliage. (KST).

  6. A theology of matter. The strong interaction at strong resonance at the meeting point of I and not-I. Conjectures about oscillating strings and fluctuating vacuum energy; Eine Theologie der Materie. Die starke Wechselwirkung bei starker Resonanz am Begegnungs-Ort von Ich und Nicht-Ich. Mutmassungen ueber oszillierende Strings und fluktuierende Vakuum-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boes, Roderick H.

    2011-07-01

    This book shows that matter and consciousness are intertwined and mutually produce. Quantum vacuum fluctuations ensure that the latent energy of each event is present as zero-point energy simultaneously at all points of the cosmos.

  7. XML-basierte Produkt- und Prozessdaten für die Leittechnik-Projektierung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleipen, Miriam

    Für die Überwachung und Steuerung hochkomplexer Produktionsprozesse werden Prozessleitsysteme eingesetzt. Ständige Veränderungen zwingen Produktionsbetriebe wandlungsfähig zu sein. Entsprechend muss auch die Technik diese Flexibilität unterstützen. Jede Veränderung des Produktionsprozesses muss eingeplant, die Anlagen neu konfiguriert und projektiert werden. Dabei müssen auch neue Prozessbilder für die Bedien- und Steuerungssysteme erstellt werden. Am Fraunhofer IITB wurde ein Engineering-Framework entwickelt, das das Leitsystem automatisch projektiert und die zugehörige Prozessvisualisierung generiert. In diesem Beitrag wird das Modul vorgestellt, dass die Prozessabbilder erstellt. Neben der Visualisierung von Anlagen werden auch laufende Prozesse und bearbeitete Produkte dargestellt. So können beispielsweise Identsysteme mit der Leittechnik gekoppelt werden.

  8. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  9. Additions to the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Lechleitner, R.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    In summary, 88 species of stoneflies are now known from MRNP, representing 65% of the recorded Washington State fauna (Stark and Baumann 2005). At least two of these species are apparently restricted to the MRNP, Soliperla fenderi (Jewett) (Stark and Gustafson 2004) and P. lechleitneri.

  10. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ized neon and argon for laboratory plasma diagnostics. The shifts have been compared with existing experimental values. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of the Virtual. Atomic and Molecular Data Center – VAMDC. Key words. Stark broadening—atomic data—Ne I: line profiles.

  12. Electric field measurements in a xenon discharge using Spark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of electric field distributions in a low-pressure xenon discharge are presented. The measurement technique is based on Stark spectroscopy, using a 2 + 1 excitation scheme with fluorescence dip detection. Electric fields can be measured by detecting Stark shifts of high-lying Rydberg

  13. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  14. The second species of Phanoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from China, P. hainana sp. nov., from Hainan Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Qin, Xuefeng

    2016-09-08

    The genus Phanoperla Banks was originally established as a subgenus of Neoperla and its genus delimitation was not fully clear until the revisionary work by Zwick (1982). It currently contains 49 known species from the Oriental region (Banks 1938, 1939, Cao & Bae 2009, Cao et al. 2007, DeWalt et al. 2016, Jewett 1975, Kawai 1968, Stark 1983, 1987, Stark & Sheldon 2009, Sivec & Stark 2010, 2011, Stark & Sivec 2007, Sivec et al. 1988, Zwick 1982, Zwick 1986, Zwick & Sivec 1985). Although species of Phanoperla are not rare in many areas of Southeast Asia bordering China, especially Vietnam and India (Cao & Bae 2009, Mason & Stark 2015), P. pallipennis Banks, 1938 is the only known species of the genus known from China. In this paper, we describe a new species of Phanoperla from Hainan Island of the southernmost province of China. The northern portion of the island has a humid subtropical climate, whereas the remainder of the island has tropical monsoon climate.

  15. Inhibition of collective spontaneous decay and superradiance in an ensemble of sufficiently high quantity of excited identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    New effects of suppression of the collective spontaneous emission and superradiance have been predicted. At a certain number N of ensemble atoms, the Stark interaction with a vacuum field was shown as being high enough for the excited N-atom ensemble to be stabilized with respect to the collective decay. The result was derived analytically as a consequence of applying the quantum stochastic differential equations to the description of the atomic dynamics in vacuum, where the Stark interaction operator is expressed in terms of the quantum Poisson process. -- Highlights: → Enhancement of the Stark interaction of N atoms ensemble with vacuum, with N rising. → Representation of the Stark interaction as the quantum Poisson process. → Collective spontaneous decay and superradiance under the strong Stark interaction. → Inhibition of superradiance at a certain number of ensemble atoms. → Analysis of superradiance experiments in terms of inhibition of collective decay.

  16. A DICOM based PACS for nuclear medicine; Ein DICOM-basiertes PACS fuer die Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2002-02-01

    The installation of a radiology information system (RIS) connected to a hospital information system (HIS) and a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) seems mandatory for a nuclear medicine department in order to guarantee a high patient throughput. With these systems a fast transmission of reports, images to the in- and out-patients' wards and private practitioners is realized. Therefore, since April 2000, at the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Wuerzburg a completely DICOM based PACS has been implemented in addition to the RIS. With this system a DICOM based workflow is realized throughout the department of nuclear medicine for reporting and archiving. The PACS is connected to six gamma-cameras, a PET scanner, a bone densitometry system and an ultrasound device. The volume of image data archived per month is 4 GByte. Patient demographics are provided to the modalities via DICOM-Worklist. With these PACS components a department specific archive purely based on DICOM can be realized. During the installation process problems occurred mainly because of the complex DICOM standard for nuclear medicine. Related to that is the problem that most of the software implementations still contain bugs or are not adapted to the needs of a nuclear medicine department (particularly for PET). A communication software for the distribution of nuclear medicine reports and images based on techniques used for the worldwide web is currently tested. (orig.) [German] Fuer eine nuklearmedizinische Klinik ist ein Klinikinformationssystem (KIS) gekoppelt mit einem Radiologieinformationssystem (RIS) sowie einem Bildarchivierungs- und Verteilungssystem (PACS) unabdingbar, um einen schnellen Patientendurchsatz sowie die zeitnahe Uebermittlung von Befunden inklusive nuklearmedizinischen Bildern an zuweisende Stationen, Ambulanzen und externe Zuweiser zu gewaehrleisten. Daher wurde im April 2000 an der Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet

  17. An experimental investigation on the properties of laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoshuan; Li Chunyan; Ji Xuehan; Feng Eryin; Cui Zhifeng

    2004-01-01

    The authors have measured the time-resolved emission spectra produced by Nd: YAG laser induced Al plasma with different kinds of buffer gas (He, Ar, N 2 and Air). The dependence of emission spectra line intensity and Stark broadening on the time delay, kinds and pressure of buffer gas are studied. The results show that the atomic emission line intensity reaches maximum at 3 μs time delay, the Stark broadening increases with increasing the pressure of buffer gas, and decreases with increasing time delay. The Stark broadening in Ar buffer gas is largest among the four different kinds of buffer gas. (author)

  18. Of yield gaps and yield ceilings: Making plants grow in particular places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2014-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and rice genetic improvement are proposed as two approaches to improving and increasing rice production. In recent exchanges, they have been represented by their respective supporters as starkly contrasting, almost mutually incompatible alternatives. However,

  19. Hospitality Healthscapes: The New Standard for Making Hospitals More Hospitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Suess Raeisinafchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What comes to mind when you think of a hospital room? Stark. Sterile. Bare. Clinical. What might it mean for patients if the association with the environment shifted to something like: Comforting. Bright. Elegant. Personal?

  20. Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... Social cohesion can play an important role in building and maintaining ... Analysis of Violence demonstrates how social bonds and stark inequalities can also play ... Conflict and development in the hill settlements of Guwahati.

  1. Two-electron Oxidation of a Twisted Non Anti-aromatic 40π ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conjugated pathway and exhibit properties similar to that of a porphyrin,. 2. In stark contrast to a porphyrin, expanded porphyrins7 15 are more vulnerable to redox reactions which are gener- ally proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms.16 18.

  2. The Influence of Demography on European and Future Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stemmer, Ekkehard

    2005-01-01

    ... dramatically decline over the next thirty years. In comparison to Europe, the trend of aging in developing counties, for example in the Middle East and Northern Africa, presents a stark contrast...

  3. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors State Legislation ... Subscribe to SRGS Issues Contact and FAQs ACS Case Reviews in Surgery ACS Case Reviews in Surgery ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors State Legislation ... Subscribe to SRGS Issues Contact and FAQs ACS Case Reviews in Surgery ACS Case Reviews in Surgery ...

  5. 75 FR 26774 - Notice of Re-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., Marshall, IN, St. Joseph, IN, Starke, IN, Van Buren, MI. Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Boyd, NE,\\45\\ Burt, NE..., Campbell, SD, South Dakota. Corson, SD, Dewey, SD, Emmons, ND, Grant, ND, Morton, ND, Perkins, SD, Sioux...

  6. Mimicing Charged Particle-Atom Collisions Using Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... Demonstration and preliminary studies of free electron-ion recombination in mock collisions. Identified Stark wave packets, coherent superpositions of "stretched" atomic states as potentially useful sources of short-pulses...

  7. USING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS TO VALUE WATER REMEDIATION: AN APPLICATION TO THE CHEAT RIVER WATERSHED IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inherent in any decision to allocate resources is the constraint imposed by a limited budget. In small communities, particularly in rural areas, this often means stark tradeoffs among major public projects (schools, roads, water treatment). When dealing with management options ...

  8. Turning on the Dime: Diplomacy's Role in National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Anton K

    2007-01-01

    The differences in approach and culture between the U.S. Departments of State and Defense are stark despite the fact that these organizations are members of the same team and share related national objectives...

  9. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Geriatric Surgery Project Project Goals and Activities Stakeholder Organizations Project Team Resources News Contact Us Strong for ... System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors ...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Geriatric Surgery Project Project Goals and Activities Stakeholder Organizations Project Team Resources News Contact Us Strong for ... System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors ...

  11. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inpatient & Outpatient Rules Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law ... Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use Reports ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inpatient & Outpatient Rules Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law ... Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use Reports ...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart E of... - Goals and Timetables for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Columbia; the Virginia cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, and Falls Church; the Virginia counties of Arlington..., Tazewell, Woodford, Knox, Stark, Marshall, Hancock, Mason, McLean, McDonough, Henderson, Warren, Livingston...

  14. 76 FR 30965 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot... Chandler, Art Studio, 6020 S. River Rd., Blue Rock, 11000368 Stark County Firestone, Charles E., House...

  15. Zur Standardisierung der DSH-Prüfungen: Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven des Online-Angebotes

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Das Internet ist im 21. Jahrhundert zum wichtigsten Informations- und Kommunikationsmedium geworden und hat auch in der Hochschullandschaft einen festen Platz eingenommen. Das Lernen mit und auf Internetplattformen hat sich im universitären Bereich stark etabliert. Auch die Bedeutung von Online-Prüfungen ist infolge der unter dem Schlagwort "Bologna-Prozess" bekannten Umstrukturierungen stark angestiegen. Da im Bereich der deutschen Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang (DSH) bisher nur wenig...

  16. Editorial: Qualitative Forschung in der Medienpädagogik

    OpenAIRE

    Horst Niesyto; Heinz Moser

    2008-01-01

    Seit den 1980er-Jahren haben sich qualitative Forschungsansätze in den Sozialwissenschaften stark verbreitet. In der Medienpädagogik ist dies nicht zuletzt mit einer Hinwendung zu subjektorientierten Ansätzen und Methoden verbunden, die den Fokus der Forschung auf den aktiven Umgang der Menschen mit Medien legen. Seither haben sich die Zugänge und Konzepte der qualitativen Forschung stark differenziert – etwa mit Entwicklungen wie: die Herausbildung konkreter Forschungsprogramme wie grounded ...

  17. Investigation of non thermal effects from the Dα line wings in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.

    2002-01-01

    The far wings of intense Dα lines measured at the edge of the Tore Supra Tokamak are found to exhibit a power-law behavior. The characteristic exponent is not far from two. Since the low density rules out thermal Stark broadening, we discuss non thermal effects which may arise from the edge plasma drift-wave turbulence. We suggest that both the Stark and the Doppler profile could be affected by the turbulence

  18. The use of Video Game Technology for Investigating Perceptual and Cognitive Awareness in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, Desmond

    2005-01-01

    Emerging evidence concerning the nature of expertise in sport shows that, regardless of innate talent, genetic limitations, and hereditary predispositions, elite skill levels cannot be attained without many years of focused, dedicated, and deliberate practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesh-Romer, 1993; Starkes, 2000; Starkes, Helson, & Jack, 2001). Through this ‘immersive’ environment players acquire the appropriate perceptual, cognitive, and social skills needed to optimise anticipation a...

  19. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  20. Fundamental investigation of hybrid high-temperature superconductor-semiconductor sensors for magnetic signals in non-destructive evaluation. Final report; Grundlegende Untersuchungen hybrider Hochtemperatursupraleiter-Halbleiter-Magnetfelddetektoren auf Siliziumsubstraten fuer Anwendungen in der zerstoerungsfreien Pruefung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P.; Schmidl, F.; Linzen, S.; Schmidt, F.; Scherbel, J.

    2002-11-01

    A new magnetic sensor was realized using a Hall magnetometer coupled to an antenna out of high-temperature superconducting material. The resolution of the magnetometer was improved and a noise-limited field resolution of the system of 2.7 nT/{radical}(Hz) was obtained. The necessary thin film technology was developed and optimized. Further improvements will result in 0.5 nT/{radical}(Hz). The sensors were realized as single sensors as well as sensor arrays and successfully tested in a system for non-destructive evaluation. Within this system the cooling was established by a cryocooler which also cools down the electronics to about 80 K. (orig.) [German] Es wurde ein neuartiger Magnetfeldsensor realisiert, bei dem ein Hallmagnetometer mit einer Antenne aus Hochtemperatursupraleitenden Material gekoppelt wird. Die Magnetometerempfindlichkeit wird dadurch kiar verbessert und eine rauschbegrenzte Feldaufloesung des Systems von 2,7 nT{radical}(/Hz) erreicht. Die zur Herstellung noetige hybride Duennschichttechnologie wurde entwickelt und optimiert. Durch Layoutverbesserungen erscheinen Aufloesungen von 0,5 nT/{radical}(Hz) realisierbar. Die Sensoren wurden als Einzelsensor und Sensorarrays realisiert und in einer Anlage zur zerstoerungsfreien Pruefung erfolgreich getestet. Dabei erfolgte die Kuehlung mittels Kleinkuehler, der auch die Verarbeitungselektronik auf 80 K kuehlt. (orig.)

  1. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  2. Network systems and cloud applications in livestock farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Automatisierungstechnik und von Sensoren zur Tierüberwachung wächst und damit auch die Datenmenge aus der Tierhaltung. Die Herausforderungen an die Datenanalyse und einfache Informationsdarstellung steigen. Die Beispiele aus Wissenschaft und Praxis zeigen Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Dabei müssen Anlagen unterschiedlicher Hersteller gekoppelt und Daten zielgerichtet ausgewertet werden. Während in wissenschaftlich orientierten Projekten meist Systeme unterschiedlicher Hersteller vertreten sind, um z. B. die Kommunikation und Kooperation zu stärken sowie komplexe Fragestellungen zu beantworten, wird dies in herstellerspezifischen Projekten eher vermieden, da hier der konkrete Anwendervorteil im Vordergrund steht. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele wird dargestellt, dass mobile Anwendungen als Frühwarnsysteme für Gesundheitsveränderungen in Beständen oder zur Anlagensteuerung implementiert und genutzt werden. Insgesamt ist deutlich zu erkennen, dass sich die Datenauswertung und –nutzung in die Cloud verschiebt. Mit diesen Cloudsystemen erweitert sich das Spektrum der Datenauswertung dahingehend, dass komplexe Algorithmen und mobile Services (Apps, Webberatung oder soziale Netzwerke umgesetzt werden.

  3. Vertical exchange and chemical conversion of trace elements over topographically complex terrain; Vertikaler Austausch und chemische Umwandlung von Spurenstoffen ueber topographisch gegliedertem Gelaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntze, K.

    2001-10-01

    The influence of topography on the vertical exchange of trace elements was investigated with the aid of a numeric simulation model. It is a couopled 3D model consisting of the mesoscale model KAMM and the dispersion model DRAIS, extended by the gaseous phase mechanism of the RADM model. This way, both meteorological and chemical processes can be analyzed in a preselected time and spatial resolution. The simulations were validated by a comparison with measurements made during the TRACT campaign. Satisfactory agreement between the two was established. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Topographie auf den vertikalen Austausch von Spurenstoffen mit Hilfe eines numerischen Simulationsmodells untersucht. Bei dem Simulationsmodell handelt es sich um ein dreidimensionales gekoppeltes Modell, welches aus dem mesoskaligen Modell KAMM und dem um den Gasphasenmechanismus des RADM-Modells erweiterten Ausbreitungsmodell DRAIS besteht. Mit diesem Modellsystem war es moeglich, sowohl meterologische als auch chemische Prozesse in einer vorher gewaehlten zeitlichen und raeumlichen Aufloesung zu betrachten. Um die Qualitaet der Simulation und damit deren Verwendbarkeit fuer die Untersuchungen festzustellen, wurde ein Vergleich mit Messungen durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurden berechnete meterologische und chemische Groessen mit den waehrend der Feldmesskampagne TRACT gemessenen Groessen verglichen. Der Vergleich der simulierten Groessen sowohl mit Radiosondenaufstiegen als auch mit Zeitreihen und Flugzeugmessungen lieferte eine gute Uebereinstimmung. (orig.)

  4. Katja Hericks: Entkoppelt und institutionalisiert. Gleichstellungspolitik in einem deutschen Konzern. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Katja Hericks’ Dissertation kommt zur richtigen Zeit, denn sie nährt die virulenten Diskussionen über Gender und/oder Diversity und die politischen Kontroversen über die ‚richtige‘ Frauenquote für Führungspositionen in der Privatwirtschaft mit einer ethnographischen Fallstudie über einen gleichstellungspolitischen ‚Vorzeigekonzern‘ in Deutschland. Mit der theoretischen Rahmung durch den Neoinstitutionalismus und die konstruktivistische Geschlechterforschung zeigt die Verfasserin, dass die Gleichstellungsnorm im untersuchten Unternehmen gleichzeitig auf den Ebenen des Leitbilds, der formalen Struktur und des Arbeitsalltags allenfalls lose gekoppelt institutionalisiert wird. Eine mangelnde methodische Reflexivität und die wenig lesefreundliche Gestaltung des umfangreichen Texts schmälern aber leider erheblich den Erkenntnisgewinn.The timing of Katja Herick’s dissertation is perfect, since it fosters the virulent discussions about gender and/or diversity and the political controversies regarding the ‘right’ women’s quota for executive positions in private sector enterprises with an ethnographic case study on a German company, which handles gender equality politics in an exemplary manner. With the theoretical framing through neoinstitutionalism and constructivist gender studies, the author shows that, in the analyzed company, the gender equality norm is at best loosely liked and institutionalized concurrently on the levels of mission statement, formal structure, and everyday work. Unfortunately, the lack of methodological reflexivity and the rather reader-unfriendly design and format of this extensive text reduce the possible gain of insights considerably.

  5. The powerline technology has been developed to market maturity (energy supply companies as 'dark cable' communication service and access providers). A member of Ascom Powerline Communications AG explains the system; Das Powerline-System ist marktreif (EVU als 'Dark-Cable-Anbieter' und 'Access-Provider'). Powerline aus der Sicht des Entwicklungsunternehmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, D. [Ascom Powerline Communications AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2001-03-12

    Combining communication processes and power transmission on one means of transport, - a fascinating idea, and not at all far-fetched but rather simple, actually. The article explains the basic ideas underlying the development of the powerline communication technology and the first commercially available service offered by Ascom Powerline Communications AG. (orig./CB) [German] Kommunikationssignale und Strom in einen Transportweg zusammenzufassen - eine faszinierende wie nahe liegende Idee. So nahe liegend wie die naechste Steckdose. Im Outdoor-Bereich wird in der jeweiligen Ortsnetzstation beides auf das Stromnetz gekoppelt. Von dort aus gelangt der 'Daten-Strom' dann ueber das Niederspannungsnetz zum Endverbraucher (Letzte Meile). Innerhalb des Hauses, im Indoor-Bereich, sind lediglich Adapter noetig, um Strom und Kommunikation wieder voneinander zu trennen und ihren individuellen Anwendungen zuzufuehren. Die Notwendigkeit einer separaten Telefon- oder Datenverkabelung entfaellt, da die Steckdose nun weit mehr ist als ein Elektrizitaetsanschluss: Sie wird zu einer leistungsfaehigen Kommunikationsschnittstelle - sei es zur Ueberbrueckung der 'Letzten Meile' fuer den Highspeed-Internet-Zugang oder zur Vernetzung innerhalb des Hauses. Die Vorteile fuer private Nutzer wie fuer Unternehmen sind enorm. (orig.)

  6. Mathematical modelling of the performance of hydrodynamic couplings using hybrid models; Mathematische Modellierung des Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen mit hybriden Modellansaetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaschke, P.

    2000-02-01

    Mathematical models of the dynamic performance of hydrodynamic couplings are developed using hybrid modelling, i.e. a combination of analytical physical modelling and black box identification. The models developed were verified by measurements on a model powertrain. [German] In dieser Arbeit werden mit Hilfe der hybriden Modellierung mathematische Modelle zur Beschreibung des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen ermittelt. Die Hybride Modellierung stellt eine Kombination der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation dar. Diese Modellierungsart ist ausgewaehlt worden, um die Vorteile der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation hydrodynamischer Kupplungen zu verbinden und deren Nachteile gering zu halten. Auf dieser Basis ist eine Vorgehensweise vorgestellt worden, die die Ermittlung der Modelle mit wenig Aufwand ermoeglicht. Mit Hilfe der Modelltheorie wird gezeigt, wie die ermittelten mathematischen Modelle zur Simulation des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens geometrisch aehnlicher Kupplungen unterschiedlicher Baugroessen verwendet werden koennen. Darueber hinaus wird dargelegt, wie die ermittelten Modelle mit Modellen anderer Antriebsstrangelemente gekoppelt werden koennen, um Antriebsstrangsimulationen zu ermoeglichen. Verifikationsmessungen an einem Modellantriebsstrang verdeutlichen die Guete und Verwendbarkeit der mathematischen Modelle. (orig.)

  7. Better utilisation of district heating systems. Sub-project: Optimization of heat distribution - the Berlin pilot project. Final report; Bessere Ausnutzung von Fernwaermeanlagen. Teilvorhaben: Optimierung der Waeermeverteilung - Pilotprojekt Berlin. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepansky, T.; Ziemann, O.

    2001-09-01

    The Berlin pilot project comprises three aspects. (1) 'Generator simulation': Modelling of power generation systems in BoFiT was validated by means of existing calculation programs (Bewag) and measurements (HEW, HKW Hafen). (2) 'Optimization of pump use'. (3) 'Centralization of pressure maintenance'. The two latter aspects serve for optimized hydraulic control and supply assurance for validating network simulation in offline and online operation, including network data acquisition. [German] In KWK-Anlagen wird wirtschaftlich Strom und Waerme erzeugt. Der Aufwand fuer den Waermetransport ist vergleichsweise hoch. Automatisch geregelte und gesteuerte Umwaelzpumpen mit grossen Umwaelzwassermassenstroemen und Druckhoehen bieten ein hohes Optimierungspotential fuer die hydraulische Betriebsfuehrung von Fernwaermeversorgungsunternehmen. Der Einsatz von modular aufgebauten EDV-Systemen zur Betriebsoptimierung ist Gegenstand von staendig weiterfuehrenden Untersuchungen. Das Pilotprojekt Berlin 'Optimierung der Waermeverteilung' gliedert sich in drei Arbeitspunkte. Beim Arbeitspunkt 'Erzeugersimulation' wurde ausgehend von existierenden Kreislauf-Rechenprogrammen (Bewag) und Betriebsmessungen (HEW, HKW Hafen) die Modellbildung von Erzeugungsanlagen im Programmsystem BoFiT ueberprueft. Die Arbeitspunkte 'Pumpen-Einsatzoptimierung' und 'Zentralisierung der Druckhaltung' dienten der Optimierung der hydraulischen Betriebsfuehrung unter Einhaltung der Versorgungssicherheit zur Ueberpruefung der Netzsimulation sowohl im Offline- als auch im Online-Betrieb gekoppelt mit der Netzdatenerfassung. (orig.)

  8. Spontaneous emission of the non-Wiener type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous emission of a quantum particle and superradiation of an ensemble of identical quantum particles in a vacuum electromagnetic field with zero photon density are examined under the conditions of significant Stark particle and field interaction. New fundamental effects are established: suppression of spontaneous emission by the Stark interaction, an additional “decay” shift in energy of the decaying level as a consequence of Stark interaction unrelated to the Lamb and Stark level shifts, excitation conservation phenomena in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and suppression of superradiaton in the decay of an ensemble of excited quantum particles of a certain density. The main equations describing the emission processes under conditions of significant Stark interaction are obtained in the effective Hamiltonian representation of quantum stochastic differential equations. It is proved that the Stark interaction between a single quantum particle and a broadband electromagnetic field is represented as a quantum Poisson process and the stochastic differential equations are of the non-Wiener (generalized Langevin) type. From the examined case of spontaneous emission of a quantum particle, the main rules are formulated for studying open systems in the effective Hamiltonian representation.

  9. Scrubbing water treatment for simultaneous removal of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from gases, with an integrated stage for reducing Fe-III to Fe-II by lowering the pH to the strongly acid region in the scrubbing liquid circuit. Waschwasseraufbereitung fuer die simultane SO/sub 2/- und NO/sub x/-Gasreinigung mit integrierter Stufe zur Reduktion von Eisen-III zu Eisen-II im Waschfluessigkeitskreislauf durch Absenkung des pH-Wertes in den stark sauren Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-08

    In the patent application P 3519681.5 a method for washing water treatment and recovery of valuable material in the simultaneous removal of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from flue gas is described. In this method sulphuric acid and air are supplied in the oxidation chamber so that after filtration saleable gypsum is produced as a final product. Surprisingly, it was found out that with a sufficient lowering of the pH value to the strongly acid range by addition of sulphuric acid in the range of pH less than 3, iron-III is reduced to iron-II.

  10. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    Modulen, die nicht auf der Basis natürlicher Raumeinheiten arbeiten. Im Rahmen eines neuen skalenübergreifenden, hierarchischen Ansatzes werden in Wasa die genannten Zieleinheiten in kleinere räumliche Modellierungseinheiten unterteilt. Die ausgewiesenen Landschaftseinheiten erfassen insbesondere die strukturierte Variabilität von Gelände-, Boden- und Vegetationseigenschaften entlang von Toposequenzen in ihrem Einfluss auf Bodenfeuchte und Abflussbildung. Laterale hydrologische Prozesse auf kleiner Skala, wie die für semiaride Bedingungen bedeutsame Wiederversickerung von Oberflächenabfluss, können somit auch in der erforderlichen großskaligen Modellanwendung vereinfacht wiedergegeben werden. In Abhängigkeit von der Auflösung der verfügbaren Daten wird in Wasa die kleinskalige Variabilität nicht räumlich explizit sondern über die Verteilung von Flächenanteilen subskaliger Einheiten und über statistische Übergangshäufigkeiten für laterale Flüsse zwischen den Einheiten berücksichtigt. Weitere Modellkomponenten von Wasa, die spezifische Bedingungen semiarider Gebiete berücksichtigen, sind: (1) Ein Zwei-Schichten-Modell zur Bestimmung der Evapotranspiration berücksichtigt auch den Energieumsatz an der Bodenoberfläche (inklusive Bodenverdunstung), der in Anbetracht der meist lichten Vegetationsbedeckung von Bedeutung ist. Die Vegetationsparameter werden zudem flächen- und zeitdifferenziert in Abhängigkeit vom Auftreten der Regenzeit modifiziert. (2) Das Infiltrationsmodul bildet insbesondere Oberflächenabfluss durch Infiltrationsüberschuss als dominierender Abflusskomponente ab. (3) Zur aggregierten Beschreibung der Wasserbilanz von im Modell nicht einzeln erfassbaren Stauseen wird ein Speichermodell unter Berücksichtigung verschiedener Größenklassen und ihrer Interaktion über das Gewässernetz eingesetzt. (4) Ein Modell zur Bestimmung der Entnahme durch Wassernutzung in verschiedenen Sektoren ist an Wasa gekoppelt. (5) Ein Kaskadenmodell zur

  11. Investigation on the spatial evolution of the emission spectra in laser-induced Ni plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanmei; Xu Ying; Zhang Mingxu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial resolved emission spectrum of Ni atom in laser induced Ni plasma is measured in the wavelength region from 350 nm to 600 nm. The spatial evolution of the relative intensities and the Stark broadening of the 385.83 nm emission spectrum lines are also obtained. It is shown that Stark broadening and intensity of the spectrum lines increases firstly to its maximum and then de- creases along the direction of laser beam when the distance from the target surface is in the range from 0 to 2.5 mm. The maximum value of Stark broadening and relative intensity of the spectrum lines appear at 1.5 mm from the target surface. (authors)

  12. A new species of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from North Carolina with additional records for North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Zuellig, R.E.; Lenat, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight species of Nearctic Perlesta are currently recognized (Stark 1989, 2004; Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008; Grubbs and DeWalt 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2011, Kondratieff and Myers 2011). Interestingly, but needing confirmation, Perlesta has been recently recorded from Central America (Gutiérrez-Fonseca and Springer 2011). Continued collecting and study of Perlesta from North Carolina by the authors revealed one additional undescribed species. Ten species of Perlesta currently have been recorded from North Carolina (Stark 1989, 2004, Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2008). Additionally, new Perlesta species records are given for Virginia. The terminology used in the description of the male adult follows Stark (1989, 2004).

  13. Catching flies with vinegar: a critique of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid self-disclosure program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jean Wright

    2012-01-01

    This Article argues that the current approach of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to enforcement of the Ethics in Patient Referrals Act (the "Stark Law") is unnecessarily punitive and discourages health-care providers from self-disclosing even very minor violations of the Stark Law. This Article suggests a number of specific changes to encourage provider self-disclosure and proposes that CMS create a demonstration project under the authority of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to test the reforms. A demonstration project provides the perfect vehicle to prove that increased self-disclosure protocols for the Stark Law can decrease the government's costs of enforcement, improve program integrity, and encourage providers to deal responsibly with the inevitable minor lapses in compliance that arise in such an enormous government program as Medicare.

  14. New Statistical Multiparticle Approach to the Acceleration of Electrons by the Ion Field in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the acceleration of the (perturbing electrons by the ion field (AEIF significantly reduces Stark widths and shifts in plasmas of relatively high densities and/or relatively low temperature. Our previous analytical calculations of the AEIF were based on the dynamical treatment: the starting point was the ion-microfield-caused changes of the trajectories and velocities of individual perturbing electrons. In the current paper, we employ a statistical approach: the starting point is the electron velocity distribution function modified by the ion microfield. The latter had been calculated by Romanovsky and Ebeling in the multiparticle description of the ion microfield. The result shows again the reduction of the electron Stark broadening. Thus two totally different analytical approaches (dynamical and statistical agree with each other and therefore disprove the corresponding recent fully-numerical simulations by Stambulchik et al. that claimed an increase of the electron Stark broadening.

  15. Value of CT-guided biopsy in malignant lymphoma; Wertigkeit der CT-gesteuerten Biopsie maligner Lymphome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicher, M.; Noeldge, G.; Radeleff, B.; Gholipur, F.; Richter, G.M. [Abteilung Radiodiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Management of diagnosing malignant lymphomas has changed with development of CT-guided techniques and reliable biopsy tools.Pathologists can use representative tissue samples for sub classification in more than 90%.Evaluation of residual lymphoma or relapse can be nearly as effective. Therefore percutaneous biopsy can be considered as primary diagnostic tool in the absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy. CT-guided biopsies can be performed on an outpatient basis under conscious sedation considering contraindications as well as regional complications. Acceptance of percutaneous biopsy by the pathologist and oncologist is based on diagnostic effectiveness that is significantly improved if more than 3{dagger}solid tissue samples are taken. This article reviews the value of CT-guided biopsy in comparison to surgical procedures in patients with malignant lymphoma. Essential aspects that lead to a diagnostic percutaneous biopsy are discussed on grounds of the current literature. (orig.) [German] Mit der Entwicklung CT-gesteuerter Biopsieverfahren sowie zuverlaessiger Biopsiesysteme hat sich die Vorgehensweise bei der Diagnostik maligner Lymphome geaendert. Repraesentative Stanzzylinder mit hoher Praeparatequalitaet ermoeglichen dem Pathologen eine Subklassifikation der Lymphome in ueber 90%. Eine aehnlich hohe Treffsicherheit ist auch bei der Rezidivdiagnostik moeglich. Deshalb sind perkutane Biopsien bei fehlender peripherer Lymphadenopathie als primaere diagnostische Methode geeignet. Unter Beachtung der Kontraindikationen sowie der regional unterschiedlichen Komplikationsmoeglichkeiten koennen die meisten CT-gesteuerten Biopsien ambulant unter Analgosedierung durchgefuehrt werden. Die Akzeptanz perkutaner Biopsien durch Pathologen und Onkologen ist an die diagnostische Genauigkeit gekoppelt. Diese wird durch Gewinnung von mindestens 3 repraesentativen Biopsiezylindern aus den soliden Anteilen eines Lymphoms signifikant erhoeht. Die vorliegende Uebersichtsarbeit

  16. Effects of airplane emissions on the composition of the atmosphere: Investigations using a mesoscale chemical transport model; Der Einfluss von Flugzeugabgasen auf die Zusammensetzung der Atmosphaere: Untersuchungen mit einem mesoskaligen Chemie-Transport-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, E

    1997-12-31

    In the present work the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition is studied using a mesoscale chemistry transport model. To simulate the impact of aircraft exhausts several modifications on the EURAD model system have been performed. The upper boundary of the model has been extended from 100 hPa up to 10 hPa. The vertical resolution of the model has been refined especially in tropopause altitudes extending the number of model layers from 15 to 29. Additionally the initialization and the treatment of the boundary conditions has been improved by coupling the trace gas concentration fields with the individual meteorological situation. To guarantee an adequate representation of the atmospheric chemistry the chemical mechanism CHEST has been developed and implemented into the chemistry transport model. CHEST treats the most important chemical processes of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the frame of the present work sensitivity studies with a box model and with the threedimensional chemistry transport model have been performed to investigate the impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere. (KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Auswirkungen der Flugzeugemissionen auf die Zusammensetzung der Atmosphaere mit Hilfe eines mesoskaligen Chemie-Transport-Modells untersucht. Zur Simulation der Ausbreitung der Flugzeugabgase wurden am EURAD-Modell-System umfangreiche Veraenderungen vorgenommen. Der obere Modellrand des Chemie-Transport-Modells ist von 100 hPa auf 10 hPa erhoeht worden. Die vertikale Aufloesung des Modells wurde insbesondere im Tropopausenbereich durch eine Erhoehung der Gesamtzahl der Modellschichten von 15 auf 29 wesentlich verfeinert. Ausserdem ist die Initialisierung der Spurenstoffverteilung im Modell an die Dynamik gekoppelt worden. Dem Chemie-Transport-Modell stehen damit an die jeweilige meteorologische Situation angepasste Konzentrationsfelder zur Initialisierung und zur Behandlung der Fluesse durch den

  17. Hydrological modeling in the regional scala; Hydrologische Modellierung auf der regionalen Skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1996-12-31

    The present work describes the hydrological processes of the land-surface and their modelling on spatial and temporal scales of today`s regional climate and weatherprediction models. The components of the water cycle and the most important termsand model concepts of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface are introduced. The main task of this work is the development of a hydrological model, which can be coupled to regionalatmospheric models and is able to predict streamflow. The discussion of the necessary complexity of the land-surface-parameterizations leads to a consistent model structure. Daily measured meteorological time series of about 15 years in the catchment of the Weser river are used to force the VIC-2L model offline. The VIC-2L model is coupled to a linear horizontaltransport model to allow for a comparison of measured and modelled streamflow data. Measured and modelled discharge time series are compared, a sensitivity study is performed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die hydrologischen Prozesse am Erdboden und ihre Modellierung auf der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Skala heutiger regionaler Klima- und Wettervorhersagemodelle. Dazu werden die Komponenten des Wasserkreislaufs und die wichtigsten Begriffe und Modellkonzepte der Boden-Vegetation-Atmosphaerenwechselwirkung kurz vorgestellt. Ziel der Arbeit ist Entwicklung eines an regionale Atmosphaerenmodelle koppelbaren Hydrologiemodells, welches in der Lage ist, Abflussmengen in Fluessen richtig zu beschreiben. Aus der Diskussion ueber die notwendige Komplexitaet der Landoberflaechenparametrisierungen wird eine konsistente Modellstruktur hergeleitet. Taeglich gemessene meteorologische Zeitreihen im Wassereinzugsgebiet der Weser von nahezu 15 Jahren dienen als entkoppelter Antrieb fuer das VIC-2L-Modell. Um den Vergleich von gemessenen und modellierten Abflussmengen zu ermoeglichen, wird an das VIC-2L-Modell ein lineares horizontales Transportmodell gekoppelt. Gemessene und

  18. TomoWELD. Precise detection of weld defects; TomoWELD. Defekte in Schweissnaehten praezise erkennen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, David [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear power plants are complex and technically elaborate systems whose aim is to produce electricity. They must meet the highest safety requirements. Within the reactors, nuclear reactions and radioactive transformations release energy which is used to evaporate water. The steam generated drives turbines that in turn are coupled with generators which convert the kinetic energy provided by the turbines into electrical energy. The process is easy to illustrate but difficult to control and requires technical equipment such as kilometre-long pipe systems. Austenitic steel is frequently used for this purpose because of its high strength and corrosion resistance. The individual pipe components are joined by welding. However, welds may contain hidden defects. Cracks, lack of fusion or pore nests that can remain undetected may have catastrophic consequences. Therefore, all welds in a nuclear power plant, without exception, must be checked. Approved non-destructive methods use ultrasound and X-ray. The technology developed at BAM is called TomoWELD. [German] Kernkraftwerke sind komplexe und technisch aufwendige Anlagen zur Gewinnung von Elektrizitaet. Sie muessen allerhoechsten Sicherheitsanspruechen genuegen. Die bei Kernreaktionen und radioaktiven Umwandlungen freiwerdende Energie wird genutzt, um Wasser zu verdampfen. Der Dampf treibt Turbinen an und die wiederum sind mit Generatoren gekoppelt, welche die durch die Turbinen bereitgestellte kinetische Energie in elektrische Energie umwandeln. Der Prozess laesst sich einfach darstellen, ihn zu steuern ist allerdings kompliziert und erfordert weitere technische Komponenten, wie beispielsweise kilometerlange Rohrleitungssysteme. Wegen seiner hohen Festigkeit sowie Korrosionsbestaendigkeit wird oft austenitischer Stahl dafuer verwendet. Gefuegt werden die einzelnen Rohrteile durch Schweissen. Doch Schweissnaehte koennen viele verborgene Defekte enthalten. Bleiben Risse, Bindefehler oder Porennester unentdeckt, kann das

  19. Effects of airplane emissions on the composition of the atmosphere: Investigations using a mesoscale chemical transport model; Der Einfluss von Flugzeugabgasen auf die Zusammensetzung der Atmosphaere: Untersuchungen mit einem mesoskaligen Chemie-Transport-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, E.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition is studied using a mesoscale chemistry transport model. To simulate the impact of aircraft exhausts several modifications on the EURAD model system have been performed. The upper boundary of the model has been extended from 100 hPa up to 10 hPa. The vertical resolution of the model has been refined especially in tropopause altitudes extending the number of model layers from 15 to 29. Additionally the initialization and the treatment of the boundary conditions has been improved by coupling the trace gas concentration fields with the individual meteorological situation. To guarantee an adequate representation of the atmospheric chemistry the chemical mechanism CHEST has been developed and implemented into the chemistry transport model. CHEST treats the most important chemical processes of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the frame of the present work sensitivity studies with a box model and with the threedimensional chemistry transport model have been performed to investigate the impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere. (KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Auswirkungen der Flugzeugemissionen auf die Zusammensetzung der Atmosphaere mit Hilfe eines mesoskaligen Chemie-Transport-Modells untersucht. Zur Simulation der Ausbreitung der Flugzeugabgase wurden am EURAD-Modell-System umfangreiche Veraenderungen vorgenommen. Der obere Modellrand des Chemie-Transport-Modells ist von 100 hPa auf 10 hPa erhoeht worden. Die vertikale Aufloesung des Modells wurde insbesondere im Tropopausenbereich durch eine Erhoehung der Gesamtzahl der Modellschichten von 15 auf 29 wesentlich verfeinert. Ausserdem ist die Initialisierung der Spurenstoffverteilung im Modell an die Dynamik gekoppelt worden. Dem Chemie-Transport-Modell stehen damit an die jeweilige meteorologische Situation angepasste Konzentrationsfelder zur Initialisierung und zur Behandlung der Fluesse durch den

  20. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M; Hoelder, D; Backhaus, C; Althaus, W [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  1. Studies on the microbial sulphur cycle in acid ponds in the Niederlausitz mining region in Brandenburg; Untersuchungen zum mikrobiellen Schwefelkreislauf in sauren Tagebau-Restseen der Niederlausitz (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J

    2001-07-01

    The water quality of the acid ponds in the Niederlausitz brown coal mining region is characterised by pH values below 3 and high concentrations of dissolved iron (up to 10 mM) and sulphate (up to 30 mM). The development of these ponds is determined by the equilibrium that arises between acidifying and alkalinising processes. Acidity develops through weathering and oxidation of iron sulphides in the mining refuse, whereas alkalinity arises through the reduction of iron (III) and sulphate in the pond sediments, a process associated with the oxidation of organic matter. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation on the neutralising potential of the sediments in acid ponds and to characterise and identify the microorganisms involved in these processes. Comparative explorations were performed in two acid waters, namely ponds 111 and 107, and in a neutral water, namely pond B, in a semi-natural area of the Niederlausitz region. [German] Die Wasserqualitaet der sauren Bergbau-Restseen im Braunkohlerevier der Niederlausitz ist durch pH-Werte unter pH 3 und hohe Konzentrationen an geloestem Eisen (bis zu 10 mM) und Sulfat (bis zu 30 mM) gekennzeichnet. Die Entwicklung der Restseen wird durch das Gleichgewicht von aziditaets- und alkalinitaetsbildenden Prozessen bestimmt. Aziditaet entsteht bei der Verwitterung bzw. der Oxidation der Eisensulfide im Kippmassiv, waehrend Alkalinitaet bei der an die Oxidation organischer Substanz gekoppelte Reduktion von Eisen(III) und Sulfat in den Sedimenten der Seen gebildet wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Sulfratreduktion und der Schwefeloxidation auf das Neutralisierungspotenzial der Sedimente der sauren Restseen untersucht sowie die an diesen Prozessen beteiligten Mikroorganismen charakterisiert und identifiziert. Vergleichende Untersuchungen wurden in zwei sauren, Restsee 111 und 107, und in einem neutralen Gewaesser, Restsee B, im naturnahen Bereich

  2. A model of magnetic and relaxation properties of the mononuclear [Pc2Tb](-)TBA+ complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reu, O S; Palii, A V; Ostrovsky, S M; Tregenna-Piggott, P L W; Klokishner, S I

    2012-10-15

    The present work is aimed at the elaboration of the model of magnetic properties and magnetic relaxation in the mononuclear [Pc(2)Tb](-)TBA(+) complex that displays single-molecule magnet properties. We calculate the Stark structure of the ground (7)F(6) term of the Tb(3+) ion in the exchange charge model of the crystal field, taking account for covalence effects. The ground Stark level of the complex possesses the maximum value of the total angular momentum projection, while the energies of the excited Stark levels increase with decreasing |M(J)| values, thus giving rise to a barrier for the reversal of magnetization. The one-phonon transitions between the Stark levels of the Tb(3+) ion induced by electron-vibrational interaction are shown to lead to magnetization relaxation in the [Pc(2)Tb](-)TBA(+) complex. The rates of all possible transitions between the low-lying Stark levels are calculated in the temperature range 14 KStark levels. The relaxation time is shown to diminish from 3.2 × 10(-2) s to 1.52 × 10(-4) s as the temperature increases from 27 K to 40 K. The obtained values of the relaxation time are in satisfactory agreement with the observed ones. The developed model also provides satisfactory description of the dc-magnetic data and paramagnetic shifts.

  3. PRESSURE SHIFT AND GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT OF BALMER LINES IN WHITE DWARFS: REDISCUSSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halenka, Jacek; Olchawa, Wieslaw [Institute of Physics, University of Opole, ul. Oleska 48, 45-052, Opole (Poland); Madej, Jerzy [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Grabowski, Boleslaw, E-mail: halenka@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: wolch@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: jm@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: bgrab@uni.opole.pl [Wroclaw School of Information Technology WWSIS “Horyzont,” ul. Wejherowska 28, 54-239 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    The Stark-induced shift and asymmetry, the so-called pressure shift (PS) of H{sub α} and H{sub β} Balmer lines in spectra of DA white dwarfs (WDs), have been examined in detail as masking effects in measurements of the gravitational redshift in WDs. The results are compared with our earlier ones from a quarter of a century ago. In these earlier papers, the standard, symmetrical Stark line profiles, as a dominant constituent of the Balmer line profiles but shifted as a whole by the PS effect, were applied to all spectrally active layers of the WD atmosphere. At present, in each of the WD layers, the Stark line profiles (especially of H{sub β}) are inherently asymmetrical and shifted due to the effects of strong inhomogeneity of the perturbing fields in plasma. To calculate the Stark line profiles in successive layers of the WD atmosphere we used the modified Full Computer Simulation Method, able to take adequately into account the complexity of local elementary quantum processes in plasma. In the case of the H{sub α} line, the present value of Stark-induced shift of the synthetic H{sub α} line profile is about half the previous one and it is negligible in comparison with the gravitational redshift. In the case of the H{sub β} line, the present value of Stark-induced shift of the synthetic H{sub β} line profile is about twice the previous one. The source of this extra shift is the asymmetry of H{sub β} peaks.

  4. Coupled-cluster treatment of molecular strong-field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagau, Thomas-C.

    2018-05-01

    Ionization rates and Stark shifts of H2, CO, O2, H2O, and CH4 in static electric fields have been computed with coupled-cluster methods in a basis set of atom-centered Gaussian functions with a complex-scaled exponent. Consideration of electron correlation is found to be of great importance even for a qualitatively correct description of the dependence of ionization rates and Stark shifts on the strength and orientation of the external field. The analysis of the second moments of the molecular charge distribution suggests a simple criterion for distinguishing tunnel and barrier suppression ionization in polyatomic molecules.

  5. Using the van der Waals broadening of the spectral atomic lines to measure the gas temperature of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, C.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.; Garcia, M.C.; Calzada, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The ro-vibrational emission spectra of the molecular species are usually used to measure the gas temperature of a discharge at atmospheric pressure. However, under some experimental conditions, it is difficult to detect them. In order to overcome this difficulty and obtain the temperature, there are methods based on the relation between the gas temperature and the van der Waals broadening of argon atomic spectral lines with a Stark contribution negligible. In this work, we propose a method based on this relation but for lines with a Stark broadening comparable with the van der Waals one

  6. Properties of InGaAs quantum dot saturable absorbers in monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M.G.; Marinelli, C.; Chu, Y.

    Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance.......Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance....

  7. Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouillard, F.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the formation of Rydberg atoms; their radiative decay; their behavior in electric and electromagnetic fields; and their collisions with atoms and ions. Discusses electron capture into high excited states; laser excitation of Rydberg states; Stark shift and Stark mixing; field ionization; ionization in oscillating fields; thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms; fast collisions of Rydberg atoms; n-changing collisions; and charge exchange. Points out that a large amount of experimental work has been done on collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral perturbers at thermal energies, and most of it concerns the destruction of Rydberg alkali atoms in collisions with rare gases

  8. Behavior of Rydberg atoms at surfaces: energy level shifts and ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, F.B. E-mail: fbd@rice.edu; Dunham, H.R.; Oubre, C.; Nordlander, P

    2003-04-01

    The ionization of xenon atoms excited to the extreme red and blue states in high-lying Xe(n) Stark manifolds at a metal surface is investigated. The data show that, despite their very different initial spatial characteristics, the extreme members of a given Stark manifold ionize at similar atom/surface separations. This is explained, with the aid of complex scaling calculations, in terms of the strong perturbations in the energies and structure of the atomic states induced by the presence of the surface which lead to avoided crossings between neighboring levels as the surface is approached.

  9. Behavior of Rydberg atoms at surfaces: energy level shifts and ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B; Oubre, C D; Nordlander, P

    2003-01-01

    The ionization of xenon atoms excited to the extreme red and blue states in high-lying Xe(n) Stark manifolds at a metal surface is investigated. The data show that, despite their very different initial spatial characteristics, the extreme members of a given Stark manifold ionize at similar atom/surface separations. This is explained, with the aid of complex scaling calculations, in terms of the strong perturbations in the energies and structure of the atomic states induced by the presence of the surface which lead to avoided crossings between neighboring levels as the surface is approached.

  10. Cod: a challenge for sustainable fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Jantzen, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Fast die Hälfte aller Nutzfischbestände befindet sich auf einem nicht-nachhaltigen Niveau. Das bedeutet, dass die von einem Fischbestand abgefischte Menge die Anzahl der Jungfische in diesem Bestand so stark vermindert hat, dass die eigene Reproduktionsrate nicht ausreicht, um die Populationsgröße langfristig zu erhalten. Wenn die starke Befischungsintensität über einer zugelassenen nachhaltigen Höchstmenge bestehen bleibt, wird es zukünftig keine gewinnbringende Fischerei mehr geben. Besonde...

  11. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory

  12. Emergency Operations Center ribbon cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Center Director Gene Goldman and special guests celebrate the opening of the site's new Emergency Operations Center on June 2. Participants included (l t r): Steven Cooper, deputy director of the National Weather Service Southern Region; Tom Luedtke, NASA associate administrator for institutions and management; Charles Scales, NASA associate deputy administrator; Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour; Gene Goldman, director of Stennis Space Center; Jack Forsythe, NASA assistant administrator for the Office of Security and Program Protection; Dr. Richard Williams, NASA chief health and medical officer; and Weldon Starks, president of Starks Contracting Company Inc. of Biloxi.

  13. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.

    2015-01-01

    with up to 10 MW of heating power, the fast-ion measurements agree best with the theoretical predictions that assume a weak level anomalous fast-ion transport. This is also in agreement with measurements of the internal inductance, a Motional Stark Effect diagnostic and a novel polarimetry diagnostic...

  14. 77 FR 43064 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Science Board 2012 Summer Study on Technology and Innovation Enablers for Superiority in 2030 will meet in closed session August 20-24, 2012, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory... meeting, the Board will discuss interim finding and recommendations resulting from ongoing Task Force...

  15. Holding a spotlight to an ageing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Paul

    2008-07-01

    In May 2008 Help the Aged published its 3rd annual Spotlight Report. The report highlights the stark realities facing older people in the UK today and gives detailed statistical data on how the lives of some have improved but many are still being left behind.

  16. Moving beyond Boycotts: Strategies for Shared Responsibility in the Collegiate Apparel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 factory collapse at Rana Plaza in Bangladesh is a painful reminder that labor issues in the apparel industry are abundant and troubling. Catholic colleges and universities (CCUs) are confronted with the reality that many apparel manufacturers can operate in stark contrast to the vision of economic justice found in Catholic social thought…

  17. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  18. Search Results | Page 149 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and Central America 119 Apply North and Central America filter · Lebanon 44 Apply Lebanon filter .... Ahmedabad, the largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, is both diverse and divided. ... growth, its population is riven by religious conflict and stark income disparities. ... Gender and the Information Revolution in Africa.

  19. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  20. Unmasking the Brilliant Disguise: Smallness, Authority and the Irony of a Teacher's Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Emerging from the entanglement of tensions with the perception that if one is a minority, female, and short, it would appear that one is likely never to get to the top of the corporate ladder. In addition to what people already know about the stark realities of gender and racial discrimination in the workplace, some studies suggest that physical…

  1. The political debates on the veil in France and the Netherlands: reflecting national integration models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saharso, Sawitri; Lettinga, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we compare the politicization and framing of the Islamic veil in parliamentary debates in France and the Netherlands between 1989 and 2007. If stark national differences in the framing of the issue can be found in the 1990, later years show more convergence, when the debate shifted

  2. High Court Case Could Rein in Private Placements under IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on starkly contrasting portraits of special education that the justices are sure to hear on the first day of the new U.S. Supreme Court term. In a case from New York City, the 1.1 million-student district argues that school officials made every attempt to provide an appropriate education plan under the federal Individuals with…

  3. Cleft Palate Habilitation; Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Cleft Palate Habilitation (5th, Syracuse University, New York, May 11-12, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencione, Ruth M., Ed.

    With emphasis on the growing interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of cleft palate, Ruth M. Lencione introduces the subject covering incidence, causes, and classification. Richard B. Stark discusses surgery of the primary pharyngeal flap and E. Harris Nober presents a review of the literature on hearing problems. Aubrey L. Ruess examined…

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    general water quality of the river from t upstream to .... Where, D is measurement of different macroinvertebrates present. ∑ is the ..... framework by the river managers on water resource .... Stark, J. D., Boothroyd, I. K. G., Harding, J. S.,. Maxted ...

  5. Even Superheroes Need Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Mel

    2018-01-01

    It is not clear exactly when school leaders first started wearing an "S" on their chests and began defiantly uttering the phrase, "I can do it all myself!" But after days, weeks, months, or even years of racing wildly from task to task, many a superhero principal has come to the stark realization that nothing could be further…

  6. Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

    2011-01-01

    practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science...

  7. f)RGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN TilE SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to be in order to meet the new challenges? One is left with a stark picture of the many things in the organization which need to be looked at and improved in order to reach the ideal objective of an effective Defence Force. In an organization as large as the Defence Force this list is never ending. a. THE. NEED. FOR. AN.

  8. As His Day in Court Arrives, Ward Churchill Is Depicted in Sharply Different Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The trial in Ward Churchill's lawsuit against the University of Colorado got under way here last week with lawyers for the opposing sides painting starkly different pictures of both the controversial ethnic-studies professor and the circumstances surrounding his dismissal by the university in 2007. In delivering their opening remarks in a crowded…

  9. Forty Years of Doing Second Language Testing, Curriculum, and Research: So What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2017-01-01

    I started out as a budding English as a second language (ESL) teacher in 1976 at UCLA where I went through the M.A. TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) and Applied Linguistics Ph.D. programs. Sadly, those two programs were "disestablished" in 2014, which provides a stark lesson to any departments that think they are hot stuff…

  10. a novel therapeutic pathway for patients with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    some specific immune cells that regulate sev- eral functions of different immune cell types. (Murphy et al., 2002; Bouchon et al., 2001;. Veillett and Latour, 2003; Lee et al., 2007;. Stark and Watzl, 2006). According to the Hugo. Gene Nomenclature (2012), SLAMF7 contains one immunoglobulin-like C2-type domain. Ex-.

  11. Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…

  12. Identifying and Overcoming Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Introducing a Conception-Focused Curriculum to Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Bradley, Thomas P.; Heller, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Educators have been challenged to identify threshold concepts and develop transformed students. This stands in stark contrast to many curriculum design and delivery models that currently view students as repositories of knowledge. In this article, we argue that educators can reach both goals, identify stumbling blocks and transforming students,…

  13. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. How Many People Does It Take to Make an Essex Man? Year 9 Face up to Historical Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Teaching her Key Stage 3 students in Essex, Catherine McCrory was struck by the stark contrast between their enthusiasm for studying diverse histories of Africa and the Americas and their reluctance to engage with certain groups deemed different within England. Inspired by the resources in the local Record Office and keen to implement the part of…

  15. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  16. Impact of Japanese Mergers on Shareholder Wealth: An Analysis of Bidder and Target Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mehrotra (Vikas); D. van Schaik (Dimitri); J. Spronk (Jaap); O.W. Steenbeek (Onno)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe market for corporate control in the second largest economy in the world behaves very different from that in the U.S. Using a sample of 91 mergers in the period 1982-2003 we document several distinctive features of this market in Japan. First, we show that in stark contrast to the

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    B ackground. T he sub-title of this article is borrow ed from tw o dis- ..... theory w hich so starkly opposed the B iblicalversion of creation. A second .... R eca p itu la - tion and C onclusion, sum m arises the thesis { w hich, in ...... Education, 2002; http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/ibnsina.pdf) for an early example of ...

  18. Border Crossing Knowledge Systems: A PNG Teacher's Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Medi

    2010-01-01

    Narratives have always been integral to Indigenous knowledge transfer. In this autoethnography the author shares her border crossings between her Indigenous knowledge systems and the often dominant Western knowledge system. Pertinent to these experiences are the stark contrasts that exist between the two knowledge systems and their educational…

  19. Investigation of plasma turbulence in a theta-pinch-discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, G.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with investigations of plasma turbulence in a 3 KJ Theta-Pinch during implosion by high-frequency Stark-effect and Thomson scattering. The next points are modifications of electron-distribution function by ionization in low preionizized turbulent plasma and energy losses by particle flow and heat flow at the ends. (HT)

  20. The Great Recession and Social Preferences: Evidence from Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ralph; Djourelova, Milena; Nikolova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We use detailed survey data to document stark differences between West and East Ukraine when it comes to household attitudes toward market-based economies and democratic institutions. Along both of these dimensions, Eastern Ukrainians are decidedly less supportive of liberal systems. We also find

  1. 2nd Turner Lecture Battling for History: The Impact of War upon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bill Nasson is Professor of History and Head of the Department of Historical ... meaning, as a heavy moral charter of blood sacrifice, awaiting redemption in ... have emphasised, leave a messy residue or legacy of unresolved issues or contested ... They also produced split responses to the stark business of historical choice.

  2. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  3. 4-D seismic in a complex fluvial reservoir: the Snorre feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.; Berg, J.I.; Eidsvig, S.; Magnus, I.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.; Helgesen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The saga petroleum, discoverer of Snorre Field, describe's how 3-D seismic surveys are used to determine the value of time-lapse seismic data for field management. Careful examination of the repeatability of the time-lapse data sets, before interpretation stark, establishes a framework defining the

  4. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  5. New species and records of the stonefly genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Two new Neoperla species (Neoperla mesospina, Neoperla latispina) are described from the adult male stage from the Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China. The new species are compared with similar taxa. Taxonomic remarks are also provided for N. transversprojecta Du & Sivec and N. yao Stark. The latter species is newly recorded for Guangxi.

  6. Increasing Racial Diversity in the Teacher Workforce: One University's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabowski,, Freeman A., III; Sanders, Mavis G.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, for the first time in U.S. public schools, the percentage of Hispanic, African American, Asian, and other students of color exceeded the percentage of white students, creating a majority-minority system that reflects the mosaic of cultures, experiences, languages, and religions that characterize this nation. In stark contrast, an…

  7. Classification of savanna tree species, in the Greater Kruger National Park region, by integrating hyperspectral and LiDAR data in a random forest data mining environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available . Savanna vegetation are also highly irregular in canopy and crown shape, height and other structural dimensions with a combination of open grassland patches and dense woody thicket – a stark contrast to the more homogeneous forest vegetation. This study...

  8. Study of the light emission from hydrogen atoms excited by the beam-foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broll, Norbert.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-field and Stark-induced quantum beat measurements have been performed for beam foil excited hydrogen (H + and H 2 + beam). Experimental evidence of coherent excitation of S and P states of Lyman α line has been demonstrated [fr

  9. SPARK RttT: Year One Fidelity and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele; Ross, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Developed in 2003 by the Sisters of Charity Foundation of Canton with a grant from the Kellogg Foundation, "Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids" ("SPARK Ohio") is a family-centered kindergarten readiness program that works with families, schools, and the community. From its initial sites in Stark County, "SPARK…

  10. Novice Career Changers Weather the Classroom Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft

    2013-01-01

    A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…

  11. "Testimonio" as Praxis for a Reimagined Journalism Model and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Sonya M.

    2012-01-01

    The differences between journalism and "testimonio" are stark: One is premised on verifiable truths (Mindich, 1998), while the other treats truth as fractional, relative, subjective, and communal (Arias, 2001; Binford, 2001; Delgado Bernal, 2006a; Latina Feminist Group, 2001). Nonetheless, Chicana/o journalism students developing a…

  12. Selected topics on data and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Ralchenko reviewed atomic data activities at the WIS Plasma Laboratory. Physical sputtering yields over the broad energy range for fusion is presented. Collisional database including electron and heavy particle projectiles was completed. Quantum-mechanical calculations for the process of Stark broadening of atomic spectral lines are continued. Systems considered include data for Be-like ions and lithium-like ions

  13. Meandering into astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    stark, perhaps my first eye-opener to the gender inequities of the scientific world. School had ... later, but not the other way around! Each of my college ... around massive black holes at the centres of galaxies, with embedded magnetic fields.

  14. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    reconnaissance mission was complete, the film was processed by a photo lab and then interpreted for intelligence value. Photo interpretation typically...The stark contrast in philosophies amongst the different Tenth Air Force leadership teams significantly influenced the organizational design of...regarding post-war interests of the French and British prevented the sharing of intelligence amongst allies.102 The political sensitivity associated

  15. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 5. Optical spectroscopy of rare earth-doped oxyfluoro-tellurite glasses to probe local environment. GAJANAN V HONNAVAR K P RAMESH ... Keywords. Tellurite glasses; Raman spectroscopy; photoluminscence; Stark level splitting; UV visible spectroscopy.

  16. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulkes, Nicol Marie

    2011-01-01

    and navigate the social system in the Indian mega-cities Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai. The analysis takes into consideration how Nordic shared values like trust and equality are negotiated in locations where there are stark cultural and environmental differences, investigating how these negotiations affect...

  17. Between hierarchies and networks in local governance: institutional arrangements in making Mumbai a ‘world class city’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noor, M.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Eine starke kommunale Regierungsebene mit engem Bezug zu den Bürgern und als Vermittlung zwischen lokalen Interessengruppen wird generell als wichtiges Instrument zur Förderung demokratischer Entscheidungsfindung angesehen. In dieser Studie wird die Frage verfolgt, was dies im Kontext der

  18. Kompatibilisierung von Elastomerverschnitten durch Kautschukadditive mit maßgeschneiderten Oberflächeneigenschaften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, M.; Datta, Rabin; Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; van Ooij, W.J.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Gummi ist ein herausforderndes Material, dessen Funktionalität stark von der Affinität seiner unterschiedlichen Bestand­teile und seiner Morphologie abhängt. Ein Weg, Polarität und Chemie der Füllstoffoberfläche maßzuschneidern, ist die Plasmabeschichtung. Werden Acetylen, Thiophen oder Pyrrol als

  19. Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from Randomized Trials. NBER Working Paper No. 15898

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production…

  20. Microbial ecology: new insights into the great wide-open culture independent sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities are the basis for most, if not all, biochemical or biogeochemical functions in the environment. These environments are vastly different with respect to matrix, function, and biodiversity, and as such, present minute to stark differences in their respective microbial communities...

  1. lncRNA Epigenetic Landscape Analysis Identifies EPIC1 as an Oncogenic lncRNA that Interacts with MYC and Promotes Cell-Cycle Progression in Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zehua; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Min; Guo, Weiwei; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yue; Jia, Lin; Li, Song; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; Bruijn, Inode; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Xie, Wen; Yang, Da

    2018-01-01

    We characterized the epigenetic landscape of genes encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) across 6,475 tumors and 455 cancer cell lines. In stark contrast to the CpG island hypermethylation phenotype in cancer, we observed a recurrent hypomethylation of 1,006 lncRNA genes in cancer, including EPIC1

  2. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first group, the paper by Nick Devereux reviews Hubble Space .... here that the STARK-B database is included in the new search facility for such data namely Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC – http://vamdc.org/).

  4. The Rural-to-Urban Transformation in Pakistan: No Reprieve from Poverty and Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2013-01-01

    More than the increasing pressure on agrarian resources, land flight in Pakistan is caused by the starkly inequitable distribution of land. The land-poor and landless classes in the country, particularly in Sindh and Punjab, are dependent as sharecroppers or farm labourers on landlords. In order to

  5. Biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2003-01-01

    in the microcavity, even if the vacuum Rabi splitting exceeds the biexciton binding energy. However, the presence of a longitudinal built-in electric field that results in a Stark effect slightly reducing the binding energy compared to the value measured on a reference bare quantum well is experimentally pointed out...

  6. Engineered quantum tunnelling in extended periodic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimberger, Sandro; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver; Mannella, Riccardo; Arimondo, Ennio [CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Largo Pontecorvo 3, 1-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Quantum tunnelling from a tilted, but otherwise periodic potential is studied. Our theoretical and experimental results show that, by controlling the system's parameters, we can engineer the escape rate of a Bose-Einstein condensate to an exceptional degree. Possible applications of this atom-optics realization of the open Wannier-Stark system are discussed.

  7. An Outsider Looks in at Mormonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Seth

    2006-01-01

    The academic study of religion is relatively new, beset with several interpretive problems that are not fully sorted out, namely issues of faith and scholarship, of the status of insiders and outsiders, and those problems are displayed in particularly stark relief with respect to the study of Mormonism. A non-Mormon scholar writing his…

  8. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  9. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  10. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

  11. Praise in Public, Criticize in Private? An Assessment of Performance Feedback Transparency in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Rowe, William J.; Skinner, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in sales management encourages public delivery of positive feedback, and private delivery of negative feedback. In stark contrast, U.S. educators typically provide all performance feedback in relative (if not strict) privacy to comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). To investigate this discrepancy,…

  12. Youth, creativity and urban life: insights from classics | Iraki | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomenon stands in stark contrast with traditional African ethos and social mores. In traditional African setting, the role of the youth was well defined and demarcated. ... With the advent of urbanization, traditional African life mutates rapidly as the pressure of modern life redefines social roles and responsibilities.

  13. Relationship between the Religious Attitude, Self-Efficacy, and Life Satisfaction in High School Teachers of Mahshahr City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeloo, Masoomeh; Bozorgi, Zahra Dasht

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the religious attitude, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction in high school teachers of Mahshahr City. To this end, 253 people of all high school teachers in Mahshahr City, in Iran were selected as the sample using the multistage cluster sampling method. For data collection, Glock and Stark's…

  14. Asperger Syndrome: A Primer for Behavioral Interventionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Houghteling, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger Syndrome are intellectually capable, rigid and often obsessive, adhere to stereotypic routines, demonstrate difficulties with pragmatic language and characteristically lack social skills. While the extent of these behaviors may wax and wane and vary by individual, they are in stark contrast with the high…

  15. Planning Combat Outposts to Maximize Population Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Abraham Maslow defined incremental layers of needs that require fulfillment and that can explain people’s motivations in life [12]. The needs at a lower...Hildebrant I ,e Certified by: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Technical Supervisor Stephen C. Graves Professor, Abraham J. Siegel...22 Figure 2-4: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs ................................................................................. 27 Figure 3-1

  16. The Children Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Public spaces that promote play and discovery are popping up everywhere from metropolitan cities to rural and suburban settings. Playgrounds such as David Rockwell's Imagination Playground in New York City and the Memorial Park Playground in Wilsonville, Oregon, present a stark contrast to the steel and plastic structures found at fast-food…

  17. Non-Precautionary Cash Hoarding and the Evolution of Growth Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Vladimirov, V.

    2016-01-01

    The starting point of our paper is the question: Should a growth firm hoard cash to reduce dilution associated with external financing (by self-financing more) if this means delaying its existing investment opportunity? The analysis of such non-precautionary hoarding gives a stark contrast to the

  18. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  19. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  20. ROEPMAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humorous and enjoyable part of the Rademan family, and one gets the idea that she has her own longings for a life different from the one that was forced upon her. Timus' magical childhood is portrayed in stark contrast to his reality and the many events that characterized those tumultuous days. With Verwoerd's death.

  1. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  2. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors State Legislation ... F) 312-202-5001 (E) postmaster@facs.org Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of Surgeons, ...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Third Party Payors State Legislation ... F) 312-202-5001 (E) postmaster@facs.org Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of Surgeons, ...

  4. Military Review. Volume 91, Number 5, September-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    REVIEW reader. The crisp tales have the stark realism of a fi rst-person lens. The author is at his absolute best when he introduces us to Marine...author has woven a narrative from poetry, memoir, and biography, as well as literary, cinematic , classical, and military history sources. He sees

  5. Final Report on Institutional Computing Project s15_hilaserion, “Kinetic Modeling of Next-Generation High-Energy, High-Intensity Laser-Ion Accelerators as an Enabling Capability”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stark, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This proposal sought of order 1M core-hours of Institutional Computing time intended to enable computing by a new LANL Postdoc (David Stark) working under LDRD ER project 20160472ER (PI: Lin Yin) on laser-ion acceleration. The project was “off-cycle,” initiating in June of 2016 with a postdoc hire.

  6. Training future chefs at Opryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Dina Starks is the culinary apprentice coordinator at Opryland Hotel Convention Center in Nashville, Tenn. Her apprentices have the unique opportunity to practice the culinary arts at the largest hotel convention center in the world, in a setting that has 15 restaurants and nearly 3,000 rooms.

  7. New Mexico: The Land of Enchantment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    New Mexico, a state of brown plains and sand deserts, is nicknamed "The Land of Enchantment." One reason is that the very starkness of the land adds to its enchantment. Another reason is that the rich history of the state has resulted in a landscape filled with remnants of the Pueblo people, Spanish colonizers, and Mexican settlers.

  8. Solving America's Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…

  9. Thermal and pH stabilities of partially purified polyphenol oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2012-07-30

    Jul 30, 2012 ... indices of the two PPO extracts is summarized in Table. 1. At the end of the .... activity near neutral pH values (Jime´nez-Atie´nzar et al.,. 2004; Dogan and Dogan, 2004). ..... oxidase from white cherry fruit (Starks gold). GIDA.

  10. Non-Attended Representations are Perceptual Rather than Unconscious in Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Ambroziak, K.B.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Introspectively we experience a phenomenally rich world. In stark contrast, many studies show that we can only report on the few items that we happen to attend to. So what happens to the unattended objects? Are these consciously processed as our first person perspective would have us believe, or are

  11. It takes a global village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhof, Loes; DeWitt, Janine; Wolfensberger, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Connected through a screen, two classes that are an ocean apart take the same course and do the same assignments. Our course “ The Global Village” is a globally networked learning environment (Starke-Meyerring and Wilson, 2008) where students from two different universities work and learn together

  12. A Democratic Constitution for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul T.; Jochim, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    America's education system faces a stark dilemma: it needs governmental oversight, rules and regulations, but it also needs to be adaptable enough to address student needs and the many different problems that can arise at any given school--something that large educational bureaucracies are notoriously bad at. Paul Hill and Ashley Jochim offer here…

  13. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  14. Die Abfallwirtschaft braucht keine Regulierungsbehörde

    OpenAIRE

    Heistermann, Franz; Müller, Martina

    2005-01-01

    In der Folge von stark gestiegenen Preisen für die Abfallentsorgung nach dem Inkrafttreten von abfallrechtlichen Vorschriften am 1. Juni 2005 wurde der Ruf nach einer Regulierungsbehörde für Abfallwirtschaft laut. Besteht Regulierungsbedarf in der Abfallwirtschaft?

  15. Selected topics on data and databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralchenko, Y [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-12-01

    Dr. Ralchenko reviewed atomic data activities at the WIS Plasma Laboratory. Physical sputtering yields over the broad energy range for fusion is presented. Collisional database including electron and heavy particle projectiles was completed. Quantum-mechanical calculations for the process of Stark broadening of atomic spectral lines are continued. Systems considered include data for Be-like ions and lithium-like ions.

  16. Girl talk as a transformative treshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    intimacy, however, never seemed intimate but rather excessive: the sweets too sweet, the colours too bright, and the laughter too high-pitched. The stark contrast between the light chit-chat and the ongoing suffering of the individual women made these public get together not only pleasant but also...

  17. Girl Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    women intimacy, however, never seemed intimate, but rather excessive: the sweets too sweet, the colours too bright, and the laughter too high-pitched. The stark contrast between the light chit-chat and the ongoing suffering of the individual women made these public come together not only pleasant...

  18. State neglect, violence, and community resistance in a Muslim ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Ahmedabad, the largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, is both diverse and divided. While it has benefited from recent economic growth, its population is riven by religious conflict and stark income disparities. Following communal violence in 2002, the informal settlement of Bombay Hotel emerged as one ...

  19. Evaluation of the African Union's right of intervention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to intervene under the AU Act is a radical departure from, and in stark contrast with, the principle of State sovereignty and non-intervention, the very cornerstones of the erstwhile OAU. Although intervention has traditionally been opposed by African States and regarded as imperialism; under the AU Act, AU Member ...

  20. Garbage in, Garbage out? Questioning Key Variable Face Validity in Contemporary Quantitative Crowdfunding Research

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David; Sloan, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Current Crowdfunding research, usually firmly rooted in quantitative analysis of backing progress towards a set funding goal, completely misses key business issues and makes substantial assumptions regarding the definition of success which are starkly naive and lacking in a understanding of how these systems are gamed by entrepreneurs to maximise both their commercial exposure and raised funds.

  1. Die Geburt des Kosmos aus dem Nichts die Theorie des inflationären Universums

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Selten wird die Wissenschaft über Nacht so stark revolutioniert wie die Kosmologie durch Alan Guths Entdeckung der inflationären Theorie des Universums. Noch seltener gelingt es dem Urheber einer solchen Revolution, eine derart verständliche und einprägsame Darstellung von einer der aufregendsten Epochen in der modernen Kosmologie zu geben. Sogar Kenner werden Neues lernen.

  2. Drieledig personalisme : Ricoeur als personalist après-la-lettre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deweer, Dries

    2017-01-01

    The (continued) success of personalist philosophy in moral theology and politics is in stark contrast with the response within the field of philosophy itself. After a period of intense flowering between 1930-1950, a deafening silence soon descended. In this article, I will use Paul Ricoeur to guide

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Starches from eight Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-04

    Sep 4, 2006 ... temperature, with Moonshine (895.551 ± 1.051%) having the highest swelling power ... The properties of the different Dioscorea alata starches may prove useful in nutritional applications. ..... coating. Starch/Starke 44: 393-398. Ayensu ES, Coursey DG (1972). ... World production and marketing of starch. In:.

  4. Invasive forstliche schad-organismen in Nordamerika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Horst E.  Delb

    2017-01-01

    In Nordamerika sind Wälder infolge von Einwandernden, internationalem Handel und Tourismus traditionell stark von Einschleppungen gebietsfremder invasiver Schadorganismen betroffen. Infolge von Globalisierung und Klimawandel gibt es aufgrund der Ähnlichkeiten von Klima, Flora und Fauna zwischen Europa und Nordamerika viele Parallelen.

  5. See Also:physica status solidi (a)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40001185",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40001185/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40001185/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/cover/2232/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/2232_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0370-1972",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40001185");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 241, Issue13 (November 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteStrong Eu emission of annealed Y2O3:Eu nanotube and nano-sized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Masami; Iwanaga, Kenichi; Hamasuna, Tomomi; Mohri, Shinji; Uota, Masafumi; Yada, Mitsunori; Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-11-01

    We have observed a drastic increase of the Eu3+ emission intensity by annealing nanotubes and nano-sized hexagonal-mesostructured crystals of the Y2O3:Eu system together with bulk samples. It is found that there are three Eu3+ sites in all samples. Stark splitting schemes are proposed for the three homogeneous sites.

  6. The Perfect Storm: The Religious Apocalyptic Imagination and Personal Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Explanation, research and models. Psychology: A quarterly journal of human behavior 16(23-36), pp. 24– 36. Glock, C. Y . & Stark, R. (1965). Religion ...Danger Control, Problem-Focused Coping, Emotion-Focused Coping, Millennialism , Premillennial, Postmillennial, Amillennial. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...11 4. Religion /Religiosity ............................................................................12 5

  7. Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.

  8. Loss to follow-up in a community clinic in South Africa – roles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B Wang, E Losina, R Stark, A Munro, RP Walensky, M Wilke, D Martin, Z Lu, KA Freedberg, R Wood ... Patients initiating ART between April 2004 and October 2006 in one South African Catholic Bishops' Conference HIV treatment clinic who had at least one follow-up visit were included and routinely monitored every 6 ...

  9. Uber Variation der Zeichnung und Färbung bei Chrysaora hysoscella Eschscholtz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1927-01-01

    Im Laufe des Sommers und Herbstes 1926 trat Chrysaora hysoscella Esch. 1) am Strande zwischen Katwijk und Noordwijk sehr zahlreich auf. Obwohl seit langem bekannt ist, dass die Kompassqualle stark variirt in Bezug auf Färbung und Zeichnung, liegen doch wenige genauere Beschreibungen und naturgetreue

  10. Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

  11. Toward Computational Design of High-Efficiency Photovoltaics from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    link between microscopic interfacial structure and macroscopic device performance of PSCs, providing important clues for future device design and...fields. The latter triggers Stark effect which in turn leads to the formation of charge stripes. The interplay between dynamic disorder, ionic bonding

  12. The Ink of Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Nations actively write themselves onto human bodies. They etch and scratch their borders onto human flesh with figurative, often contradictory, ink that delivers stark material impact. The impacts hold their greatest force in metering the hinged consequences of contingent citizenship for some and unfettered citizenship for a few others. In this…

  13. Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, b-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial photosystem I complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Palacios, M.A.; Azzizi, A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Kruip, J.; Rögner, M.; Karapetyan, N.V.; Schlodder, E.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719 chlorophylls in S.

  14. Optical characteristics of a RF DBD plasma jet in various A r / O 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the optical emission spectrum analysis of the RF plasma jet, the excitation temperature is determined based on the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density in the plasma medium of the RF plasma jet is obtained by the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H β . It is mostly seen that, the radiation intensity of Ar ...

  15. Radio Recombination Lines Their Physics and Astronomical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, MA

    2008-01-01

    Includes the history of RRL detections, the astrophysics underlying their intensities and line shapes including topics like departures from LTE and Stark broadening, the maximum possible size of an atom, and descriptions of the astronomical topics for which RRLs have proved to be effective tools.

  16. Sustainability Principles in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Wenzel, Henrik; Azapagic, Adisa

    2007-01-01

    The 21st century inherits stark challenges for human society, which are particularly tough for chemical engineering. While on one hand, chemical engineering is responsible for providing most of the products of daily consumption, the base for modern agriculture as well as energy carriers for power...

  17. Public Perceptions of Journalists' Ethical Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voakes, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Finds starkly different conceptions of journalistic ethics, with members of the public believing the journalists' ethics are guided primarily by occupational norms and competitive pressures, whereas journalists themselves cited organizational policies, the relevant law, and their individual reasoning as primary influences on their ethical decision…

  18. 40 CFR 61.04 - Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 177 South Broadway, Akron, OH 44308. (ii) Stark County: Air Pollution Control Division, 420 Market..., Bureau of Air Quality Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105. (iii... examine this material at the above EPA office or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA...

  19. The Warfighter’s Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    cortex lesions on cardiovascular conditioned emotional responses in the rat. Brain Research. Vol 643(1-2), Apr 1994, 181- 193. 37. Stark, Rudolf; Hamm...J., Turner, B., & Simon, M.A. (1999). Research methods in health psychology. In M.A. Simon (Ed.), Manual de psicologia de la salud: Fundamentos

  20. Suicide cases investigated at the state mortuary in Bloemfontein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-27

    Jul 27, 2009 ... Correspondence to: Dr Karen Stark, e-mail: starkk.md@ufs.ac.za. Keywords: suicide; profile; rate; prevention; Free State Province. Introduction. Completed suicide is defined as any fatality resulting directly or indirectly from a deed committed by the victim who believed or knew that his/her action would result ...

  1. Quantum Transport: The Link between Standard Approaches in Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    Theories describing electrical transport in semiconductor superlattices can essentially be divided in three disjoint categories: (i) transport in a miniband; (ii) hopping between Wannier-Stark ladders; and (iii) sequential tunneling. We present a quantum transport model, based on nonequilibrium G...

  2. Higher-order interactions in molecular collisions studied by a novel laser spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, M.; Tachikawa, M.; Shimizu, T.

    1986-01-01

    This is the first systematic experiment to study the characteristics of the dipole-quadrupole and dipole-induced dipole interactions as well as the dipole-dipole interaction. The authors developed a new method to measure the relaxation rate constant of a weak IR transition. The absorption cell is introduced inside the CO/sub 2/ laser cavity to improve sensitivity. The transient oscillation superimposed on the cw laser output is observed when the Stark pulse is applied to the absorbing molecules. The absorption increases when the better coincidence between the laser and absorption lines is obtained by application of the Stark voltage. The absorption decreases for a larger Stark voltage. The sign of the signal depends on whether the absorption intensity increases or decreases due to the Stark field. Since pressure broadening modifies the absorption line shape, the sign of the signal changes when the pressure is increased. The relaxation rate constant can be determined by observing the sign of the signal. The experiment is performed with the frequency coincidence between the CH/sub 3/CN ν/sub 7//sup r/ R(6.6) line and the CO/sub 2/ laser 9.4-μm R(22) line. The relaxation rate constants against various foreign gas molecules (polar molecules, nonpolar linear molecules, and spherical atoms and molecules) have been determined

  3. Churchill: The Making of a Grand Strategist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    training and squeezed to the last drop by relentless war propaganda, the military instruments of that will were as useless as empty suits of armour ...product, Churchill had always had an instinctive sympathy for the underdog . Consequently. he never painted the enemies in his Imperial conflicts in stark

  4. Perceptual switching, eye movements, and the bus paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, J.; Nikolaev, A.R.; Luman, M.; Aukes, M.F.; Nakatani, C.; Leeuwen, C.

    2003-01-01

    According to a widely cited finding by Ellis and Stark (1978 Perception 7 575-581), the duration of eye fixations is longer at the instant of perceptual reversal of an ambiguous figure than before or after the reversal. However, long fixations are more likely to include samples of an independent

  5. Use of a Monte-Carlo method for studying the statistical distribution of electric fields around an ion in a one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossignol-Guzzi, D.

    1968-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation has been made of the equilibrium configurations taken by a plasma of equally charged punctual ions, immersed in a uniform neutralizing background of electrons. The statistical repartition of the electric field acting on one ion, needed to obtain Stark effect, was specially obtained. Comparison for dense plasmas, was made with the former works of Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (author) [fr

  6. Politics and policies on the veil in France and the Netherlands: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, D.N.; Saharso, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we compare the politicization and framing of the Islamic veil in parliamentary debates in France and the Netherlands between 1989 and 2007. If stark national differences in the framing of the issue can be found in the 1990, later years show more convergence, when the debate shifted

  7. Do no harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kristin B.; Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; McDonald, Sean Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to acknowledge and articulate the notion of “humanitarian experimentation”. Whether through innovation or uncertain contexts, managing risk is a core component of the humanitarian initiative – but all risk is not created equal. There is a stark ethical and practical difference b...

  8. Prescriptivism as a Nation-Building Tool in the Upper Amazon: The Case of Shiwiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Shiwiar are an indigenous nation of Ecuador and Peru, and they are one of five ethnic groups collectively known as the Jivaroan people. In stark contrast to the other Jivaroan groups, the Shiwiar have largely been overlooked by local governments until recently and are still popularly considered to be an offshoot of their closely related…

  9. Unplanned ecological engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Gislason, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    unexpectedly large catches by removing predators from the ecosystem. Such ecosystem engineering stands in stark contrast to reigning management paradigms that do not allow fishing down predators to increase the productivity of their prey. The theoretical support for such a feat of ecosystem engineering is well...

  10. Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliit ning rahapoliitika maailma kolmes peamises valuutaregioonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Alternative exchange rate regimes in the globalised world : conference dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the re-introduction of the Estonian kroon. - Tallinn. Vestlusringis esinesid Euroopa Keskpanga esindaja Pierre Vander Haegen, Saksa Liidupanga asepresident Jürgen Stark, Keio ülikooli professor Eisuke Sakakibara, USA rahandusministeeriumi atashee Euroopas James G. Wallar

  11. Social Justice for the Advantaged: Freedom from Racial Equality Post-"Milliken"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: In "Milliken v. Bradley" (1974), the U.S. Supreme Court deemed unconstitutional a metropolitan-wide desegregation plan in Detroit that sought to achieve racial balance in part by busing white suburban students to the city's majority black schools. In a stark departure from "Brown v. Board of Education of…

  12. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    frequency of dental implant placement in irradiated jaws from. 2002 to 2008 in India. Table 2 ..... Linsen SS, Martini M, Stark H. Long-term results of endosteal implants following radical oral ... Oral Health 2015:5;1-6. 21. Visch LL, van Waas MA ...

  13. Courtrooms of conflict. Criminal law, local elites and legal pluralities in colonial Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, S.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation points out the stark inequalities of segregated criminal justice in nineteenth-century Java and analyses this unequal system in practice, shown by an actor-focused approach and through a framework of legal pluralities. Ravensbergen searched for the conflicts occurring

  14. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    to highlight the perils of an oversized financial sector. States failing to harness natural resources for development led to the concept of the Resource Curse. In many countries, resource dependence generated slower growth, crowding out, reduced economic diversity, lost entrepreneurialism, unemployment...... starkly illuminates the condition of Britain’s political economy and the character of its relations with the rest of the world....

  15. Promising Practices and Unfinished Business: Fostering Equity and Excellence for Black and Latino Males. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann; Carlo, Vivian Dalila; Colón, Melissa; Del Razo, Jaime L.; Diamond, John B.; Raynor, Alethea Frazier; Graves, Daren; Kuttner, Paul J.; Miranda, Helena; St. Rose, Andresse

    2015-01-01

    Boston Public Schools (BPS) commissioned companion studies as part of its efforts to address achievement gaps for Black and Latino males. The first study revealed the increasing diversity of Black and Latino males and stark opportunity gaps throughout the system that contribute in large part to wide attainment gaps for these students. We…

  16. "Make My Day, Shoot a Teacher": Tactics of Inclusion and Exclusion, and the Contestation of Community in a Rural School-Community Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin; Schafft, Kai A.

    2015-01-01

    Far from being the harmonious and homogenous communities of popular imagination, rural communities often are characterised by stark differences in class-situated values over education philosophy and financing. These differences can produce contentious political environments, vastly complexifying local decision-making, including school district…

  17. Colleges Are Slashing Adjuncts' Hours to Skirt New Rules on Health-Insurance Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sydni

    2013-01-01

    Allison G. Armentrout, an adjunct instructor at Stark State College, does not get paid by the hour. She earns $4,600 to teach two English composition courses. But now she carefully tracks how many hours she works on an electronic time sheet. During a recent week, she spent three hours preparing for her lectures, close to six hours in the…

  18. WAR AND PEACE IN AFRICA: PHILOSOPHY, THEOLOGY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blaine

    spots in the world is stark: civil wars, wars against rebel groups and Islamists, ... peace in Africa, trying to answer questions on the meaning of true peace and the ... salaries and preferential treatment for politicians by civil society and the media, .... in mutual tolerance, mutual acceptance and mutual friendship, which will ...

  19. Guidance Document: Surface Soils Sampling for Munitions Residues in Military Live Fire Training Ranges: Canadian Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    nitrocellulose fibres. For samples larger than 500 g, multiple batches are used and the final fine powder (which looks like flour ) is mixed thoroughly on a...Clausen, J., Hewitt, A.D., Brochu, S., Dubé, P., Lewis, J., Ranney, T., Faucher, D., Gagnon, A., Stark, J., Brousseau, P., Price , C., Lambert, D

  20. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium–lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    to their low ductility (Lin et al 1982; Sanders & Starke 1982, 1989; Gregson & Flower 1985;. Vasudevan ...... same in the lower strain amplitude region are found to be dependent on alloy chemistry and processing history. A comparison of the results from these studies has shown that anisotropy in the LCF properties is far ...

  1. CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime

    CERN Document Server

    Mehan, Julie E

    2008-01-01

    CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime provides a stark and timely analysis of the increasingly hostile online landscape that today’s corporate systems inhabit, and gives a practical introduction to the defensive strategies that can be employed in response.

  2. Ending the "War against Youth": Social Media and Hip-Hop Culture as Sites of Resistance, Transformation and (Re) Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J.; Roychoudhury, Debangshu; Gardner, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to ameliorate the virulent discursive and material attack against today's "border" youth launched by large-scale corporations and Western politicians. Specifically, the authors problematize the dominant tropes of youth being mindless, obedient objects who passively accept the stark social reality they…

  3. Worked Examples with Errors: When Self-Explanation Prompts Hinder Learning of Teachers Diagnostic Competences on Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzmann, Nicole; Fischer, Frank; Fischer, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    To diagnose classroom situations is crucial for teachers' everyday practice. The approach of worked examples with errors seems promising to support the diagnosis of classroom situations in student teachers (Stark et al. in "Learn Instr" 21(1):22-33, 2011). To enhance that approach, error-explanation prompts and an adaptable feedback…

  4. In control of ambient and household air pollution - how low should we go?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Stephen; Mortimer, Kevin; Grigg, Jonathan; Balmes, John

    2017-01-01

    The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health is a robust call to arms. Stark in its warnings, but brimming with optimism, this report emphasises that pollution is the world's largest environmental cause of poor health today, responsible for 9 million deaths a year and a large burden of non-communicable disease, including respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological impairment.

  5. "Why Can't We Share?" after 9/11: The Critical Role of Stakeholders in the Process of Planning Inter-Organizational Information Integration System (IOIS) Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    The problem of information sharing and coordination was made starkly evident by the September 11th attacks. September 11th illuminated the problems that justice agencies had in sharing information in a timely and collaborative nature without an interoperable data-sharing system. A number of government audits and justice agency leaders have sought…

  6. CAD/CAM Preparation Design Effects on Endodontically Treated and Restored Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    teeth remains a challenge for clinicians, as endodontic treatment results in a tooth that represents a stark biomechanical difference compared to...using a LED-based visible light curing ( VLC ) unit (Bluephase G2, lvoclar-Vivadent, Amherst, NY, USA) whose irradiance was periodically verified (1000 mW

  7. PLA Pleases Vendors with Steady Show Floor Traffic; Jubilant Exhibitors Report Greatly Improved Traffic and Leads over Disappointing Midwinter Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Public Library Association (PLA) Conference, Seattle, February 24?28, relieved much of the sting felt by vendors who had exhibited at the American Library Association (ALA) Midwinter Meeting in San Diego (InfoTech, LJ 2/15/04 , p. 27ff.). In stark contrast to ALA, which suffered from some of the slowest floor traffic in recent memory,…

  8. 77 FR 15961 - Revision of Organization and Conforming Changes to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Capital Management Staff. Program and Resource Management Staff. Talent Development Staff. Budget Planning... Starks, Human Capital Management, Food and Drug Administration, 19903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring.... Therefore, clearance by the Office of Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 is not...

  9. Magneto-transport studies of InAs/GaSb short period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, Victoria Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the transport properties of short period semiconducting InAs/GaSb superlattices in the presence of strong electric and magnetic fields applied parallel to the growth axis. Electrical transport parallel to the growth axis occurs through the superlattice miniband, which have widths varying from three to 30meV. Resonant scattering between confined Landau levels and Stark levels is observed at low temperatures (4.2K). In addition LO-phonon assisted scattering between Landau levels is observed in both type-I GaAs/AIAs and type-ll inAs/GaSb superlattices, which are enhanced in the type-ll system due to the strong interband coupling. K·p band structure calculations show that the interband coupling causes the superlattice miniband energy dispersion to be strongly dependent on the in-plane wavevector and the applied magnetic field. For large applied electric fields, where the miniband is split into discrete Stark levels, strong stark-cyclotron resonance (SCR) features are observed, which occur when the Landau level separation equals to the stark level separation. These resonances are enhanced when compared to SCR in type-I superlattices due to the suppression of miniband conduction in higher lying Landau levels. At low electric fields electrical transport through the superlattice miniband yields characteristic miniband transport features, which are modelled using the Esaki-Tsu miniband transport model. Strong electron - LO-phonon scattering is also observed in InAs/GaSb superlattices, where we report the first observation of miniband transport assisted via the emission of LO-phonons between stark levels in adjacent wells. Below 50K thermally activated behaviour is reported and at high magnetic fields (in the quantum limit) complete localisation of carriers is observed. In this regime LO-phonon delocalised transport in also observed. (author)

  10. Implementation of BIRADS{sup TM} together with an organization of percutaneous breast biopsies: experiences, reactions; Implementierung der BIRADS{sup TM}-Klassifikation in Kombination mit einer Organisation der perkutanen Nadelbiopsie von Brustlaesionen: Erfahrungen, Reaktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K.; Oser, W. [Zentrales Inst. fuer Radiologie, LKH Feldkirch (Austria); Laengle, I. [Obmann der Fachgruppe Radiologie Vorarlberg (Austria)

    2002-12-01

    ueberschaubaren Bereich das Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS{sup TM}) gekoppelt und mit einer Organisation von perkutanen Mammabiopsien eingefuehrt. Unter 25 Radiologen und 230 zuweisenden Aerzten wurden mittels Fragebogen die Akzeptanz und Reaktionen erfasst. Ergebnisse: Fuer 93% der 15 antwortenden Radiologen ist BIRADS{sup TM} ein sinnvoller Aufwand und fuer 87% hat sich die Biopsieorganisation bewaehrt. Sie schaetzen die Akzeptanz der Zuweiser und Patientinnen in beiden Faellen sehr hoch ein (80%). Bis zu 69% der 52 teilnehmenden Zuweiser haben seit Einfuehrung von BIRADS{sup TM} ein besseres Befundverstaendis, eine einfachere Dignitaetszuordnung von Laesionen und eine Arbeitserleichterung. Eine praeoperative histologische Abklaerung halten 94% der Zuweiser fuer sinnvoll. Etwas mehr als die Haelfte profitiert von der Organisation und die Mehrheit der Patientinnen kommt ihrer Meinung nach gut mit der Biopsieorganisation zurecht. Zusammenfassung: BIRADS{sup TM} traegt zur Vereinheitlichung und Verbesserung von Mammographiebefunden bei. Die Koppelung von BIRADS{sup TM} und einer Organisation perkutaner Mammabiopsien ist zweckmaessig. (orig.)

  11. Simulation and experimental validation of the performance of a absorption refrigerator; Simulation und experimentelle Validierung des Betriebsverhaltens einer Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbricht, Michael; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    2015-07-01

    Zusammenhang miteinander gekoppelt. Hierdurch koennen gezielt die Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Apparaten untersucht und damit die unter den jeweiligen Randbedingungen den Prozess limitierende Komponente identifiziert werden. Eine Validierung des Simulationsmodells und der verwendeten Randbedingungen geschieht anhand von experimentellen Betriebsdaten einer selbst entwickelten AKM. In der Simulation werden die Waermeuebertragerflaechen entsprechend der realen Anlage vorgegeben. Der Waermetransport wird anhand von typischen Werten fuer den Waermedurchgang in den einzelnen Apparaten beruecksichtigt. Die Resultate der Simulation zeigen eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit den experimentellen Daten. Die physikalischen Zusammenhaenge und Einfluesse extern vorgegebener Betriebsparameter werden korrekt wiedergegeben. Aufgrund der gewaehlten, niedrigen Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten, liegen die durch das Modell berechneten Kaelteleistungen unterhalb der experimentell gemessenen. Abschliessend werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen zum Einsatz des Modells diskutiert sowie weitere Verbesserungsmoeglichkeiten vorgeschlagen.

  12. The 3-dimensional core model DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Mittag, S.; Rohde, U.

    1999-01-01

    , -dichten und Borkonzentrationen zur Beruecksichtigung der Rueckkopplung auf der Grundlage von Wirkungsquerschnittsbibliotheken, die mit Hilfe von Zellcodes erstellt wurden. Es werden sicherheitsrelevante Parameter wie maximale Brennstoff- und Huellrohrtemperaturen, kritische Waermestromdichten und Huellrohroxidschichtdicke berechnet. DYN3D kann Reaktivitaetsstoerfaelle untersuchen, die durch Bewegungen der Regelstaebe oder Stoerungen der Kuehlmittelstroemung hervorgerufen werden. Die stationaeren und zeitabhaengigen Randbedingungen fuer die Kuehlmittelstroemung, die Kuehlmitteleintrittstemperaturen und Borkonzentrationen muessen am Kerneintritt vorgegeben werden. Zur Untersuchung komplexer Stoerfaelle wurde DYN3D mit dem thermohydraulischen Anlagenmodell ATHLET der GRS gekoppelt. Die umfangreichen Arbeiten zur Verifizierung und Validierung von DYN3D werden an Beispielen beschrieben. Einige Anwendungen des Rechenprogramms werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  13. Patient management in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease; Radiojodtherapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen: Ambulante Vorbereitung und Nachsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Qualitaet der Behandlung eng gekoppelt ist an eine fachgerechte ambulante Vorbereitung, eine individuelle stationaere Aktivitaetsdosierung und eine lebenslange Nachbeobachtung der Patienten mit regelmaessiger Evaluierung der Therapieergebnisse. Mit dieser Arbeit sollen stichwortartig die Mindestanforderungen an die ambulanten Massnahmen vor und nach der in Deutschland nur stationaer zulaessigen Behandlung zusammengefasst werden. Unter Beruecksichtigung der strahlenschutzrechtlichen Grundlagen, wissenschaftlicher Evidenz bisheriger Therapiestudien und einer Umfrage an Deutschen Therapiezentren werden Vorschlaege fuer ein qualitaetssicherndes Vorgehen bei bestmoeglicher Nutzung der nur begrenzt vorhandenen Betten zur Diskussion gestellt. (orig.)

  14. One- and two-photon spectra of Nd3+ clusters in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Voronov, Valerii V; Glotova, M Yu; Papashvili, A G; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya

    2003-01-01

    The polarised two-photon (IR) and one-photon (visible) luminescence excitation spectra of Nd 3+ nanoclusters in CaF 2 and SrF 2 crystals are measured at 10 K using a F - 2 :LiF colour centre laser tunable in spectral ranges 1090 - 1230 nm and 545 - 615 nm with an emission linewidth of ∼0.02 - 0.03 cm -1 , an average output power of ∼55 mW, and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The two-photon excitation spectra at the 4 I 9/2 → 4 G 5/2 transition reveal the structure, which is absent upon one-photon excitation, which can be explained by different selection rules for some Stark - Stark transitions upon one- and two-photon absorption. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  15. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Giovenale, D. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Cianchi, A.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  16. How to tell a new story about battering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polletta, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    As Evan Stark observes, getting domestic violence against women recognized as coercive control will require a major effort of storytelling. Women's accounts of subjugation have to be narrated in a way that is both true to their experiences and capable of eliciting public understanding, sympathy, and action. This essay draws on an interdisciplinary literature on narrative to show why doing that poses such a formidable challenge. In lieu of the tragic form that has dominated battered women's storytelling, and in lieu of the quest and mystery forms that appear in Stark's own accounts, this article argues for using a rebirth story line.This genre, which has affinities with the fairytales Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, seems an unlikely vehicle for asserting battered women's combination of victimization and agency. Drawing on the stories told by battered women as part of a successful reform effort, however, this article shows how women have used the form effectively.

  17. The Intended Image of a Place Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Martin; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2016-01-01

    This chapter studies the counterproductive impact of a place image on the entrepreneurial activities in a rural Danish municipality. Nationally, the municipality is rated ‘very good' in terms of traditional business environment measurements. However, this stands in stark contrast to the historica......This chapter studies the counterproductive impact of a place image on the entrepreneurial activities in a rural Danish municipality. Nationally, the municipality is rated ‘very good' in terms of traditional business environment measurements. However, this stands in stark contrast...... a specific target audience e.g. entrepreneurs. The branding problem for the municipality is shown to be the conflict between the brands of history, entrepreneurial spirit, family friendly town, and tourism etc. To manage a place brand so diverse is almost impossible and it is clearly demonstrated...

  18. Indonemoura annamensis-a new species of stonefly from Vietnam (Plecoptera: Nemouridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2016-06-07

    The amphinemurine genus Indonemoura Baumann (1975) was proposed for species previously included in the genera Protonemura Kempny and Nemoura Latreille. Baumann (1975) designated P. indica Kimmins, 1947 (in Kimmins 1946) as the type species. He also transferred 14 additional species from Protonemura and Nemoura into this genus. The genus is distributed mainly in the Oriental region (only one species from Tibet, close to the eastern border of the Palaearctic Region) and many new species have been added in the last decades (Zwick & Sivec 1980; Shimizu 1994a & b; Zhu et al. 2002; Li et al. 2005; Li & Yang 2005, 2006; Wang et al. 2006; Sivec & Stark 2010) including presently 53 species (DeWalt et al. 2009). Sivec & Stark (2010) first described three Indonemoura species from Vietnam, I. angulata, I. clavata, and I. tricantha. These three species are the only Indonemoura presently known for Vietnam.

  19. Flavor fluctuations in central Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067568; Stock, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    Das Ziel der Untersuchung von ultra-relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen ist die Suche nach dem Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), einem Zustand hochdichter stark wechselwirkender Materie in dem der Einschluss von Quarks und Gluonen in Hadronen aufgehoben ist. Die bisher gewonnenen experimentellen Hinweise deuten daraufhin,daß in Schwerionenkollisionen bei den derzeit höchsten zur Verfügung stehenden Energien von 158 GeV/Nukleon in Pb+Pb Reaktionen am CERN-SPS die Rahmenbedingungen für einen Phasenübergang von hadronischer Materie zu einer partonischen Phaseerfüllt sind. Die exakte Phasenstruktur stark wechselwirkender Materie hingegen ist derzeit noch nicht vollständig verstanden. Da inklusive hadronische Observablen und "penetrierende Proben" nicht direkt sensitiv auf die Existenz und Natur des Phasenübergangs sind, wurde die Analyse von Einzelereignis-"event-by-event"-Fluktuationenvorgeschlagen. Das Fluktuationsverhalten von Einzelereignis-Observablen sollte direkt sensitiv auf die Natur des zu beobachte...

  20. [Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.